§ 0.2 Preface: From Mist (was born) Chaos; from Chaos and Caligine: Night, Day, Erebus, Aether. From Night and Erebus: Fate, Old Age, Death, Dissolution, Continence, Sleep, Dreams, Love — that is, Lysimeles, Epiphron, Porphyrion, Epaphus, Discord, Wretchedness, Wantonness, Nemesis, Euphrosyne, Friendship, Compassion, Styx; the three Fates, namely, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos; the Hesperides, Aegle, Hesperie, aerica. From Aether and Day, Earth, Heaven Sea. From Aether and Earth: Grief, Deceit, Wrath, Lamentation, Falsehood, Oath, Vengeance, Intemperance, Altercation, Forgetfulness, Sloth, Fear, Pride, Incest, Combat, Ocean, Themis, Tartarus, Pontus; and the Titans, Briareus, Gyges, Steropes, Atlas, Hyperion, and Polus, Saturn, Ops, Moneta, Dione; and three Furies — namely, Alecto, Megaera, Tisiphone. From Earth and Tartarus, Giants: Enceladus, Coeus, Elentes, Mophius, Astraeus, Pelorus, Pallas, Emphytus, Rhoecus, ienios, Agrius, Alemone, Ephialtes, Eurytus, Effracorydon, Themoises, Theodamas, Otus, Typhon, Polyboetes, Menephriarus, Abesus, colophonus, Iapetus. From Pontus and Sea, the tribes of fishes. From Ocean and Tethys the Oceanides — namely yaea Melite, Ianthe, Admete, Stilbo, Pasiphae, Polyxo, Eurynome, Euagoreis, Rhodope, Lyris, Clytie, Teschinoeno, Clitenneste, Metis, Menippe, Argia. Of the same descent Rivers: Strymon, Nilus, Euphrates, Tanais, Indus, Cephisus, Ismenus, Axenus, Achelous, Simois, Inachus, Alpheus, Therodoon, Scamandrus, Tigris, Maeandrus, Orontes. From Pontos and Earth, Thaumas, tusciuersus, cepheus From Nereus and Doris fifty Nereids: Glauce, Thalia, Cymodoce, Nesaea, Spio, Thoe, Cymothoe[a], Actaea, Limnoria, Melite, Iaera, Amphithoe, Agaue, Doto, Prot[h]o, Pherusa, Dynamene, Dexamene, Amphnome, Callianassa, Doris, Panope, Galat[h]ea, Nemertes, Apseudes, Clymene, Ianira, [Panopea], Ianassa, Maera, Orithyia, Amathia, Drymo, Xantho, Ligea, Phyllodoce, Cydippe, Lycorias, Cleio, Beroe, Ephyre, Opis, Asia, Deiopea, Arethusa, [Clymene], Creneis, Eurydice, Leucothea. From Phorcus and Ceto: Phorcides Pemphredo, Enyo and Persis (for this last others say Dino). From Gorgon and Ceto, Sthenno, Eurylae, Medusa From Polus and Phoebe, Latone, Asterie, aphirape . . . Perses, Pallas. From Iapetus and Clymene, Atlas, Epimetheus, Prometheus. From Hyperion and Aethra, Sol, Luna, Aurora. From Saturn and Ops, Vesta, Ceres, Iuno, Jupiter, Pluto, Neptune. From Saturs and Philyra, Chiron, Dolops. From Astraeus and Aurora, Zephyrus, Boreas, Notus, Favonius. From Atlas and Pleione, Maia, Calypso, Alcyone, Merope, Electra, Celaeno. From Pallas the giant and Styx, Scylla, Force, Envy, Power, Victory, Fountains, Lakes. From Neptune and Amphitrite, Triton. From Dione and Jove, Venus. From Jove and Juno, Mars. From Jove's head, Minerva. From Juno without father, Vulcan. From Jove and Eurynome, Graces. Again from Jove and Juno, Youth, Liberty. From Jove and Themis, the Hours. From Jove and Ceres, Proserpina. From Jove and Moneta, the Muses. From Jove and Luna, Pandia. From Venus and Mars, Harmonia, and Formido. From Acheloos and Melpomene, the Sirens, Thelxiepe, Molpe and Pisinoe. From Jove and Clymene, Mnemosyne. From Jove and Maia, Mercury. From Jove and Latona, Apollo and Diana. From Earth, Python, a divine (prophetic) snake. From Thaumas and Electra: Iris, Harpies, Celaeno, Ocypete, Podarce. From Sol and Persa, Circe, Pasiphae, Aeeta, Perses. From Aeeta and Clytia, Medea. From Sol and Clymene, Phaethon and the Phaethontides, Merope, Helie, Aetherie, Dioxippe. From Typhon and Echidna: Gorgon, Cerberus, the dragon which guarded the Golden Fleece at Colchis, Scylla who was woman above but dog-forms below [whom Hercules killed]; Chimaera, Sphinx who was in Boeotia, Hydra serpent which had nine heads which Hercules killed, and the dragon of the Hesperides. From Neptune and Medusa, the horse Pegasus. From Chrysaor and Callirhoe,: three-formed Geryon.
§ 1 1 THEMISTO: Athamas, son of Aeolus, had by his wife Nebula a son Phrixus and a daughter Helle, and by Themisto, daughter of Hypseus, two son, Sphincius and Orchomenus, and by Ino, daughter of Cadmus, two sons, Learchus and Melicertes. Themisto, robbed of her marriage by Ino, wished to kill Ino's children. She hid, therefore, in the palace, and when an opportunity presented itself, thinking she was killing the sons of her rival, unwittingly killed her own, deceived by the nurse who had put the wrong garments on them. When Themisto discovered this, she killed herself.
§ 2 2 INO: Ino, daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, wishing to kill Phrixus and Helle, Nebula's children, formed a plan with the women of the entire tribe, and conspired to parch the seed grain to make it unfertile, so that, when the sterility and scarcity of grain resulted, the whole state should perish, some by starvation, others by sickness. With regard to this situation Athamas sent a servant to Delphi, but Ino instructed him to bring back a false reply that the pestilence would end if he sacrificed Phrixus to Jove. When Athamas refused to do this, Phrixus voluntarily and readily promised that he alone would free the state from its distress. Accordingly he was led to the altar, wearing fillets (of sacrifice), but the servant, out of pity for the youth, revealed Ino's plans to Athamas. The king, thus informed of the crime, gave over his wife Ino and her son Melicertes to be put to death, but Father Liber cast mist around her, and saved Ino his nurse. Later, Athamas, driven mad by Jove, slew his son Learchus. But Ino, with Melicertes her son, threw herself into the sea. Liber would have her called Leucothea, and Melicertes, her son the god Palaemon, but we call her Mater Matuta, and him Portunus. In his honor every fifth year gymnastic contests are held, which are called Isthmian.
§ 3 3 PHRIXUS: While Phrixus and Helle under madness sent by Liber were wandering in a forest, Nebula their mother is said to have come there bringing a gilded ram, offspring of Neptune and Theophane. She bade her children to mount it, and journey to Colchis to King Aeetes, son of Sol, and there sacrifice the ram to Mars. This they were said to have done, but when they had mounted, and the ram had carried them over the sea, Helle fell from the ram; from this sea was called Hellespont. Phrixus, however, was carried to Colchis, where, as his mother had bidden, he sacrificed the ram, and placed its gilded fleece in the temple of Mars — the very fleece which, guarded by a dragon, it is said Jason, son of Aeson and Alcimede, came to secure. But Aeetes gladly welcomed Phrixus, and gave him his daughter Chalciope in marriage. She later bore him children, but Aeetes feared that they would drive him from his kingdom, because he had been warned by prodigies to beware of death at the hands of a foreigner, a son of Aeolus. Therefore he killed Phrixus. But Phrixus' sons — Argus, Melas, and Cylindrus — took ship to go to their grandfather Athamas. They were shipwrecked, however, and Jason, on his trip for the fleece, rescued them from the island of Dia, and took them back to their mother Chalciope. By her favour he was recommended to her sister Medea.
§ 4 4 INO OF EURIPIDES: When Athamas, king in Thessaly, thought that his wife Ino, by whom he begat two sons, had perished, he married Themisto, the daughter of a nymph, and had twin sons by her. Later he discovered that Ino was on Parnassus, where she had gone for the Bacchic revels. He sent someone to bring her home, and concealed her when she came. Themisto discovered she had been found, but didn't know her identity. She conceived the desire of killing Ino's sons, and made Ino herself, whom she believed to be a captive, a confidant in the plan, telling her to cover her children with white garments, but Ino's with black. Ino covered her own with white, and Themisto's with dark; then Themisto mistakenly slew her own sons. When she discovered this, she killed herself. Moreover, Athamas, while hunting, in a fit of madness killed his older son Learchus; but Ino with the younger, Melicertes, cast herself intot he sea and was made a goddess.
§ 6 6 CADMUS: Cadmus, son of Agenor and Argiope, along with Harmonia his wife, daughter of Venus and Mars, after their children had been killed, were turned into snakes in the region of Illyria by the wrath of Mars, because Cadmus ahd slain the dragon, guardian of the fountain of Castalia.
§ 7 7 ANTIOPA: Antiopa, daughter of Nycteus, was by a trick violated by Epaphus, and as a consequence was cast off by her husband Lycus. Thus widowed, Jupiter embraced her. But Lycus married Dirce. She, suspecting that her husband had secretly lain with Antiopa, ordered her servants to keep her bound in darkness. When her time was approaching, by the will of Jove she escaped from her chains to Mount Cithaeron, and when birth was imminent and she sought for a place to bear he child, pain compelled her to give birth at the very crossroads. Shephers reared her sons as their own, and called one Zetos, from "seeking a place," and the other Amphion, because "she gave birth at the crossroads, or by the road." When the sons found out who their mother was, they put Dirce to death by binding her to an untamed bull; by the kindness of Liber, whose votary she was, on Mount Cithaeron a spring was formed from her body, which was called Dirce.
§ 8 8 ANTIOPA OF EURIPIDES (WHICH ENNIUS WROTE): Antiopa was the daughter of Nycteus, king in Boeotia; entranced by her great beauty, Jupiter made her pregnant. When her father wished to punish her on account of her disgrace, and threatened harm, Antiopa fled. By chance Epaphus, a Sikyonian, was staying in the place to which she came, and he brought the woman to his house and married her. Nycteus took this hard, and as he was dying, bound by oath his brother Lycus, to whom he left his kingdom, not to leave Antiopa unpunished. After his death, Lycus came to Sikyon, and slaying Epaphus, brought Antiopa bound to Cithaeron. She bore sons, and left them there, but a shepherd reared them, naming them Zetus and Amphion. Antiopa had been given over to Dirce, Lycus' wife, for punishment. When opportunity presented itself, she fled, and came to her sons. But Zetus, thinking her a runaway, did not accept her. Dirce, in the revels of Liber, was brought to the same place. There she found Antiopa and was dragging her to death. But the youths, informed by the shepherd who had reared them that she was their mother, quickly pursued and rescued their mother, but slew Dirce, binding her by the hair to a bull. When they were about to kill Lycus, Mercurius forbade them, and at the same time ordered Lycus to yield the kingdom to Amphion.
§ 9 9 NIOBE: Amphion and Zetus, sons of Jove and Antiopa, daughter of Nycteus, by the command of Apollo surrounded Thebes with a wall up to [corrupt], and driving Laius, son of King Labdacus, into exile, themselves held he royal power there. Amphion took in marriage Niobe, daughter of Tantalus and Dione, by whom he had seven sons and as many daughters. These children Niobe placed above those of Latona, and spoke rather contemptuously against Apollo and Diana because Diana was girt in man's attire, and Apollo wore long hair and a woman's gown. She said, too, that she surpassed Latona in number of children. Because of this Apollo slew her sons with arrows as they were hunting in the woods, and Diana shot and killed the daughters in the palace, all except Chloris. But the mother, bereft if her children, is said to have been turned into stone by weeping on Mount Sipylus, and her tears today are said to trickle down. Amphion, however, tried to storm the temple of Apollo, and was slain by the arrows of Apollo.
§ 10 CHLORIS: Chloris was the only daughter of Niobe and Amphion who survived. Neleus, Hippocoon's son, married her, and she bore to him twelve sons. When Hercules was besieging Pylus he slew Neleus and ten of his sons, but the eleventh, Periclymenus, was changed to an eagle by the favour of Neptune, his grandfather, and escaped death. Now the twelfth, Nestor, was the one at Ilium. He is said to have lived three generations by favour of Apollo, for the years which Apollo had taken from Chloris and her brothers he granted to Nestor.
§ 11 CHILDREN OF NIOBE: Tantalus, Ismenus, Eupinytus, Phaedimus, Sipylus, Damasichthon, Archenor; Neara, Phthia, Astycratia, Chloris, [corrupt], Eudoxa, Ogygia. These are the sons and daughters of Niobe, wife of Amphion.
§ 12 PELIAS: An oracle bade Pelias, son of Cretheus and Tyro, sacrifice to Neptune, and told him his death was drawing near if a monocrepis, that is, a man wearing only one sandal, arrived. While he was making the yearly offerings to Neptune, Jason, son of Aeson, Pelias' brother, himself eager to make sacrifice, lost his sandal as he was crossing the river Evenus, and in order to arrive promptly at the ceremonies, failed to recover it. When Pelias noticed this, remembering the warning of the oracle, he bade him procure from King Aeetes, his enemy, the golden fleece of the ram which Phrixus had dedicated to Mars at Colchis. Jason, calling together the leaders of the Greeks, set out for Colchis.
§ 13 JUNO: When Juno, near the river Evenus, had changed her form to that of an old woman, and was waiting to test men's minds to se if they would carry her across the river Evenus, no one offered till Jason, son of Aeson and Alcimede, took her across. But, angry at Pelias for failing to sacrifice to her, she caused Jason to leave one sandal in the mud.
§ 14 ARGONAUTS ASSEMBLED: Jason, son of Aeson and Alcimede, Clymene's daughter, leader of the Thessalians. Orpheus, son of Oiagrus and the Muse Calliope, Thracian, from the city [corrupt] which is on Mount Olympus near the river Enipeus, prophet, player on the lyre. Asterion, son of [corrupt] by Antigona, daughter of Pheres, from the city Pellene. Others call him son of Hyperasius, from the city Piresia, which is at the foot of Mount Phylleus in Thessaly, a place where two rivers, flowing separately, the Apidanus and the Enipeus, join into one. Polyphemus, son of Elatus by Hippea, daughter of Antippus, a Thessalian from the city Larissa, lame of foot. Iphiclus, son of Phylacus, by Periclymene, daughter of Minyas, from Thessaly, Jason's maternal uncle. Admetus, son of Pheres, by Periclymene, daughter of Minyas, from Mount Chalcodonius, whence both town and river derive their names. His flocks they say Apollo pastured. Eurytus and Echion, sons of Mercury and Antianira, daughter of Menetus, from the city Alope, which is now called Ephesus; some authors think them Thessalians. Aethalides, son of Mercury and Eupolemia, daughter of Myrmidon; he was a Larissaean. Coronus, son of Caeneus, from the city of Gyrton, which is in Thessaly. This Caeneus, son of Elatus, a Magnesian, proved that in no way could the Centaurs wound him with steel, but they did so with trunks of trees sharpened to a point. Some say that he was once a woman, and in answer to her petition, Neptune for her favors granted that she be turned into a man, and be invulnerable to any blow. This has never been done, nor is it possible for any mortal by invulnerability to escape death by steel, or be changed from a woman into a man.
§ 14.2 Mopsus, son of Ampycus and Chloris; taught augury by Apollo, he came from Oichalia, or, as some think, he was a Titarensian. Eurydamas, son of Irus and Demonassa; others call him son of Ctimenus, who dwelt in the city [Ktimenai] Dolopeis near Lake Xynius. Theseus, son of Aegeus and Aethra, daughter of Pittheus, from Troezene; others say from Athens. Perithous, son of Ixion, brother of Centaurus, a Thessalian. Menoetius, son of Actor, an Opuntian. Eribotes, son of Teleon, Eurytion, son of Irus and Demonassa. ixition from the town Cerinthus. Oileus, son of Hodoedocus and Agrianome, daughter of Perseon, from the city Narycea. Clytius and Iphitus, sons of Eurytus and Antiope, daughter of Pylo, kings of Oichalia. Others say they came from Euboea. Eurytus, taught archery by Apollo, is said to have contended with the granter of the gift. His son Clytius was killed by Aeetes. Peleus and Telamon, sons of Aeacus and Endeis, daughter of Chiron, from the island of Aigina. These left their country because of the slaughter of Phocus their brother, and sought different homes — Peleus, Phthia, and Telamon, Salamis, which Apollonius of Rhodes calls Atthis. Butes, son of Teleon and Zeuxippe, daughter of the river Eridanus, from Athens. Phaleros, son of Alcon, from Athens. Tiphys, son of Phorbas and Hyrmine, a Boeotian; he was steersman of the ship Argo. Argus, son of Polybus and Argia; some say son of Danaus. He was an Argive, waring a black-haired bull's hide. He was the builder of the ship Argo. Phliasus, son of Father Liber and Ariadne, daughter of Minos, from the city Phlious, which is in the Peloponnesus. Others call him a Theban. Hylas, son of Theodamas and the nymph Menodice, daughter of Orion, a youth, from Oichalia; others say from Argos, a companion of Hercules. Nauplius, son of Neptune and Amymone, daughter of Danaus, an Argive. Idmon, son of Apollo, and the nymph Cyrene; some say of Abas, an Argive. He was skilled in augury, and though he knew of his coming death by birds that foretold it, he did not shun the fatal expedition.
§ 14.3 Castor and Pollus, sons of Jove and Leda, daughter of Thestius, Lacedemonians; others call them Spartans, both beardless youths. It is written that at the same time stars appeared on their heads, seeming to have fallen there. Lynceus and Idas, sons of Aphareus and Arena, daughter of Oibalus, Messenians from the Peloponnesus. They say that one of these, Lynceus, saw things hidden underground, not hindered by any darkness. Others say that Lynceus saw nothing by night. He was said to see underground because he knew gold mines; when he went down and suddenly showed gold the rumor spread that he could see beneath the earth. Idas, too, was keen and spirited. Periclymenus, son of Neleus and Chloris, daughter of Amphion and Niobe; he was from Pylos. Amphidamas and Cepheus, sons of Aleus and Cleobule, from Arcadia. Ancaeus, son of Lycurgus; others say grandson, from Tegea. Augeas, son of Sol and Nausidame, daughter of Amphidamas; he was an Elean. Asterion and Amphion, sons of Hyperasius, others say of Hippasus, from Pellene. Euphemus, son of Neptune and Europe, daughter of Tityus, a Taenarian. It is said he could run over water with dry feet. A second Ancaeus, son of Neptune by Althaea, daughter of Thestius, from the island Imbrasus, which was called Parthenia but is now called Samos. Erginus, son of Neptune, from Miletus; some say son of Periclymenus, from Orchomenus. Meleager, son of Oineus and Althaea, daughter of Thestius; some think son of Mars, a Calydonian. Laocoon, son of Porthaon, brother of Oineus, a Calydonian.A second Iphiclus, son of Thestus by Leucippe, brother of Althaea by the same mother, a Lacedemonian; he was, a runner and javelin-thrower. Iphitus, son of Naubolus, from Phocis; others say that he was the son of Hippasus from the Peloponnesus. Zetes and Calais, sons of the wind Aquilo and Orithyia, daughter of Erechtheus. These are said to have had wings on head and feet and dark-blue locks, and travelled by air. They drove away the three Harpies, Aellopous, Celaeno, and Ocypete, daughter of Thaumas and Oxomene, from Phiensu, son of Agenor, when Jason's comrades were going to Colchis. They are said to have been feathered, with cocks' heads, wings, and human arms, with great claws; breasts, bellies, and female parts human. Zetes and Calais, however, were slain by the weapons of Hercules. The stones placed over their tombs are moved by their father's blasts. These, too, are said to be from Thrace.
§ 14.4 Phocus and Priasus, son of Caeneus, from Magnesia. Eurymedon, son of Father Liber and Ariadne, daughter of Minos, from Phlious. Palaemonius, son of Lernus, a Calydonian. Actor, son of Hippasus, from the Peloponnesus. thersanon, son of Sol and Leucothoe, from Andros. Hippalcimus, son of Pelops and Hippodamia, daughter of Oinomaus, from the Peloponnesus., from Pisa. Asclepius, son of Apollo and coronis, from Tricca.. . . Thestius' daughter, an Argive. Neleus, son of Hippocoon, from Pylos. Iolaus, son of Iphiclus, an Argive. Deucalion, son of Minos and Pasiphae, daughter of Sol, from Crete. Philoctetes, son of Poeas, from Meliboea. Another Caeneus, son of Coronus, from Gortyn. Acastus, son of Pelias and Anaxibia, daughter of Bias, from Iolchus, clad in a double mantle. He joined the Argonauts as a volunteer, a comrade of Jason of his own accord. Moreover, all these were called Minyae, either because daughters of Minyas bore most of them, or because Jason's mother was a daughter of Clymene, daughter of Minyas. But neither did all reach Colchis nor all return to their country. For in Moesia near Cios and the river Ascanius Hylas was snatched away by nymphs. While Hercules and Polyphemus were seeking him, they were left behind, a wind carrying the ship on. Polyphemus, too, was left by Hercules. After founding a city in Moesia, he perished among the Chalybes. Again, Tiphys became ill and died among the Mariandyni in Propontis where Lycus was king; in his place Ancaeus, Neptune's son, steered the ship to Colchis. Idmon, too, son of Apollo, died there at Lycus' court, wounded a wild boar, when he had gone out to fetch straw. His avenger was Idas, son of Aphareus, who killed the boar. Butes, son of Teleon, though diverted by the singing and lyre of Orpheus, nevertheless was overcome by the sweetness of the Sirens' song, and in an effort to swim to them threw himself into the sea. Venus saved him at Lilybaion, as he was borne along by the waves. These are the ones who did not reach Colchis.
§ 14.5 One the return trip Eurybates, son of Teleon, died, and Canthus, son of cerion. They were slain in Libya by the shepherd Cephalion, brother of Nasamon, son of the nymph Tritonis and Amphithemis, whose flocks they were plundering. Mopsus, too, son of Ampycus, died of a serpent's bite in Africa. He had joined the Argonauts on the trip after his father Ampycus had been slain. There likewise joined them on the island of Dia the sons of Phrixus and Chalciope, Medea's sister — Argus, Melas, Phrontides, and Cylindrus. Others say they were named Phronius, Demoleon, Autolycus, and Phlogius. When Hercules took them as companions when he went after the Girdle of the Amazons, he left them terror-struck [corrupt]. When the Argonauts started for Colchis, they wanted to have Hercules as leader. He declined, saying that Jason, at whose instigation they all were going, should be the leader. Jason, therefore, directed them. Argus, son of Danaus, was shipbuilder; Tiphys was pilot. After his death Ancaeus, son of Neptune, steered. Lynceus, son of Aphareus, who ahd keen sight, was the lookout man at the prow; helmsmen were Zetes and Calais, sons of Aquilo, who had wings on head and feet. At prow and oars sat Peleus and Telamon; at the centre [?] Hercules and Idas. The rest kept their positions. Orpheus, son of Oiagrus, gave the calls. Later, when Hercules left his place, Peleus, son of Aeacus, sat there. This is the ship Argo, which Minerva had put in the circle of stars because she built it. When first he ship was launched into the sea, it appeared among the stars from rudder to sail. Cicero in his Phaenomena described its appearance and beauty in the following verses: "Moving slowly near the tail of the Dog, the Argo glides along, bearing her stern first, with its light; not as other ships are wont to move their prows on the deep cleaving the Neptunian meadows with their beaks, but she bears herself backward through the turning[?] spaces of the sky just as when sailors approach safe harbors, they turn their ship with its great burden and drag the stern backward to the longed-for shore; so old Argo glides beyond[?] the turning heavens, and her rudder, hanging from the moving stern, touches the rear foot-tracks of the shining Dog." This ship has four stars on her stern; on the right of the rudder, five; on the left, four — all alive; in all, thirteen.
§ 15 WOMEN OF LEMNOS: On the island of Lemnos the women for several years did not make offerings to Venus, and because of her anger their husbands married Thracian wives and scorned their former ones. But the Lemnian women (all except Hypsipyle), instigated by the same Venus, conspired to kill the whole tribe of men who were there. Hypsipyle secretly put her father Thoas on board a ship which a storm carried to the island Taurica. In the meantime, the Argonauts, sailing along, came to Lemnos. When Iphinoe, guardian of the harbour, saw them, she announced their coming to Hypsipyle the queen, to whom Polyxo, by virtue of her middle age, gave advice that she should put them under obligation to the gods of hospitality and invite them to a friendly reception. Hypsipyle bore sons to Jason, Euneus and Deipylus. Delayed many days there, they were chided by Hercules, and departed. Now when the Lemnian women learned that Hypsipyle ahd saved her father, they tried to kill her. She fled, but pirates captured her, took her to Thebes, and sold her as a slave to King Lycus. The Lemnian women gave the names of the Argonauts to the children they had conceived by them.
§ 16 CYZICUS: Cyzicus, son of Eusorus, king in an island of the Propontis, received the Argonauts with generous hospitality, but when they had left him, and had sailed a whole day, by a storm that arose in the night they were brought unaware to the same island. Cyzicus, thinking they were Pelasgican enemies attacked them on the shore at night, and was slain by Jason. On the next day, when he had come near the shore and saw that he had killed the king, he gave him burial and handed over the kingdom to his sons.
§ 17 AMYCUS: Amycus, son of Neptune and Melie, king of Bebrycia, compelled whoever came to his kingdom to contend with him in boxing, and slew the vanquished. When he had challenged the Argonauts to a boxing match, Pollux fought with him and killed him.
§ 18 LYCUS: Lycus, king of an island of the Propontis, received the Argonauts hospitably, grateful because they had killed Amycus, who had often attacked[?] him. While the Argonauts were staying with Lycus, and had gone out to gather straw, Idmon, son of Apollo, was wounded by a wild boar and died.
§ 19 PHINEUS: Phineus, a Thracian, son of Agenor, had two sons by Cleopatra. Because of their stepmother's charges, these two were blinded by their father. Now to this Phineus, Apollo is said to have given the gift of prophecy. But he, since he revealed the deliberations of the gods, was blinded by Jove, and Jove set over him the Harpies, who are called the hounds of Jove, to take the food from his lips. When the Argonauts came there and asked him to show them the way, he said he would show them if they would free him from the punishment. Then Zetes and Calais, sons of the North Wind and Orithyia, who are said to have had wings on head and feet, drove the Harpies to the Strophades Islands, and freed Phineus from the punishment. He showed them how to pass the Symplegades by sending out a dove; when the rocks rushed together, in their rebound . . . [they would pass through if the dove went through, and they exerted all their strength in rowing. But if she perished, ] they should turn back. By the help of Phienus the Argonauts passed the Symplegades.
§ 20 STYMPHALIDES: When the Argonauts had come to the island of Dia, and the birds were wounding them, using their feathers as arrows, they were not able to cope with the great numbers of birds. Following Phineus' advice they seized shields and spears, and dispersed them by the noise, after the manner of the Curetes.
§ 21 SONS OF PHRIXUS: When the Argonauts had entered the sea called Euxine through the Cyanean Cliffs, which are called Rocks of the Symplegades, and were wandering there, by the will of Juno they were borne to the island of Dia. There they found shipwrecked men, naked and helpless — the sons of Phrixus and Chalciope — Argus, Phrontides, Melas, and Cylindrus. These told their misfortunes to Jason, how they had suffered shipwreck and been cast there when they were hastening to go to their grandfather Athamas, and Jason welcomed and aided them. They led Jason to Colchis, bade the Argonauts conceal the ship. They themselves went to their mother Chalciope, Medea's sister, and made known the kindness of Jason, and why the had come. Then Chalciope told about Medea, and brought her with her sons to Jason. When she saw him, she recognized him as the one whom in dreams she had loved deeply by Juno's urging, and promised him everything. They brought him to the temple.
§ 22 AEETES: An oracle told Aeetes, son of Sol, that he would keep his kingdom as long as the fleece which Phrixus had dedicated should remain the shrine of Mars. And so Aeetes appointed this task for Jason, if he wished to take away the golden fleece — to yoke with yoke of adamant the bronze-footed bulls which breathed flames from their nostrils, and plow, and sow from a helmet the dragon's teeth, from which a tribe of armed men should arise and slay each other. Juno, however, whished to save Jason, because once when she had come to a river and wished to test the minds of men, she assumed an old woman's form, and asked to be carried across. He had carried her across when others who had passed over despised her. And so since she knew that Jason could not perform the commands without help of Medea, she asked Venus to inspire Medea with love. At Venus' instigation, Jason was loved by Medea. By her aid he as freed from all danger, for when he had plowed with the bulls, and the armed men had been born, by Medea's advice he threw a stone among them. They then fought among themselves and slew each other. When the dragon was lulled to sleep with drugs he took the fleece from the shrine, and set off for his country with Medea.
§ 23 ABSYRTUS: When Aeetes knew that Medea had fled with Jason, he made ready a ship and sent Absyrtus, his son, with armed guards after her. When he had caught up with her in the Adriatic Sea in Histria at King Alcinous' court, and would fight for her, Alcinous intervened to prevent their fighting. They took him as arbiter, and he put them off till the next day. When he seemed depressed and Arete, his wife, asked him the cause of his sadness, he said he had been made arbiter by two different states, to judge between Colchians and Argives. When Arete asked him what judgment he would give, Alcinous replied that if Medea were a virgin, he would give her to her father, but if not, to her husband. When Arete heard this from her husband, she sent word to Jason, and he lay with Medea by night in a cave. Then next day when they came to court, and Medea was found to be a wife she was given to her husband. Nevertheless, when they had left, Absyrtus, fearing his father's commands, pursued them to the island of Minerva. When Jason was sacrificing there to Minerva, and Absyrtus came upon him, he was killed by Jason. Medea gave him burial, and they departed. The Colchians who had come with Absyrtus, fearing Aeetes, remained there and founded a town which from Absyrtus' name they called Absoros. Now this island is located in Histria, opposite Pola, joined[?] to the island.
§ 24 JASON. DAUGHTERS OF PELIAS: Since Jason has faced so many perils at the command of his uncle Pelias, he began to think how he might kill him without suspicion. This Medea proposed to do. And so, when they were now far from Colchis, she bade the ship be hidden in a secret place, and she herself in the guise of a priestess of Diana came to the daughters of Pelias. She promised to make their father Pelias a youth again instead of an old man, but this the eldest daughter Alcestis said could not be done. In order more easily to bend her to her will, Medea cast mist before them, and by means of drugs formed many strange things which seemed to be like reality, putting an old ram in a brazen vessel, from which a very fine young lamb seemed to spring. So in the same way the daughters of Pelias — namely, Alcestis, Pelopia, Medusa, Pisidice, and Hippothoe — at Medea's instigation slew their father and cooked him in a brazen caldron. When they realized they had been deceived, they fled from the country. But Jason, at a given signal of Medea, made himself the master of the palace, and handed over the rule to Acastus, son of Pelias, brother of the Peliades, because he had gone with him to Colchis. He himself with Medea departed for Corinth.
§ 25 MEDEA: When Medea, daughter of Aeetes and Idyia, had already borne to Jason sons — Mermerus and Pheres — and they were living in great harmony, it was cast in his teeth that a man so brave and handsome and noble should have as wife a foreigner and sorceress. To him, Creon, son of Menoecus, King of Corinth, gave his younger daughter Glauce as wife. When Medea saw that she, who had been Jason's benefactress, was treated with scorn, with the help of poisonous drugs she made a golden crown, and she bade her sons give it as a gift to their stepmother. Creusa took the gift, and was burned to death along with Jason and Creon. When Medea saw that the palace was on fire, she slew Mermerus and Pheres, her sons by Jason, and fled from Corinth.
§ 26 MEDEA IN EXILE: Medea, an exile from Corinth, came to Athens to the hospitality of Aegeus, son of Pandion, and married him; to him Medus was born. Later the priestess of Diana began to censure Medea, and tell the king that she could not perform sacrifices piously because there was a woman in that state who was a sorceress and criminal. She was exiled then for the second time. Medea, however, with her yoked dragons, returned to Colchis from Athens. On the way she came to Absoros where her brother Absyrtus was buried. There the people of Absoros could not cope with a great number of snakes. At their entreaties Medea gathered them up and put them in her brother's tomb. They still remain there, and if any goes outside the tomb, it pays the debt to nature.
§ 27 MEDUS: An oracle told Perses, son of Sol, Aeetes' brother, that he should beware of death from Aeetes' descendants. Medus, following his mother, was brought to him by a storm, and guards seized him and brought him to King Perses. When Medus, son of Aegeus and Medea, saw that he had come into the power of his enemy, he falsely asserted he was Hippotes, son of Creon. The king carefully investigated, and ordered him cast into prison. There sterility and scarcity of crops are said to have occurred. When Medea had come there in her chariot with the yoked dragons, she falsely claimed before the king to be a priestess of Diana. She said she could make atonement for the sterility, and when she heard from the king that Hippotes, son of Creon, was held in custody, thinking he had come to avenge the injury to his father . . . there, unknowingly, she betrayed her son. For she persuaded the king that he was not Hippotes, but Medus, son of Aegeus, sent by his father to dispatch the king, and begged that he be handed over to her to kill, convinced that he was Hippotes. And so when Medus was brought out to pay for his deceit by death, when she saw that things were otherwise than she had thought, she said she wished to talk with him, and gave him a sword, and bade him avenge the wrongs of his grandfather. Medus, at this news, killed Perses, and gained his grandfather's kingdom; from his name he called the country Media.
§ 28 OTOS AND EPHIALTES: Otos and Ephialtes, sons of Aloeus and Iphimede, . . . daughter [of Neptune], are said to have been of extraordinary size. They each grew nine inches every month, and so when they were nine years old, they tried to climb into heaven. They began this way: they placed Mount Ossa on Pelion (from this Mount Ossa is also called Pelion), and were piling up other mountains. But they were discovered by Apollo and killed. Other writers, however, say that they were invulnerable sons of Neptunus and Iphimede. When they wished to assault Diana, she could not resist their strength, and Apollo sent a deer between them. Driven mad by anger in trying to kill it with javelins, they killed each other. In the Land of the Dead they are said to suffer this punishment: they are bound by serpents to a column, back to back. Between them is a screech-owl, sitting on the column to which they are bound.
§ 29 ALCIMENA: When Amphitryon was away subduing Oichalia, Alcimena, thinking Jove was her husband, received him in her chamber. When he had entered her room, and told her what he had done in Oichalia, she lay with him, thinking he was her husband. He lay with her with so much pleasure that he spent one day and doubled two nights, so that Alcimena wondered at such a long night. Later when the word came to her that her husband was at hand, a victor, she showed no concern, because she thought she had already seen her husband. When Amphitryon came into the palace, and saw her carelessly unconcerned, he began to wonder and to complain that she did not welcome him when he appeared. Alcimena replied: You already came and lay with me, and told me what you had done in Oichalia. When she had given him all the evidence, Amphitryon realized that some divinity had assumed his form, and from that day did not lie with her. But she, from the embrace of Jove, bore Hercules.
§ 30 TWELVE LABORS OF HERCULES ORDERED BY EURYSTHEUS: When he was an infant, he strangled with his two hands the two snakes which Juno had sent — whence his name, Primigenius. The Nemean Lion, an invulnerable monster, which Luna had nourished in a two-mouthed cave, he slew and took the pelt for defensive covering. He killed at the spring of Lerna the nine-headed Lernaean Hydra, offspring of Typhon. This monster was so poisonous that she killed men with her breath, and if anyone passed by when she was sleeping, he breathed her tracks and died in the greatest torment. Under Minerva's instructions he killed her, disembowelled her, and dipped his arrows in her gall; and so whatever later he hit with his arrows did not escape death, and later he himself perished in Phrygia from the same cause. He killed the Erymanthian Boar. The wild stag with golden horns in Arcadia he brought alive to show Eurystheus. He killed with his arrows on the island of Mars the Stymphalian Birds which shoot their feathers out as arrows. He cleaned in one day the ox dung of King Augeas, Jove helping him for the most part. By letting in a river he washed away all the dung. The bull with which Pasiphae lay he brought alive from the island of Crete to Mycenae. Diomedes, King of Thrace, and his four horses which fed on human flesh he killed along with the slave Abderus. The horses' names were Podargus, Lampon, Xanthus, and Dinus. [He slew] Hippolyte, daughter of Mars and Queen Otrera, and took from her the belt of the Amazon Queen; then he presented Antiopa as captive to Theseus. The triple-bodied Geryon, son of Chrysaor, he killed with a single weapon. The huge dragon, Typhon's son, which used to guard the golden apples of the Hesperides, he killed near Mount Atlas, and brought the apples to King Eurystheus. He brought from the Lower World for the king to see, the dog Cerberus, offspring of Typhon.
§ 31 INCIDENTAL LABORS OF THE SAME HERCULES: He slew Antaeus, son of Earth, in Libya. This man would compel visitors to wrestle with him, and when they were exhausted would kill them. He slew them in wrestling. [He slew] in Egypt, Busiris, whose custom it was to sacrifice visitors. When Hercules heard of his customary practice, he allowed himself to be led to the altar with the fillet of sacrifice, but when Busiris was about to invoke the gods, Hercules with his club killed him and the attendants at the sacrifice as well. He killed Cygnus, son of Mars, conquering him by force of arms. When Mars came there, and wanted to contend with him in arms because of his son, Jove hurled a thunderbolt between them. He killed at Troy the sea-monster to whom Hesione was offered. Laomedon, Hesione's father, he killed with arrows because he did not give her back. The shining eagle which was eating out the heart of Prometheus he killed with arrows. He killed Lycus, son of Neptune, because he was planning to kill his wife Megara, daughter of Creon, and their sons Therimachus and Ophites. The River Achelous used to change himself into all sorts of shapes. When he fought with Hercules to win Dejanira in marriage, he changed himself into a bull. Hercules tore of his horn, presenting it to the Hesperides or the Nymphs, and the goddesses filled it with fruits and called it Cornucopia. He killed Neleus and his ten sons for refusing to cleanse him or purify him at the time when he had killed his wife Megara, daughter of Creon, and his sons Therimachus and Ophites. He killed Eurytus because he refused him when he sought his daughter Iole in marriage. He killed the centaur Nessus because he tried to violate Dejanira. He killed Eurytion the Centaur because he wooed Dejanira, daughter of Dexamenus, his hoped-for bride.
§ 32 MEGARA: When Hercules had been sent for the three-headed dog by King Eurystheus, and Lycus, son of Neptune, though he had perished, he planned to kill his wife Megara, daughter of Creon, and his sons, Therimachus and Ophites, and seize the kingdom. Hercules prevented him and killed Lycus. Later, when madness was sent upon him by Juno, he killed Megara and his sons Therimachus and Ophites. When he came to his right mind, he begged Apollo to give him an oracular reply on how to expiate his crime. Because Apollo was unwilling, Hercules wrathfully carried off the tripod from his shrine. Later, at the command of Jove, he returned it, and bade him give the reply, though unwilling. Hercules because of this offence was given in servitude to Queen Omphale by Mercury.
§ 33 CENTAURS: When Hercules had come to the court of King Dexamenus and had violated his daughter Dejanira, promising he would marry her, Eurytion a centaur, son of Ixion and Nubes, after his departure sought Dejanira as a wife. Her father, fearing violence, promised her to him. On the appointed day he came with his brothers to the wedding. Hercules intervened, and killed the Centaur, and led home his betrothed. Likewise at another marriage, when Pirithous was taking Hippodamia, daughter of Adrastus, Centaurs, full of wine, attempted to carry off the wives of the Lapithae. The Centaurs killed many of them, but by them perished.
§ 34 NESSUS: Nessus, son of Ixion and Nubes, a centaur, was asked by Dejanira to carry her across the river Evenus, but as he was carrying her, in the very river he tried to ravish her. When Hercules came there, and Dejanira implored his aid, he pierced Nessus with his arrows. As he died, Nessus, knowing how poisonous the arrows were, since they had been dipped in the gall of the Lernaean Hydra, drew out some of his blood and gave it to Dejanira, telling her it was a love-charm. If she wanted her husband not to desert her, she should have his garments smeared with this blood. Dejanira, believing him, kept it carefully preserved.
§ 35 IOLE: Hercules, when he had sought in marriage Iole, daughter of Eurytus, and had been refused, attacked Oichalia. In order to bend the girl to his will[?], he threatened to kill her relatives in her presence. She, with resolute mind, suffered them to be slain before her eyes. When he had killed them all, he sent Iole as captive before him to Dejanira.
§ 36 DEJANIRA: When Dejanira, daughter of Oineus and wife of Hercules, saw the captive Iole, a maiden of remarkable beauty, arrive, she feared that she would steal her marriage. So mindful of the instructions of Nessus, she sent a servant named Lichas to take to Hercules a robe dipped in the blood of the centaur. A little of it fell to the earth, and when the sun touched it, it began to burn. When Dejanira saw this, she knew that Nessus had spoken falsely, and sent a man to recall the one to whom she had given the garment. Hercules had already put it on, and it started at once to blaze; when he leaped into a stream to put out the blaze, still greater flames burst forth; when he tried to take off the garment the flesh came with it. Then Hercules, whirling Lichas, who had brought the garment, round and round, threw him into the sea, and at the place where he fell a rock appeared which is called Lichas. Then Philoctetes, son of Poeas, is said to have built a pyre for Hercules on Mount Oita, and he mounted it . . . [and cast off his] mortality. For this service he gave Philoctetes his bow and arrows. But Dejanira, because of what had happened to Hercules, killed herself.
§ 37 AETHRA: Neptune and Aegeus, son of Pandion, one night in the shrine of Minerva both lay with Aethra, daughter of Pittheus. Neptune conceded the child to Aegeus. Now he, on the point of returning to Athens from Troezene, put his sword under a stone, and told Aethra that when the boy could lift the stone and take his father's sword, she should send him to him. He would recognize his son by that. And so later Aethra bore Theseus. When he had reached young manhood, his mother told him Aegeus' instructions, showed him the stone so that he could get the sword, and bade him set out for Athens to Aegeus . . . and he killed all those who made the road unsafe.
§ 38 LABORS OF THESEUS: He slew Corynetes, son of Neptune, by force of arms. He killed Pityocamptes, who forced travellers to help him bend a pine tree to the ground. When they had taken hold of it with him, he let it rebound suddenly with force. Thus they were dashed violently to the ground and died. He killed Procrustes, son of Neptune. When a guest came to visit him, if he was rather tall, he brought a shorter bed, and cut off the rest of his body; if rather short, he gave him a longer bed, and by hanging anvils to him stretched him to match the length of the bed. Sciron used to sit near the sea at a certain point, and compel those who passed by to wash his feet; then he kicked them into the sea. Theseus cast him into the sea by a similar death, and from this the rocks are called those of Sciron. He killed by force of arms Cercyon, son of Vulcan. He killed the boar which was at Cremyon. He killed the bull at Marathon, which Hercules had brought to Eurystheus from Crete. He killed the Minotaur in the town of Cnossus.
§ 39 DAEDALUS: Daedalus, son of Eupalamus, who is said to have received the art of craftsmanship from Athena, threw down from the roof Perdix, son of his sister, envying his skill, because he first invented the saw. Because of this crime he went into exile from Athens to Crete to King Minos.
§ 40 PASIPHAE: Pasiphae, daughter of Sol and wife of Minos, for several years did not make offerings to the goddess Venus. Because of this Venus inspired in her an unnatural love for a bull [corrupt]. At the time when Daedalus came there as an exile, he asked her to help him. For her he made a wooden heifer, and put in it the hide of a real heifer, and in this she lay with the bull. From this intercourse she bore the Minotaur, with bull's head but human body. Then Daedalus made for the Minotaur a labyrinth with an undiscoverable exit in which it was confined. When Minos found out the affair he cast Daedalus into prison, but Pasiphae freed him from his chains. And so Daedalus made wings and fitted them to himself and to his son Icarus, and they flew away from that place. Icarus flew too high, and when the wax was melted by the sun, fell into the sea which was named Icarian for him. Daedalus flew on to King Cocalus in the island of Sicily. Others say that after Theseus killed the Minotaur he brought Daedalus back to Athens, his own country.
§ 41 MINOS: When Minos, son of Jove and Europa, fought with the Athenians, his son Androgeus was killed in the fight. After he conquered the Athenians their revenues became his; he decreed, moreover, that each year they should send seven of their children as food for the Minotaur. After Theseus had come from Troezene, and had learned what a calamity afflicted the state, of his own accord he promised to go against the Minotaur. When his father sent him off, he charged him to have white sails for his ships if he came back as victor; those who were sent to the Minotaur journeyed with black sails.
§ 42 THESEUS AND THE MINOTAUR: When Theseus came to Crete, Ariadne, Minos' daughter, loved him so much that she betrayed her brother and saved the stranger, or she showed Theseus the way out of the Labyrinth. When Theseus had entered and killed the Minotaur, by Ariadne's advise he got out by unwinding the thread. Ariadne, because she had been loyal to him, he took away, intending to marry her.
§ 43 ARIADNE: Theseus, detained by a storm on the island of Dia, though it would be a reproach to him if he brought Ariadne to Athens, and so he left her asleep on the island of Dia. Liber, falling in love with her, took her from there as his wife. However, when Theseus left, he forgot to change the black sails, and so his father Aegeus judged that he had been devoured by the Minotaur. He threw himself into the sea, which was called Aegean from this. But Theseus married Phaedra, Ariadne's sister.
§ 44 COCALUS: Minos, because many misfortunes had come to him through the agency of Daedalus, followed him to Sicily, and asked King Cocalus to surrender him. When Cocalus had promised this, and Daedalus found it out, he sought help from the daughters of the king, and they killed Minos.
§ 45 PHILOMELA: While Tereus, son of Mars, a Thracian, was married to Progne, daughter of Pandion, he came to Athens to his father-in-law Pandion to ask for his other daughter in marriage, stating that Progne had died. Pandion granted him the favour, and sent Philomela and guards along with her. But Tereus threw the guards into the sea, and finding Philomela on a mountain, violated her. After he returned to Thrace, he gave Philomela to king Lynceus, whose wife Lathusa, because Progne was her friend, at once sent the concubine to her. When Progne recognized her sister and knew the impious deed of Tereus, the two planned to return the favour to the King. Meanwhile it was revealed to Tereus by prodigies that death by a relative's hand was coming to his son Itys. When he heard this, thinking that his brother Dryas was plotting his son's death, he killed the innocent man. Progne, however, killed her son Itys by Tereus, served him at his father's table, and fled with her sister. When Tereus, cognizant of the crime, was pursuing them as they fled, by the pity of the gods it came about that Progne was changed into a swallow, and Philomela into a nightingale. They say, too, that Tereus was made a hawk.
§ 46 ERECHTHEUS: Erechtheus, son of Pandion, had four daughters who promised each other that if one met death, the others would kill themselves. Eumolpus, son of Neptune, came to attack Athens because he said the Attic land was his father's. When he and his army were defeated and he was slain by the Athenians, Neptune demanded that Erechtheus' daughter be sacrificed to him so that Erechtheus would not rejoice at his son's death. And so when Chthonia, his daughter, had been sacrifided, the others in accordance with their oaths killed themselves. Erechtheus himself at Neptune's request was smitten with a thunderbolt by Jove.
§ 47 HIPPOLYTUS: Phaedra, daughter of Minos and wife of Theseus, loved her stepson Hippolytus. When she could not bend him to her desire, she sent a letter to her husband saying that she had been attacked by Hippolytus, and slew herself by hanging. Theseus, when he heard this, ordered his son to leave the city and prayed Neptune his father for his son's death. And so when Hippolytus was driving his team of horses, a bull suddenly appeared from the sea. The horses, terrified at its bellowing, dragged Hippolytus, rending him limb from limb, and caused his death.
§ 48 KINGS OF THE ATHENIANS: Cecrops, son of Terra (Earth); Cephalus, son of Deione; Erichthonius, son of Vulcan; Pandion, son of Erichthonius; Erechtheu, son of Pandion; Aegeus, son of Pandion; Theseus, son of Aegeus; Demophoon, son of Theseus.
§ 49 AESCULAPIUS: Aesculapius, son of Apollo, is said to have restored life either to Glaucus, son of Minos, or to Hippolytus, and Jupiter because of this struck him with a thunderbolt. Apollo, not being able to injure Jupiter, killed the ones who had made the thunderbolt, that is, the Cyclopes. On account of this deed Apollo was given in servitude to Admetus, King in Thessaly.
§ 50 ADMETUS: When great numbers of suitors were seeking Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, in marriage, and Pelias was refusing many of them, he set a contest for them, promising that he would give her to the one who yoked wild beasts to a chariot. [He could take away whomever he wished.] And so Admetus begged Apollo to help him. Apollo, since he had been kindly treated when given in servitude to him, provided him with a wild boar and lion yoked together, and with these he bore off Alcestis in marriage.
§ 51 ALCESTIS: Many suitors sought in marriage Alcestis, daughter of Pelias and Anaxibia, Bias' daughter; but Pelias, avoiding their proposals, rejected them, and set a contest promising that he would give her to the one who yoked wild beast to a chariot and bore her off. Admetus asked Apollo to help him, and Apollo, because he had been kindly received by him while in servitude gave to him a wild boar and a lion yoked together, with which he carried off Alcestis. He obtained this, too, from Apollo, that another could voluntarily die in his place. When neither his father nor his mother was willing to die for him, his wife Alcestis offered herself, and died for him in vicarious death. Later Hercules called her back from the dead.
§ 52 AEGINA: When Jupiter wished to lie with Aigina, the daughter of Asopus, he feared Juno, and took the girl to the island of Delos, and there made her pregnant. Aeacus was their son. When Juno found this out, she sent a serpent into the water which poisoned it, and if anyone drank from it, he paid the debt to nature. Since Aeacus, his allies lost, could not protect himself on account of the scarcity of men, as he gazed at some ants, he begged Jupiter to give him men for defense. Then Jupiter changed the ants into men, who were named Myrmidones, because in Greek ants are called 'myrmekes'. The island, however, has the name of Aigina.
§ 53 ASTERIE: Though Jove loved Asterie, daughter of Titan, she scorned him. Therefore she was transformed into the bird ortux, which we call a quail, and he cast her into the sea. From her an island sprang up, which was named Ortygia. This was floating. Later Latona was borne there at Jove's command by the wind Aquilo, at the time when the Python was pursuing her, and there, clinging to an olive, she gave birth to Apollo and Diana. This island later was called Delos.
§ 54 THETIS: A prediction about Thetis, the Nereid, was that her son would be greater than his father. Since no one but Prometheus knew this, and Jove wished to lie with her, Prometheus promised Jove that he would give him timely warning if he would free him from his chains. And so when the promise was given he advised Jove not to lie with Thetis, for if one greater than he were born he might drive Jove from his kingdom, as he himself had done to Saturn. And so Thetis was given in marriage to Peleus, son of Aeacus, and Hercules was sent to kill the eagle which was eating out Prometheus' heart. When it was killed, Prometheus after thirty thousand years was freed from Mount Caucasus.
§ 55 TITYUS: Because Latona had lain with Jove, Juno ordered Tityus, a creature of immense size, to offer violence to her. When he tried to do this he was slain by the thunderbolt of Jove [Zeus]. He is said to lie stretched out over nine acres in the Land of the Dead, and a serpent is put near him to eat out his liver, which grows again with the moon.
§ 56 BUSIRIS: In Egypt in the land of Busiris, son of Neptune, when there was a famine, and Egypt had been parched for nine years, the king summoned augurs from Greece. Thrasius, his brother Pygmalion's son, announced that rains would come if a foreigner were sacrificed, and proved his words when he himself was sacrificed.
§ 57 STHENEBOEA: When Bellerophon had come as an exile to the court of King Proetus, Stheneboea, the King's wife, fell in love with him. On his refusal to lie with her, she falsely told her husband she had been forced by him. But Proetus, hearing this, wrote a letter about it, and sent him to Iobates, Stheneboea's father. After reading the letter, Iobates was reluctant to kill such a hero, but sent him to kill the Chimaera, a three-formed creature said to breathe forth fire. [Likewise: forepart lion, rearpart snake, middle she-goat.] This he slew, riding on Pegasus, and he is said to have fallen in the Aleian plains and have dislocated his hip. But the king, praising his valor, gave him his other daughter in marriage, and Stheneboea, hearing of it, killed herself.
§ 58 SMYRNA: Smyrna was the daughter of Cinyras, King of the Assyrians, and Cenchreis. Her mother Cenchreis boasted proudly that her daughter excelled Venus in beauty. Venus [Aphrodite], to punish the mother, sent forbidden love to Smyrna so that she loved her own father. The nurse prevented her from hanging herself, and without knowledge of her father, helped her lie with him. She conceived, and goaded by shame, in order not to reveal her fault, hid in the woods. Venus later pitied her, and changed her into a kind of tree from which myrrh flows; Adonis, born from it, exacted punishment for his mother's sake from Venus.
§ 59 PHYLLIS: Demophoon, Theseus' son, came, it is said, to Thrace to the hospitality of Phyllis, and was loved by her. When he wanted to return to his country, he promised to return to her. He did not come on the appointed day; she is said to have run down to the shore nine times that day, and from her (story) the place was named in Greek Ennea Hodoi. Phyllis, however, out of longing for Demophoon died. Her parents made her a tomb, and trees sprang up there which at a certain season grieve for her death, the leaves growing dry and blowing away. From her names, leaves in Greek are called phylla.
§ 60 SISYPHUS AND SALMONEUS: Sisyphus and Salmoneus, sons of Aeolus, hated each other. Sisyphus asked Apollo how he might kill his enemy, meaning his brother, and the answer was given that if he had children from the embrace of Tryo, daughter of his brother Salmoneus, they would avenge him. When Sisyphus followed this advice, two sons were born, but their mother slew them when she learned of the prophecy. But when Sisyphus found out . . . Because of his impiety he now, it is said, in the Land of the Dead rolls a stone, shouldering it up a mountain, but when he has pushed it to the highest point, it rolls down again after him.
§ 61 SALMONEUS: Because Salmoneus, son of Aeolus, brother of Sisyphus, by riding in a four-horse chariot and . . . carrying [?] glowing torches [to terrify] the people, was imitating the thunder and lighting of Jove, he was smitten by the thunderbolt of Jove.
§ 62 IXION: Ixion, son of Leonteus, attempted to embrace Juno. Juno, by Jove's instructions, substituted a cloud, which Ixion believed to be the likeness of Juno. From this the Centaurs were born. But Mercury, by Jove's instructions, bound Ixion in the Land of the Dead to a wheel, which is said to be still turning there.
§ 63 DANAE: Danae was the daughter of Acrisius and Aganippe. A prophecy about her said that the child she bore would kill Acrisius, and Acrisius, fearing this, shut her in a stone-walled prison. But Jove, changing into a shower of gold, lay with Danae, and from this embrace Perseus was born. Because of her sin her father shut her up in a chest with Perseus and cast it into the sea. By Jove's will it was borne to the island of Seriphos, and when the fisherman Dictys found it and broke it open, he discovered the mother and child. He took them to King Polydectes, who married Danae and brought up Perseus in the temple of Minerva. When Acrisius discovered they were staying at Polydectes' court, he started out to get them, but at his arrival Polydectes interceded for them, and Perseus swore an oath to his grandfather that he would never kill him. When Acrisius was detained there by a storm, Polydectes died, and at his funeral games the wind blew a discus from Perseus' hand at Acrisius' head which killed him. Thus what he did not do of his own will was accomplished by the gods. When Polydectes was buried, Perseus set out for Argos and took possession of his grandfather's kingdom.
§ 64 ANDROMEDA: Cassiope claimed that her daughter Andromeda's beauty excelled the Nereids'. Because of this, Neptune demanded that Andromeda, Cepheus' daughter, be offered to a sea-monster. When she was offered, Perseus, flying on Mercury's winged sandals, is said to have come there and freed her from danger. When he wanted to marry her, Cepheus, her father, along with Agenor, her betrothed, planned to kill him. Perseus, discovering the plot, showed them the head of the Gorgon, and all were changed from human form into stone. Perseus with Andromeda returned to his country. When Polydectes saw that Perseus was so courageous, he feared him and tried to kill him be treachery, but when Perseus discovered this he showed him the Gorgon's head, and he was changed from human form into stone.
§ 65 ALCYONE: When Ceyx, son of Hesper (also called Lucifer) and Philonis, had perished in a shipwreck, Alcyone his wife, daughter of Aeolus and Aegiale, on account of her love for him, threw herself into the sea. By the pity of the gods both were changed into birds which are called halcyons. These birds have their nests, eggs, and young on the ea for seven days in the winter. The sea is calm for those days, and sailors call them "halcyon days."
§ 66 LAIUS: The oracle of Apollo warned Laius, son of Labdacus, that he should beware of death at his son's hands, and so when his wife Jocasta bore a son, he ordered him to be exposed. Periboea, wife of King Polybus, found the child as she was washing garments at the shore, and rescued him. With Polybus' consent, since they were childless, they brought him up as their son, and because he had pierced feet they named him Oidipus.
§ 67 OEDIPUS: After Oidipus, son of Laeius and Jocasta, had come to manhood, he was courageous beyond the rest, and through envy his companions taunted him with not being Polybus' son, since Polybus was so mild, and he so assertive. Oidipus felt that the taunt was true. And so he set out for Delphi to inquire [about his parents. In the meantime] it was revealed to Laeius by prodigies that death at his son's hands were near. When he was going to Delphi, Oidipus met him, and when servants bade him give way to the King, he refused. The King urged on his horses, and a wheel grazed Oidipus' foot. Enraged, he dragged his father from the chariot, not knowing who he was, and killed him. After Laius' death, Creon, son of Menoeceus, ruled; in the meantime the Sphinx, offspring of Typhon, was sent into Boeotia, and was laying waste the fields of the Thebans. She proposed a contest to Creon, that if anyone interpreted the riddle which she gave, she would depart, but that she would destroy whoever failed, and under no other circumstances would she leave the country. When the king heard this, he made a proclamation throughout Greece. He promised that he would give the kingdom and his sister Jocasta in marriage to the person solving the riddle of the Sphinx. Many came out of greed for the kingdom, and were devoured by the Sphinx, but Oidipus, son of Laius, came and interpreted the riddle. The Sphinx leaped to her death. Oidipus received his father's kingdom, and Jocasta his mother as wife, unwittingly, and begat on her Eteocles, Polynices, Antigona, and Ismene. Meanwhile barrenness of crops and want fell on Thebes because of the crimes of Oidipus, and Tiresias, questioned as to why Thebes was so harassed, replied that if anyone from the dragon's blood survived and died for his country, he would free Thebes from plague. Then Menoeceus [father of Jocasta] threw himself from the walls. While these things were taking place in Thebes, at Corinth Polybus died, and Oidipus took the news hard, thinking his father had died. But Periboea revealed his adoption, and Menoetes, too, the old man who had exposed him, recognized him as the son of Laius by the scars on his feet and ankles. When Oidipus heard this and realized he had committed such atrocious crimes, he tore the brooches from his mother's garment and blinded himself, gave the kingdom to his sons for alternate years, and fled from Thebes, his daughter Antigona leading him.
§ 68 POLYNICES: Polynices, son of Oidipus, when the year was over, demanded the rule from his brother Eteocles. He refused to yield it, and so Polynices, with the help of King Adrastus and seven leaders, came to attack Thebes. There Capaneus, because he said he would capture Thebes against Jove's will, was smitten by a thunderbolt as he was scaling the wall. Amphiaraus was swallowed up by the earth; Eteocles and Polynices, fighting together, killed each other. When expiatory offerings were made to them in Thebes, although the wind was strong, the smoke never blew in one direction, but some of it was borne one way, some another. When the others were attacking Thebes, and the Thebans were despairing of their royal family, Tiresias, son of Everes, a prophet, foretold that if anyone of the dragon's descendants should perish, the town would be freed from that disaster. Menoeceus, realizing that he alone of the citizens could bring safety, threw himself from the wall; the Thebans won the victory. ANOTHER VERSION. A Polynices, son of Oidipus, at the end of the year, sought the kingdom from his brother Eteocles with the help of Adrastus, son of Talaus. With seven commanders they attacked Thebes. There Adreastus, thanks to his horse, escaped. Capaneus, who said he would take Thebes against Jove's will, was struck by a thunderbolt of Jove while scaling the wall, and Amphiaraus was swallowed by the earth in his four-horse chariot. Eteocles and Polynices fighting against each other, killed each other. When a common funeral offering was made to them at Thebes the smoke divided because they had killed each other. The others perished. ANOTHER VERSION. B Polynices, son of Oidipus, when the year was over; sought the kingdom from his brother Eteocles. He refused to yield it; Polynices came to attack Thebes. There Capaneus was struck by a thunderbolt when he was scaling the wall because he had said he would capture Thebes against Jove's will; Amphiaraus was swallowed by the earth; Eteocles and Polynices fought together and killed each other. When funeral offerings were made to them at Thebes, though the wind was very strong, yet the smoke never blew in one direction, but separated in two ways. The others attacking Thebes, and the Theban . . .
§ 69 ADRASTUS: Oracular reply was given by Apollo to Adrastus, son of Talaus and Eurynome, that he would give his daughters in marriage to a boar and a lion. At the same time Polynices, son of Oidipus, driven out by his brother Eteocles, came to Adrastus, and Tydeus, son of Oineus and the captive Periboea, driven out by his father because he had killed his brother Menalippus at a hunt, arrived at about the same time. When the servants had reported to Adrastus that two youths in unusual garb had come — one wearing a boar's skin, and the other a lion's skin, then Adrastus, mindful of the oracle given him, bade them be brought in, and inquired why they had come to his kingdom thus apparelled. Polynices said that he had come from Thebes, and he was wearing the insignia of his race; Tydeus spoke too, saying that he was the son of Oineus and traced his descent from Calydon, and so he wore a boar skin to recall the Calydonian Boar. Then the king, mindful of the oracular reply, gave Argia, the older daughter to Polynices, from whom Thersander was born; Deipyla, the younger, he gave to Tydeus, and she became mother of Diomede who fought at Troy. But Polynices begged an army from Adrastus for recovering his father's kingdom from his brother. Adrastus not only gave an army but set out himself with six other leaders, since Thebes was shut in by seven gates. For Amphion, who had surrounded Thebes with a wall set in it seven gates named for his daughters. These were Thera, Cleodoxe, Astynome, Astycratia, Chias, Ogygia, Chloris.
§ 70 SEVEN KINGS WHO SET OUT FOR THEBES: Adrastus, son of Talaus by Eurynome, daughter of Iphitus, an Argive. Polynices, son of Oidipus by Jocasta, daughter of Menoeceus, a Theban. Tydeus, son of Oineus by the captive Periboea, a Calydonian. Amphiaraus, son of Oicleus, or, as other writers say, son of Apollo by Hypermnestra, daughter of Thestius, from Pylos. Capaneus, son of Hipponous by Astynome, daughter of Talaus, sister of Adrastus, an Argive. Hippomedon, son of Mnesimachus by Metidice, daughter of Talaus, sister of Adrastus, an Argive. Parthenopaeus, son of Meleager by Atalanta, daughter of Iasius, from Mount Parthenius, an Arcadian. All these leaders died at Thebes except Adrastus, son of Talaus. He was saved thanks to his horse. Later he sent the sons under arms to attack Thebes and avenge the insults to their fathers, since they had lain unburied at the order of Creon, Jocasta's brother, who had taken control of Thebes. ANOTHER VERSION Adrastus, son of Talaus, Capaneus, son of Hipponous, Amphiaraus, son of Oicleus, Polynices, son of Oidipus, Tydeus, son of Oineus, Parthenopaeus, son of Atalanta . . . ANOTHER VERSION Adrastus, son of Talaus, had daughters Deipyla and Argia. Oracular response was given him by Apollo that he would give his daughters in marriage to a boar and a lion. Tydeus, son of Oineus, exiled by his father for killing at a hunt his brother Menalippus, came to Adrastus clad in a boar's skin. At the same time Polynices, son of Oidipus, driven from his kingdom by his brother, came wearing a lion's skin. When Adrastus saw them, mindful of the oracle, he gave Argia to Polynices, and Deipyla to Tydeus in marriage.
§ 71 SEVEN EPIGONI, THAT IS, SONS: Aegialus, son of Adrastus, by Demonassa, an Argive; he alone of the seven who went out perished; because his father [alone of the first seven] survived, he gave his life vicariously for his father; the other six returned home. Tersander, son of Polynices by Argia, daughter of Adrastus, an Argive. Polydorus, son of Hippomedon by Evanippe, daughter of Elatus, an Argive. Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus by Eriphyle, daughter of Talaus, an Argive. Tlesimenes, son of Parthenopaeus by the nymph Clymene, a Mysian. ANOTHER VERSION Aegialus, son of Adrastus; Polydorus, son of Hippomedon; Sthenelus, son of Capaneus; Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus; Thersander, son of Polynices; Biantes, son of Parthenopaeus; Diomede, son of Tydeus.
§ 72 ANTIGONA ANTIGONE: Creon, son of Menoeceus, made an edict that no one should bury Polynices or any of those who had come with him, because they came to attack their native city. Antigona, Polynices' sister, and Argia, his wife, with secrecy at night took his body and put it on the same pyre where the body of Eteocles was placed. When they were caught by the guards, Argia escaped, but Antigona was brought before the king. He gave her to his son Haemon, to whom she was betrothed to be put to death. Haemon out of love disobeyed his father's command, entrusted Antigona to shepherds, and falsely claimed he had killed her. When she bore a son, and he grew to manhood, he came to Thebes to the games; Creon recognized him because all those of the dragon's progeny have a mark on their bodies. When Hercules begged him to pardon Haemon, he did not win his request. Haemon killed himself and his wife Antigona. But Creon gave his own daughter Megara to Hercules in marriage. Their sons were Therimachus and Ophites.
§ 73 AMPHIARAUS, ERIPHYLE, AND ALCMAEON: Amphiaraus, son of Oicleus and Hypermnestra, daughter of Thestius, was an augur who knew that if he went to attack Thebes he would not return. And so he hid himself, with the knowledge of his wife Eriphyle, daughter of Talaus. When Adrastus was hunting for him, however, he made a necklace of gold and gems and offered it as a gift to his sister Eriphyle, who betrayed her husband in her eagerness for the gift. Amphiaraus instructed his son Alcmaeon to punish his mother after his death. After Amphiaraus was swallowed up by the earth at Thebes, Alcmaeon, remembering his father's instructions, killed his mothers. The Furies later pursued him.
§ 74 HYPSIPYLE: The seven chieftains on their way to attack Thebes came to Nemea, where Hypsipyle, daughter of Thoas, as a slave, was caring for the boy Archemorus or Ophites, son of King Lycus. He had been warned by an oracle not to put the child on the ground until he could walk. When the seven leaders who were going to Thebes came to Hypsipyle in their search for water, and asked her to show them some, she, fearing to put the boy on the ground, . . . [found] some very thick parsley near the spring, and placed the child in it. But while she was giving them water, a dragon, guardian of the spring, devoured the child. Adrastus and the others killed the dragon, and interceded for Hypsipyle to Lycus, and established funeral games in honour of the boy. They take place every fifth year, and the victors receive a wreath of parsley.
§ 75 TIRESIAS: On Mount Cyllene Tiresias, son of Everes, a shepherd, is said to have struck with his staff, or trampled on, snakes which were coupling. Because of this he was changed to a woman. Later, advised by an oracle, he trampled on the snakes in the same place, and returned to his former sex. At this same time there was a joking dispute between Jove and Juno as to whether man or woman derived more pleasure from the act of love. They took Tiresias as judge, since he had been both man and woman. When he decided in Jove's favour, Juno with the back of her hand angrily blinded him, but Jove because of this gave him seven lives to live, and made him a seer wiser than other mortals.
§ 76 KINGS OF THE THEBANS: Cadmus, son of Agenor; Polydorus, son of Cadmus; Pentheus, son of Echion; Labdacus, son of Polydorus; Lycus, son of Neptune; Amphion, son of Jove, and Zetus, son of Jove; Laius, son of Labdacus; Oidipus, son of Laius; Polynices and Eteocles, sons of Oidipus; Creon, son of Menoeceus.
§ 78 TYNDAREUS: Tyndareus, son of Oibalus, by Leda, daughter of Thestius, became father of Clytemnestra and Helen; he gave Clytemnestra in marriage to Agamemnon, son of Atreus. Because of her exceeding beauty many suitors from many states sought Helen in marriage. Tyndareus, since he feared that Agamemnon might divorce his daughter Clytemnestra, and that discord might arise from this, at the advice of Ulysses bound himself by an oath, and gave Helen leave to put a wreath on whomever she wished to marry. She put it on Menelaus, and Tyndareus gave her to him in marriage and at his death left him his kingdom.
§ 79 HELEN: Theseus, son of Aegeus and Aethra, daughter of Pittheus, along with Pirithous, son of Ixion, carried off the maiden Helen, daughter of Tyndareus and Leda, from the shrine of Diana while she was sacrificing, and took her to Athens, to a district of the Attic region. When Jove saw that they had such audacity as to expose themselves to danger, he bade them in a dream both go and ask Pluto on Pirithous' part for Proserpine in marriage. When they had descended to the Land of the Dead through the peninsula Taenarus, and had informed Pluto why they had come, they were stretched out and tortured for a long time by the Furies. When Hercules came to lead out the three-headed dog, they begged his promise of protection. He obtained the favour from Pluto, and brought them out unharmed. Castor and Pollux, Helen's brothers, fought for her sake, and took Aethra, Theseus' mother, and Phisadie, Pirithous' sister, and gave them in servitude to their sister.
§ 80 CASTOR: Idas and Lynceus, sons of Apharesu from Messene, had as promised brides Phoebe and Hilaira, daughters of Leucippus. Since these were most beautiful maidens — Phoebe being a priestess of Minerva, and Hilaira of Diana — Castor and Pollux, inflamed with love, carried them off. But they, since their brides-to-be were lost, took to arms to see if they could recover them. Castor killed Lynceus in battle; Idas, at his brother's death, forgot both strife and bride, and started to bury his brother. When he was placing the bones in a funeral monument, Castor intervened, and tired to prevent his raising the monument, because he had won over him as if he were a woman. In anger, Idas pierced the thigh of Castor with the sword he wore. Others say that as he was building the monument he pushed it on Castor and thus killed him. When they reported this to Pollux, he rushed up and overcame Idas in a single fight, recovered the body of his brother, and buried it. Since, however, he himself had received a star from Jove [Zeus], and one was not given to his brother, because Jove said that Castor and Clytemnestra were of the seed of Tyndareus, while he and Helen were children of Jove, Pollux begged that he be allowed to share his honor with his brother. This was granted him. [From this comes the expression "redeemed by alternate death"; and even the Romans preserve the practice. When they send out bareback riders, one man has two horses, and a cap on his head, and leaps from one horse to the other, just as Pollux takes turns with his brother.]
§ 81 SUITORS OF HELEN: Antilochus, Ascalaphus, Ajax, son of Oileus, Amphimachus, [Ancaeus], Blanirus, Agapenor, Ajax, son of Telamon, Clytius the Cyanean, Menelaus, Patroclus, Diomedes, Peneleus, Phemius, Nireus, Polypoetes, Elephenor, Eumelus, Sthenelus, Tlepolemus, Protesilaus, Podalirius, Eurypylus, Idomeneus, Leonteus, Thalpius, Polyxenus, Prothous, Menestheus, Machaon, Thoas, Ulysses, Phidippus, Meriones, Meges, Philoctetes. Older writers mention others.
§ 82 TANTALUS: Tantalus, son of Jove and Pluto, begat Pelops by Dione. Jupiter was accustomed to confide his plans to Tantalus and admit him to the banquets of the gods, but Tantalus reported the plans to men. Because of this, he is said to stand in water up to his waist in the Land of the Dead, yet always to be thirsty, and when he wants to take a drink of water, it recedes. Apples, too, hang above his head, and when he wants to gather them, the branches moved by the wind, recede. A huge stone, too, hangs above his head, and he is constantly afraid it will fall on him.
§ 83 PELOPS: When Pelops, son of Tantalus and Dione, daughter of Atlas, had been slain and cut up by Tantalus at a feast of the gods, Ceres ate his arm, but he was given life again by the will of the gods. When his other limbs were joined together as they had been, but the shoulder was not complete, Ceres fitted an ivory one in its place.
§ 84 OENOMAUS: Oinomaus, son of Mars and Asterope, daughter of Atlas, had as wife Evarete, daughter of Acrisius. By her he became father of Hippodamia, a maiden of exceptional beauty, but he did not give her in marriage to anyone because an oracle had told him to beware of death from his son-in-law. And so when many sought her in marriage, he set a contest; and, since he had horses swifter than the wind, he said the would give her to the one who competed with him in a four-horse chariot race and came out ahead, but that the loser should be put to death. Many were put to death. Finally Pelops, son of Tantalus, came, but when he saw fixed above the door the heads of those who had sought Hippodamia as wife, out of fear of the cruelty of the king he regretted having come. And so he won the confidence of his charioteer, Myrtilus, and promised him the half of the kingdom for his help. Myrtilus pledged his word, and when he yoked the horses did not put the pin in the wheels. So the horses when driven at full speed tore to pieces the weakened chariot of Oinomaus. Pelops, coming home as victor with Hippodamia and Myrtilus, though the affair would disgrace him and refused to keep his promise to Myrtilus but cast him into the sea, which is called Myrtoan from this. He took Hippodamia to his country which is called Peloponnesus; there by Hippodamia he became father of Hippalcus, Atreus, and Thyestes.
§ 85 CHRYSIPPUS: Laius, son of Labdacus, carried of Chrysippus, illegitimate son of Pelops, at the Nemean Games because of his exceeding beauty. Pelops made war and recovered him. At the instigation of their mother Hippodamia, Atreus and Thyestes killed him. When Pelops blamed Hippodamia, she killed herself.
§ 86 CHILDREN OF PELOPS: Because Thyestes, son of Pelops and Hippodamia, lay with Aeropa, Atreus' wife, he was banished from the kingdom by his brother Atreus. But he sent Atreus' son, Plisthenes, whom he had reared as his own, to Atreeus to be killed. Atreus, believing him to be his brother's son, unknowingly killed his own son.
§ 87 AEGISTHUS: An oracle was given to Thyestes, son of Pelops and Hippodamia, that a child he should beget by his daughter Pelopia would be the avenger of his brother. When he heard this . . . a boy was born, Pelopia exposed him, but shepherds found him and gave him to a she-goat to suckle. He was named Aegisthus because in Greek a she-goat is called "aega."
§ 88 ATREUS: Atreus, son of Pelops and Hippodamia, eager to take vengeance on his brother Thyestes for his injuries, made peace with him, brought him back into his kingdom, and after slaying his infant sons, Tantalus and Plistheens, served them to Thyestes at a banquet. While he was eating, Atreus ordered the hands and heads of the boys to be brought in. At this crime even the Sun turned aside his car. Thyestes, when he realized the horrible crime, fled to King Thesprotus, where Lake Avernus is said to be, and from there he came to Sikyon, where Pelopia, Thyestes' daughter, had been brought. He came there by chance at night when they were sacrificing to Minerva, and, fearing to profane the rites, hid in a grove. Pelopia, however, in leading the dancing bands, slipped and stained her garment with the blood of the slain animals. When she went to the stream to wash of the blood, she laid aside her stained tunic. Thyestes, his head covered, leaped out from the grove; in that ravishing Pelopia drew his sword from the sheath, and on her return to the temple hid it under the pedestal of Minerva's statue. The next day Thyestes asked the king to send him back to his country, Lydia. In the meantime sterility of crops and want came to Mycenae because of the crime of Atreus. The oracle said that he should bring back Thyestes into his kingdom. When he came to King Thesprotus, thinking Thyestes was staying there, he saw Pelopia, and asked that she be given to him in marriage, under the impression that she was Thesprotus' daughter. Thesprotus, to avoid suspicion, gave her to him, though she had already conceived Aegisthus by her father Thyestes. When she came to Atreus, she gave birth to Aegisthus, and exposed him, but shepherds gave him to a goat to suckle. Atreus ordered the boy to be found and raised as his own. In the meantime Atreus sent Agamemnon and Menelaus his sons in search of Thyestes, and they went to Delphi to inquire. By chance Thyestes had come there to consult the oracle about taking vengeance on his brother. They seized him, and he was brought to Atreus and cast into prison. Atreus summoned Aegisthus, thinking him to be his son, and sent him to kill Thyestes. When Thyestes saw Aegisthus and the sword which he wore, and recognized it as the one he had lost at the ravishing, he asked Aegisthus where he got it. He replied that his mother Pelopia had given it to him. He bade her be summoned. She told him she had taken it from some unknown person in a rape by night, and from that embrace had borne Aegisthus. Then Pelopia snatched the word, pretending to examine it, and plunged it in her breast. Aegisthus, drawing the bloody sword from his mother's breast, bore it to Atreus, who rejoiced, believing Thyestes dead. Aegisthus slew him as he was sacrificing on the shore, and with his father Thyestes returned to his father's kingdom.
§ 89 LAOMEDON: Neptune and Apollo are said to have built a wall around Troy. King Laomedon vowed that he would sacrifice to them from his flocks whatever should be born that year in his kingdom. This vow he defaulted on through avarice. Other writers say that he promised too little. Because of this Neptune sent a sea-monster to plague Troy, and for this reason the king sent to Apollo for advice. Apollo angrily replied that if Trojan maidens were bound and offered to the monster, there would be an end to the plague. When many girls had been devoured, and the lot fell on Hesione, and she was bound to the rocks, Hercules and Telamon came there, the Argonauts being on their way to Colchis, and killed the monster. They delivered Hesione to her father on condition that when they returned they should take her with them to their country, as well as the horses which walk over water standing ears of grain. Laomedon defaulted in this, too, and refused to give up Hesione. Laomedon defaulted in this, too, and refused to give up Hesione. And so Hercules, assembling ships to attack Troy, came and slew Laomedon, and gave the kingdom to his infant son Podarces, who was afterward called apo tou priasthai, "from being redeemed," Priam. He recovered Hesione and gave her in marriage to Telamon. Their child was Teucer.
§ 90 SONS AND DAUGHTERS OF PRIAM TO THE NUMBER OF LV: Hector, Deiphobus, Cebriones, Polydorus, Helenus, Alexander, Hipposidus, Antinous, Agathon, Dius, Mestor, Lysides, Polymedon, Ascanius, Chirodamas, Evagoras, Dryops, Astynomus, Polymelus, Laodice, Ethionome, Phegea, Henicea, Demnosia, Cassandra, Philomela, Polites, Troilus, Palaemon, Brissonius, Gorgythion, Protodamas, Aretus, Dolon, Chromius, Eresus, Chrysolaus, Demosthea, Doryclus, Hippasus, Hyperochus, Lysianassa, Iliona, Nereis, Evander, Proneos, Archemachus, Ilagus, Axion, Binates, Hippothous, Deiopites, Medusa, Hero, Creusa.
§ 91 ALEXANDER PARIS: After Priam, son of Laomedon, had had many children by Hecuba, daughter of Cisseus or of Dymas, his wife, again pregnant, in a dream saw herself giving birth to a glowing firebrand from which many serpents issued. When this vision was reported to all the seers, they bade her slay whatever child she should bear to avoid its being the ruin of the country. After Hecuba gave birth to Alexander, he was handed over to be killed, but the servants out of pity exposed him. Shepherds found the child, raised him as their own, and named him Paris. When he came to young manhood, he had a favorite bull. Servants sent by Priam to bring a bull to be given as prize in funeral games in Paris' honor, came and started to lead off the bull of Paris. He followed them and asked them where they were leading him. They stated that they were taking him to Priam . . . [to be prize] for the victor in the funeral games of Alexander. He, out of fondness for the bull, went down and won everything, even over his own brothers. In anger Deiphobus drew his sword against him, but he leaped to the altar of Zeus Herceus. When Cassandra prophetically declared he was her brother, Priam acknowledged him and received him into the palace.
§ 92 JUDGMENT OF PARIS: Jove is said to have invited to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis all the gods except Eris, or Discordia. When she came later and was not admitted to the banquet, she threw an apple through the door, saying that the fairest should take it. Juno, Venus, and Minerva claimed the beauty prize for themselves. A huge argument broke out among them. Jupiter ordered Mercury to take them to Mt Ida to Paris Alexander, and bid him judge. Juno promised him, if he should judge in her favour, that he would rule over all the lands and be pre-eminent wealth. Minerva promised that if she should come out victorious, he would be bravest of mortals and skilled in every craft. Venus, however, promised to give him in marriage Helen, daughter of Tyndareus, most beautiful of all women. Paris preferred the last give to the former ones, and judges Venus the most lovely. On account of this, Juno and Minerva were hostile to the Trojans. Alexander, at the prompting of Venus, took Helen from his host Menelaus form Lacedemon to Troy, and married her. She took with her two handmaids, Aethra and Thisiadie, captives, but once queens, whom Castor and Pollux had assigned to her.
§ 93 CASSANDRA: Cassandra, daughter of Priam and Hecuba, is said to have fallen asleep when she was tired of playing, in the temple of Apollo. When Apollo tried to embrace her, she did not permit him. So Apollo brought it about that she should not be believed, though she gave true prophecies.
§ 94 ANCHISES: Venus is said to have loved Anchises and to have lain with him. By him she conceived Aeneas, but she warned him not to reveal it to anyone. Anchises, however, told it over the wine to his companions, and for this was struck by the thunderbolt of Jove. Some say that he died by his own hand.
§ 95 ULYSSES: When Agamemnon and Menelaus, son of Atreus, were assembling the leaders who had pledged themselves to attack Troy, they came to the island of Ithaca to Ulysses, son of Laertes. He had been warned by an oracle that if he went to Troy he would return home alone and in need, with his comrades lost, after twenty years. And so when he learned that spokesmen would come to him, he put on a cap, pretending madness, and yoked a horse and an ox to the plow. Palamedes felt he was pretending when he saw this, and taking his son Telemachus from the cradle, put him in front of the plow with the words: "Give up your pretense and come and join the allies." Then Ulysses promised that he would come; from that time he was hostile to Palamedes.
§ 96 ACHILLES: When Thetis the Nereid knew that Achilles, the son she had borne to Peleus, would die if he went to attack Troy, she sent him to island of Scyros, entrusting him to King Lycomedes. He kept him among his virgin daughters in woman's attire under an assumed name. The girls called him Pyrrha, since he had tawny hair, and in Greek a redhead is called pyrrhos. When the Achaeans discovered that he was hidden there, they sent spokesmen to King Lycomedes to beg that he be sent to help the Danaan. The King denied that he was there, but gave them permission to search the palace. When they couldn't discover which one he was. Ulysses put women's trinkets in the fore-court of the palace, and among them a shield and a spear. He bade the trumpeter blow the trumpet all of a sudden, and called for clash of arms and shouting. Achilles, thinking the enemy was at hand, stripped off his woman's garb and seized shield and spear. In this way he was recognized and promised to the Argives his aid and his soldiers, the Myrmidons.
§ 97 THOSE WHO WENT TO ATTACK TROY, AND THE NUMBER OF THEIR SHIPS: Agamemnon, son of Atreus and Aerope, from Mycenae, with a hundred ships; Menelaus, his brother from Mycenae, with 60 ships. Phoenix, son of Amyntor, and Argive with 50 ships; Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis, from the island of Scyros, with 60 ships; Automedon, from Scyros, with 10 ships; Patroclus, son of Menoetius and Philomela, from Phthia, with 10 ships. Ajax, son of Telamon by Eriboea, from Salamis, with 12 ships; Teucer, his brother by Hesione, daughter of Laomedon, with 12 ships. Ulysses, son of Laertes and Anticlia, from Ithaca, with 12 ships; Diomede, son of Tydeus and Deipyla, daughter of Adrastus, from Argos, with 30 ships; Sthenelus, son of Capaneus and Evadne, from Argos, with 25 ships. Ajax, son of Oileus and the nymph Rhene, a Locrian, with 20 ships; Nestor, son of Neleus and Chloris, daughter of Amphion, a Pylian, with 90 ships; Thrasymedes, his brother, by Eurydice, a Pylian, with 15 ships; Antilochus, son of Nestor, a Pylian, with 20 ships. Eurypylus, son of Euaemon and Opis, an Ormenian, with 40 ships; Machaon, son of Asclepius and Coronis, from Tricca, with 20 ships; Podalirus, his brother, with 9 ships. Tlepolemus, son of Hercules and Astyoche, from Mycenae, with 9 ships; Meriones, son of Molus and Melphis, from Crete, with 40 ships; Eumelus, son of Admetus and Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, from Perrhaebia, with 8 ships; Philoctetes, son of Poeas and Demonassa, from Meliboea, with 7 ships; Peneleus, son of Hippalcus and Asterope, from Boeotia, with 12 ships. Leitus, son of Lacritus and Cleobule, from Boeotia, with 12 ships; Clonius, his brother, from Boeotia, with 9 ships; Arcesilaus, son of Areilycus and Theobula, from Boeotia, with 10 ships; Prothoenor, his brother, from Thespia, with 8 ships. Ialmenus, son of Lycus and Pernis, from Argos, with 30 ships; Ascalaphus, his brother, from Argos, with 30 ships; Epistrophus, his brother, from the same place, with 10 ships; Elephenor, son of Calchodon and Imanerete, from Argos, with 30 ships. Menestheus son of oeas, from Athens, with 50 ships; Agapenor, son of Ancaeus and Iotis, from Arcadia, with 60 ships; Amphimachus, son of Cteatus, from Elis, with 10 ships; Euryalus, son of Pallas and Diomeda, from Argos, with 15 ships; Amarynceus, son of Onesimachus, from Mycenae, with 19 ships; Polyxenus, son of Agasthenes and Peloris, from Aitolia, with 40 ships; Meges, son of Phyleus and Eustyoche, from Dulichium, with 60 ships; Thoas, son of Andrawmon and gorges, from Tytus, with 15 ships.. . . Podarces, his brother, from the same place, with 10 ships. Prothous, son of Tenthredon, from Magnesia, with 40 ships; Cycnus, son of Ocitus and Aurophites, from Argos, with 12 ships; Nireus, son of Charopus and the nymph Aglaie, from Argos, with 16 ships; Antiphus, son of Thassalus and Chalciope, from Nisyrus, with 20 ships; Polypoetes, son of Pirithous and Hippodamia, from Argos, with 20 ships; Leonteus, son of Coronus, from Sikyon, with 19 ships. Calchas, son of Thestor, from Mycenae, augur; Phocus, son of Danaus, builder; Eurybates and Talthybius, heralds; Diaphorus, judge; Neoptolemus, son of Achilles and Deidamia, from the island of Scyros; he was called Pyrrhus from his father who was disguised as the girl Pyrrha. The total number of ships was 245.
§ 98 IPHIGENIA: When Agamemnon with his brother Menelaus and chosen leaders of Asia were goint to Troy to recover Helen, wife of Menelaus, whom Alexander Paris ahd carried off, a storm kept them at Aulis because of the anger of Diana. Agamemnon had wounded a deer of hers in hunting, and had spoken rather haughtily against Diana. When he had called together the soothsayers, and Calchas had declared that he could expiate in no other way than by sacrificing his daughter, Iphigenia, Agamemnon at first refused. Then Ulysses by his advice won him over to a fine scheme. The same Ulysses along with Diomede was sent to get Iphigenia, and when he came to Clytemnestra her mother, he falsely said she was to be given in marriage to Achilles. When she was brought to Aulis, and her father was about to sacrifice her, Diana pitied the girl, cast mist about her, and substituted a deer in her place. She bore Iphigenia through the clouds to the Tauric land, and there made her a priestess of her temple.
§ 99 AUGE: Auge, daughter of Aleus, ravished by Hercules, when her time was near, gave birth to a child on Mount Parthenius, and there exposed him. At the same time Atalanta, daughter of Iasius, exposed a son by Meleager. A doe, however, sucked the child of Hercules. Shepherds found these boys and took them away and reared them, giving the name Telephus to the son of Hercules because a doe had suckled him, and to Atalanta's child the name Parthenopaeus, because she had exposed him on Mount Parthenius [pretending to be virgin]. Auge, however, fearing her father, fled to Moesia to King Teuthras, who took her as a daughter since he was without children.
§ 100 TEUTHRAS: Idas, son of Aphareus, wished to rob Teuthras, king of Moesia, of his kingdom. When Telephus, Hercules' son, with Parthenopaeus his friend, ahd come there seeking his mother in accordance with the oracle, Teuthras promised he would give him his kingdom and his daughter Auge in marriage if he would protect him from his enemy. Telephus did not disregard the proposal of the king, and with Parthenopaeus' help overcame Idas in one battle. The king fulfilled his promise, and gave him his kingdom and Auge as wife, unaware of the relationship. Since she [faithful to Hercules] wished no mortal to violate her body, she intended to kill Telephus, not realizing he was her son. And so when they had entered the wedding-chamber, Auge drew a sword to slay Telephus. Then by the will of the gods a serpent of huge size is said to have glided between them, and at the sight Auge dropped the sword and revealed her attempt to Telephus. Telephus, when he heard this, not realizing she was his mother, was about to kill her, but she called for help on Hercules her ravisher, and by that means Telephus recognized his mother, and took her back to her own country.
§ 101 TELEPHUS: Telephus, son of Hercules and Auge, is said to have been wounded by Achilles in battle with the spear of Chiron. When for days he suffered cruel torture from the wound, he sought oracular advice from Apollo for a remedy. The answer came that no one could heal him except the very spear that wounded him. When Telephus heard this, he went to King Agamemnon, and by Clytemnestra's advice snatched the infant Orestes from his cradle, threatening to kill him if the Achaeans did not heal him. Then since the Achaeans had been given an oracle too, that Troy could not be taken without the leadership of Telephus, they readily made peace with him, and begged Achilles to heal him. Achilles replied that he didn't know the art of healing. Then Ulysses said: Apollo does not mean you, but calls the spear the inflictor of the wound." When they scraped it, he was healed. When they begged him to go with them to attack Troy, they did not obtain their request, because he had as wife Laodice, daughter of Priam. But in return for their kindness in healing him, he led them there, pointing out places and ways. From there he departed to Moesia.
§ 102 PHILOCTETES: When Philoctetes, son of Poeas and Demonassa, was on the island of Lemnos, a snake struck his foot. Juno had sent it, angry with him because he alone rather than the others had dared to build the funeral pyre of Hercules when his human body was consumed and he was raised to immortality. Because of the favour Hercules gave him his marvellous arrows. But when the Achaeans could not endure the offensive odour of the wound, by Agamemnon's order he was left on Lemnos together with the marvellous arrows. A shepherd of King Actor, named Iphimachus, son of Dolops, cared for the abandoned man. Later an oracle was given to them that Troy could not be taken without the arrows of Hercules. Then Agamemnon sent Ulysses and Diomede as scouts to visit him. They persuaded him to be reconciled and to help in attacking Troy, and took him off with them.
§ 103 PROTESILAUS: An oracle warned the Achaeans that the man who first reached the shore of the Trojans would perish. When the Greek fleet had neared shore, and the others were delaying, Iolaus, son of Iphiclus and Diomedia, was first to leap from his ship, and was promptly killed by Hector. All called him Protesilaus, since he was the first of all to die. When his wife Laodamia, daughter of Acastus, heard that he had died, she wept and begged the gods that she be allowed to speak with him for three hours. It was granted, and when he was led back by Mercury, she spoke with him for three hours. But when Protesilaus died a second time, Laodamia, could not endure her grief.
§ 104 LAODAMIA: When Ladomia, daughter of Acastus, after her husband's loss had spent the three hours which she had asked from the gods, she could not endure her weeping and grief. And so she made a bronze likeness of her husband Protesilaus, put it in her room under pretense of sacred rites, and devoted herself to it. When a servant early in the morning had brought fruit for the offerings, he looked through a crack in the door and saw her holding the image of Protesilaus in her embrace and kissing it. Thinking she had a lover he told her her father Acastus. When he came and burst into the rom, he saw the statue of Protesilaus. To put an end to her torture he had the statue and the sacred offerings burned on a pyre he had made, but Laodamia, not enduring her grief, threw herself on it and was burned to death.
§ 105 PALAMEDES: Ulysses, because he had been tricked by Palamedes, son of Nauplius, kept plotting day by day how to kill him. At length, having formed a plan, he sent a soldier of his to Agamemnon to say that in a dream he had been warned that the camp should be moved for one day. Agamemnon, believing the warning true, gave orders that the camp be moved for one day. Ulysses, then, secretly by night hid a great quantity of gold in the place where the tent of Palamedes had been. He also gave to a Phrygian captive a letter to be carried to Priam, and sent a soldier of his ahead to kill him not far from the camp. On the next day when the army came back to the camp, a soldier found on the body of the Phrygian, the letter which Ulysses had written, and brought it to Agamemnon. Written on it were the words: "Sent to Palamedes from Priam," and it promised him as much gold as Ulysses had hidden in the tent, if he would betray the camp of Agamemnon according to agreement. And so when Palamedes was brought before the king, and so denied the deed, they went to his tent and dug up the gold. Agamemnon believed the charge was true when he saw the gold. In this way Palamedes was tricked by the scheme of Ulysses, and though innocent, was put to death by the entire army.
§ 106 RANSOM OF HECTOR: Agamemnon, at the time when he returned Chryseis to Chryses, priest of Apollo Smintheus, took from Achilles because of her exceeding beauty Briseis, the Moesian captive, daughter of the priest Brisa, whom Achilles had won. In wrath over this Achilles did not go to battle but amused himself with the cithara in his tent. But when the Argives were being put to flight by Hector, Achilles, at Patroclus' pleading, gave him his armor. Wearing this, he put the Trojans to flight, since they thought he was Achilles, and he slew Sarpedon, son of Jove and Europa. Later Patroclus himself was killed by Hector and the armor taken from his body. When Achilles was reconciled to Agamemnon, and Briseis was returned to him, then, since he was going out against Hector unarmed, Thetis his mother secured armor for him from Vulcan, and the Nereids brought it to him over the sea. Wearing this, he slew Hector, tied his body to his chariot, and dragged it round the walls of the Trojans. On his refusal to give the body to his father for burial, at Jove's command Priam, with Mercury as guide, came into the camp of the Danaan, received the body for an equal weight of gold, and gave it burial.
§ 107 CONTEST OF ARMS: After Hector's burial, when Achilles was wandering along the ramparts of the Trojans and saying that he alone had reduced Troy, Apollo in anger, taking the form of Alexander Paris, struck him with an arrows on the heel which was said to be vulnerable, and killed him. When Achilles was killed and given burial, Telamonian Ajax demanded from the Danaan the arms of Achilles, on the grounds that he was cousin on his father's side. Through the anger of Minerva they were denied him by Agamemnon and Menelaus, and given to Ulysses. Ajax, harbouring rage, in madness slaughtered his flocks, and killed himself with that sword he had received from Hector as a gift when the two met in battle line.
§ 108 TROJAN HORSE: Since the Achaeans during ten years were not able to take Troy, Epeus at Minerva's suggestion made a wooden horse of remarkable size, and in it were gathered Menelaus, Ulysses, Diomedes, Thessander, Sthenelus, Acamas, Thoas, Machaon, Neoptolemus. On the horse they wrote: "The Danaan give it as a gift to Minerva", and moved camp to Tenedos. When the Trojans saw this, they thought the enemy had gone away; Priam ordered he horse to be brought to the citadel of Minerva, and gave a proclamation that they celebrate magnificently. When the prophetess Cassandra kept insisting that there were enemies within, they did not believe her. They put it in the citadel, and at night when they slept, overcome by sport and wine, the Achaeans came out of the horse which had been opened by Sinon, killed the guards at the gates, and at a given signal admitted their friends. Thus they gained possession of Troy.
§ 109 ILIONA: When Polydorus, son of Priam by Hecuba, was born, they gave him to Priam's daughter Iliona to be reared. She was the wife of Polymnestor, King of the Thracians, and she brought him up as her own son. She brought up Deipylus, who she had conceived by Polymnestor, as if he were her brother, so that if anything happened to either of them she could give the other to her parents. But when, after the fall of Troy, the Achaeans wanted to destroy the race of Priam, they cast down Astyanax from the walls, and sent messengers to Polymnestor promising him Electra in marriage together with a great amount of gold if he would put Polydorus, son of Priam, to death. Polymnestor did not oppose the words of the ambassadors, and slew his own son Deipylus unwittingly, thinking he had killed Polydorus, son of Priam. Polydorus, however, went to the oracle of Apollo to inquire about his parents and was told that his city was burned, his father killed, and his mother held in servitude. When he returned and saw that things were not as the oracle had said . . . thinking he was the son of Polymnestor, he asked his sister Iliona why the oracle had spoken falsely. His sister revealed the truth to him, and by her advice he blinded Polymnestor and killed him.
§ 110 POLYXENA: When the victorious Danaan were embarking from Troy, and about to return to their own country, each one taking his share of the spoils, the voice of Achilles from his tome is said to have demanded a part of the spoils. And so the Danaans sacrificed at his tome Polyxena, daughter of Priam, a most beautiful girl, because when Achilles had sought her in marriage and had come for an interview, he was killed by Alexander and Deiphobus.
§ 111 HECUBA: When Ulysses was taking into servitude Hecuba, Priam's wife, daughter of Cisseus, or according to some writers, daughter of Dymas, she threw herself into the Hellespont, and is said to have been changed into a dog. The place is called Cyneus from this.
§ 112 CHALLENGING COMBATANTS AND THEIR ADVERSARIES: Menelaus with Alexander; Venus rescued Alexander. Diomedes with Aeneas; Venus saved Aeneas. The same (Diomedes) with Glaucus; they parted, when they recognized ties of guest-friendship. The same (Diomedes) with Pandarus and another Glaucus; Pandarus and Glaucus were killed. Ajax with Hector; they parted with an exchange of gifts: Ajax gave Hector the belt by which he was dragged, and Hector gave Ajax a sword with which he killed himself. Patroclus with Sarpedon; Sarpedon was killed. Menelaus with Euphorbus; Euphorbus was killed. He later became Pythagoras and recalled this his soul had passed into several bodies. Achilles with Asteropaeus; Asteropaeus was killed. The same (Achilles) with Hector; Hector was killed. The same (Achilles) with Aeneas; Aeneas was routed. The same (Achilles) with Agenor; Apollo saved Agenor. The same (Achilles) with Penthesilea, daughter of Mars and Otrera; Penthesilea was killed. Antilochus with Memnon; Antilochus was killed. Achilles with Memnon; Memnon was killed. Philoctetes with Alexander; Alexander was killed. Neoptolemus with Eurypylus; Eurypylus was killed.
§ 113 THOSE WHO KILLED PRINCES: Apollo [killed] Achilles under the guise of Alexander. Hector, Protesilaus, and likewise Antilochus. Agenor, Elephenor, and likewise Clonius. Deiphobus, Ascalaphus, and likewise Antonous. Ajax [killed] Hippodamus, and likewise Chromius. Agamemnon, Iphidamas, and likewise Glaucus. Locrian Ajax, Gargasus, and likewise Gavius. Diomedes, Dolon and likewise Rhesus. Eurypylus [killed] Nireus, and likewise Machaon. Sarpedon, Tlepolemus, and likewise Antiphus. Achilles, Troilus. Menelaus, Deiphobus. Achilles [killed] Astynomus, and likewise Pylaemenes. Neoptolemus, Priam.
§ 114 SLAYERS ON THE ACHAEAN SIDE AND HOW MANY THEY SLEW: Achilles to the number of 72; Antilochus, 2; Protesilaus, 4; Peneleus, 2; Eurypylus, 1; Ajax, son of Oileus, 14; Thoas, 2; Leitus, 20; Thrasymedes, 2; Agamemnon, 16; Diomedes, 18; Menelaus, 8; Philoctetes, 3; Meriones, 7; Ulysses, 12; Idomeneus, 13; Leonteus, 5; Telamonian Ajax, 28; Patroclus, 54; Polypoetes, 1; Teucer, 30; Neoptolemus, 6; total, 362.
§ 115 SLAYERS ON THE TROJAN SIDE AND HOW MANY THEY SLEW: Hector to the number of 31; Alexander, 3; Sarpedon, 2; Panthous, 4; Gargasus, 2; Glaucus, 4; Polydamas, 3; Aeneas, 28; Deiphobus, 4; Clytus, 3; Acamas, 1; Agenor, 2; total, 88.
§ 116 NAUPLIUS: When the Danaan were returning home after the capture of Troy and the division of spoils, the anger o the gods caused their shipwreck on the Cepharean Rocks. They sent a storm and contrary winds because the Greeks had despoiled the shrines of the gods and Locrian Ajax had dragged Cassandra from the statue of Pallas. In this storm Locrian Ajax was struck with a thunderbolt by Minerva. The waves dashed him against the rocks, and from this they are called the Rocks of Ajax. When the others at night were imploring the aid of the gods, Nauplius heard, and though the time had come for avenging the wrong to his Palamedes. And so, as if he were bringing aid to them, he brought a burning torch to that place where the rocks were sharp and the coast most dangerous. Believing that this was done out of mercy they steered their ships there. As a result many ships were wrecked, and many of the troops and their leaders perished in the storm, their limbs and entrails dashed on the rocks. Those who could swim to shore were killed by Nauplius. But the wind bore Ulysses to Mar[ath]on, and Menelaus to Egypt. Agamemnon with Cassandra arrived at his own country.
§ 117 CLYTEMNESTRA: Clytemnestra, daughter of Tyndareus and wife of Agamemnon, heard from Oiax, brother of Palamedes, that Cassandra was being brought as a concubine to her house, a false statement Oiax made in order to avenge the wrong done to his brother. Then Clytemnestra, together with Aegisthus, son of Thyestes, planned to kill Agamemnon and Cassandra. They killed him with an axe as he was sacrificing, and Cassandra, too. But Electra, Agamemnon's daughter, rescued her brother, the infant Orestes, and sent him to Strophius in Phocis. Strophius had married Agamemnon's sister, Astyoche.
§ 118 PROTEUS: In Egypt Proteus, the prophetic Old Man of the Sea, is said to have dwelt, he who used to change himself into all sorts of shapes. By the advice of his daughter Idothea, Menelaus bound him with a chain, so that he would tell him when he would reach home. Proteus told him that the gods were angry because Troy had been taken, and on that account an offering should be made which the Greeks call hekatombe, a hundred animals being slain. And so Menelaus offered a hekatombe. Then at length, the eighth year after he left Troy, he returned home with Helen.
§ 119 ORESTES: When Orestes, son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, grew to manhood, he desired to avenge his father's death. And so he made a plan with Pylades and came to Mycenae to his mother Clytemnestra, saying that Orestes, who Aegisthus had turned over to the people to be killed, was dead, and that he was an Aitolian guest-friend. Not long after this, Pylades, son of Strophius, came to Clytemnestra brining an urn which he said contained the bones of Orestes. Aegisthus rejoiced and welcomed them both hospitably. When an opportunity came, Orestes with help of Pylades by night slew Clytemnestra, his mother, and Aegisthus. When Tyndareus accused him, Orestes was allowed to go into exile by the people of Mycenae because of his father. Later the Furies of his mother pursued him.
§ 120 IPHIGENIA: When the Furies were pursuing Orestes, he went to Delphi to inquire when his sufferings would end. The reply was that he should go to the lad of Taurica to King Thoas, father of Hypsipyle, and bring to Argos from the temple there the statue of Diana; then there would be an end to his sufferings. Upon hearing this oracle, along with Pylades his companion, son of Strophius, he embarked and quickly came to the land of the Taurians. It was their custom to sacrifice at the temple of Diana whatever stranger came within their borders. When Orestes and Pylades were hiding in a cave waiting an opportunity, they were seized by shepherds and brought to King Thoas. Thoas, as was his custom, ordered them to be brought bound into the temple of Diana to be sacrificed. The priestess there was Iphigenia, sister of Orestes, and when by tokens and questioning she found out who they were and why they had come, she herself, casting aside the vessels for sacrifice, started to remove the statue of Diana. When the king came up and asked her why she was doing this, she made pretence and said that since the men were accursed they had defiled the statue; because impious and wicked men had been brought into the temple, the statue should be taken to the sea for cleansing. She bade him make a proclamation forbidding citizens to go outside the city. The king complied with the words of the priestess. Iphigenia, seizing the opportunity, took the statue, embarked with Orestes and Pylades, and by a favouring breeze was borne to the island Zminthe to Chryses, priest of Apollo.
§ 121 CHRYSES: When Agamemnon was on his was to Troy, Achilles, too, came to Moesia, and took Chryseis, daughter of the priest of Apollo, and gave her in marriage to Agamemnon. When Chryses came to Agamemnon to beg him to return his daughter, he was refused. Because of this Apollo destroyed almost all the army, partly by famine, partly by pestilence. And so Agamemnon sent back Chryseis, though she was pregnant, to the priest. Though she claimed to be untouched by him, when her time came she bore Chryses the Younger, and said she had conceived by Apollo. Later when Chryses was about to return Iphigenia and Orestes to Thoas, he [Chryses the Elder] learned that they were children of Agamemnon, and revealed to Chryses his [grand]son the truth — that they were brothers and that he was a son of Agamemnon. Then Chryses, thus informed, with Orestes his brother, killed Thoas, and from there they came safe to Mycenae with the statue of Diana.
§ 122 ALETES: To Electra, daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, a messenger came, falsely saying that her brother and Pylades had been sacrificed in Taurica to Diana. When Aletes, Aegisthus'son, heard that no-one of the race of the Atreidae survived, he seized the kingly power in Mycenae. But Electra went to Delphi to inquire about her brother's violent death. She came thee the same day that Iphigenia and Orestes arrived. The same messenger who had reported about Orestes, said that Iphigenia was the murderess of her brother. When Electra heard this, she seized a burning firebrand from the altar, and in her ignorance would have blinded her sister Iphigenia if Orestes had not intervened. After this recognition they came to Mycenae, and Orestes killed Aletes, son of Aegisthus, and would have killed Erigone, daughter of Clytemnestra and Aegisthus, but Diana rescued her and made her a priestess in the Attic land. Orestes, moreover, after Neoptolemus was slain, married Hermione, daughter of Menelaus and Helen, and Pylades married Electra, daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra.
§ 123 NEOPTOLEMUS: Neoptolemus, son of Achilles and Deidamia, begat Amphialus by captive Andromache, daughter of Eetion. But after he heard that Hermione his betrothed had been given to Orestes in marriage, he went to Lacedemon and demanded her from Menelaus. Menelaus did not wish to go back on his word, and took Hermione from Orestes and gave her to Neoptolemus. Orestes, thus insulted, slew Neoptolemus as he was sacrificing to Delphi, and recovered Hermione. The bones of Neoptolemus were scattered through the land of Ambracia, which is in the district of Epirus.
§ 124 KINGS OF THE ACHAEANS: Phoroneus, son of Inachus; Argus, son of Jove; Peranthus, son of Argus; Triops, son of Peranthus; Pelasgus, son of Agenor; Danaus, son of Belus; Tantalus, son of Jove; Pelops, son of Tantalus; Atreus, son of Pelops; Thyestes, of Pelops; Agamemnon, of Atreus; Aegisthus, of Thyestes; Orestes, of Agamemnon; Aletes, of Aegisthus; Tisamenus, of Orestes; Temenus, son of Aristomachus; Clytus, son of Temenus; [Alexander of Eurystheus].
§ 125 ODYSSEY: When Ulysses was returning from Tory to his country Ithaca, he was carried by a storm to the Cicones. He attacked their town, Ismarus, and distributed the spoils among his comrades. From there he went to the Lotus Eaters, quite good men, whose custom it was to eat the lotus, a flower growing from the leaves. This food was so sweet that those who tasted it would forget to return home. Two men sent to them by Ulysses, on tasting the plants they gave, forgot to return to the ships. He bound them and brought them back himself. From there he went to the Cyclops Polyphemus, son of Neputune, to whom a prophecy had been given by the augur Telemus, son of Eurymus, that he should beware of being blinded by Ulysses. He had one eye in the middle of his forehead, and feasted on human flesh. After he drove his flock back into the cave he would place a great stone weight at the door. He shut Ulysses and his comrades within, and started to devour the men. When Ulysses saw that he could not cope with his size and ferocity, he made him drunk with the wine he had received from Maron, and said that he was called Noman. And so, when Ulysses was burning out his eye with a glowing stake, he summoned the other Cyclopes with is cries, and called to them from the closed cave, "Noman in blinding me!" They thought he was speaking in sport, and did not heed. But Ulysses tied his comrades to the sheep and himself to the ram, and in this way they got out. He came to Aeolus, son of Hellen, to whom control of the winds had been given by Jove. He welcomed Ulysses hospitably, and gave him as a gift a bag full of winds. But his comrades took it, thinking it to be gold and silver, and when they wished to divide it, they opened the bag secretly, and the winds rushed out. He was carried again to Aeolus, who cast him out because the divinity of the gods seemed hostile to him. He came to the Laestrygonians, whose king was Antiphates . . . Some he devoured and shattered eleven of his ships, with the exception of the one in which Ulysses escaped when his comrades had been lost. He came to the island of Aenaria, to Circe, daughter of Sol, who, by giving a potion, used to change men into wild beasts. When he sent Eurylochus to her with twenty-two of his men, she changed them from human form; but Eurylochus in fear did not enter, but fled and reported to Ulysses. Ulysses himself alone went to her, but on the way Mercury gave him a charm, and showed him how to deceive Circe. After he came to Circe and took the cup from her, at Mercury's suggestion he put in the charm, and drew his sword, threatening to kill her unless she restored his comrades. Then Circe knew that this had not happened without the will of the gods, and so, promising that she would not do the like to him, she restored his comrades to their earlier forms. She herself lay with him, conceived, and bore two sons, Nausithous and Telegonus. From there he set out for Lake Avernus, descended into the Lower World, and found there his comrade Elpenor, whom he had left behind at Circe's. He asked Elpenor how he had come there, and Elpenor replied that in his drunkenness he had fallen down the ladder and broken his neck. He begged him to give him burial when he returned to the upper world, and place his oar on his grave. There he also spoke to his mother, Anticlia, about the end of his journey. Then he returned to the upper world, buried Elpenor, and fixed the oar on his tomb as he had asked. Next he came to the Sirens, daughters of the Muse Melpomene and Achelous, women in the upper parts of their bodies but bird below. It was their fate to live only so long as mortals who heard their song failed to pass by. Ulysses, instructed by Circe, daughter of Sol, stopped up the ears of his comrades with wax, had himself bound to the wooden mast, and thus sailed by. From there he came to Scylla, daughter of Typhon, who was woman above, but fish from the hips down, with six dogs joined to her body. She snatched and devoured six men from Ulysses' ship. He had come to the island of Sicily to the sacred herds of Sol, but their flesh lowed when his comrades cooked it in a brazen kettle. He had been warned by Tiresias and by Circe, too, not to touch them, and as a result he lost many comrades there. Borne on to Charybdis, who three times a day sucked down the water and three times belched it up, by Tiresias' warning he passed by. But Sol was angry because his herd had been harmed. (When Ulysses had come to the island, and at Tiresias' warning forbade anyone's touching the herd, his comrades seized some cattle while he slept; as they were cooking them the flesh lowed from the brazen kettle.) For his reason Jove struck his ship with a thunderbolt and burned it Wandering from this, his comrades lost in the shipwreck, he swam to the island of Aeaea, where the nymph Calypso, daughter of Atlas, lived. She enamoured of the handsome form of Ulysses, kept him a whole year, and was unwilling to release him until Mercury, by Jove's command, bade her release him. When a raft had been made there, Calypso sent him off with an abundance of provisions, but Neptune shattered the raft with his waves because he had blinded his son, the Cyclops. While he was being tossed about by the waves, Leucothoe, who we call Mater Matuta, who lives forever in the sea, gave him her girdle to bind around his chest, to buoy him up. When he had done this, he swam to safety. From there he came to the island of the Phaeacians, and hid his nakedness under the leaves of trees. There Nausicaa, daughter of King Alcinous, brought garments to the stream to wash. He crept out from the leaves and begged help from her. Moved by pity, she gave him a mantle, and led him to her father. Alcinous welcomed him with generous hospitality, honoured him with gifts, and sent him to his country, Ithaca. By Mercury's wrath, he was shipwrecked again. After the twentieth year, with the loss of his comrades, he returned alone to his country. On reaching his home, unrecognized, he found suitors who sought to marry Penelope occupying his palace, so he pretended to be a stranger. But his nurse Euryclia, while bathing his feet, recognized him as Ulysses by a scar. Later, with the help of Minerva, he and his son Telemachus and two servants killed the suitors with arrows.
§ 126 RECOGNITION OF ULYSSES: After Ulysses had been sent away with gifts by King Alcinous, father of Nausicaa, he was shipwrecked and came naked to Ithaca to a certain house where a man, Eumaeus by name, was a sybotes, that is a swineherd. Although the dog recognized him and fawned upon him, Eumaeus did not know him, since Minerva had changed his appearance and attire. Eumaeus asked him where he came from, and he replied that he had been shipwrecked. When the shepherds questioned him whether he had seen Ulysses, he said he was his comrade, and gave signs and proofs. Soon Eumaeus took him into his house, and revived him with food and drink. When the servants, sent as usual to bring in the flocks, had come, and he had asked Eumaeus who they were, Eumaeus said: "After Ulysses left, when some time had intervened, suitors came to ask for Penelope in marriage. She kept putting them off with this condition — 'When I finish this weaving, I shall marry' — but what she wove in the day, she unravelled at night, and so she put them off. But now they feast with the maid-servants of Ulysses and waste his flocks." Then Minerva restored his former appearance to him. Suddenly the swineherd saw it was Ulysses, and clinging to him and embracing him, he wept for joy, and wondering what it was that had changed him. Ulysses said to him: "Tomorrow take me to the palace to Penelope." When he took him there, Minerva again changed his appearance to that of a beggar, and when Eumaeus took him to the wooers, and they were feasting with the hand-maids, he said to them: "Look! You have another beggar, who will amuse you along with Irus." Then Melanthius, one of the suitors, said: "Yes, let them wrestle and the victor will get a stuffed goat's-belly pudding, and a cane to drive away the loser." When they had wrestled and Ulysses had struck Irus and driven him out, Eumaeus led Ulysses in beggar's disguise to his nurse Euryclia, and told her he was a comrade of Ulysses. When she wished . . . was going [to cry out], Ulysses held his hand over her lips, and warned her, and told Penelope to give his bow and arrows to the suitors, saying that whoever of them drew it, could have her as a wife. When she did this . . . they strove among themselves and no one could draw it, Eumaeus said in ridicule: "Let us give . . . " Melanthius did not permit . . . Eumaeus gave the bow to the old man. He transfixed all the suitors except Melanthius the slave; he was seized, apart from the suitors, and nose, arms, and other parts of his body were cut in bits. So Ulysses obtained his palace and his wife. He bade his handmaids cast their bodies into the sea, and later, at Penelope's request, after the death of the suitors, he punished them, too.
§ 127 TELEGONUS: Telegonus, son of Ulysses and Circe, sent by his mother to find his father, by a storm was carried to Ithaca, and there, driven by hunger, began to lay waste the fields. Ulysses and Telemachus, not knowing who he was, took up arms against him. Ulysses was killed by his son Telegonus; it had been told him by an oracle to beware of death at his son's hands. Telegonus on discovering who he was, with Telemachus and Penelope returned to his home on the island of Aeaea by Minerva's instructions. They brought the body of Ulysses to Circe, and buried it there. By the advice of Minerva again, Telegonus married Penelope, and Telemachus married Circe. From Circe and Telemachus Latinus was born, who gave his name to the Latin language; from Penelope and Telegonus Italus was born, who called the country Italy from his own name.
§ 128 AUGURS: Ampycus, son of Elatus; Mopsus, son of Ampycus; Amphiaraus, son of Oicleus or Apollo; Tiresias, son of Everes; Manto, daughter of Tiresias; Polyidus, son of Coeranus; Helenus, son of Priam; Cassandra, daughter of Priam; Calchas, son of Thestor; Theoclymenus [son of Thestor; Telemus], son of Proteus; Telemus, son of Eurymus; the Samian Sibyl — others call her Cymaean.
§ 129 OENEUS: When Liber had come as a guest to Oineus, son of Parthaon, he fell in love with Althaea, daughter of Thestius and wife of Oineus. When Oineus realized this, he voluntarily left the city and pretended to be performing sacred rites. But Liber lay with Althaea, who became mother of Dejanira. To Oineus, because of his generous hospitality, he gave the vine as a gift, and showed him how to plant it, and decreed that its fruit should be called oinos from the name of his host.
§ 130 ICARIUS AND ERIGONE: When Father Liber went out to visit men in order to demonstrate the sweetness and pleasantness of his fruit, he came to the generous hospitality of Icarius and Erigone. To them he gave a skin full of wine as a gift and bade them spread the use of it in all the other lands. Loading a wagon, Icarius with his daughter Erigone and a dog Maera came to shepherds in the land of Attica, and showed them the kind of sweetness wine had. The shepherds, made drunk by drinking immoderately, collapsed, and thinking that Icarius had given them some bad medicine, killed him with clubs. The dog Maera, howling over the body of the slain Icarius, showed Erigone where her father lay unburied. When she came there, she killed herself by hanging in a tree over the body of her father. Because of this, Father Liber afflicted the daughters of the Athenians with alike punishment. They asked an oracular response from Apollo concerning this, and he told them they had neglected he deaths of Icarius and Erigone. At this reply they exacted punishment from the shepherds, and in honour of Erigone instituted a festival day of swinging because of the affliction, decreeing that through the grape-harvest they should pour libations to Icarius and Erigone. By the will of the gods they were put among the stars. Erigone is the sign Virgo whom we call Justice; Icarius is called Arcturus among the stars, and the dog Maera is Canicula.
§ 131 NYSUS: When Liber was leading his army into India, he gave the authority over his Theban kingdom to his nurse Nysus until he should come back. But after Liber returned from there, Nysus was unwilling to yield the kingdom. Since Liber didn't want to quarrel with his nurse he permitted him to keep the kingdom until an opportunity should come to recover it. And so, three years later, he made up the quarrel with him, and pretended he wanted to celebrate in the state the sacred rites termed Trieteric, because he performed them after the third year. He introduced soldiers as Bacchanals in women's dress, captured Nysus, and recovered his kingdom.
§ 132 LYCURGUS: Lycurgus, son of Dryas, drove Liber from his kingdom. When he denied that Liber was a god, and had drunk wine, and in drunkenness tried to violate his mother, he then tried to cut down the vines, because he said wine was a bad medicine in that it affected the mind. Under madness sent by Liber he killed his wife and son. Liber threw Lycurgus himself to his panthers on Rhodope, a mountain of Thrace, over which he ruled. He is said to have cut off one foot thinking it was a vine.
§ 133 AMMON: When Liber was hunting for water in India, and hadn't succeeded, ram is said to have sprung suddenly from the ground, and with this as guide he found water. So he asked Jove to put the ram among the stars, and to this day it is called the equinoctial ram. Moreover, in the place where he found water he established a temple which his called the temple of Jove Ammon.
§ 134 TYRRHENIANS: When the Tyrrhenians, later called Tuscans, were on a piratical expedition, Father Liber, then a youth, came on their ship and asked them to take him to Naxos. When they had taken him on and wished to debauch him because of his beauty, Acoetes, the pilot, restrained them, and suffered at their hands. Liber, seeing that their purpose remained the same, changed the oars to thyrsi, the sails to vine-leaves, the ropes to ivy; then lions and panthers leapt out. When they saw them, in fear they cast themselves into the sea, and even in the sea he changed them to a sort of beast. For whoever leaped overboard was changed into dolphin shape, and from this dolphins are called Tyrrhenians, and the sea Tyrrhenian. They were twelve in number with the following names: Aethalides, Medon, Lycabas, Libys, Opheltes, Melas, Alcimedon, Epopeus, Dictys, Simon, Acoetes. The last was the pilot, whom Liber saved out of kindness.
§ 135 LAOCOON: Laocoon, son of Acoetes, brother of Anchises, and priest of Apollo, against the will of Apollo had married and had children. By lot he was appointed to sacrifice to Neptune on the shore. Opportunity thus presenting itself, Apollo sent two snakes from Tenedos over the waves of the sea to kill his sons Antiphantes and Thymbraeus. When Laocoon tried to bring aid to them, the snakes killed him, too, in their folds. The Phrygians thought this happened because Laocoon had thrown his spear against the Trojan Horse.
§ 136 POLYIDUS: When Glaucus, son of Minos and Pasiphae, was playing ball, he fell into a jar full of honey. In the parents' search, they made inquiry of Apollo about he boy. Apollo told them: A prodigy has been born for you. Whoever explains it will restore the child to you. Upon hearing this reply, Minos began inquiring from his people about the prodigy. They told him that a bullock had been born which changed colour three times a day, every four hours — first white, then red, then black. Minos then called together the augurs to explain the prodigy, and when no one was found who could do so, Polyidus, son of Coeranus, showed that the bullock was like a mulberry tree, for first its fruit is white, then red, and when ripe, black. Then Minos said to him: "According to the words of Apollo, you should be able to restore my son to me." While Polyidus was observing omens, he saw an owl sitting over the wine-cellar and putting bees to flight. He interpreted the omen, and brought out the lifeless boy from the jar. Minos said to him: "You have found the body. Now restore life to it." When Polyidus said this was impossible, Minos ordered him to be shut in a tomb with the boy, and a sword placed there. When they had been shut in, a snake suddenly made for the body of the boy, and Polyidus, judging the creature whished to devour the body, suddenly drew the sword and killed it. Another snake, seeking its mate, saw that it was dead, and came and brought a herb, and its touch restored life to the dead snake. Polyidus did the same. When they called out from within, a passerby reported it to Minos, who opened the tomb and found his son safe. He sent Polyidus many gifts back into his country.
§ 137 MEROPE: When Polyphontes, King of Messenia, had killed Cresphontes, son of Aristomachus, he gained possession of his kingdom and his wife Merope [with whom Polyphontes, after slaying Cresphontes, seized the kingdom]. But Merope hid the infant son whom she had borne to Cresphontes and sent him to a guest-friend in Aitolia. Polyphontes kept hunting for him with great assiduity, and promised gold to the one who killed him. After he came to man's estate, he planned to avenge the deaths of his father and his brothers, so he came to King Polyphontes to claim the gold, saying that he had killed the son of Cresphontes and Merope — Telephon. In the meantime the King bade him remain as a guest, in ordere to find out more about him. When he had fallen asleep through weariness, the old man who was an intermediary between mother and son came weeping to Merope, saying that he wasn't at the guest-friend's home, nor could he be found. Merope, believing that the one who was asleep was the slayer of her son, went into the chamber with an axe, unaware that she was about to kill her son. The old man recognized him and kept the mother from the crime. When Merope saw she had opportunity to avenge herself on her foe, she became reconciled with Polyphontes. While the king was joyfully making sacrifice, his "guest" falsely presented to strike the victim to be offered, killed him, and secured his father's kingdom.
§ 138 PHILYRA, WHO WAS TURNED INTO A LINDEN TREE: When Saturn was hunting Jove throughout the earth, assuming the form of a steed he lay with Philyra, daughter of Ocean. By him she bore Chiron the Centaur, who is said to have been the first to invent the art of healing. After Philyra saw that she had borne a strange species, she asked Jove to change her into another form, and she was transformed into the tree which is called the linden.
§ 139 CURETES: After Opis had borne Jove by Saturn, Juno asked her to give him to her, since Saturn and cast Orcus under Tartarus, and Neptune under the sea, because he knew that his son would rob him of the kingdom. When he had asked Opis for what she had borne, in order to devour it, Opis showed him a stone wrapped up like a baby; Saturn devoured it. When he realized what he had done, he started to hunt for Jove throughout the earth. Juno, however, took Jove to the island of Crete, and Amalthea, the child's nurse, hung him in a cradle from a tree, so that he could be found neither in heaven nor on earth nor in the sea. And lest the cries of the baby be heard, she summoned youths and gave them small brazen shields and spears, and bade them go around the tree making a noise. In Greek they are called "Curetes"; others call them "Corybantes"; these [in Italy? ], however are called "Lares."
§ 140 PYTHON: Python, offspring of Terra, was a huge dragon who, before the time of Apollo, used to give oracular responses on Mount Parnassus. Death was fated to come to him from the offspring of Latona. At that time Jove lay with Latona, daughter of Polus. When Juno found this out, she decreed (?) that Latona should give birth at a place where the sun did not shine. When Python knew that Latona was pregnant by Jove, he followed her to kill her. But by order of Jove the wind Aquilo carried Latona away, and bore her to Neptune. He protected her, but in order not to make voice Juno's decree, he took her to the island Ortygia, and covered the island with waves. When Python did not find her, he returned to Parnassus. But Neptune brought the island of Ortygia up to a higher position; it was later called the island of Delos. There Latona, clinging to an olive tree, bore Apollo and Diana, to whom Vulcan gave arrows as gifts. Four days after they were born, Apollo exacted vengeance for his mother. For he went to Parnassus and slew Python with his arrows. (Because of this deed he is called Pythian.) He put Python's bones in a cauldron, deposited them in his temple, and instituted funeral games for him which are called Pythian.
§ 141 SIRENS: The Sirens, daughter of the River Achelous and the Muse Melpomene, wandering away after the rape of Proserpina, came to the land of Apollo, and there were made flying creatures by the will of Ceres because they had not brought help to her daughter. It was predicted that they would live only until someone who heard their singing would pass by. Ulysses proved fatal to them, for when by his cleverness he passed by the rocks where they dwelt, they threw themselves into the sea. This place is called Sirenides from them, and is between Sicily and Italy.
§ 142 PANDORA: Prometheus, son of Iapetus, first fashioned men from clay. Later Vulcan, at Jove's command, made a woman's form from clay. Minerva gave it life, and the rest of the gods each gave come other gift. Because of this they named her Pandora. She was given in marriage to Prometheus' brother Epimetheus. Pyrrha was her daughter, and was said to be the first mortal born.
§ 143 PHORONEUS: Inachus, son of Oceanus, begat Phoroneus by his sister Argia, and he is said to have been the first of mortals to rule. Men for many centuries before lived without town or laws, speaking one tongue under the rule of Jove. But after Mercury had explained the languages of men (when he is called ermeneutes, "interpreter," for Mercury in Greek is called Hermes; he too, divided the nations), then discord arose among mortals, which was not pleasing to Jove. And so he gave over the first rule to Phoroneus, because hew as first to make offerings to Juno.
§ 144 PROMETHEUS: Men in early times sought fire from the gods, and did not know how to keep it alive. Later Prometheus brought it to earth in a fennel-stalk, and showed men how to keep it covered over with ashes. Because of this, Mercury, at Jove's command, bound him with iron spikes to a cliff on Mount Caucasus, and set an eagle to eat out his heart; as much as it devoured in the day, so much grew again at night. After 30,000 years Hercules killed this eagle and freed Prometheus.
§ 145 NIOBA [NIOBE] OR IO: From Phoroneus and Cinna were born Apis and Nioba. Nioba was the first mortal to be embraced by Jove; to her was born Argus who named the city Argos from his own name. From Argus and Evadne, Criasus, Piranthus, and Ecbasus were born; from Piranthus and Callirhoe, Argus, Arestorides, and Triopas; he . . . from him Eurisabe, Anthus, Pelasgus, and Agenor; from Triops and Oreaside, Xanthus and Inachus; from Pelasgus, Larisa, from Inachus and Argia, Io. Jupiter loved and embraced Io, and changed her to heifer form so that Juno would not recognize her. When Juno found out, she sent Argus, who had gleaming eyes all around to guard her. Mercury, at Jove's command, killed him. But Juno sent a fearful shape to plague her, and out of terror of it she was driven wildly and compelled to cast herself into the sea, which is called Ionian. Thence she swam to Scythia, and the Bosporus is named from that; thence she went to Egypt where she bore Epaphus. When Jove realized that for his sake she had borne such suffering, he restored her to her own form, and made her a goddess of the Egyptians, called Isis.
§ 146 PROSERPINA: Pluto asked from Jove that he give him in marriage Ceres' daughter and his own. Jove said that Ceres would not permit her daughter to live in gloomy Tartarus, but bade him seize her as she was gathering flowers on Mount Etna, which is in Sicily. While Proserpina was gathering flowers with Venus, Diana, and Minerva, Pluto came in his four-horse chariot, and seized her. Afterwards Ceres obtained from Jove permission for her to stay half of the year with her, and half with Pluto.
§ 147 TRIPTOLEMUS: When Ceres was hunting for her daughter, she came to King Eleusinus, whose wife Cothonea had borne the boy Triptolemus, and pretended she was a wet nurse. The queen gladly took her as nurse for her son. Since Ceres wanted to make her charge immortal, she fed him by day with divine milk, but by night secretly hid him in the fire. In this way he grew more than mortals are wont to grow, and so, when the parents wondered at it, they watched her. When Ceres was about to put him in the fire, the father was terrified. In her anger, she struck down Eleusinus, but on Triptolemus, her foster-son, she conferred everlasting honour, for she gave him her chariot yoked with Serpents to spread the cultivation of grain. Riding in it he sowed grain throughout the earth. When he returned, Celeus bade him be killed for his benefactions, but when this was known, by Ceres' order he gave the kingdom to Triptolemus, who called it Eleusis from his father's name. He also established sacred rites in honour of Ceres, which hare called in Greek Thesmophoria.
§ 148 VULCAN: When Vulcanus knew that Venus was secretly lying with Mars, and that he could not oppose his strength, he made a chain of adamant and put it around the bed to catch Mars by cleverness. When Mars came to the rendezvous, the together with Venus fell into the snare so that he could not extricate himself. When Sol reported this to Vulcan, he saw them lying there naked, and summoned all the gods . . . who saw. As a result, shame frightened Mars so that he did not do this. From their embrace Harmonia was born, and to her Minerva and Vulcan gave a robe "dipped in crimes" as a gift. Because of this, their descendants are clearly marked as ill-fated. To Sol's progeny, however, Venus, because of his disclosure, was always hostile.
§ 149 EPAPHUS: Jupiter bade Epaphus, whom he begat by Io, fortify the towns in Egypt and rule there. First of all he founded Memphis, and then many others. By Cassiopia his wife he begat a daughter, Libya, from whom the land is named.
§ 150 WAR WITH THE TITANS: After Juno saw that Epaphus, born of a concubine, ruled such a great kingdom, she saw to it that he should be killed while hunting, and encouraged the Titans to drive Jove from the kingdom and restore it to Saturn. When they tried to mount heaven, Jove with the help of Minerva, Apollo, and Diana, cast them headlong into Tartarus. On Atlas, who had been their leader, he put the vault of the sky; even now he is said to hold up the sky on his shoulders.
§ 151 CHILDREN OF TYPHON AND ECHIDNA: From Typhon the giant and Echidna were born Gorgon, the three-headed dog Cerberus, the dragon which guarded the apples of the Hesperides across the ocean, the Hydra which Hercules killed by the spring of Lerna, the dragon which guarded the ram's fleece at Colchis, Scylla who was woman above but dog below, with six dog-forms sprung from her body, the Sphinx which was in Boeotia, the Chimaera in Lycia which had the fore part of a lion, the hind part of a snake, while the she-goat itself formed the middle. From Medusa, daughter of Gorgon, and Neptues, were born Chrysaor and horse Pegasus; from Chrysaor and Callirhoe, three-formed Geryon.
§ 152 TYPHON: Tartarus begat by Tartara, Typhon, a creature of immense size and fearful shape, who had a hundred dragon heads springing from his shoulders. He challenged Jove to see if Jove would content with him for the rule. Jove struck his breast with a flaming thunderbolt. When it was burning him he put Mount Etna, which is in Sicily, over him. From this it is said to burn still.
§ 152A PHAETHON Phaethon, son of Sol and Clymene, who had secretly mounted his father's car, and had been borne too high above the earth, from fear fell into the river Eridanus. When Jupiter struck him with a thunderbolt, everything started to burn. In order to have a reason for destroying the whole race of mortals, Jove pretended he wanted to put out the fire; he let loose the rivers everywhere, and all the human race perished except Deucalion and Pyrrha. But the sisters of Phaethon, because they had yoked the horses without the orders of their father, were changed into poplar trees.
§ 153 DEUCALION AND PYRRHA: When the cataclysm which we call the flood or deluge occurred, all the human race perished except Deucalion and Pyrrha, who fled to Mount Etna, which is said to be the highest mountain in Sicily. When they could not live on account of loneliness, they begged Jove either to give men, or to afflict them with a similar disaster. Then Jove bade them cast stones behind them; those Deucalion threw he ordered to become men, and those Pyrrha threw, to be women. Because of this they are called laos, "people", for stone in Greek is called las.
§ 154 PHAETHON OF HESIOD: Phaethon, son of Clymenus, son of Sol, and the nymph Merope, who, as we have heard was and Oceanid, upon being told by his father that his grandfather was Sol, put to bad use the chariot he asked for. For when he was carried too near the earth, everything burned in the fire that came near, and, struck by a thunderbolt, he fell into the river Po. This river is called Eridanus by the Greeks; Pherecydes was the first to name it. The Indians became black, because their blood was turned to a dark color from the heat that came near. The sister of Phaethon, too, in grieving for their brother, were changed into poplar trees. Their tears, as Hesiod tells, hardened into amber; [in spite of the change] they are called Heliades [daughters of Helios]. They are, then, Merope, Helie, Aegle, Lampetia, Phoebe, Aetherie, Dioxippe. Moreover, Cygnus, King of Liguria, who was related to Phaethon, while mourning for his relative was changed into a swan; it, too, when it dies sings a mournful song.
§ 155 SONS OF JOVE: Liber by Proserpine, whom the Titans dismembered. Hercules, by Alcumena. Liber by Semele, daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia. Castor and Pollux by Leda, daughter of Thestius. Argus by Nioba, daughter of Phoroneus. Epaphus by Io, daughter of Inachus. Perseus by Danae, daughter of Acrisius. Zethus and Amphion, by Antiopa, daughter of Nycteus. Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthus by Europa, daughter of Agenor. Helen by Pyrrha, daughter of Epimetheus. Aethlius by Protogenie, daughter of Deucalion. Dardanus by Electra, daughter of Atlas. Lacedemon by Taygete, daughter of Atlas. Tantalus by Pluto, daughter of Himas. Aeacus by Aigina, daughter of Asopus. Aegipan by the she-goat Boetis. Arcas by Callisto, daughter of Lycaon. [Etolus by Protogenia, daughter of Deucalion.] Pirithous by Dia, daughter of Deioneus.
§ 157 SONS OF NEPTUNE: Boeotus and Hellen by Antiopa, daughter of Aeolus. Agenor and Belus by Libye, daughter of Epaphus. Bellerophon by Eurynome, daughter of Nysus. Leuconoe by Themisto, daughter of Hypseus. Hyrieus by Alcyone, daughter of Atlas. Abas by Arethusa, daughter of Nereus. [ Ephoceus by Alcyone, daughter of Atlas.] [Belus.] Actor . . . Dictys by Agamede, daughter of Augeas. Evadne by Lena, daughter of Leucippus. Megareus by Oinope, daughter of Epopeus. Cygnus by Calyce, daughter of Hecato. Periclymenus and Ancaeus by Astypale, daughter of Phoenix. Neleus and Pelias by Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus. Eupemus and Lycus and Nycteus by Celaeno, daughter of Ergeus. Peleus Arprites. Antaeus . . .Eumolpus by Chiona, daughter of Aquilo . . . by Amymone . . . likewise Cyclops Polyphemus . . . Metus by Melite, daughter of Busiris.
§ 161 SONS OF APOLLO: Delphus. Asclepius by Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas. Euripides by Cleobula. Ileus by Urea, daughter of Neptune. Agreus by Euboea, daughter of Macareus. Philammon by Leuconoe, daughter of Lucifer [Hesperos]. Lycoreus by a Nympha. Linus by the Muse Urania. Aristaeus by Cyrene, daughter of Peneus.
§ 162 SONS OF HERCULES: Hyllus by Dejanira. Tlepolemus by Astyoche. Leucites. Telephus by Auge, daughter of Aleus. Leucippus. Therimachus. Creontiades. Archelaus. Ophites. Deicoon. Euhenus. Lydus. Twelve Thespiades, which he begat by the daughters of King Thespius.
§ 164 ATHENS: When there was a contest between Neptune and Minerva as to who should be the first to found a town in the Attic land, they took Jove as judge. Minerva won because she first planted the olive in that land, said to be there to this day. But Neptune, in anger, wanted to have the sea flood that land. Mercury, at Jove's command, forbade his doing that. And so Minerva in her own name founded Athens, a town said to be the first established in the world.
§ 165 MARSYAS: Minerva is said to have been the first to make pipes from deer bones and to have come to the banquet of the gods to play. Juno and Venus made fun of her because she was grey-eyed and puffed out her cheeks, so when mocked in her playing and called ugly she came to the forest of Ida to a spring, as she played she viewed herself in the water, and saw that she was rightly mocked. Because of this she threw away the pipes and vowed that whoever picked them up would be punished severely. Marsyas, a shepherd, son of Oiagrus, one of the satyrs, found them, and by practicing assiduously kept making sweeter sounds day by day, so that he challenged Apollo to play the lure in a contest with him. When Apollo came there, they took the Muses as judges. Marsyas was departing as victor, when Apollo turned his lyre upside down, and played the same tune — a thing which Marsyas couldn't do with the pipes. And so Apollo defeated Marsyas, bound him to a tree, and turned him over to a Scythian who stripped his skin off him limb by limb. He gave the rest of his body for burial to his pupil Olympus. From his blood the river Marsyas took its name.
§ 166 ERICHTHONIUS: When Vulcan had made [golden sandals] for Jove and for the other gods, he made one of adamant [for Juno? ], and as soon as she sat down she suddenly found herself hanging in the air. When Vulcan was summoned to free his mother whom he had bound, in anger because he had been thrown from Heaven, he denied that he had a mother. When Father Liber had brought him back drunk to the council of the gods, he could not refuse (this) filial duty. Then he obtained freedom of choice from Jove, to gain whatever he sought from them. Therefore Neptune, because he was hostile to Minerva, urged Vulcan to ask for Minerva in marriage. This was granted, but Minerva, when he entered her chamber, defended her virginity with arms. As they struggled, some of his seed fell to earth, and from it a boy was born, the lower part of whose body was snake-formed. They named him Erichthonius, because eris in Greek means "strife", and khthon means "earth". When Minerva was secretly caring for him, she gave him in a chest to Aglaurus, Pandrosus, and Herse, daughters of Cecrops, to guard. A crow gave the secrete away when the girls opened the chest, and they, driven made by Minerva, threw themselves into the sea."
§ 167 LIBER: Liber, son of Jove and Proserpine, was dismembered by the Titans, and Jove gave his heart, torn to bits, to Semele in a drink. When she was made pregnant by this, Juno, changing herself to look like Semele's nurse, Beroe, said to her: "Daughter, ask Jove to come to you as he comes to Juno, so you may know what pleasure it is to sleep with a god." At her suggestion Semele made this request of Jove, and was smitten by a thunderbolt. He took Liber from her womb, and gave him to Nysus to be cared for. For this reason he is called Dionysus, and also "the one with two mothers."
§ 168 DANAUS: Danaus, son of Belus, had fifty daughters by as many wives, and his brother Egyptus had the same number of sons. Egyptus wished to kill Danaus and his daughters, so he alone might hold the paternal kingdom; he asked his brother for wives for his sons. Danaus, realizing the plot, with Minerva's aid flew from Africa to Argos. Then for the first time Minerva is said to have built a two-prowed ship in which Danaus could escape. When Egyptus knew that Danaus had got away, he sent his sons to pursue his brother, bidding them kill Danaus or not return to him. When they reached Argos, they started to attack their uncle. When Danaus saw that he could not resist them, he promised them his daughters if they would give up the fight. They took as wives the cousins they had demanded, but the girls, at their father's command, killed their husbands, all but Hypermnestra, who saved Lynceus. Because of this a shrine was made for hypermetric and Lynceus, but the others are said to carry water to fill a leaky jar in the Lower World.
§ 169 AMYMONE: When Amymone, daughter of Danaus, was eagerly hunting in the woods, she struck a satyr with her dart. He wanted to ravish her, but she begged the aid of Neptune. When Neptune came there, he drove away the satyr, and lay with her himself. From this embrace Nauplius was born. At the place where this occurred, Neptune is said to have struck the earth with his trident. Water flowed out, called the Fountain of Lerna and the Amymonian River.
§ 169A AMYMONE Amymone, daughter of Danaus, was sent by her father to get water for performing sacred rites. While hunting for it, she grew weary and fell asleep. A satyr tried to seduce her, but she implored the help of Neptune. When Neptune had hurled his trident at the satyr, it became fixed in a rock. Neptune drove off the satyr. When he asked the girl what she was doing in this lonely place she said she had been sent by her father to get water. Neptune lay with her, and in return he did her a favour, bidding her draw out his trident from the rock. She drew it out and three streams of water flowed, which were called the Amymonian Spring from her name. From the embrace Nauplius was born. The fountain, however, later was called the Fountain of Lerna.
§ 170 DAUGHTERS OF DANAUS, AND THOSE THEY KILLED Midea killed Antimachus; Philomela, Panthius; Scylla, Proteus; Amphicomone, Plexippus; Evippe, Agenor; Demoditas, Chrysippus; Hyale, Perius. Trite [killed] Enceladus; Damone, Amyntor; Hippothoe, Obrimus; Myrmidone, Mineus; Eurydice, Canthus; Cleo, Asterius. Arcadia [killed] Xanthus; Cleopatra, Metalces. Phila, Philinus. Hipparete, Protheon. Chrysothemis, Asterides. Pyrante, Athamas. Armoasbus, Glaucippe, Niauius. Demophile, Pamphilus. Autodice, Clytus. Polyxena, Egyptus. Hecabe, Dryas. Acamantis [killed] Ecnomius. Arsalte, Ephialtes. Monuste, Eurysthenes. Amymone, Midanus. Helice, Evidea. Oime, Polydector. Polybe [killed] Itonomus. Helicta, Cassus. Electra, Hyperantus. Eubule, Demarchus; Daplidice, Pugno; Hero, Andromachus; Europome [killed] Athletes; Pyrantis, Plexippus. Critomedia, Antipaphus. Pirene, Dolichus. Eupheme, Hyperbius. Themistagora, Podasimus. Celaeno, Aristonoos. Itea, Antiochus. Erato, Eudaemon. Hypermnestra saved Lynceus. When Danaus perished and Abas first reported the death, Lynceus, looking around in the temple for something to give him as a gift, by chance saw the shield which Danaus had consecrated to Juno, which he had carried as a youth. He took it down and gave it to Abas, and established sacred games which are held every fifth year, and are called Aspis in Argeia. In these games, not a wreath, but a shield is given to the runners. But the Danaids, after their father's death, married Argive men, and their sons are named from these.
§ 171 ALTHAEA: Oineus and Mars both slept one night with Althaea, daughter of Thestius. When Meleager was born from them, suddenly in the palace the Fates, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, appeared. They thus sang his fate: Clotho said that he would be noble, Lachesis that he would be brave, but Atropos looking at a brand burning on the hearth and said, "He will live only as long as this brand remains unconsumed." When Althaea, the mother, heard this, she leaped from the bed, put out the fatal brand, and buried it in the midst of the palace, so that it shouldn't be destroyed by fire.
§ 172 OENEUS: Since Oineus, son of Porthaon, king of Aitolia, had made sacrifices yearly to all the gods, but had omitted Diana, she, in anger, sent a boar of immense size to lay waste the district of Calydon. Then Meleager, son of Oineus, promised that he would go with chosen leaders to attack it.
§ 173 THOSE WHO HUNTED THE CALYDONIAN BOAR Castor and Pollux, sons of Jove. Eurytus son of Mercury . . . Parth . . . Echion, son of Mercury [from Thebes]. Aesculapius, son of Apollo. Jason, son of Aeson. Alcon, son of Mars, from Thrace. Euphemus, son of Neptune. Iolaus, son of Iphiclus. Lynceus and Idas, sons of Aphareus. Peleus, son of Aeacus. Telamon, son of Aeacus. Admetus, son of Pheres. Laertes, son of Arcesius. Deucalion, son of Minos. Theseus, son of Aegeus. Plexippus . . . [Ideus Lynceus] sons of Thestius, brothers of Althaea. Hippothous, son of Cercyon. Caeneus, son of Elatus, Mopsus, son of Ampycus. Meleager, son of Oineus. Hippasus, son of Eurytus. Ancaeus, son of Lycurgus. Phoenix, son of Amyntor. Dryas, son of Iapetus. Eneasimus, Alcon, Leucippus, sons of Hippocoon from Amyclae. Atalanta, daughter of Schoeneus.
§ 173A THE STATES WHICH SENT HELP TO OENEUS Ternerdos, Iolcos, Sparta, Pleurone, Messene, Perrhaebia, Phthia, Magnesia, Salamin, Calydon, Thessalia, Oichalia, Ithaca, Tegea, Crete, Dolopia, Athens, [Magnesia], and Arcadia.
§ 174 MELEAGER: Althaea, daughter of Thestius, bore Meleager to Oineus. There in the palace a glowing brand is said to have appeared. The Fates came there, and foretold the fate of Meleager, that he would live as long as the brand was unharmed. Althaea, putting it in a chest, carefully preserved it. In the meantime the wrath of Diana sent a boar of huge size to lay waste the district of Calydon, because Oineus had not made yearly offerings to her. Meleager, with the help of chosen youths of Greece, killed it, and gave the hide to the virgin Atalanta because of her valor. Ideus, Plexippus, Lynceus . . . brothers of Althaea, wished to take if from her. When she asked the help of Meleager, he intervened, and putting love before family relationship, killed his uncles. When Althaea, the mother, heard that her son had dared to commit such a crime, remembering the warning of the Parcae, she brought out the brand from the chest and threw it on the fire. Thus, in desiring to avenge the death of her brothers, she killed her son. But his sisters, all except Gorge and Deianeira, because of their weeping, were by the will of the gods changed into birds. These are called Meleagrides, 'guinea hens.' And Alcyone, wife of Meleager, died from grief in mourning for him.
§ 175 AGRIUS: When Agrius, son of Parthaon, saw his brother Oineus bereft of children and in need, he drove him out of his kingdom, and took it over himself. In the meantime, after the fall of Troy, Diomede, son of Tydeus and Deipyle, hearing that his grandfather had been driven from his kingdom came to Aitolia with Sthenelus, son of Capaneus, and fought with Agrius' son, Lycopeus. He killed him, and expelled the needy Agrius from the kingdom, and restored it to his grandfather Oineus. Afterwards Agrius, expelled from the kingdom, killed himself.
§ 176 LYCAON: Jove is said to have come as guest to Lycaon, son of Pelasgus, and to have seduced his daughter Callisto. From them Arcas was born, who named the land from his own name. But the son of Lycaon wanted to test Jove, to see whether he was a god or not; they mixed human flesh with the other meat, and set it before him at a banquet. When he realized it, in anger he overturned the table, and slew the sons of Lycaon with a thunderolt. At that place Arcas later fortified a town which he called Trapezus. But for Lycaon, their father, Jupiter changed into the form lykon, that is, the form of a wolf.
§ 177 CALLISTO: Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, is said to have been changed into a bear by the wrath of Juno, because she had lain with Jove. Afterwards Jove put her among the number of the stars as a constellation called Septentrio, which does not move from its place, nor does it set. For Tethys, wife of Ocean, and foster mother of Juno, forbids its setting in the Ocean. This, then, is the greater Septentrio, about whom it is written in Cretan verses: "Thou, too, born of the transformed Lycaonian Nympha, who, stolen from the chill Arcadian height, was forbidden by Tethys ever to dip herself in the Oceanus because once she dared to be concubine to her foster child . . . ' This bear, then is called Helice by the Greeks. She has seven rather dim stars on her head, two on either ear, one on her shoulder, a bright one on her breast, one on her forefoot, a bright one at the tip of her tail; at the back on her thigh, two; at the bottom of her foot, two; on her tail, three — twenty in all.
§ 178 EUROPA: Europa was the daughter of Argiope and Agenor, a Sidonian. Jupiter, changing his form to that of a bull, carried her from Sidon to Crete, and begat by her Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthus. Her father Agenor sent his sons to bring their sister back, or else not to return to his sight. Phoenix set out for Africa, and there remained. From this the Africans are called Phoenicians. Cilix from his own name gave the name to Cilicia. Cadmus in his wanderings came to Delphi. There the oracle told him to buy from farmers an ox which had a moon-shaped mark on its side, and to drive it before him. Where it lay down it was fated that he found a town and rule. When Cadmus heard the oracle, he did as he was told. While seeking water he came to the fountain of Castalia, which a dragon, the offspring of Mars, was guarding. It killed the comrades of Cadmus, but was killed by Cadmus with a stone. Under Minerva's instructions he sowed the teeth and ploughed them under. From them sprang the Sparti. These fought themselves, but from them five survived, namely, Chthonius, Udaeus, Hyperenor, Pelorus, and Echion. Moreover, Boeotia was named from the ox Cadmus followed.
§ 179 SEMELE: Jove desired to lie with Semele, and when Juno found out, she changed her form to that of the nurse Beroe, came to Semele, and suggested that she ask Jove to come to her as he came to Juno, "that you may know", she said, "what pleasure it is to lie with a god." And so Semele asked Jove to come to her in this way. Her request was granted, and Jove, coming with lightning and thunder, burned Semele to death. From her womb Liber was born. Mercury snatched him from the fire and gave him to Nysus to be reared. In Greek he is called Dionysus.
§ 181 DIANA When Diana, wearied from constant hunting in the thickly shadowed valley of Gargaphia, in the summertime was bathing in the stream called Parthenius, Actaeon, grandson of Cadmus, son of Aristaeus and Autonoe, sought the same place for cooling himself and the dogs which he had exercised in chasing wild beasts. He caught sight of the goddess, and to keep him from telling of it, she changed him into a stag. As a stag, then, he was mangled by his own hounds. Their names were (these are all male): Melampus, Ichnobates, [Echnobas], Pamphagos, Dorceus, Oribasus, Nebrophonus, Laelap, Theron, Pterelas, Hylaeus, Nape, Ladon, Poemenis, [Therodanapis], Aura, Lacon, Harpyia, Aello, Dromas, Thous Canache, Cyprius, Sticcte, Labros, Arcas, Agriodus, Tigris, Hylactor, Alce, Harpalus, Lycisca, Melaneus, Lachne, Leucon. Likewise there who devoured him — females: Melanchaetes, Agre, theridamas, Oreistrophos. Other authors give these names too: Acamas, Syrus, Leon, Stilbon, Agrius, Charops, Aethon, Corus, Boreas, Draco, Eudromus, Dromius, Zephyrus, Lampus, Haemon, Cyllopodes, Harpalicus, Machimus, Ichneus, Melampus, Ocydromus, Borax, Ocythous, Pachylus, Obrimus; and females: Argo, Arethusa, Urania, Theriope, Dinomache, Dioxippe, Echione, Gorgo, Cyllo, Harpyia, Lynceste, Leaena, Lacaena, Ocyptete, Ocydrome, Oxyrhoe, Orias, Sagnos, Theriphone, Volatos, Chediaetros.
§ 182 DAUGHTERS OF OCEAN: The daughters of Oceanus are Idothea, Althaea, and Adrasta, but others say they are daughters of Melisseus, and nurses of Jove. The nymphs which are called Dodonides (others call them Naides) . . . Their names are Cisseis, Nysa, Erato, Eriphia, Bromis, Polyhymno. On Mount Nysa these obtained a boon from their foster-son, who made petition to Medea. Putting off old age, they were changed to young girls, and later, consecrated among the stars, they are called Hyades. Others report that they were called Arsinoe, Ambrosie, Bromie, Cisseis, and Coronis.
§ 183 NAMES OF THE HORSES OF THE SUN AND OF THE HOURS Eous; by him the sky is turned. Aethiops, as if flaming, parches the grain. These trace-horses are male. The female are yoke-bearers: Bronte, whom we call Thunder, Sterope, whom we call Lightning. Eumelus of Corinth is the authority for this. There are also the ones that Homer names: Abraxas, Therbeeo. Ovid, too: Pyrois, Eous, Aethon, and Phlegon. The names of the Horae, daughters of Jove, son of Saturn, and Themis, daughter Titanidis, are these: Auco, Eunomia (Order), Pherusa, Carpo (Fruit), Dice (Justice), Euporia, Irene (Peace), Orthosie, Thallo. Other writers give ten by these names: Auge (When light first appears), Anatole (Dawn), Musica, Gymnastica, Nymphe (Hour of Bath), Mesembria (Noon), Sponde (libation), Elete, Acte, Hesperis, and Dysis (Setting).
§ 184 PENTHEUS AND AGAVE: Pentheus, son of Echion and Agave, denied that Liber was a god, and refused to introduce his Mysteries. Because of this, Agave his mother, along with her sisters Ino and Autonoe, in madness sent by Liber tore him limb from limb. When Agave came to her senses and saw that at Liber's instigation she had committed such a crime, she fled from Thebes. In her wanderings she came to the territory of Illyria to King Lycotherses, who received her.
§ 185 ATALANTA: Schoeneus is said to have had a most beautiful daughter, Atalanta, who by her swiftness used to surpass men in the race. She asked her father that she might remain a virgin. And so, since she was sought by many in marriage, her father set up a contest, that her suitors should contend with her first in a foot-race; then a limit being set, that the man, unarmed, should flee, and she should pursue him with a weapon; the one she overtook within the limits of the course, she should kill, and fix his head up in the stadium. When she had overtaken and killed many, she was finally defeated by Hippomenes, son of Megareus and Merope. For he had received from Venus three apples of exceptional beauty, and had been instructed how to use them. By throwing them down in the contest. He had slowed up the speed of the girl, for as she picked them up and admired the gold, she lost time, and gave victory to the youth. Schoeneus willingly gave him his daughter because of his ingenuity, but as he was taking her home, forgetting that he had won by the favour of Venus, he did not give thanks to her. While he was sacrifice to Jove Victor on Mount Parnassus, inflamed with passion through the anger of Venus, he lay with Atalanta in the shrine, and Jupiter because of this changed them into lion and lioness, animals to whom the gods deny intercourse of love.
§ 186 MELANIPPE: Neptune seduced Melanippe, a very beautiful girl, daughter of Desmontes or as other poets say, of Aeolus, and begat by her two sons. When Desmontes found this out, he blinded Melanippe, and shut her in a prison, with commands that only scant food and water be given to her, and that the children be thrown to wild beasts. When they had been thrown out, a cow in milk came to the children and offered them her udders, and cowherds, seeing this, took the children to rear. In the meantime Metapontus, King of Icaria, demanded of his wife Theano that she bear children to him, or leave the kingdom. She, in fear, sent to the shepherds asking them to find a child she could present to the king. They sent her the two babies they had found, and she presented them to king Metapontus as her own. Theano later bore two sons to Metapontus. Since, however, Metapontus, was exceedingly fond of the first two, because they were very handsome, Theano sought to get rid of them and save the kingdom for her own sons. A day came when Metapontus went out to perform sacrifices to Diana Metapontina, and Theano, seizing the opportunity, revealed to her sons that the older boys were not her own. "So, when they go out to hunt, kill them with hunting knives." When they had gone out in the mountains, at their mother's instructions, they started fighting. But with the aid of Neptune, Neptune's sons overcame them and killed them. When their bodies were borne into the palace, Theano killed herself with a hunting knife. The avengers, Boeotus and Aeolus, fled to the shepherds where they had been reared, and there Neptune revealed to them that they were his sons and that their mother was held in custody. They went to Desmontes, killed him, and freed their mother, whose sight Neptune restored. Her sons brought her to Icaria to King Metapontus, and revealed Theano's treachery to him. After this, Metapontus married Melanippe, and adopted the two as his sons. In Propontis they founded towns called by their names — Boeotus, Boeotia, and Aeolus, Aeolia.
§ 187 ALOPE: Since Alope, daughter of Cercyon, was very beautiful, Neptune embraced her, and from this embrace she bore a child which she gave to her nurse to expose, since she did not know its father. When the child was exposed, a mare came and furnished it milk. A certain shepherd, following the mare, saw the child and took it up. When he had taken it home, clothed in its royal garments, a fellow shepherd asked that it be given to him. The first gave it without the garments, and when strife rose between them, the one who had taken the child demanding signs it was free-born, but the other refusing to give them, they came to King Cercyon and presented their arguments. The one who had taken the child again demanded the garments, and when they were brought, Cercyon knew that they were taken from the garments of his daughter. Alope's nurse, in fear, revealed to the King that the child was Alope's, and he ordered that his daughter be imprisoned and slain, and the child exposed. Again the mare fed it; shepherds again found the child, and took him up, and reared him, feeling that he was being guarded by the will of the gods. They gave him the name Hippothous. When Theseus was journeying from Troezene, he killed Cercyon; Hippothous, however, came to Theseus and asked for his father's kingdom. Theseus willingly gave it to him when he learned he was the son of Neptune, from whom he claimed his own birth. The body of Alope, Neptune turned into a fountain, called by the name Alope.
§ 188 THEOPHANE: Theophane, a most beautiful maiden, was the daughter of Bisaltes. When many suitors sought her from her father, Neptune carried her off and took her to the island of Crumissa. When the suitors knew she was staying there, they secured a ship and hastened to Crumissa. To deceive them, Neptune changed Theophane into a very beautiful ewe, himself into a ram, and the citizens of Crumissa into cattle. When the suitors came there and found no human beings, they began to slaughter the herds and use them for food. Neptune saw that the men who had been changed to cattle were being destroyed, and changed the suitors into wolves. He himself, in ram form, lay with Theophane, and from this union was born the golden-fleeced ram which carried Phrixus to Colchis, and whose fleece, hung in the grove of Mars, Jason took away.
§ 189 PROCRIS: Procris was the daughter of Pandion. Cephalus, son of Deion, had her to wife, and since they were bound by mutual love, they promised each other never to be untrue. However, when Cephalus, who was fond of hunting, had gone to the mountain in the early morning, Aurora, wife of Tithonus, fell passionately in love with him, and begged for his embrace. He refused, since he had given his promise to Procris. Then Aurora said: "I don't want you to break faith, unless she has done so before you." And so she changed his form into that of a stranger, and gave him beautiful gifts to give to Procris. When Cephalus had come in his changed form, he gave the gifts to Procris and lay with her. Then Aurora took away his new appearance. When Procris saw Cephalus, she knew she had been deceived by Aurora, and fled to the island of Crete, where Diana used to hunt. When Diana saw her, she said to her: "virgins hunt with me, but you are not a virgin, leave my company." Procris revealed to her her misfortune and told her that she had been deceived by Aurora. Diana, moved by pity, gave her a javelin which no one could avoid, and the dog Laelaps which no wild beast could escape, and bade her go contend with Cephalus. With her hair cut, and in young man's attire, by the will of Diana, she came to Cephalus and challenged him, and surpassed him in the hunt. When Cephalus saw that javelin and dog were so irresistible, he asked the stranger to sell them to him, not knowing she was his wife. She refused. He promised her also a share in his kingdom; she still refused. "But if," she said, "you really continue to want this, grant me what boys are wont to grant." Inflamed by desire for the javelin and the dog, he promised he would. When they had come into the bed-chamber, Procris took off her tunic and showed that she was a woman and his wife. Cephalus took the gifts and came again into her favor. Neverthless out of fear of Aurora she followed him to watch him in the early morning, and hid among the bushes. When Cephalus saw the bushes stir, he hurled the unavoidable javelin, and killed his wife, Procris. By her Cephalus had a son Arcesius, whose son was Laertes, Ulysses' father.
§ 190 THEONOE: The prophet Thestor had a son Calchas, and daughters Leucippe and Theonoe. When Theonoe was playing, pirates from the sea stole her and took her to Caria, where King Icarus bought her for a concubine. Thestor, however, went in search of his lost daughter, and as a result of shipwreck, came to the land of Caria, and was cast into chains at the place where Theonoe was staying. Leucippe, now that her father and sister were lost, asked Delphi whether she should search for them. Then Apollo replied: "Go throughout the earth as my priest, and you will find them." Leucippe, on hearing this response, cut her hair, and as a youthful priest went from country to country to find them. When she had come to Caria, Theonoe saw her, and thinking she was a priest, fell in love with "him," and bade "him" be brought that she lie with "him." But she, because she was a woman, said it could not be done. Then Theonoe in anger gave orders that the priest be shut in a room and that someone from the servants' quarters come to kill him. The old man Thestor was sent unknowingly to his daughter to do the slaying. Theonoe did not recognize him and gave him a sword, bidding him kill the priest. When he had entered, sword in hand, he said his name was Thestor; he had lost his two daughters, Leucippe and Theonoe, and had come to this pitch of misfortune, that he had been ordered to commit a crime. When he had turned the weapon (?) and was about to kill himself, Leucippe, hearing her father's name, wrested the sword from him. In order to go and kill the queen, she called on her father Thestor to aid her. Theonoe, when she heard her father's name, gave proof she was his daughter. Then Icarus the king, after this recognition, sent him back into his country with gifts.
§ 191 KING MIDAS: Midas, Mygdonian king, son of the Mother goddess from Timolus . . . was taken [as judge] at the time when Apollo contested with Marsyas, or Pan, on the pipes. When Timolus gave the victory to Apollo, Midas said it should rather have been given to Marsyas. Then Apollo angrily said to Midas: "You will have ears to match the mind you have in judging", and with these words he caused him to have ass's ears. At the time when Father Liber was leading his army into India, Silenus wandered away; Midas entertained him generously, and gave him a guide to conduct him to Liber's company. Because of this favour, Father Liber gave Midas the privilege of asking him for whatever he wanted. Midas asked that whatever he touched should become gold. When he had been granted the wish, and came to his palace, whatever he touched became gold. When now he was being tortured with hunger, he begged Liber to take away the splendid gift. Liber bade him bathe in the River Pactolus, and when his body touched the water it became a golden colour. The river in Lydia is now called Chrysorrhoas.
§ 192 HYAS: Atlas by Pleione or an Oceanid had twelve daughters, and a son, Hyas. The son was killed by a wild boar or a lion, and the sisters, grieving for him, died of this grief. The five of them first put among the stars have their place between the horns of the bull — Phaesyla, Ambrosia, Coronis, Eudora, Polyxo — and are called, from their brother's name, Hyades. In Latin they are called Suculae. Some say that since they are arranged in the form of the letter Upsilon they are called Hyades; some, they are so called because they bring rain when they rise, for "to rain" is hyein in Greek. There are those who think they are among the stars because they were the nurses of Father Liber whom Lycurgus drove out from the island Naxos. The rest of the sisters, later dying from grief, were made stars, and because they were many, were called Pleiades. Some think they were so named because they are joined together, that is, plesion, for they are so close together that they can scarcely be counted, nor can anyone be sure whether they are six or seven in number. Their names are as follows: Electra, Alcyone, Celaeno, Merope, Sterope, Taygeta, and Maia. Of these, they say Electra does not appear, because of the death of Dardanus and the loss of Troy. Others think that Merope appears to blush because she had a mortal as husband, though the others had gods. Driven from the band of her sisters because of this, she wears her hair long in grief, and is called a comet, or longodes because she trails out for a long distance, or xiphias because she shows the shape of a sword-point. This star, too, portends grief
§ 193 HARPALYCUS: Harpalycus, a Thracian, King of the Amymnei, had a daughter Harpalyce. When her mother died, he fed her from the teats of cows and mares, and as she grew, trained her in arms, intending to have her later as successor to his kingdom. And the girl did not fail her father's hopes, for she proved to be such a good warrior as to bring safety to her parent. For when Neoptolemus, returning from Troy, attacked Harpalycus and wounded him severely, she saved her father from death by making an attack and putting the enemy to flight. But after Harpalycus was killed in an insurrection of the citizens, Harpalyce, taking her father's death to heart, betook herself to the woods, and there because she plundered the herds of cattle, she perished at length in an attack by the herdsmen.
§ 194 ARION: Since Arion of Methymna was very skilful in playing the lyre, King Pyranthus of Corinth was fond of him. When he had gained permission from the king to make known his art throughout the state and had acquired a great fortune, his servants, together with the sailors, plotted to kill him. Apollo appeared to him in a dream and bade him sing in his poet's garland crown, and surrender himself to those who would come to aid him. When the servants and sailors were about to kill him, he asked to be allowed to sing first. But when the sound of the lyre and his voice were heard, dolphins came about the ship, and at sight of them he threw himself into the sea. They raised him up and bore him to Corinth to King Pyranthus. When he reached land, being eager for his journey, he failed to push the dolphin into the sea and it perished there. After he had told his misfortunes to Pyranthus, the King ordered the dolphin to be buried, and monument raised to it. Shortly after, word came to Pyranthus that the ship in which Arion had sailed had been brought to Corinth by a storm. He ordered the crew to be led before him, and inquired about Arion, but they replied that he had died and that they had buried him. The King replied: "Tomorrow you will swear to that at the Dolphin's Monument." Because of this he ordered them to be kept under guard, and instructed Arion to hide in the monument of the dolphin the next morning, attired as he was when he threw himself into the sea. When the King had brought them there, and ordered them to swear by the departed spirit of the dolphin that Arion was dead, Arion came out of the monument. In amazement, wondering by what divinity he had been saved, they were silent. The King ordered them to be crucified at the monument of the dolphin, but Apollo, because of Arion's skill with the cithara, placed him and the dolphin among the stars.
§ 195 ORION: Jove, Neptune, and Mercury came as guests to King Hyrieus in Thrace. Since they were received hospitably by him, they promised him whatever he should ask for. He asked for children. Mercury brought out the hide of the bull which Hyrieus had sacrificed to them; they urinated in it, and buried it in the earth, and from it Orion was born. When he tried to violate Diana, she killed him. Later he was placed by Jove among the stars, and called Orion.
§ 196 PAN: When the god in Egypt feared the monster Typhon, Pan bade them transform themselves into wild beasts the more easily to deceive him. Jove later killed him with a thunderbolt. By the will of the gods, since by his warning they had avoided Typhon's violence, Pan was put among the number of the stars, Since at that time he had changed himself into a goat, he was called Aegocerus. We call him Capricorn.
§ 197 VENUS: Into the Euphrates River an egg of wonderful size is said to have fallen, which the fish rolled to the bank. Doves sat on it, and when it was heated, it hatched out Venus, who was later called the Syrian goddess. Since she excelled the rest in justice and uprightness, by a favour granted by Jove, the fish were put among the number of the stars, and because of this the Syrians do not eat fish or doves, considering them as gods.
§ 198 NISUS: Nisus, son of Mars, or as others say, of Deion, and king of the Megarians, is said to have had a purple lock of hair on his head. An oracle had told him that he would rule as long as he preserved that lock. When Minos, son of Jove, had come to attack him, Scylla, daughter of Nisus, fell in love with him at the instigation of Venus. To make him the victor, she cut the fatal lock from her sleeping father, and so Nisus was conquered by Minos. He said that holy Crete would not receive such a criminal. She threw herself into the sea to avoid pursuit [?]. Nisus, however, in pursuit of his daughter, was changed into a halliaetos, that is, a sea-eagle. Scylla, his daughter, was changed into a fish which they call the ciris, and today, if ever that bird sees the fish swimming, he dives into the water, seizes it, and rends it with his claws.
§ 199 THE OTHER SCYLLA: Scylla, daughter of the River Crataeis, is said to have been a most beautiful maiden. Glaucus loved her, but Circe, daughter of Sol, loved Glaucus. Since Scylla was accustomed to bathe in the sea, Circe, daughter of Sol, out of jealousy poisoned the water with drugs, and when Scylla went down into it, dogs sprang from her thighs, and she was made a monster. She avenged her injuries, for as Ulysses sailed by, she robbed him of his companions.
§ 200 CHIONE: Apollo and Mercury are said to have slept the same night with Chione, or, as other poets say, with Philonis, daughter of Daedalion. By Apollo she bore Philammon, and by Mercury, Autolycus. Later on she spoke too haughtily against Diana in the hunt, and so was slain by her arrows. But the father Daedalion, because of his grief for his only daughter, was changed by Apollo into the bird Daedalion, that is, the hawk.
§ 201 AUTOLYCUS: Mercury gave to Autolycus, whom he begat by Chione, the gift of being such a skilful thief that he could not be caught, making him able to change whatever he stole into some other form — from white to black, or from black to white, from a hornless animal to a horned one, or from horned one to a hornless. When he kept continually stealing from the herds of Sisyphus and couldn't be caught, Sisyphus was convinced he was stealing because Autolycus' number was increasing while his was growing smaller. In order to catch him, he put a mark on the hooves of his cattle. When Autolycus had stolen in his usual way, Sisyphus came to him and identified the cattle he had stolen by their hooves, and took them away. While he was delaying there, he seduced Anticleia, the daughter of Autolycus. She was later given in marriage to Laertes, and bore Ulysses. Some writers accordingly call him Sisyphean; because of this parentage he was shrewd.
§ 202 CORONIS: When Apollo had made Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas, pregnant, he put a crow in guard, so that no one should violate her. But Ischys, son of Elatus, lay with her, and because of this he was killed by the thunderbolt of Zeus. Apollo struck the pregnant Coronis, and killed her. He took Asclepius from her womb and reared him, but the crow who had guarded her he turned from white to black.
§ 203 DAPHNE: When Apollo was pursuing the virgin Daphne, daughter of the river Peneus, she begged for protection from Earth, who received her, and changed her into a laurel tree. Apollo broke a branch from it and placed it on his head.
§ 204 NYCTIMENE: Nyctimene, daughter of Epopeus, king of the Lesbians, is said to have been a most beautiful girl. Her father, Epopeus, smitten by passion, embraced her, and overcome by shame, she hid herself in the woods. Minerva out of pity changed her into an owl, which, out of shame, does not come into the light but appears at night.
§ 206 HARPALYCE: Clymenus, son of Schoeneus, king of Arcadia, overcome by passion, lay with his daughter Harpalyce. When she gave birth, she served her son at a banquet. The father, realizing it, killed Harpalyce.
§ 207 CCVII — CCXVIII ARE MISSING
§ 219 ARCHELAUS: Archelaus, son of Temenus, when driven into exile by his brothers, came to Macedonia to King Cisseus. The King, who was under siege by his neighbors, promised to give him (since he was descended from Hercules, Temenus being a son of Hercules) his kingdom and his daughter in marriage, if he would protect him from his enemies. He put the enemy to flight in one battle, and asked the King for what he had promised. But he, dissuaded by friends, went back on his word, and tried to kill him by treachery. And so he ordered a pit to be dug, coals to put in and set afire, and light branches spread over, so that Archelaus might fall in when he came. A slave of the King revealed this to Archelaus. When he learned of it, he said he wanted to talk with the King in private. After the guards were withdrawn, Archelaus seized the King, threw him in the pit, and thus destroyed him. He fled from there, in accordance with a response of Apollo, to Macedonia, a she-goat leading him, and founded a town called Aegeae from the name of the goat. From him Alexander the Great is said to have sprung.
§ 220 CURA: When Cura was crossing a certain river, she saw some clayey mud. She took it up thoughtfully and began to fashion a man. While she was pondering on what she had done, Jove came up; Cura asked him to give the image life, and Jove readily grant this. When Cura wanted to give it her name, Jove forbade, and said that his name should be given it. But while they were disputing about the name, Tellus arose and said that it should have her name, since she had given her own body. They took Saturn for judge; he seems to have decided for them: Jove, since you gave him life [take his soul after death; since Tellus offered her body] let her receive his body; since Cura first fashioned him, let her possess him as long as he lives, but since there is controversy about his name, let him be called homo, since he seems to be made from humus.
§ 221 SEVEN WISE MEN: Pittacus of Mitylene, Periander of Corinth, Thales of Miletus, Solon of Athens, Chilon of Sparta, Cleobulus of Lindus, Bias of Priene. Their sayings are as follows: Moderation is best, says Cleobulus of Lindus; Everything should be carefully studied, comes from Periander of Ephyre; Know thy opportunity, says Pittacus of Mitylene; Bias, he of Priene, avers that most men are bad: and Thales of Miletus says: Suretyship is the precursor of ruin; Know thyself, says Chilon, sprung from Lacedemon; and Cecropian Solon enjoins: Nothing in excess.
§ 222 SEVEN LYRIC POETS (MISSING)
§ 223 SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD: The temple of Diana at Ephesus which the Amazon Otrera, wife of Mars, made. The Monument of King Mausolus made of marble blocks, 80 feet high, 1,340 feet around. The bronze statue of the Sun at Rhodes, which is colossal, being 90 feet high. The statue of Olympian Jove which Phidias made, a seated statue of gold and ivory, 60 feet high. The palace of Cyrus the King in Ecbatana, which Memnon made, of many colored and shining white stones bound with gold. The wall in Babylon, which Semiramis, daughter of Dercetis, made, of baked brick and bitumen, bound with iron, 25 feet broad, 60 feet high, and 300 stades in circuit. The pyramids in Egypt, whose shadow isn't seen, 60 feet high.
§ 224 MORTALS WHO WERE MADE IMMORTAL: Hercules, son of Jove and Alcmena; Liber, son of Jove [Zeus] and Semele; Castor and Pollux, brothers of Helen, sons of Jove and Leda. Perseus, son of Jove and Danae, put among the stars; Arcas, son of Jove and Callisto, placed among the stars; Ariadne, whom Father Liber called Libera, daughter of Minos and Pasiphae. Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, put in the constellation Septentrio; Cynosura, the nurse of Jove, put in the other Septentrio; Crotos, son of Pan and Eupheme, foster-brother of the Muses, put into the constellation Sagittarius; Icarus and Erigone, his daughter, placed among the stars — Icarus as Arcturus, Erigone as the sign Virgo. Ganymede, son of Assaracus, into Aquarius of the twelve signs; Myrtilus, son of Mercury and Theobule, as the Charioteer; Asclepius, son of Apollo and Coronis; Pan, son of Mercury and Penelope; Ino, daughter of Cadmus, into Leucothea, whom we call Mater Matuta; Melicertes, son of Athamas, into the god Palaemon.
§ 225 THOSE WHO FIRST BUILT TEMPLES TO THE GODS: Pelasgus, son of Triopas, first made a temple to Olympian Jove in Arcadia. Thessalus raised the temple [which is in Macedonia ] of Jove of Dodona in the land of the Molossi. Eleuther first set up a statue to Father Liber and showed how it was to be tended. Phoroneus, son of Inachus, first made a temple to Juno in Argos. Otrera, an Amazon, wife of Mars, first founded the temple of Diana at Ephesus, which later by King . . . restored. Lycaon, son of Pelasgus, built a temple to Mercury of Cyllene in Arcadia. Peirius . . .
§ 226 CCXXVI — CCXXVIII MISSING
§ 238 CCXXXVIII. THOSE WHO KILLED THEIR DAUGHTERS: Agamemnon, son of Atreus, killed Iphigenia, but Diana saved her. [The same says that Callisthenes of Euboea killed his daughter for the sake of the country, according to the oracle.] Clymenus, son of Schoeneus, killed Harpalyce, because she served his son to him at a banquet. Hyacinth, a Spartan, killed Antheis his daughter according to an oracle on behalf of the Athenians. Erechtheus, son of Pandion, killed Chthonia in accordance with oracles on behalf of the Athenians; her other sisters committed suicide. Cercyon, son of Vulcan, killed Alope, because of intercourse with Neptune. Aeolus killed Canace, because of incest with her brother Macareus, whish she confessed.
§ 239 MOTHERS WHO KILLED THEIR SONS: Medea, daughter of Aeetes, killed Mermerus and Pheres, her sons by Jason. Progne, daughter of Pandion, killed Itys, her son by Tereus, son of Mars. Ino, daughter of Cadmus, killed her son Melicertes by Athamas, son of Aeolus, when she was fleeing from Athama. Althaea, daughter of Thestius, killed her son Meleager by Oineus, son of Parthaon, because he had killed his uncles. Themisto, daughter of Hypseus, killed her sons Sphincius and Orchomenus by Athamas, son of Aeolus, at the instigation of Ino, daughter of Cadmus. Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus, killed her two sons by Sisyphus, son of Aeolus, in accordance with the oracle of Apollo. Agave, daughter of Cadmus, killed Pentheus, son of Echion, at the instigation of Father Liber. Harpalyce, daughter of Clymenus, because of the crime of her father, in that she had lain with him unwillingly, killed the child she had conceived by him.
§ 240 WOMEN WHO KILLED THEIR HUSBANDS: Clytemnestra, daughter of Thestius, killed Agamemnon, son of Atreus. Helen, daughter of Jove and Leda, killed Deiphobus, son of Priam. Agave killed Lycotherses in Illyria, in order to give the rule to Cadmus her father. Dejanira, daughter of Oineus, killed Hercules, son of Jove and Alcumena, at the instigation of Nessus. Iliona, daughter of Priam killed Polymnestor, King of the Thracians. Semiramis killed Ninus in Babylonia.
§ 241 MEN WHO KILLED THEIR WIVES: Hercules, son of Jove, killed Megara, daughter of Creon, in a fit of insanity. Theseus, son of Aegeus, killed Antiopa, the Amazon, daughter of Mars, because of an oracle of Apollo. Cephalus, son of Deion or of Mercury, killed Procris, daughter of Pandion, unwittingly.
§ 242 MEN WHO COMMITTED SUICIDE: Aegeus, son of Neptune, threw himself into the sea, and the Aegean Sea is called from this. Evenus, son of Hercules, threw himself into the river Lycormas, now called Chrysorrhoas. Ajax, son of Telamon, killed himself because of the Judgement of Arms. Lycurgus, son of Dryas, killed himself in madness sent by Liber. Macareus, son of Aeolus, killed himself on account of Canace, his sister, his beloved. Agrius, son of Parthaon, when driven from his kingdom by Diomede, killed himself. Caeneus, son of Elatus, killed himself. Menoeceus, father of Jocaste, threw himself from the wall on account of the pestilence at Thebes. Nisus, son of Mars, when he lost his fatal lock of hair, killed himself. Clymenus, son of Schoeneus, King of Arcadia, killed himself because he had lain with his daughter. Cinyras, son of Paphos, King of the Assyrians, because he had lain with his daughter Smyrna. Hercules, son of Jove, cast himself into the fire. Adrastus and Hipponous his son, threw themselves into the fire because of an oracle of Apollo. Pyramus in Babylonia out of love for Thisbe killed himself. Oidipus, son of Laius, because of his mother Jocaste, killed himself after being blinded.
§ 243 WOMEN WHO COMMITTED SUICIDE: Hecuba, daughter of Cisseus or of Dymas, wife of Priam, threw herself into the sea; for this reason the sea is called Cynean, since she was changed into a dog. Ino, daughter of Cadmus, hurled herself into the sea with her son, Melicertes. Anticlia, daughter of Autolycus and mother of Ulysses, killed herself on hearing a false report about Ulysses. Stheneboea, daughter of Iobas, and wife of Proetus, killed herself out of love for Bellerophon. Evadne, daughter of Phylacus, because Capaneus, her husband, perished at Thebes, threw herself on the same funeral pyre. Aethra, daughter of Pittheus, killed herself because of the death of her sons. Deianira, daughter of Oineus, killed herself on account of Hercules; deceived by Nessus, she had sent him a tunic in which he was burned. Laodamia, daughter of Acastus, killed herself out of longing for her husband Protesilaus. Hippodamia, daughter of Oinomaus and wife of Pelops, killed herself because by her urging, Chrysippus was killed. Neaera, daughter of Autolycus, killed herself on account of the death of her son Hippothous. Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, for the sake of her husband, Admetus, died a vicarious death. Iliona, daughter of Priam, killed herself on account of the misfortunes of her parents. Themisto, daughter of Hyspeus, killed herself because, at the instigation of Ino, she had killed her sons. Erigone, daughter of Icarus, killed herself by hanging because of the death of her father. Phaedra, daughter of Minos, killed herself by hanging because of her love for her stepson, Hippolytus. Phyllis killed herself by hanging on account of Demophoon, son of Theseus. Canace, daughter of Aeolus, because of her love for Macareus her brother, killed herself. Biblis, daughter of Miletus, out of love for Caunus killed herself. Calypso, daughter of Atlas, out of love for Ulysses, killed herself. Dido, daughter of Belus, out of love for Aeneas killed herself. Jocasta, daughter of Menoecus, killed herself on account of the death of her sons and the disgrace. Antigona, daughter of Oidipus, killed herself on account of the burial of Polynices. Pelopia, daughter of Thyestes, killed herself on account of her father's crime. Thisbe of Babylon killed herself because Pyramus had killed himself. Semiramis in Babylon, when her horse was lost, threw herself on the pyre.
§ 244 MEN WHO KILLED THEIR RELATIVES: Theseus, son of Aegeus, killed Pallas . . .. . . son of his brother Neleus. Amphitryon killed Electryon, son of Perseus. Meleager son of Oineus killed his uncles Plexippus and Agenor on account of Atalanta, daughter of Schoeneus. Telephus, son of Hercules, killed Hippothous and Nerea, son of his grandmother. Aegisthus killed Atreus, and Agamemnon, son of Atreus. Orestes killed Aegisthus, son of Thyestes. Megapenthes, son of Proetus, killed Perseus, son of Jove and Danae on account of the death of his father. Abas, on account of his father, Lynceus, killed Megapenthes. Phegeus, son of Alpheus, killed the daughter of his daughter Alphesiboea. Amphion, son of Tereus, killed the sons of his grandfather. Atreus, son of Pelops, served the infant sons of Thyestes, Tantalus and Plisthenes, to their father at a banquet. Hyllus, son of Hercules, killed Sthenelus, brother of his great-grandfather Electryon. Medus, son of Aegeus, killed Perses, brother of Aeetes and son of Sol. Daedalus, son of Eupalamus, killed Perdix, son of his sister, out of envy of his artistic skill.
§ 245 THOSE WHO KILLED FATHERS-IN-LAW AND SONS-IN-LAW: Jason, son of Aeson . . . Phegyona. Pelops, son of Tantalus, killed Oinomaus, son of Mars. Those who killed their sons-in-law: Phegeus, son of Alpheus, killed Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus; he also killed Eurypylus. Aeetes, son of Sol, killed Phrixus, son of Athamas.
§ 246 THOSE WHO ATE THE FLESH OF THEIR CHILDREN AT BANQUETS: Tereus, son of Mars, his on Itys by Progne. Thyestes, son of Pelops, his children by Aerope — Tantalus and Plisthenes. Clymenus, son of Schoeneus, his son by his daughter Harpalyce.
§ 247 THOSE DESTROYED BY THEIR DOGS: Actaeon, son of Aristaeus. Thasius, at Delos, son of Anius, priest of Apollo; this reason there are no dogs on Delos. Euripides, writer of tragedies, was destroyed in a temple.
§ 248 CCXLVIII. THOSE WHO DIED FROM WOUNDS BY A WILD BOAR: Adonis, son of Cinyras. Ancaeus, son of Lycurgus, from Calydon. Idmon, son of Apollo, who had gone out with the Argonauts to fetch straw, when they were staying with King Lycus. Hyas, son of Atlas and Pleione, by a boar, or by a lion.
§ 249 FATAL FIREBRANDS: The firebrand which Hecuba, daughter of Cisseus or of Dymas, thought she brought forth. That of Nauplius at the Capharean Rocks, when the Achaeans were shipwrecked. That of Helen, which she displayed from the walls and betrayed Troy. That of Althaea, which destroyed Meleager.
§ 250 TEAMS WHICH DESTROYED THEIR DRIVERS: They destroyed Phaethon, son of Sol by Clymene. Laomedon, son of Ilus by Leucippe. Oinomaus, son of Mars by Asterie, daughter of Atlas. Diomedes, son of Mars, by the same. Hippolytus, son of Theseus, by the Amazon Antiope. Amphiaraus, son of Oicleus by Hypermnestra, daughter of Thestius. His own mares devoured Glaucus, son of Sisyphus, at the funeral games of Pelias. Horses destroyed Iasion, son of Jove by Electra, daughter of Atlas. Salmoneus, who sitting in his chariot, imitated the thunder, was struck by a thunderbolt, and the chariot, too.
§ 251 THOSE WHO, BY PERMISSION OF THE PARCAE, RETURNED FROM THE LOWER WORLD: Ceres, seeking Proserpine, her daughter. Father Liber; he descended for Semele, his mother, daughter of Cadmus. Hercules, son of Jove, to bring up the dog Cerberus. Asclepius, son of Apollo and Coronis. Castor and Pollux, sons of Jove and Leda, return in alternate death. Protesilaus, son of Iphiclus, on account of Laodamia, daughter of Acastus. Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, on account of her husband Admetus. Theseus, son of Aegeus, on account of Pirithous. Hippolytus, son of Theseus, by wish of Diana; he was afterwards called Virbius. Orpheus, son of Oiagrus, on account of Eurydice, his wife. Adonis, son of Cinyras and Zmyrna, by wish of Venus. Glaucus, son of Minos, restored to life by Polyidus, son of Coeranus. Ulysses, son of Laertes, on account of his country. Aeneas, son of Anchises, on account of his father. Mercurius, son of Maia, in constant trips.
§ 252 THOSE SUCKLED BY ANIMALS Telephus, son of Hercules and Auge, by a deer. Aegisthus, son of Thyestes and Pelopia, by a goat. Aeolus and Boeotus, sons of Neptune and Melanippe, by a heifer. Hippothous, son of Neptune and Alope, by a mare. Romulus and Remus, sons of Mars and Ilia, by a she-wolf. Antilochus, son of Nestor, exposed on Mt. Ida, by a bitch. Harpalyce, daughter of Harplaycus, King of the Amymnei, by a heifer and a mare. Camilla, daughter of Metabus, King of the Volscians, by a mare.
§ 253 THOSE GUILTY OF INCEST: Jocasta with Oidipus her son. Pelopia with Thyestes her father. Harpalyce with Clymenus her father. Hippodamia with Oinomaus her father. Procris with Erechtheus her father, by whom she bore Aglaurus. Nyctimene with Epopeus her father, king of the Lesbians. Menephron with Cyllene his daughter in Arcadia, and with Bliade [?] his mother.
§ 254 THOSE WHO WERE EXCEPTIONALLY DUTIFUL: Antigone, daughter of Oidipus, gave burial to her brother, Polynices. Electra, daughter of Agamemnon, was dutiful toward her brother Orestes. Iliona, daughter of Priam, toward her brother Polydorus and her parents. Pelopia, daughter of Thyestes, toward her father to vindicate him. Hypsipyle, daughter of Thoas, to her father, for whom she gave her life. Chalciope, daughter of Aeetes, did not desert her father, though his realm was lost. Harpalyce, daughter of Harpalycus, saved her father in war and put to flight the enemy. Erigone, daughter of Icarus, killed herself by hanging when her father was lost. Agave, daughter of Cadmus, in Illyrica killed King Lycotherses and gave the kingdom to her father. Xanthippe, when her father Mycon was shut up in prison, nourished him with her own milk. Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus, killed her sons on account of her father. In Sicily when Mount Aetna first began to burn, Damon rescued his mother from the fire, and Phintias his father, too. Aeneas, likewise, in Troy bore out from the fire his father Anchises on his shoulders, and rescued Ascanius his son. Cleops and Bitias were sons of Cydippe, a priestess of Argive Juno. She had sent the oxen to pasture, and they had not appeared, and were dead at the time when the sacrifices were to be made and taken to the temple of Juno on the mountain. If the sacrifices were not performed at the proper time, the priestess was to be killed. Out of fear of this, Cleops and Bitias put on the yoke as if they were oxen, and drew the sacrifices and their mother Cydippe to the shrine in the wagon. When the rite was completed, Cydippe prayed to Juno, that if she had worshipped her purely, and if her sons had been dutiful towards her, that whatever good could happen to mortals might befall her sons. When the prayer was over, the sons brought mother and wagon home, and weary, rested in sleep . . . but Cydippe thoughtfully realized that there was nothing better for mortals than to die, and because of this, she died a willing death.
§ 255 WOMEN WHO WERE IMPIOUS: Scylla, daughter of Nisus, killed her father. Ariadne, daughter of Minos, killed her brother.. . . and her sons. Progne, daughter of Pandion, killed her son. The daughters of Danaus killed their cousin-husbands. The Lemnian women on the island of Lemnos killed their fathers and their sons. Harpalyce, daughter of Clymenus, killed the son whom she had conceived by her father. Tullia of the Romans drove a chariot over the body of her father, and the Vicu Sceleratus was named for that.
§ 256 WOMEN WHO WERE MOST CHASTE: Penelope, daughter of Icarius, wife of Ulysses. Evadne, daughter of Phylas, wife of Capaneus. Laodamia, daughter of Acastus, wife of Protesilaus. Hecuba, daughter of Cisseus, wife of Priam. Theonoe, daughter of Thestor . . . Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, wife of Admetus. Of the Romans, Lucretia, daughter of Lucretius, wife of Collatinus.
§ 257 THOSE WHO WERE THE MOST LOYAL FRIENDS: Pylades, son of Strophius, with Orestes, son of Agamemnon. Pirithous, son of Ixion, with Theseus, son of Aegeus. Achilles, son of Peleus, with Patroclus, son of Menoetius. Diomede, son of Tydeus, with Sthenelus, son of Capaneus. Peleus, son of Aeacus, with Phoenix, son of Amyntor. Hercules son of Jove, with Philoctetes, son of Poeas. Nisus was friend to Euryalus, and died for him. Harmodius and Aristogiton in brotherly love. In Sicily, since Dionysius the tyrant was very cruel, and put his citizens to death by torture, Moeros wanted to kill the tyrant. When the guards found him armed, they led him to the King. On being questioned, he said he wanted to kill the King. The King gave orders that he be crucified, but Moeros begged for a delay of three days, in order to arrange his sister's marriage, saying that he would give the tyrant his friend and companion Seluntius as a pledge that he would come on the third day. The King granted the delay for giving his sister in marriage, and told Seluntius that unless Moeros came on the day set, he would suffer the same punishment, and that Moeros was being dismissed. He was returning after giving away his sister, when a sudden rainstorm came up, and the river became swollen so that it could be crossed neither by fording nor by swimming. Moeros sat on the bank and wept lest his friend should have to die for him. When Phalaris ordered Seluntius to be crucified, because six hours of the third day had passed and Moeros had not yet come, Seluntius replied that the day had not yet gone. When nine hours had passed, the King ordered Seluntius led to the cross. As he was being led away, Moeros, having at length with difficulty crossed the river, followed the executioner, and cried out when a long way off: "Stop, executioner! Here am I whom he vouched for!" This fact was reported to the King, who bade them be brought before him. He granted life to Moeros, and begged that they become his friends.
HARMODIUS AND ARISTOGON Likewise in Sicily, when Harmodius wanted to kill this same Phalaris, in pretense he killed a sow with young, came to his friend Aristogiton with his bloody sword, said he had killed his mother, and asked him to hide him. When he was hidden, he asked Aristogiton to go out and bring back to him any rumors about his mother. He reported that there were no rumors. Thus until evening they carried on the strife, each one trying to force on the other more convincing proofs, nor did Aristogiton wish to reproach him with having killed his mother. Harmodius revealed to him that he had killed a pig with young, and so had used the word "mother"; he told him that he wanted to kill the King, and asked him to be his accomplice. When they came to kill the King, they were seized with arms upon them by guards. When led to the tyrant, Aristogiton escaped the guards, and Harmodius alone was brought before the King. On being questioned as to his companion, in order not to betray his friend he bit off his tongue with his teeth, and spat it in the King's face.
§ 258 CCLVIII — CCLXI ARE ATTRIBUTED TO SERVIUS
§ 267 CCLXII — CCXVIII ARE MISSING
§ 270 THOSE WHO WERE MOST HANDSOME: Iasion, son of Ilithius, whom Ceres is said to have loved [credible, since vouched for by old histories]. Cinyras, son of Paphos, king of the Assyrians. Anchises, son of Assaracus, whom Venus loved. Alexander Paris, son of Priam and Hecuba, whom Helen followed. Nireus, son of Charops. Cephalus, son of Pandion, whom Aurora loved. Tithonus, husband of Aurora. Parthenopaeus, son of Meleager and Atalanta. Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis. Patroclus, son of Menoetius. Idomeneus, who loved Helen. Theseus, son of Aegeus and Aethra, whom Ariadne loved.
§ 271 YOUTHS WHO WERE MOST HANDSOME: Adonis, son of Cinyras and Smyrna, whom Venus loved. Endymion, son of Aetolus, whom Luna loved. Ganymede, son of Erichthonius, whom Jove loved. Hyacinthus, son of Oibalus, whom Apollo loved. Narcissus, son of the river Cephisus, who loved himself. Atlantius, son of Mercury and Venus, who is called Hermaphroditus. Hylas, son of Theodamas, whom Hercules loved. Chrysippus, son of Pelops, whom Theseus stole from the games.
CCLXXII IS MISSING
§ 273 CCLXXIII. THOSE WHO FIRST CONDUCTED GAMES UP TO THE FIFTEENTH BY AENEAS: . . . Fifth, those which Danaus, son of Belus, conducted at Argos for the wedding of his daughters, with singing contests. The hymenaeus, 'wedding-hymn', was so called from these. Sixth, those which Lynceus, son of Egyptus, conducted once more at Argos for Argive Juno. They are called aspis en arge'. In these Games, whoever wins receives a shield instead of a crown, because, when Abas, son of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, announced to his parents that Danaus had perished, Lynceus took down from the temple of Argive Juno the shield which Danaus had carried in his youth and had dedicated to Juno, and gave it to Abas his son as a reward. In these Games the law is that whoever wins and again enters the contest . . . unless he wins again . . . so that he often enter. [In these games the law is that whoever wins and again enters the contest is penalized unless he wins a second time, so that the same person may not enter often.] Seventh, Perseus, son of Jove and Danae, established funeral games for Polydectes, his guardian, in the island of Seriphos, and when he was wrestling [contending? ] he struck his grandfather Acrisius and killed him. And so, what he wouldn't have done by his own will, he did by the will of the gods. Eighth, Hercules established gymnastic contests at Olympia for Pelops, son of Tantalus, in which he himself competed with Achareus in the pammachium which we call "pancratium." Ninth, Games were performed in Nemea for Archemorus, son of Lycus and Eurydice. The seven leaders who went to attack Thebes established these. Later on in these games Euneus and Deipylus, sons of Jason and Hypsipyle, won the race. In these Games, too, the Pythaules had seven (singers?) dressed in the pallium who sang the Pythia. Because of this he was later called the Choraules. Tenth, the Isthmian, which Eratocles is said to have performed for Melicertes, son of Athamas and Ino. Other poets name Theseus. Eleventh, those which the Argonauts conducted in Propontis with contests in leaping and javelin-throwing for Cyzicus the King and his son, whom Jason unknowingly killed at night on the shore. Twelfth, those which Acastus, son of Pelias, conducted for the Argives. In these Games Zetes, son of Aquilo, won in the long race; Calais, son of the same, in the double course; Castor, son of Jove, in the stade; Pollux, son of the same, with the cestus; Telamon, son of Aeacus, with the discus; Peleus, son of the same, in wrestling; Hercules, son of Jove, in the pancratium; Meleager, son of Oineus, with the javelin. Cygnus, son of Mars, with weapons killed Pilus, son of Diodotus. Bellerophon won in the horse-race; in the four-horse chariot race, Iolaus, son of Iphicles, won over Glaucus, son of Sisyphus, and Glaucus' snappish horses tore him apart; Eurytus, son of Mercury, won with arrows; Cephalus, son of Deion, with the sling; Olympus, pupil and son of Marsyas, with the flutes; Orpheus, son of Oiagrus, with the lyre; Linus, son of Apollo, in singing; Eumolpus, son of Neptune, to the flutes of Olympus, with the voice. Thirteenth. Priam made a cenotaph in Ilium for Paris, the son whom he had ordered killed, and held gymnastic contents. The contestants in running were Nestor, son of Neleus, Helenus, son of Priam, Deiphobus, son of the same, Polites, son of the same. Telephus, son of Hercules, Cygnus, son of Neptune, Sarpedon, son of Jove, Paris Alexander, unrecognized son of Priam. However, Paris won, and was found to be the son of Priam. Fourteenth. Achilles held funeral games for Patroclus, in which Ajax won the wrestling match, and received as prize a golden caldron; then Menelaus won with the javelin, and received as gift a golden javelin. When these games were over, Achilles threw twelve captives on the pyre of Patroclus, together with his horse and his dog. Fifteenth, Aeneas, son of Venus and Anchises, conducted them in Sicily at the home of Acestes, his host, son of the river Crinisus. There Aeneas commemorated the death of his father, and with games paid the honors due to the dead. The first event was a ship race . . . Mnestheus had the ship Pistris, Gyas the ship Chimaera, and Sergestus the ship Centaur. Cloanthus won with the ship Scylla, and received as prize a talent of silver, and a gold-embroidered chlamys with the figure of Ganymede wove in purple; Mnestheus received a corselet; Gyas bore away caldrons and engraved silver cups, and Sergestus a slave girl named Pholoe with her two sons. In the second contest, a foot race, were entered Nisus, Euryalus, Diorees, Salius, Helymus, Panopes. Euryalus won, and received as prize a horse with handsome trappings. Helymus received an Amazonian quiver for the second prize, Diores an Argolis helmet for the third. To Salius he gave the skin of a lion; to Nisus, a shield, the work of Didymaon. Next in the third contest Dares and Entellus boxed. Entellus won, and received a bull as a prize; to Dares he gave a sword and a dagger. In the fourth contest Hippocoon, Mnestheus, Acestes, Eurytion vied in bowmanship. He [?] received a helmet as a gift, since [in the judgment of Aeneas?] on account of an omen he gave the honor to Acestes. In the fifth, with the boy Ascanius as leader, the boys did the Trojan Games.
§ 274 INVENTORS AND THEIR INVENTIONS: . . . A certain man named Cerasus mixed wine with the river Achelous in Aitolia, and from this "to mix" is called kerasai. Then, too, the ancient men of our race had on the posts of their dining-couches heads of asses bound with vines to signify that the ass had discovered the sweetness of the vine. The vine, too, which a goat had nibbled, brought fort more fruit, and from this they invented pruning. Pelethronius first invented bits and saddles for horses. Belona first invented the needle, which in Greek is called Belone. Cadmus, son of Agenor, first produced bronze at Thebes. Aeacus, son of Jove, first discovered gold in Panchaia on Mount Tasus. Indus, king in Scythia, first discovered silver which Erichthonius was first to bring to Athens. At Elis, a city in the Peloponnesus, races of four-horse chariots were first established. King Midas, a Phrygian, son of Cybele, first discovered black and white lead. The Arcadians first made offerings [?] to the gods. Phoroneus, son of Inachus, first made arms for Juno, and because of this first obtained authority to rule. Chiron, son of Saturn, first used herbs in the medical art of surgery; Apollo first practiced the art of treating eyes, and third, Asclepius, son of Apollo, began the art of clinical medicine. The ancients didn't have obstetricians, and as a result, women because of modesty perished. For the Athenians forbade slaves and women to learn the art of medicine. A certain girl, Hagnodice, a virgin desired to learn medicine, and since she desired it, she cut her hair, and in male attire came to a certain Herophilus for training. When she had learned the art, and had heard that a woman was in labor, she came to her. And when the woman refused to trust herself to her, thinking that she was a man, she removed her garment to show that she was a woman, and in this way she treated women. When the doctors saw that they were not admitted to women, they began to accuse Hagnodice, saying that "he" was a seducer and corruptor of women, and that the women were pretending to be ill. The Areopagites, in session, started to condemn Hagnodice, but Hagnodice removed her garment for them and showed that she was a woman. Then the doctors began to accuse her more vigorously, and as a result the leading women came to the Court and said: "You are not husbands, but enemies, because you condemn her who discovered safety for us." Then the Athenians amended the law, so that free-born women could learn the art of medicine. Perdix, son of Daedalus' sister, invented the compass, and also the saw from the spine of a fish. Daedalus, son of Eupalamus, first made statues of the gods. Oannes, who in Chaldaea is said to have come from the sea, interpreted astrology. The Lydians first dyed raw wool with a substance from twigs, and afterward learned to dye the thread. Pan first invented the music of the pipes. In Sicily Ceres first invented grain. Tyrrhenus, son of Hercules, first invented a trumpet for this reason: When his comrades were apparently feasting on human flesh, the inhabitants of the region around fled from the cruel practice. So when any one of them died he blew on a hollow conch-shell and called the district together, and declared they were giving burial to the dead and not devouring them. Thus the trumpet is called the Tyrrhenian melody. The Romans today have this custom: whenever anyone dies, trumpeters sound and friends are called together, to testify that he did not die from poison or the sword. Summoners, too, invented the horn [?]. Egyptians first fought with clubs; later Belus, son of Neptune, fought with a sword, and bellum, "war," is named from this.
§ 275 TOWN AND THEIR FOUNDERS: Jove founded Thebes in India, named from Thebais, his nurse; it is called hecatompylae, because it has a hundred gates. Minerva founded Athens in Chalcis, which she called from her name. Epaphus, son of Jove, founded Memphis, in Egypt. Arcas, son of Jove, founded Trapezus in Arcadia. Apollo, son of Jove, founded Arnae. Eleusinus, son of Mercury, founded Eleusis. Dardanus, son of Jove, founded Dardania. Argus, son of Agenor, founded Argos, which . . . Cadmus, son of Agenor, Thebes heptapylae, which is said to have seven gates. Perseus, son of Jove, founded Perseis. Castor and Pollux, sons of Jove, founded Dioscoris. Medus, son of Aegeus and Medea, Meda in Ecbatana. Camirus, son of Sol, founded Camira. Liber in India, founded Hammon. The Nymphe Ephyre, daughter of Oceanus, founded Ephyre, which later they called Corinth. Sardo, daughter of Sthenelus, founded Sardis. Cinyras, son of Paphos, founded Smyrna, from the name of his daughter. Perseus, son of Jove, founded Mycenae. Semiramis, daughter of Dercetis, Babylon in Syria.
§ 276 LARGEST ISLANDS: Mauretania, situated in the west, 76 stades in circuit. Egypt, which the Nile surrounds, situated in the heat of the south, in circuit . . . stades. Sicily, triangular in form, in circuit 3570 stades. Sardinia, in circuit 1250 stades. Crete, in length . . . with a hundred towns on either side, in circuit 2100 stades. Cyprus, situated between Egypt and Africa, like a Gallic shield, in a bow, in circuit 11 stades. Rhodes placed in the round, circuit 2100 stades; Euboea like an arc, circuit 2200 stades; Corcyra, good land, in circuit 80 stades. Sikyon[sic], good land, in circuit 1100 stades. Tenedos, island near Troy, in circuit 1200 stades. Corsica, very poor soil, in circuit 1120 stades. The Cyclades are nine islands — namely, Andros, Myconos, Delos, Tenos, Naxos, Seriphos, Gyarus, Paros, Rhenia.
§ 277 FIRST INVENTORS: The Parcae, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos invented seven Greek letters — A B H T I Y. Others say that Mercury invented them from the flight of cranes, which, when they fly, form letters. Palamedes, too, son of Nauplius, invented eleven letters; Simonides, too, invented four letters — Omega E Z PH; Epicharmus of Sicily, two — P and PS. The Greek letters Mercury is said to have brought to Egypt, and from Egypt Cadmus took them to Greece. Cadmus in exile from Arcadia, took them to Italy, and his mother Carmenta changed them to Latin to the number of 15. Apollo on the lyre added the rest. The same Mercury first taught wrestling to mortals. Ceres showed how to tame oxen, and taught her foster-son Triptolemus [to sow grain]. When he had sown it, and a pig rooted up what he had planted, he seized the pig, took it to the altar of Ceres, and putting grain on its head, sacrificed it to Ceres. From this came the custom of putting salted meal on the victim. Isis first invented sails, for while seeking her son Harpocrates, she sailed on a ship. Minerva first built a two-prowed ship for Danaus in which he fled from Egyptus his brother.