§ al.18 Ἄβαρις: Abaris: Scythian, son of Seuthes. He wrote the so-called Scythinian Oracles and Marriage of the river Hebros and Purifications and a Theogony in prose and Arrival of Apollo among the Hyperboreans in meter. He came from Scythia to Greece.
The legendary arrow belongs to him, the one he flew on from Greece to Hyperborean Scythia. It was given to him by Apollo.
Gregory the Theologian mentioned this man in his Epitaphios for Basil the Great.
They say that once, when there was a plague throughout the entire inhabited world, Apollo told the Greeks and barbarians who had come to consult his oracle that the Athenian people should make prayers on behalf of all of them. So, many peoples sent ambassadors to them, and Abaris, they say, came as ambassador of the Hyperboreans in the third Olympiad.
[Note] that the Bulgarians thoroughly destroyed the Avars by force.
[Note] that these Avars drove out the Sabinorians, when they themselves had been expelled by peoples living near the shore of the Ocean, who left their own land when a mist formed in the flood of the Ocean and a crowd of griffins appeared; the story was that they would not stop until they had devoured the race of men. So the people driven away by these monsters invaded their neighbors. As the invaders were stronger, the others submitted and left, just as the Saragurians, when they were driven out, went to the Akatziri Huns.
The declension is Abaris, Abaridos [genitive singular], Abaridas [accusative plural], and with apocope Abaris [nominative plural].
See about these things under 'Bulgarians'. (Tr: ANNE MAHONEY)
§ al.19 Ἀβαρνίς: Abarnis: Name of a city. (Tr: ANNE MAHONEY)
§ al.26 Ἄβδηρα: Abdera: The sea, and a name of a city and 'Abderite' [is] the citizen [of it].
Also Phalera and Kythera [sc. are spelled with eta]; but Gadeira, Stageira, Topeira, and Dobeira [sc. are spelled with epsilon iota]. (Tr: ANNE MAHONEY)
§ al.91 Ἁβρότερον: more delicately: "But they behaved more delicately than them and were full of Sybaris." (Tr: ANNE MAHONEY)
§ al.98 Ἄβρωνος βίος: Abron's life: [sc. A proverbial phrase] In reference to those who live extravagantly; for Abron became rich among the Argives. Or also from the [adjective] habros ["delicate"].
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Abroneios ["Abronian"]. (Tr: ANNE MAHONEY)
§ al.100 Ἀβυδηνὸν ἐπιφόρημα: Abydene dessert: Whenever something unpleasant happens as a result of someone having shown up at the wrong time, we are accustomed to call it an "Abydene dessert." This is because the people of Abydos, whenever they entertain a fellow-citizen or a foreigner, bring their children around to be admired after the ointments and the crowns. Those in attendance are disturbed by both the nurses clamoring and the children screaming. Hence it has become customary to say the foregoing. (Tr: ANNE MAHONEY)
§ al.101 Ἄβυδος: Abydos: A city.
The word is applied to an informant [συκοφάντης ] because of the common belief that the people of Abydos were informers.
Also [sc. attested is] an adverb, Ἀβυδόθι, [meaning] in Abydos.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] ἄβυδον φλυαρίαν ["abydos nonsense"], [meaning] great [nonsense].
And Ἀβυδηνὸς, [meaning] he [who comes] from Abydos. (Tr: ELIZABETH VANDIVER)
§ al.104 Ἄβυσσον: abyss: That which not even a deep [βυθός ] can contain; but Ionians pronounce βυθός as βυσσός .
From which also βυσσοδομεύειν ["to build in the deep"] appears to be said, from the verb δύνω ["I sink"] [meaning] I enter upon secretly, with a change [of initial consonant] [giving] βύω, βύσω, βέβυσμαι, βέβυσαι, [and the nouns] βυσός and ἀβύσσος [meaning] where no-one enters because of its depth.
Aristophanes in Frogs [writes]: "for immediately you will come to a huge lake, an absolute abyss." And he also uses the word in the neuter: "they shall not make peace while the measureless [ἄβυσσον ] silver is with the goddess on the Acropolis." For 1,000 talents were stored on the Acropolis.
"Abyss" is what the Holy Scripture calls the watery substance. So since the land is surrounded on all sides by waters [and] by great and small seas, David naturally called this [i.e., abyss] the earth's surrounding garment. Also, "abyss calls to abyss", the same prophet says, meaning figuratively military divisions and the excessive size of the multitude.
I was under water as [if] in a kind of abyss.
So an abyss [is] a great amount of water. (Tr: ELIZABETH VANDIVER)
§ al.112 Ἀγαθίας: Agathias: A lawyer, of Myrina; the one who wrote the History as a continuation of Procopius of Caesarea, [comprising] the affairs involving Belisarius and the events in Italy and Libya; that is the affairs involving Narses in Italy and the events in Lazike and Byzantion. He also composed other books, both in meter and in prose, including the Daphniaka and the Cycle of New Epigrams, which he compiled himself from the poets of his day. He was a contemporary of Paulus Silentiarius and of the consul Macedonius and of Tribonian in the time of Justinian. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.122 Ἀγαθοῦ Δαίμονος: of the Good Spirit: The ancients had a custom after dinner of drinking 'of the Good Spirit', by taking an extra quaff of unmixed [wine]; and they call this 'of the Good Spirit', but when they are ready to depart, 'of Zeus the Saviour'. And this is what they called the second [day] of the month. But there was also in Thebes a hero-shrine of the Good Spirit.
But others say that the first drinking vessel was called this.
Aristotle composed a book On the Good in which he delineated the unwritten doctrines of Plato. Aristotle mentions the composition in the first [book] of On the Soul, calling it On Philosophy. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.157 Ἀγάπιος: Agapios: Athenian philosopher, after the death of Proclus, under Marinus. He was admired for his love of learning and for his setting of dilemmas that were hard to solve. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.158 Ἀγάπιος: Agapios: This man was an Alexandrian by birth; raised from childhood amidst cultured discourse, he became a commentator on medical teachings and went to Byzantium where he established a very distinguished school. Relying on the magnitude of his talent and the favor of fortune, he became celebrated for his skill and amassed large amounts of money. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.195 Ἀγέλιος: Agelios: This man was bishop of Constantinople during the reign of Valens. He lived an apostolic life, for he always went about unshod and wore only a single tunic, in observance of what the Gospel says. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.215 Ἀγηλατεῖν: to banish as accursed: [Meaning] to drive out as a curse and accursed people.
If [the breathing is] rough, [it means] to drive out curses; but if smooth, it means to drive away. "You seem to me to be in sad shape, you and the one who arranged to drive out these things".
And Herodotus [writes]: "he arrived with a large force and drove out seven hundred Athenian families as accursed." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.239 Ἄγις, Ἄγιδος: Agis, (genitive) Agidos: The son of Pausanias. This man, during an invasion of Mantinean territory once, besieged them and, having turned the flow of the river against the wall, he weakened it; for it was of unbaked brick, which is more secure against siege-engines than baked brick or stones. For those break and jump out of their fittings, whereas unbaked brick is not affected in the same way. It is, though, destroyed by water, no less than beeswax is by the sun. (Tr: NATHAN GREENBERG)
§ al.249 Ἀγκών: elbow: "In the royal palace of Gelimer was a building full of darkness, which the Carthaginians used to call [the] Elbow; therein were thrown all toward whom the tyrant was ill-disposed. There, in the time of Belisarius, happened to be confined many traders from the east about to be destroyed by the tyrant at that time, whom the guard of the prison released."
"And he placed the siege-engines in the way that seemed most timely, and he hit both the wall-angles [angkones] and the trenches from both sides."
Also ἀγκῶνες, a certain part of the house.
Another meaning of ἀγκῶνες is everything that, in a dream, fixes the well-ordered aspect of life.
GR: Ἀγκῶνες [are] also the prominences of rivers, the ones at the banks.
"It was not possible to sail through to the stream ahead because of the size of the descending prominences which it was necessary for those dragging the ships to bend round."
Also ἀγκῶνες, [in the sense of] the heights of the mountains. "Some of you seek out the [western] heights, and some the eastern, going toward the evil exit of the man."
And [there is] a proverbial expression: wiping one's nose with the elbow.
Bion the philosopher said: "my father was a freed slave, wiping his nose with his elbow;" it indicated clearly the saltfish-importer.
See another proverbial expression, 'sweet bend' [in a river, etc.].
Ἀγκών: ἐν τῇ βασιλικῇ αὐλῇ τοῦ Γελίμερος οἴκημα ἦν σκότους ἀνάπλεων, ὃ δὴ Ἀγκῶνα ἐκάλουν οἱ Καρχηδόνιοι: ἔνθα ἐνεβάλλοντο ἅπαντες οἷς ἂν χαλεπαίνοι ὁ τύραννος. ἐνταῦθα ἐπὶ Βελισαρίου πολλοὶ καθειργμένοι ἐτύγχανον τῶν ἑῴων ἐμπόρων, οὓς μέλλοντας κατ' ἐκεῖνο καιροῦ ἀναιρεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ τυράννου ὁ φύλαξ τοῦ δεσμωτηρίου ἀπέλυσε. καὶ διετίθει τὰς μηχανὰς ᾗ μάλιστα ἐδόκει καίριον, ἀγκῶνας τε καὶ τάφρους ἐβάλετο ἑκατέρωθεν. καὶ Ἀγκῶνες, μέρος τι τῆς οἰκίας. ἀγκῶνες δὲ καὶ πάντα τὰ προσπησσόμενα κατ' ὄναρ τὸ κόσμιον τοῦ βίου σημαίνει. Ἀγκῶνες καὶ αἱ τῶν ποταμῶν ἐξοχαὶ, αἱ παρὰ ταῖς ὄχθαις. οὐ δυνατὸν ἦν πρὸς ἀντίον τὸν ῥοῦν ἀναπλεῖν διὰ τὸ μέγεθος τῶν προσπιπτόντων ἀγκώνων, οὓς ἔδει κάμπτειν παρέλκοντας τὰς ναῦς. καὶ Ἀγκῶνας, τὰς ἄκρας τῶν ὀρῶν. οἱ δὲ σπείρουσιν ἀγκῶνας, οἱ δ' ἀντηλίους ζητεῖτ' ἰόντες τ' ἀνδρὸς ἔξοδον κακήν. καὶ παροιμία: τῷ ἀγκῶνι ἀπομυσσόμενος. Βίων φησὶν ὁ φιλόσοφος: ἐμοῦ ὁ πατὴρ μὲν ἦν ἀπελεύθερος, τῷ ἀγκῶνι ἀπομυσσόμενος: διεδήλου δὲ τὸν ταριχέμπορον. ζήτει καὶ ἄλλην παροιμίαν, τὸ γλυκὺς ἀγκών. (Tr: NATHAN GREENBERG)
§ al.257 Ἄγκυρα: Ankyra, Ancyra, Ankara: A city. See under Galatai. (Tr: ROGER TRAVIS)
§ al.269 Ἀγλευκές: sour: What is bitter. Xenophon used [the word] in the Oeconomicus. But the word seems to be foreign, Sicilian; at any rate it is much used later in Rhinthon.
Also [sc. attested is the comparative] ἀγλευκέστερον, meaning more/rather bitter. Xenophon in Hieron [sc. uses the word]. (Tr: ROGER TRAVIS)
§ al.301 Ἀγορὰ Κερκώπων: market of Kerkopes: They were in Ephesus. Herakles bound them on the orders of Omphale, but he shrunk from killing them since their mother begged him. The proverb is spoken in reference to ill-behaved and knavish people. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.302 Agoronomia Ἀγορανομίας: market-supervisorship, market-supervisorships: [Meaning] auditorship/s. The term is applied to those who oversee sales in the cities.
Also [sc. attested is the related concrete noun] "market-supervisors" [agoranomoi]: the officials who manage the sales in the marketplace .
Aristophanes in Acharnians [writes]: "as market-supervisors of the market I appoint the three who were chosen by lot, the thongs from Leprous." That is, straps, whips. For in olden days the auditors of the marketplace used to beat people with whips. And "leprous" [λεπρούς ] some explain as [sc. wordplay] from the verb lepein, that is, "to beat"; others from Lepreon a small town of the Peloponnese which Callimachus also mentions in the Hymns: "citadel of Kaukones, which is called Lepreion." Others still [sc. derive it] from mangy cattle, since the hides of mangy cattle are tough. Still others because the Megarians, with whom he is making a treaty, have mangy bodies. But better to say that [sc. there is] a place called Leproi outside the [Athenian] town-center where the tanners' shops were. There is also a mention of this in Birds: "why then do you settle [in] Helian Lepreon."
Also [sc. attested is the verb] "I supervise markets" [ἀγορανομῶ ]; [used] with a genitive. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.321 Ἀγωγή: deportment, carriage, upbringing: [Meaning] behaviour, manner; or conveyance. Also the driven load.
Upbringing is also said to be the arrangement of one's manner through one's habits, as one speaks of upbringing of children; also the transference [of this]; in reference to which sense he who is defining origin in this way used the word agoge.
Polybius [writes]: "the recruiting-officer also brought a Lakedaimonian man who had participated in the Lakonian upbringing and had a good measure of experience in military things." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.324 Ἀγωγόν: escorting: [Meaning] leading.
And the Pisidian [writes]: "he turned to the channels of the Tigris." The statement [is] about Xosroes.
Also ἀγωγούς ["escorts"], [meaning] guides. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.395 Ἀγχιάλεια: Anchialeia: A city.
Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] ἀγχίαλος ["coastal"], [meaning] the one near the sea.
Not all 'coastal' cities are surrounded by sea. For example, Alexandria is coastal but not surrounded by sea, whereas islands are both coastal and surrounded by sea. Sophocles [writes]: "son of Telamon and child of sea-girt Salamis".
And elsewhere: "a famous tomb holds godlike Homer on a coastal cliff." (Tr: ANNE MAHONEY)
§ al.453 Ἀδείμαντος: Adeimantos: A general of the Corinthians, who called Themistocles a city-less man. But he said "Who [is] city-less, when he has 200 triremes?".
Plato, too, mentions this man in the Protagoras. For he was one of those serving as general in those times. Mocked for their wickedness were Kleon, Myrmex and Nikomachos and Archemoros along with Adeimantos the son of Leukolophos. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.455 ᾌδεις ὥσπερ εἰς Δῆλον πλέων: you sing as if sailing into Delos: In reference to someone carefree and enjoying himself. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.524 Ἀδράστεια: Adrasteia: Some say she is the same thing as Nemesis, and that she took the name from a particular king, Adrastos. Alternatively from the ancient Adrastos who suffered divine wrath [nemesis] for his boasts against the Thebans, who had established a shrine of Nemesis, which after these things acquired the name Adrasteia. Demetrius of Scepsis says that Adrasteia is Artemis, [sc. in a cult] established by one Adrastos. Antimachus says: "there is a certain great goddess Nemesis, who apportions out all these things to the blessed; Adrestos was the first to set up an altar for her by the flowing river [Asopus ]." Some, however, add that she is different from Nemesis herself: so Menander and Nicostratus. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.528 Ἀδριανός: Hadrian, Adrianos, Adrian, Hadrianos, Hadrianus, Adrianus: Sophist. A pupil of Herodes; floruit under Marcus Antoninus; as a teacher he was a rival to the rhetor Aristides in Athens. He was also sophist in Rome, and was secretary with responsibility for correspondence under Commodus. [He wrote] Declamations; Metamorphoses (7 books); On Types of Style (5 books); On Distinctive Features in the Issues (3 books); letters and epideictic speeches; Phalaris; Consolation to Celer. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.533 Ἁδρόν: bulky, fat, stout, thick: Much.
Big, abundant, rich.
Also [sc. attested is the related noun] ἁδρότης, [meaning] grandeur.
"By seducing [him] into the crime with fat fees, he destroys this man."
And Aelian [also says]: "he accosts certain people and, for a fat fee, persuades them to come to Byzantium."
And elsewhere: "with each making display of his craft for fat fees." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.571 Ἀέτιος: Aetios, Aetius: From Antioch in Syria, the teacher of Eunomios, he happened [to be] of poor and lower-class parentage. His father was one of those in the army who were faring rather poorly and he sent that son [Aetios] away for fosterage and died. So he having come to the extreme of difficulty took himself to goldsmithing and became the best. But when his nature yearned for better studies, he turned to logical theories. And he joined Paulinos right when that man had recently arrived at Antioch from Tyre. He still attended him [as a student] in the time of Constantine, displaying a great force of impiety in his disputations with his opponents, and few men could withstand him. After Paulinos died, when Eulalius held the see as twenty-third [in succession] from the apostles, many of those who had been shamed by Aetios thought it a terrible thing to have been defeated by a man who was a newcomer and a craftsman: they banded together and drove him out of Antioch. Being driven out he came to Anazarbos. And he, so full of every ability, brought forth fruits better than his given circumstances. He did not at all stop disputing them, although he was poorly dressed and lived as he happened to be able.
This man was a heresiarch, who was called an atheist in the time of Constantine the Great. He believed the same things as Arius and applauded the same doctrine, but he was separated from the Arians. Aetios was a heretical man earlier and he passionately hastened to advocate the dogma of Arius, for in Alexandria when he had learned a little he joined again. And upon arrival in Antioch in Syria (for he was from that place) he was made a deacon by Leontios, who was bishop at the time. And he shouted at those who met him, reading from the Categories of Aristotle and setting right the contentious arguments. He also patched together letters to the emperor Constantine. But even though he said the same things as the Arianists, he nevertheless, although agreeing with those people, was thought a heretic by his own familiars who were unable to understand the complexity of the arguments. And on account of this he was brought to trial by their church and he himself decided [it was best] not to have dealings with them. And now because of that there are men called "Aetianists" and "Eunomians". For Eunomios was his secretary and was taught by him and preferred the heretical doctrine to that of the masses. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.594 Ἀζηνιεύς: Azenieus, Azenia-man: Azenia is a deme of the Hippothontid tribe, of which a tribesman was called Azenieus.
They say that the people of Attica of ancient times pronounced Azenians and Erchians and Halians and the like with a rough breathing: Polemon in the [writings] In response to Adaios and Antigonos. (Tr: CARL WIDSTRAND)
§ al.603 Ἄζωρος: Azoros, Azorus: Proper name. It also indicates well-mixed wine. (Tr: CARL WIDSTRAND)
§ al.634 Ἀείρακος: aeirakos: The [word for the] hind among Cretans. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.642 Ἀεί τις ἐν Κύδωνος: always someone at Kydon's: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who are hospitable and ready to receive [guests]; inasmuch as Kydon the Corinthian was very hospitable. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.664 Ἀήτης: gale: The wind.
And just as ἡγήσω ["I will lead"] [is cognate with the noun] ἡγητής ["leader"]; [and] ποιήσω ["I will create"] [with] ποιητής ["creator"]; so it was necessary [to postulate the sequence] ἄω ["I blow"], ἀήσω ["I will blow"], ἀητής ["blower"]. But this is wrong.
"When at night on the Carpathian sea with a gale encircling". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.714 Ἀθέμιστα: lawless [things]: [Meaning] unjust [ones].
Also [sc. attested is the masculine nominative singular] ἀθέμιστος, [meaning] unlawful.
Also said is ἄθεσμος, [meaning] illegal.
"Piasos the Thessalian loved Larissa, his own daughter — a love both illegal and unfortunate". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.731 Ἀθήναιος: Athenaios: Of Naucratis. Grammarian. Lived in the time of Marcus. He wrote a book with the title Deipnosophists, in which he records how many of the ancients had a reputation for munificence in giving banquets.
Alexander the Great, after that naval victory over the Spartans and after he had fortified the Peiraeus, sacrificed a hecatomb and feasted all the Athenians. And after his Olympic victory Alcibiades gave a feast for the whole festival. Leophron did the same at the Olympic games. And Empedocles of Acragas, being a Pythagorean and an abstainer from animal food, when he won an Olympic victory made an ox out of incense, myrrh and expensive perfumes and divided it among those who came to the festival. And Ion of Chios, when he won a victory in the tragic competition at Athens, gave every Athenian a jar of Chian [sc. wine]. And Tellias of Acragas, a hospitable man, when 500 horsemen were billeted with him during the winter, gave each of them a cloak and tunic. [It is on record] that Charmus of Syracuse used to utter little verses and proverbs for every one of the dishes served at his banquets. Clearchus of Soli calls the poem Deipnology, others Opsology, Chrysippus Gastronomy, others The Life of Luxury [Hedupatheia]. [It is on record] that in Plato's symposium there were 28 diners. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.732 Ἀθηναίων δυσβουλία: Athenians' ill-counsel: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who prosper against expectations and undeservedly.
For taking decisions badly is practiced by Athenians; Athena offers to turn that which has been decided badly to good; and this was a local saying. Also Eupolis [writes]: "better to be prosperous than to think well." And Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "for they say that ill counsel comes to this city, but in whatever things you err, the gods will turn them for the better".
The Athenians are said to be autochthonous, [as are] Arcadians and Aeginetans and Thebans, either since they were the first to work the soil [chthon], namely the earth, or on account of their not being incomers. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.734 Ἀθηνόδωρος: Athenodoros: This man was an Athenian soldier.
There is also another, a pupil of Dionysius the Areopagite; he wrote various works.
Also another sophist; brother of Gregory Thaumaturgus. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.743 Ἀθμωνεύς: Athmoneus, Athmonian: Athmonia is a deme of the Kekropid [sc. tribe in Athens ]; the demesman from it [is] an Athmoneus.
Also Athmonis, a proper name.
[See] the Peiraieus; peaks — the high ones; bowl. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.745 Ἄθων: Athos: The mountain [sc. of that name].
They say [the name] with the [final] nu. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.749 Ἄθως καλύπτει πλευρὰ Λημνίας βοός: Athos conceals the flank of a Lemnian cow: A proverb in reference to those paining or harming anyone; since Mount Athos overshadows the cow, made of white stone, in Lemnos. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.774 Ἀκαδημία: Academy: A place of exercise in Athens, a wooded suburb in which Plato used to spend his time; named after Hekademos, a hero. It was formerly called the Hecademy, because of the epsilon.
Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "but going down into the Academy, you will run crowned with pale reeds under the sacred olives with a sound-minded age-mate, smelling of bindweed and quietude and the bright falling leaves, delighting in the season of spring, when the plane tree whispers to the elm." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.775 Ἀκαδημία: Academy: Three gymnasia existed:[the] Lykeion, [the] Kynosarges, [and the] Academy. [sc. The last of these] was named from Akademos who had dedicated it.
And in the neuter [it is] Akademeon. The term Akademia means the school of friends. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.780 Ἀκακήσιον: Akakesion, Acacesium: Name of a mountain. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.783 Ἀκάκιος: Akakios: The patriarch of Constantinople, he was revered as no other. For he was the guardian of orphans, and it was evident to all that he managed the affairs of the orphans well and with pleasure. Moreover, he became an acquaintance of the emperor Leo with whom he found immense favor. He [Leo] confided his affairs, both public and private, to this man first of all. When he assembled the senate, he invited this man as well and turned the beginning of every discussion over to him.
This Akakios realized the savagery of Leo Makelles toward those who had offended him in some way and had accurately divined his character; but because this was something only those who flattered him had the opportunity to observe, he made a habit of marvelling at all that he did. Nevertheless he was readily able to rein [Leo] in and easily made him slacken his anger. He also brought about the salvation of many who ran afoul of him, and managed to have those sentenced to life-long exile recalled to their homeland.
After the death of Gennadios, patriarch of Constantinople, he was nominated to serve in that priesthood with the backing of Zenon. Since he was a natural leader and took all the churches under his direct control, he exercised a deliberate discrimination concerning those who were appointed to the churches. They in gratitude dedicated images of him in their prayer chambers. Thus, when images of him appeared in all the churches, some people began to think that he, in a pursuit of empty glory, had ordered their dedication, and no small confirmation of this suspicion was supplied by the mosaic image fashioned in the church by the harbor. For although the entire work had been completed in the time of Gennadios, in a conspicuous place in the temple they portrayed [Akakios] and after him the Saviour saying to Gennadios 'destroy this temple', and over him 'after you I will raise him up.' As a result of such images, then, Akakios, though he was generous and a capable leader, nevertheless seemed to all to be excessively ambitious.
See concerning this man under Basiliskos. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.805 Ἀκαρνᾶνα: Akarnanian, Acarnanian: "Personally, I admire the men, but the Akarnanian above the rest".
Also Akarnanades: see under ἀπαλγοῦντες ["being despondent"]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.848 Ἀκέσματα: remedies: [Meaning] medicines, things that heal.
"Avoiding the guards she ran up with her daughter, carrying a remedy for the coming shortage."
"There was a man in the Galeotis, formidable both in telling cures of diseases and in remedying a time of bad season, and in figuring out in times of infertility and crop failure through certain religious rites how to change and in offering certain useful solutions. Minos summoned this man to Crete, they say by gifts, so that he might track down the celebrated disappearance of Glaucus."
Also akesmos, [sc. the process of] healing. (Tr: ROBERT DYER)
§ al.858 Ἀκή: Ake, Acre: A city in Phoenicia, which some say is the old name for the one now called Ptolemais, though Demetrius [says this] not of the [whole] city but of its acropolis. (Tr: ROBERT DYER)
§ al.916 Ἀκόλαστος: licentious: Worthy of chastisement. Aristophanes in Wealth [writes]: "who also is licentious in his ways".
The bold man is also called [this].
And Iamblichus [writes]: "she was at one moment laughing boldly and licentiously, the next moment uttering presumptuous words"
And Aelian [writes]: "an Arcadian man, Eutelidas by name, suffered from an ailment which made him harangue everyone evilly with a licentious and intemperate tongue; he also hated those who were faring well". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.932 Ἄκος: cure: [Meaning] remedy, therapy.
"They beg a god, of course, for a cure. And an oracle falls to them, saying it is necessary that they make libations to those of the Aetolians who died unjustly." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.942 Ἀκουσίλαος: Akousilaos, Akusilaos: Son of Kabas; an Argive, from the city of Kerkas, which is near Aulis; a very ancient historian. He wrote Genealogies from bronze tablets, which, the story goes, his father found while digging a place at his home. (Tr: JOSEPH L. RIFE)
§ al.975 Ἀκραίφνιον: Akraiphnion, Acraephnium: Name of a city. (Tr: OLIVER PHILLIPS ✝)
§ al.1002 Ἀκροθίνια: spoils, akrothinia: The first-fruits of the annual crops. But in the strict sense akrothinia is the name for the first-fruits which those [who make their living] out of importing dedicate, because they are saved from the sand [ἀπὸ τοῦ θινός ], that is from the sea-shore. Others [say they are] the spoils of war, since many people are spoiled [σίνεσθαι ], that is harmed, in war. Or the tops of heaps.
Heraclides the Lycian sophist, said: 'Nicetes the purified', unaware that he was fitting spoils of pygmies onto a colossus.
[There is] a proverb, 'to fit spoils of pygmies onto a colossus'; in reference to people labouring in vain. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.1003 Ἀκροκορινθία ἔοικας χοιροπωλήσειν: you seem about to sell piggie in Acrocorinth: Look under khoiros. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1023 Ἀκροχειρίζεσθαι: to struggle at arms length: To box or wrestle against another man without close engagement, or to practice with another wholly with the extremities of the hands.
Also [sc. attested is the athlete] Akrokhersites, so named because by seizing the fingertips of his opponent he would break them off and not let go before ascertaining that the man had given in. There was also Leontiskos, a Messenian out of Sicily, who competed in a similar way; this man used to wrestle.
Also [sc. attested is the term] ἀκροχειρίς, [meaning] the top of the hand. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1036 Ἀκτή: Akte, Acte: In a particular sense a part of Attica by the sea; from where the Actite stone [sc. originates]. But they also used to use this name for [sc. the entirety of] Attica, some [deriving it] from a certain king Aktaion, others because most of the country is close to the sea. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.1081 Ἀλλ' ἔστιν ἡμῖν Μεγαρική τις μηχανή: but we have some Megarian contrivance: Meaning a tricky, knavish contrivance. For the Megarians used to deceive with trickery, saying some things, but doing others. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1117 Ἀλεκτρυόνα ἀθλητὴν Ταναγραῖον: a cock [and ] an athlete from Tanagra: These sing nobly.
"He sends it to be a votive offering and a delight to Asklepios, as if the bird were an attendant or servant in the temple, that man of Aspendos".
And [there is] a saying: "he claimed I had a cock's stomach. 'For you will quickly digest the money', [said he]."
Look, concerning their spurs, under αἶρε πλῆκτρον ["raise a spur"]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1119 Ἀλεξάνδρεια: Alexandreia, Alexandria: Name of a city. And the citizen [of it is an] "Alexandreus"; also "Alexandreios". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1120 Ἀλεξανδρέων φονοκτονία: Alexandrians' massacre: Look under Antoninos. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1121 Ἀλέξανδρος: Alexander, Alexandros: The son of Philip and Olympias, who was king of the Macedonians from age 18 and died at 33 years of age.
This man was "very beautiful in body and very devoted to hard work and very acute, very courageous in judgement and very ambitious and very adventurous and very concerned for the divine; also very restrained as regards the pleasures of the body, but very keen on what judgement commended; very clever at discerning what was necessary, even when it was yet unclear, very successful in inferring from observations what was likely to follow, and very skilled at marshalling and equipping an army."
"And he was very suited for every good. In addition he was moderate and god-fearing. For once, after he had become so angry with the Thebans that he enslaved its inhabitants and razed the city [itself] to its foundations, he did not make light of reverence to the gods concerning the capture of the city; no, he took especial care that there should not be an involuntary sin concerning the shrines and the [religious] precincts as a whole."
"The grandiloquence of Alexander did not seem more like a kind of arrogance than confidence in danger."
Alexander fell in love with Roxane, the daughter of Oxyartos the Bactrian, "whom those serving with Alexander say was the most beautiful of the Asian women after the wife of Dareios. And [they say that] when he had seen her Alexander fell in love with her; and [that] although he was in love with her he did want to violate her as if she were a war captive, but did not think her unworthy to take in marriage. And I myself rather approve this action of Alexander and do not censure it. And then this wife of Dareios, who was called the most beautiful of the women in Asia, either he did make an amorous approach to her or he controlled himself, although he was young and at the very height of good fortune, when men do outrageous things. He respected her and spared her, showing much restraint, and at the same time ambition for good repute which was not misplaced. And there is a story going around, that Dareios' eunuch who guarded his wife ran back to him. And Dareios, when he saw him, first asked whether his daughters were alive and his sons and his wife and his mother. He learned they were alive, and that they were called queens, and about the care being taken of them and how his wife was behaving sensibly. At these things Dareios raised his hands to heaven and prayed thus: 'O Zeus, king, to whom it was given to order the affairs of kings among men, guard my rule over the Persians and the Medes as you see fit. But if I myself cannot be king of Asia any more, then give my rule to no one but Alexander'. Thus even enemies are not indifferent to virtuous deeds." Thus says Arrian.
"Nearchos says that [Alexander] was pained by some of his friends, who were carrying him while he was ill, for running a personal risk in advance of his army; for these things were not for a general, but for a soldier. And it seems to me that Alexander was irritated with these words, because he knew they were true and that he had laid himself open to censure. And yet his eagerness in battle and love of glory made him like men overcome by any other form of pleasure, and he was not strong enough to keep away from dangers."
"Alexander the Macedonian lived a marvelous life. His handling of conflicts lent a guaranteed trustworthiness to what he said. For you cannot find a man in this whole orb of the world having the advantage in such great achievements. For he spent time with the best men, and in written accounts is found not inferior to those who are praised to the skies; and in matters of war he accomplished things that were more marvelous than believable. And having gone to war against Dareios, he prevailed victorious over him. And that man begged him to come to a reconciliation, and even gave him his daughter Roxane in a covenant of marriage. Having subdued all races he lost his mind and succumbed to the pleasures of the body, putting on Persian dress and being attended by myriad youths, and using 300 concubines, so that he changed the entire Macedonian royal way of life into Persian ways and annulled those of his own people. Later, arriving in India, he was caught by queen Kandake in the clothes of a private individual and she said to him: 'Alexander, king: you took the world and you are overcome by a woman?' And he made peace with her and kept her country from harm."
"The same encountered men who had been captured long ago by the Persians in Greece and had had their hands cut off, and he showed them kindness with great gifts and cheered them. Arriving at the lake in Alexandria he threw away his diadem, and with so much water crashing down only scarcely swam safe across to land. And he was given poison by his own general Kas[s]andros and was convulsed; and thus, at [a time of] such great successes, ended his life." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1123 Ἀλέξανδρος, νικήσας ναυμαχίαν Λακεδαιμονίους: Alexander, Alexandros: This Alexander the Great, having defeated the Lakedaimonians in a sea-battle and fortified Peiraieus and sacrificed a hecatomb, feasted all the Athenians. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1125 Ἀλέξανδρος, Ἱεραπόλεως ἐπίσκοπος: Alexander, bishop of Hierapolis and martyr. He wrote What new thing did Christ bring into the world, in 9 chapters, a book packed full of thoughts. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1127 Ἀλέξανδρος Αἰτωλός: Alexander the Aetolian: From the city of Pleuron; son of Satyrus and Stratocleia. Grammarian. He also wrote tragedies, and was consequently selected as one of the seven tragedians who were nicknamed the 'Pleiad'. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.1128 Ἀλέξανδρος Αἰγαῖος: Alexander of Aegae: Peripatetic philosopher; teacher of the emperor Nero, along with the philosopher Chaeremon. He had a son called Caelinus. This man used to call Nero 'clay mixed with blood'. In my view, bad pupils have worse teachers; for virtue is teachable, vice comes from practice.
[b] There is also another Alexander, of Aphrodisias, a philosopher.
[c] And another, son of Numenius, a sophist.
[d] And another, surnamed Claudius, a sophist.
[e] And another, son of Casilon, a sophist, brother of the sophist Eusebius and a pupil of Julian.
[f] And another Alexander, son of Alexander the legal advocate, a Cilician from Seleucia, a sophist, nicknamed Peloplaton. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.1138 Ἄλεξις: Alexis: Of Thourioi, [the place] previously called Sybaris; a comic playwright. He produced 245 plays. He was the paternal uncle of Menander the comic playwright. And he had a son, Stephanos, a comic playwright himself. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1156 Ἀλείπης: Aleipes, Non-Lacking: A spring in Ephesos. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1164 Ἀλλ' εἴ τις ὑμῶν ἐν Σαμοθρᾴκῃ μεμυημένος ἐστι: but if there is someone among you initiated in Samothrace, now is a fine time to pray that both feet of the pursuer be put out of joint: In Samothrace there were certain initiation rites, which they supposed efficacious as a charm against certain dangers. In that place were also the mysteries of the Corybantes and those of Hecate and the Zerinthian cave, where they sacrificed dogs. The initiates supposed that these things save [them] from terrors and from storms. The bone-socket of the pursuer to be "be put out of joint" means to "be distorted and dislocated". The way forward becomes an obstacle to him, so that he can no longer turn back. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1173 Ἀληθέστερα τῶν ἐπὶ Σάγρᾳ: truer things than those at Sagra: A proverb in reference to things that are true, but are not believed. For Sagra [is] a place in Lokris. Menander in Anatithemene mentions the proverb. They say that the Epizephyrian Lokrians were at war with the neighboring Krotoniates and asked the Lacedaemonians for an alliance. [The latter] said they had no army, but they would give them the Dioskouroi. The Lokrians, having interpreted the taunt as an omen, turned back their ship and begged the Dioskouroi to sail with them. And after they had won a victory that same day and sent word by messenger to Sparta, it was at first disbelieved; but once it had been found to be true, it was said of things that are perfectly true, but not believed.
So "truer things than those at Sagra" [is said] in reference to what is absolutely true. For it is said the word about the victory came on the same day from Italy to Sparta. Hence the story became a proverb in reference to truthful matters. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1184 Ἁλικαρνασεύς: Halicarnassian, Halikarnassian: [no gloss] (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1207 Ἀλιάρται: Aliartians, Haliartians: [sc. Men] from the territory of [H]aliartia. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1224 Ἄλλικα: allix, mantle: A chlamys according to Thessalians: "an allix fastened with gilt brooches."
The locals(?) call this gallix. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1225 Ἁλικαρνασεύς: Halicarnassian, Halikarnassian: From a place [of that name]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1231 Ἁλιμούσιος: Halimousian: Halimous is a deme of [the Athenian tribe] Leontis. Agasikles is said to have bribed the Halimousians and because of this, although a foreigner, was registered in the citizen body. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1236 Ἁλιξάντοις: sea-worn: Those withered away by the sea. In the Epigrams: "[o Priapus, enjoying] sea-worn reefs of the coast islet." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1240 Ἁλίπεδον: halipedon: A level plain next to the sea.
Some people call Piraeus this. It is also an accessible place which once was sea and afterwards became a plain. Hence one must aspirate the first [sc. syllable], for it is as much as to say a plain of salt [ἁλός ]. And some call the coastal plain this. Others [say] that it got its name from the ability for horses to roll [ἀλινδεῖσθαι ] in it, that is wallow.
See above, under Alex. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1253 Ἁλιτενής: shallow: Appian [writes]: "the Carthaginians sallied forth against the engines of the Romans not by land, for there was no passage, nor in ships, for the sea was shallow, but naked: some soaked up to their chests, while others swam across". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1263 Ἀλίφειρα: Alipheira, Aliphira: Name of a city.
Also Alipheireus, name of a river. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1268 Ἀλθηφίας: Althephian: The vine [of that name], [named] after a certain Althephos. Also Anthedonian and Hyperian, [named] after Hyperos and Anthedon. An oracle [says]: "drink wine on the lees, since you do not live in Anthedon, or sacred Hypera, where you used to drink wine without lees". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1280 Ἀλκιβιάδης: Alcibiades: The son of Kleinias and of Perikles' sister. An Athenian, a philosopher and a politician. A pupil first of Sophilos, then of Sokrates, whose lover he was too, as some say. Some also record that he was born of slaves.
This man served as a general of the Athenians; and pained because of being expelled from his generalship on account of the mutilation of the Herms he went over to the Persian Tissaphernes and became responsible for a war against the Athenians — [but] he came to be on good terms with them again. When Lysander, with whom he was spending time, was about to capture him, while he was in the country of Phrygia with a mistress he saw a dream of this sort: he seemed, wearing the clothes of his mistress, to burn separately from his head. The spearmen standing nearby set the tent on fire, and Alkibiades went out and, having been hunted down, was attacked and wounded. They cut off his head and brought it to Pharnabazos.
This man, having been victorious at the Olympic games, gave a banquet for the entire festival. (Tr: DEBRA HAMEL)
§ al.1289 Ἀλκμάν: Alkman: A Laconian from Messoa; but according to Crates — who is mistaken — a Lydian out of Sardis; a lyric poet, son of Damas or Titaros. He was born in the 27th Olympiad [672 BCE], when Ardys, the father of Alyattes, was king of Lydia; and being an especially passionate man, he was the inventor of love poetry. His parents were slaves; he wrote six books: lyric poetry and Diving Women. He was the first to introduce singing in meters other than the hexameter. He used a Doric dialect, as Spartans [do]. There is also another Alcman, one of the lyric poets, born in Messene. And the plural [is] "Alcmanes". (Tr: SAMUEL HUSKEY)
§ al.1292 Ἀλκμαιονίδαι: Alkmaionidai, Alcmeonids: Certain illustrious men in Athens, [named] from Alkmaion, the one [who lived] during the time of Theseus.
Also "of Aktaionid [ones]", [singular] of an Aktaionid [one]; "you are one of [the] Aktaionid whelps." In the Epigrams. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1298 Ἀλκυονίδες ἡμέραι: Alcyon days, Halcyon days, kingfisher days: [Meaning] those of fine weather.
People differ on their number. For Simonides in Pentathla says they are 11, as does Aristotle in the History of Animals, but Demagoras of Samos [says] 7, and Philochorus 9. Hegesander tells the myth about them in his Memoirs as follows. They were the daughters of the giant Alkyoneus: Phosthonia, Anthe, Methone, Alkippa, Palene, Drimo, Asterie. After the death of their father they threw themselves into the sea from Kanastraion, which is the peak of Pellene, but Amphitrite made them birds, and they were called Alkyones from their father. Windless days with a calm sea are called Alkyonides.
Also [sc. attested is the variant form] "Alkyonian day". (Tr: ROBERT DYER)
§ al.1357 Ἁλουργά: sea-wrought: [Of] sea-purple.
"The girdles, and the sea-wrought undergarment, and the Laconian robes." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1362 Ἀλλ' οὑτοσὶ τρέχει τὶς Ἀλφειὸν πνέων: but here is some runner breathing Alpheios: Aristophanes [sc. writes this]. [He means] an Olympic runner, from the river flowing by [Olympia ]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1379 Ἀλώμενος: roaming: [He] wandering.
"The Gepids, sporadically roaming, approached him in small parties."
And elsewhere: "the sacrilegious man left his homeland and continued roaming."
And elsewhere: "I myself, roaming after the arrival of the barbarians, went into Phara." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1389 Ἀλωπεκόννησος: Alopekonnesos, Fox-Island: It is a city, one among those in Cheronnesos.
Ainos is a city of Thrace, which Greeks first colonized for the Alopekonnesians, and later they introduced additional settlers from Mytilene and Kyme. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1423 Ἀλυάττης: Alyattes: King of the Lydians, who was suited by birth to matters of war, but in all else without restraint; for he once dishonored his own sister. He was the father of Alyattes, who while a youth was hubristic and without restraint, but very self-controlled and righteous after entering into manhood. He made war on the Smyrnians and took their city. This man was the father of Croesus. When campaigning in Caria he sent around orders to his sons to lead the army to Sardis; among their number was Croesus, who was the eldest of his sons, who had been appointed ruler of both Adramytteion and the plain of Thebes.
While Alyattes was besieging Priene, he says... (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1448 Ἀλφειός: Alpheios: A river. Homer [writes]: "[the river Alpheios,] which flows broad through the land of the Pylians."
Which "is hidden immediately after its source and carries on for quite a way underground, coming up around Lykoa in Arcadia. But the river, while not very far from its source, is hidden for ten stades, then surfaces again, and afterwards runs through Megalopolitan [territory], at first shallow but then gradually increasing, and already having crossed all the aforementioned area in full view for ten stades, it comes to Lykoa, at this point already joined by the stream of Lousios, and is altogether impassable and deep."
Look [for information] about this also under Arethusa. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1449 Ἀλφειός: Alpheios: A river of the Arcadian city [of that name], which is situated in the Peloponnese. Reaching open water through the Adriatic Sea, and mixing in no way with the brine, it surges up by the island of Sicily around the spring called Arethusa, as if it were her beloved.
"But here's someone running and breathing Alpheus". Thus swiftly, as if an Olympic runner, derived from the river flowing by.
I think the Theologian is speaking about this [sc. when he says] "and if some river is believed to flow sweet through sea-water". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1489 Ἁμαξιτόν: wagon-road: [Meaning a] public highway.
Malchus [writes]: "the entrance into Cilicia was a wagon-road, terribly steep and impossible for an army to enter, if anyone prevented." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1506 Ἀμασεία: Amaseia: Name of a city; But Amasis [is] a proper name.
He was the first man to conquer Cyprus, subdue it and make it tributary.
There is also Amasis [as] a name of a city. (Tr: EKATERINI TSALAMPOUNI)
§ al.1510 Ἅμματα: [Kasiotic] knots: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who are crooked in their ways. [So called] from the Pelousians in Kasion, who by natural skill used to weave knots in order to attach one beam to another.
[A knot] equivalent to a Kasiote.
Knots, [meaning] ties.
In the Epigrams "the bindings of her untouched golden maidenhood Zeus cut through, after slipping into Danae's bronze-fastened chambers." And elsewhere: "with the binding of her dainty woven head-dress."
And the Pisidian [writes] about Chosroes: "when he was in bindings subsequently, they tied him with a more secure bond." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.1513 Ἀμάχιος: Amachios, Amachius: This man was the chief official of a small Phrygian city under Julian the Apostate, and a fanatical pagan. When the temples were opened, a certain Makedonios and Theodoulos and Tatianos in zeal for Christianity burst in at night and destroyed the statues. They endured many hardships and punishments on account of this and were set upon grills and punished by fire. They showed their valour then by saying: "Amachios, if you want to get a taste of roast meat, turn us over on our other sides lest we seem to you half-roasted to the taste." And thus they died. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1532 Ἀμβολὰς γῆ: earth thrown up, mounds of earth: That which is raised up by a ditch. Xenophon [writes]: "Cyrus made towers on the earth that was thrown up, so that there might be as many watchtowers as possible."
Look under "bitten" [δακνόμενος ], because housebuilding and raising horses and making mounds seemed expensive to the Laconians. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1579 Ἀμήσαντες: having reaped: Meaning [they] not having cut off.
Also ἀμήσαντι, [in the sense of] having harvested.
In the Epigrams: "never having harvested a Corinthian [harvest], never having tasted bitter poverty." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1625 Ἀμόργινον: amorginos, Amorgian, mallow-fibered fabric: [sc. Something] like linen and expensive.
Also found is amorgina in the feminine. (Tr: OLIVER PHILLIPS ✝)
§ al.1627 Ἀμοργοί πόλεως ὄλεθρος: squeezers [are] a city's ruin: Cratinus in Seriphians [sc. uses the phrase]. They also call them morgoi, taking away the alpha, as in other cases: for they call amauron mauron and asphodelon sphodelon. (Tr: OLIVER PHILLIPS ✝)
§ al.1638 Ἄμμων: Ammon: Name of a Greek god.
Aristophanes in Birds [writes]: "we are your Ammon, Delphi, Dodona, Phoebus Apollo; for you come to the birds first before starting your work." (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.1654 Ἀμπλάκημα: failure: [sc. Moral] mistake.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] ἀμπλακίαις ["with failures"], [meaning] with [sc. moral] mistakes.
The Stoics believe that all [sc. moral] mistakes should be regarded as equal. For if [something which is] true is no more true [than another true thing] and [something which is] false is no more false [than another false thing] either, so too [one] deceit is no more a deceit [than another], or a [sc. moral] mistake [is no more] a [sc. moral] mistake [than another]. For he who is 100 stades away from Canopus and he who is one [stade away] are equally not in Canopus; so too a greater or a lesser [sc. moral] mistake is equally not in the domain of right action. But some people, among whom [is numbered] even Heraclides of Tarsus, maintain that [sc. moral] mistakes are unequal.
Also ἀμπλακών ["failing"], [meaning] having made a [sc. moral] mistake.
"But Ibycus' verse came against him: "not to exchange honour among men by failing with the gods". This little Ibycean saying was sung against priesthood." (Tr: MARCELO BOERI)
§ al.1671 Ἀμύκλαι: shoes: A sort of ornament, which Empedokles had on his feet. For he had a golden wreath on his head and bronze amyklai on his feet and Delphic fillets in his hands; and thus he went from city to city, wanting to hold his own reputation like that of a god. By night he cast himself into the craters of the fiery Etna, but his sandal was thrown back up. He was called Kolusanemas ["wind-restrainer"], because he banished the many winds which were set against Akragas by placing hides of asses around the city. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1672 Ἀμυκλαῖος: Amyklaian, Amyclaean: From a place. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1677 Ἀμυνίας: Amynias: A proper name.
Or someone ready to defend himself [ἀμύνεσθαι ].
"But rather [stupid is] Amynias the son of Swank, the man whose forbears wore their hair in buns." [So says] Aristophanes [and goes on]. "This man I once saw dining with Leogoras, instead of [his present fare of] an apple and a pomegranate; for [now] he is as hungry as Antiphon. What is more he went as an ambassador to Pharsalos, and there he alone mixed with the Thessalian serfs alone — he himself being a serf second to none." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1684 Ἄμυρις μαίνεται: Amyris is mad: The proverb refers to the man of sound mind.
For a sacred envoy [theoros] had been sent to Delphi by [the] Sybarites concerning their good fortune, and the god had prophesied that there would be destruction on [the] Sybarites whenever they began to honor men more than gods. [Amyris], seeing a slave being flogged in front of the shrine and fleeing to the shrine for refuge and then not being set free — being freed only later, once he had sought refuge at the tomb of the father of the flogger — understood the oracle, turned his property into cash, and left for the Peloponnese. This, then, Amyris did with good reason, but the] Sybarites considered this madness. For a long time he was wondered at on account of his pretended insanity. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1722 Ἀμφιδρόμια: Amphidromia: They hold this [ceremony] for new-born babies on their fifth [day], in which the women who came together for the delivery cleanse their hands; they run round the hearth carrying the child and the relatives send presents, for the most part octopuses and cuttle-fish. The name is given [to the child] on the tenth [day]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1736 Ἀμφικτυόνες: Amphiktyons: The Amphictyon is a Greek council, convened in Thermopylai. [The] Amphiktyons took their name from Amphiktyon the son of Deukalion. For it was he, as king, who convened the peoples. They were twelve: Ionians, Dorians, Perrhaiboi, Boiotians, Magnesians, Achaians, Phthiotians, Molians, Dolopes, Aenianians, Delphians, Phocians. But some say it is thus called from being neighbors to and convening in Delphi.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] Amphiktyonic territory; but Amphitryonic [sic] battle.
[The noun] Amphiktyon preserves [omega in the genitive, i.e.] ἀμφικτύωνος . But Amphiktyon shortens [its o to] ἀμφικτύονος . (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1754 Ἀμφίπολις: Amphipolis: It is a polis of Thrace; it was previously called Nine Ways. Some say that it was named Amphipolis [literally: "Around-City"] because the site had people living round it.
Amphipolis declines ἀμφιπόλεως [in the genitive case]. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.1756 Ἀμφιπρύμναις: double-sterned: A type of ships. "He prepared to enter the Istros again in those of his ships which were double-sterned". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1785 Ἀμφορεαφόρους: amphora-bearers, amphora-carriers: Hirelings who carry jars. Also [sc. attested is the singular] amphoreaphoros, he who carries a jar for hire. "Then some amphora-bearer bringing a return." [So says] Menander in The Girl Who Gets Flogged. And Aristophanes in Heroes [says]: "run inside for the wine, taking an empty amphora, and food and a tasting-cup, and then hire yourself out as an amphora-bearer." Eupolis in Catamite [writes]: "and we go about and [he is] carrying a tribe [as] amphora."
An amphoreus, then, [is a] vessel, measure, jar.
It also means wine-skin. And it is a proper name.
Also [sc. attested is the plural] amphoreis, [meaning] jars.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "little Thasian amphoras", [meaning] jugs.
Josephus [writes]: "he bought up with a Tyrian coin, which is worth four Attic [drachmas], four amphoras, and then sold [them] for the price of half an amphora and made a lot of money."
And Aristophanes says amphoreis [when he means] the measures. "Little pots and small trenchers, and little amphoras".
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] ἀμφορεῖς νενησμένοι, [meaning] jars heaped up. Aristophanes [writes]: "why do you good-for-nothings sit there like sheep,... heaped-up amphoras."
Also [sc. attested are the terms] ἀμφορῆας and ἀμφορείδια [meaning] jars.
[Note] that ἀμφορῆας is a Megarian way of speaking. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1822 Ἀνάγεσθαι: to put to sea: Sailing out of Byzantium. Procopius [writes]: "for it is not lawful for anyone to put to sea out of Byzantium [unless sent out] by the men [in office...]".
Also [sc. in the active voice] ἀνάγειν, [meaning] disclosing the perpetrator and proceeding against him. So Lysias and Dinarchus [sc. use the word]. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.1832 Ἀναγνωσθείς: having been convinced: [He] having been persuaded. "Having been convinced by his wife, he contrived an unholy thing for his daughter. For there was a Theban man Themison [...]". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1835 Ἀναγωγή: launch, launching: The sailing-out of the ships.
"And a launching of the ships took place not in keeping with the size of such an embarking army or magnificence of the armaments or the other preparations that exceeded necessity for beauty."
And elsewhere: "having surveyed the situation in Egypt, they made their launch for Cyprus and thence to Syria." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1842 Ἀναγυράσιος: Anagyrasian: Anagyrous is a deme of the tribe Erechtheis, the demesman from which [is an] Anagyrasian.
Also "Anagyrasian spirit". And [there is] a shrine of Anagyros in the deme of the Anagyrasians. [The phrase] "Anagyrasian spirit" [arose] because a hero Anagyros took vengeance on the elderly settler who cut down the grove. Anagyrasians [were] a deme of Attica. One of them cut down the grove of this [hero]. He made [the man's] concubine fall madly in love with [the man's] son, and she, unable to persuade the son, denounced him to the father as licentious. He [the father] mutilated him [the son] and immured him in the house. Consequently the father hanged himself, and the concubine threw herself into a well. Hieronymus tells the story in his [treatise] On Tragic Poets, comparing the Phoenix of Euripides to them. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.1843 Ἀνάγυρος: Anagyros, Anagyrous: A deme of Attica.
And a flower, which smells when crushed.
And [there is] a proverb from it, "You are moving the anagyros", in reference to those who bring evils on themselves.
Anagyros is an evil-averting and foul-smelling plant. Some call it onogyros. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.1847 Ἀναδέξασθαι: to await: To hold back, to wait for.
"He encamped in the precinct, wanting to await the coming ferries to bear him across."
And Polybius [writes]: "and [Junius was] awaiting those who were lagging behind on the voyage from Messene."
And elsewhere: "before awaiting those who had been scattered amongst the foraging parties." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1862 Ἀναδρομαί: retreats, returns: [Meaning] ways back.
"'Let there be a return, and we are not overthrown'. It is necessary always to have this verse at the ready. Lucius the Roman did not do this and suffered a huge downfall. Thus the greatest of efforts, if they are conducted with poor judgement, take little to be overthrown. Sufficient signs of such things to those who understand well are both the force of Pyrrhus the king of the Epeirotes and his invasion into Argos and the expedition of Lysimachus through Thrace against Dromichaites the king of the Odrysai; also many other [situations] like these." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1866 Ἀνάζαρβον: Anazarbos: Nerva, emperor of the Romans, when Diocaesarea, which is in Cilicia, had been destroyed by an earthquake, sent a senator named Anazarbos; he rebuilt [the city], once called Kyinda, then Diocaesarea, and called it Anazarbos from his own name. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1868 Ἀναζυγαῖς: withdrawals: Returns, breakings of camp.
Polybius [writes]: but Philip "made the withdrawal and the return voyage with no order at all and put into Kephallenia on the second day."
"But the Romans, knowing absolutely nothing of what had happened, were engaged in a withdrawal." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1916 Ἀνακρέων: Anakreon: Of Teos. Lyric poet. Skythinos' son, though some suggested Eumelos', others Parthenios', others Aristokritos'. He wrote elegies and iambics, all in Ionic dialect. He was born in the time of Polykrates the tyrant of Samos in the 52nd Olympiad, though some assign him to the time of Kyros and Kambyses in the 55th Olympiad. He was exiled from Teos on account of the rebellion of Histiaios and settled in Abdera in Thrace. His life was devoted to love affairs with boys and women and to his poems. He also composed wine-drinking songs, iambics, and the songs called Anacreontea. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.1961 Ἀναμετρήσαιμι: might I measure out: [Used] with an accusative. [Meaning] might I cross over.
"[...] never to sail away to Rhegium nor to measure out so much sea." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1981 Ἀναξαγόρας: Anaxagoras: A sophist, son of Hegesibulus, of Clazomenae. He was nicknamed 'Mind', since he said that matter and mind are the guardian of all things. This is the man who said that the sun is a red-hot mass.
That is, a fiery stone.
He was exiled from Athens, [despite] Pericles speaking in his defence, and he came to Lampsacus and there he starved himself to death. He put an end to his life at the age of 70, because he had been put in prison by [the] Athenians on the grounds that he was trying to introduce a novel belief about god. [It is said] that Anaxagoras at Olympia, during a dry period, came to the stadium in a sheepskin; it is said that he did this to forecast rain. And he foretold very many other things. This man, who came from Clazomenae, gave over his property to both cattle and camels. Apollonius of Tyana said of him that he was more a philosopher for beasts than for human beings. Crates of Thebes threw his property into the sea, doing something of no advantage either to beasts or to human beings. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.1982 Ἀναξανδρίδης: Anaxandrides: The son of Anaxander, a Rhodian from Kameiros, lived during the wars of Philip the Macedonian, [?winning his first victory?] in the 101st Olympiad; but according to some [he was] a Colophonian. He wrote sixty-five dramas, and won with ten. And this man was the first to introduce love-stories and seductions of virgins. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1986 Ἀναξίμανδρος: Anaximandros: Son of Praxiades, Milesian, philosopher, a relative and student and successor of Thales. He first discovered an equinox and solstices and hour-indicators, and that the earth is situated in the very middle [of the universe]. He also introduced a sundial and explained the basis of all geometry. He wrote On Nature, Circuit of the Earth, and On the Fixed Bodies and Globe and some other works. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1987 Ἀναξίμανδρος: Anaximandros: Son of Anaximander, a Milesian, the younger, a historian. He was born in the time of Artaxerxes who was called Mnemon [the Mindful]. He wrote an explanation of Pythagorean symbols such as the following: "don't step over a yoke," "don't stoke the fire with a dagger," "don't eat from a whole loaf of bread;" etc. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1988 Ἀναξιμένης: Anaximenes: Son of Eurystratos, Milesian, philosopher, student and successor of Anaximander the Milesian; some said also of Parmenides. He was born in the 55th Olympiad during the capture of Sardis, when Cyrus the Persian deposed Croesus. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.1989 Ἀναξιμένης: Anaximenes: Son of Aristocles, of Lampsacus, rhetor; pupil of Diogenes the Cynic and the grammarian Zoilus of Amphipolis, who abused Homer; teacher of Alexander of Macedon, and accompanied him on his campaigns.
When king Alexander was angry with the people of Lampsacus, this man got round him by the following trick. The people of Lampsacus were pro-Persian; Alexander was furiously angry, and threatened to do them massive harm. They, trying to save their women, their children and their homeland, sent Anaximenes to intercede. Alexander knew why he had come, and swore by the gods that he would do the opposite of what he asked; so Anaximenes said, 'Please do this for me, your majesty: enslave the women and children of Lampsacus, burn their shrines, and raze the city to the ground.' Alexander had no way round this clever trick, and because he was bound by his oath he reluctantly pardoned the people of Lampsacus. Anaximenes also retaliated against Theopompus, son of Damostratus, in an ingenious though malicious way. Since he was a sophist and could imitate the style of the sophists, he wrote a book addressed to the Athenians and Spartans, a defamatory treatise, exactly imitating him. He attached Theopompus' name to it, and sent it to the cities. As a result, hostility to Theopompus was increased throughout Greece. Moreover, no one before Anaximenes had invented improvised speeches. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.2062 Ἀνασείειν: to agitate: [Meaning] to shake out, as also we [say].
"For, not agitating [them?], he was following Calamis".
Also [ac. attested is] ἀνασείω, [meaning] I persuade or I incite to battle.
"Agitating the Syracusans and declaring he would recover their freedom".
Also [sc. attested is the aorist participle] ἀνασείσας, [meaning] having threatened. Demosthenes [in the speech] Against Aristogeiton [sc. uses the word]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2077 Ἀναστάσιος: Anastasios: Emperor of [the] Romans. This man was inclined to baseness and all at once he turned the kingdom into an aristocracy. He sold all the magistracies and associated with wrong-doers and was inclined to an insatiable desire for money, so the provinces were emptied of their accounts; and because of this unusual and strange thing men were astounded. For he did not even ward off invading barbarians with weapons, but he achieved peace by buying them off with money. In addition to these things, he also inquired into the property of deceased men, bestowing his own deficit on everyone in common. For he took the property and after a short time distributed it to them in the guise of piety; and in the cities which he stripped of their inhabitants he rebuilt the houses, so as to arrange carefully the [income] accruing and surround it with three garlands. In his reign, terrible afflictions fell upon the cities in Libya because of those called the Mazikoi. For they been put under the power of the grandson (through his daughter) of Marinos. This grandson was a young man possessed of great frivolousness. And after this man again it was his soon Basianos. And he acted outrageously toward them and surpassed the licentiousness of the one who ruled before him, thus making the Libyans prefer the former state of affairs, which for some of them meant the memory of poverty and for others the memory of death. Thus, if it is permissible to speak of [this], those who were lucky enough to win favor from the bloodline of Marinos were supported by the possessions of the Libyans and the Egyptians.
Saint Theodosios, the abbot, lived during the reign of Anastasios. This Anastasios was a heretic.
The emperor Anastasios himself built the long wall 60 miles from the city, extending from the sea on the north to the south for a length of 50 miles and with a width of 20 feet; and he placed moles on the harbour of Julian. The same man also built the great dining hall, the one in Blachernai, which is called "Anastasian" even to this day; and the Mocisian cistern. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2080 Ἀνάστασις: destruction: [ἀνάστασις can be used] instead of ἀναστάτωσις .
Polybius [writes]: "Massana was for Carthage the cause of the destruction, leaving it to the Romans utterly weak." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2154 Ἀνδραποδίζω: I enslave, I reduce to slavery: [Used] with an accusative.
"The barbarians annulled the agreements and openly enslaved the alliance".
Also [sc. attested is the related noun] ἀνδραποδισμός ["enslavery"], [meaning] captivity.
Also ἀνδραποδιστής ["slave-dealer"].
The Thessalians are accused of being slave-dealers and faithless men. Clearly from Jason, who enslaved Medea. Euripides [writes]: "many were present, but [the] Thessalians [were] faithless". The term slave-dealer [comes] from trading men, that is, selling [them]; he who is enslaving free men. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2157 Ἀνδραποδώδη τρίχα: slavish hair: The haircut specifically of slaves, which the slave women and men in Athens used to change after they had been emancipated.
"And it was [possible] to hear these things when many men were gathered together, not having suppressed their sufferings, but still, they say, displaying the slavish hair." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2172 Ἀνδρὶ Λυδῷ πράγματα οὐκ ἦν: ὁ δὲ ἐξελθὼν ἐπρίατο: a Lydian man had no troubles but he went out and bought some: [sc. A proverbial saying] in reference to those who draw evil things to themselves. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2180 Ἀνδροκλείδης: Androkleides, Androclides: The son of Synesius, the Lydian from Philadelphia. This man taught in the time of Porphyry the philosopher, since he mentions him in his Concerning the Troublesome Rhetoricians. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2197 Ἀναία: Anaia: A city. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.2241 Ἀνεκτά: tolerable, sustainable: Agathias says about Theuderichos: "he rounded up neighboring tribes. For he did not consider [them] to be tolerable." Meaning worthy of indulgence.
And Polybius [writes]: "hence neither to go to unobserved nor for the Romans to make incursions into Macedonia at this time was tolerable." Meaning possible.
And the Pisidian [writes]: "the damage was not tolerable to the neighbors." Meaning worthy of endurance. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2257 Ἀνεμοκοῖται: wind-lullers: Those putting winds to sleep; they say that such a category [of person] exists in Corinth. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2267 Ἀνεμύτας: Anemutas: A Theban by race. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2287 Ἀνεπαρίασαν: they broke treaties like the Parians: [Meaning] they went into repentence. When the Parians were attacked by the Athenians, they asked first for an armistice to deliver the city, but then, expecting an alliance from somewhere, dissolved the agreements. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2298 Ἀνεπισταθμεύτους: billeting-exempt: [Them] not having soldiers billeted on them or [subject to] conscription.
Polybius [writes]: "king Philip agreed that the Thasians be ungarrisoned, tribute-exempt, and billeting-exempt".
Alternatively, [those] not receiving weights, that is, at equilibrium. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2319 Ἀνέσειον: they were inciting: [Meaning] they were rousing, they were agitating. "The Cretans, fearing they might suffer punishment of some kind, were inciting the crowd, calling [for them] to safeguard the freedom which had been handed down from long ago." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2345 Ἄνευ ξύλου μὴ βαδίζων: not walking without a stick: He is saying [this] about Kleomenes; as an Athenian general, besides the other bad things he did he feigned madness, knowing that he was hated by the citizens. Therefore he carried a staff when he went around, by means of which he warded off those who accosted him. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2371 Ἀνεῖλεν: prophesied, took up, took away, killed: Meaning presaged. For the word has two meanings.
The Lacedaemonians built a wall across the Isthmus. At first the god prophesied to the Athenians when they consulted the oracle that they should flee, but when they persisted, he responded to them: "far-seeing Zeus grants to the Triton-born [i.e. Athena] that the wooden wall alone will not fall; it will protect you and your children. But do not be idle and wait for the massive cavalry and infantry force coming from the continent, but turn your backs and leave the country: yet sometime you will face them. O divine Salamis, you will destroy the women's children either when Demeter is sowing or when she is reaping." Themistocles the son of Neocles, who was disinherited on account of his liberality, interpreted these things, saying the wooden walls were the ships. [And he said that] the god would not call Salamis "divine" if she was to destroy the children of the Greeks. He advised them to wage a sea-battle near Salamis (and on account of this he was called wise and was appointed general) and to put aside their enmity for the Aeginetans, and to abandon the city and to leave their families with the Troezenians and the Aeginetans for safe keeping. And again: "The Spartans sent to question the oracle, longing to get a cure for the curse, and it prophesied thus: 'I hold Delos and Calauria the same and sacred Pytho and wind-swept Taenarum.'"
Since there are times when aneilen means murdered. But anelein is prophesying, either from taking up the spirit from above and being filled by the god, or from taking away ignorance. We also say the same anelein in application to murdering, either from taking away the spirit deep within a man, or from the opposite, from taking up an inquiry. Anelein is also used for the taking up and raising of exposed babies, and [it is] simply whatever someone might take up. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2417 Ἀνήνασθαι: to refuse: To reject utterly. Homer [writes]: "they were ashamed to refuse [the challenge], but afraid to accept [it]."
And Aelian [writes]: "they, because they were not in a position to refuse the ordinance, put the decision to Antigonos, on which Locrian city should send tribute." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2433 Ἀνῃρημένος: having taken up: [He] having received, having grasped, having carried away.
"The king/emperor, having taken up such a tearless and unbloody victory, turned around into Sardis."
And elsewhere: "he lawlessly took up hostile matters." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2452 Ἀννίβας: Hannibal: The Carthaginian was so called.
For the Carthaginians chose as general Hasdrubal, son-in-law of [Hamilcar] Barca. And he chose as lieutenant-general Hannibal, the man who became famous not much later for military commands. Hannibal was both son of Barca and [thus] brother of [Hasdrubal's] wife; Hasdrubal had him with him in Iberia, and he was young and battle-ready and acceptable to the army. And Hannibal led many [campaigns] in Iberia, since he was trustworthy in negotiations and behaved like a young man when force was required. Hannibal was war-loving by nature and never endured idleness. But later he took to unaccustomed luxury and had a mistress, wild man that he was; and straightaway, little by little, everything was turned over to him. Polybius says, "Hannibal was young, but filled with warlike passion, successful in the fray, and motivated from the start by his hatred of the Romans."
"It was made clear to Hannibal, general of the Carthaginians, by [the oracle] of Ammon, that he would die and be buried in the land of Libya. And he hoped to stamp out the Roman empire and to end it in Libya. When Flaminius, the general of the Romans, was eager to take him alive, he went as suppliant to Prusias and when he was thrust away by Prusias, he leapt up onto his horse, and since his sword was unsheathed, he wounded his finger. And he had not gone too many stades farther when a fever from his wound and the end of his life overtook him. The region where death overtook him the Nicomedians call "Libyssa." And an oracle came to the Athenians from Dodona that they should colonise "Sicily". And Sikelia is a small ridge not far from Athens. But those who did not understand what was said were led into foreign expeditions and into war against the Syracusans."
"It is a remarkable and great indication that this man was by nature a leader and very different from other men for his statesman-like manner that for seventeen years he remained in the field, passed through a good many barbarian lands, and used a good many foreign men as helpmates in his ambitious and incredible endeavors; he was never deserted willingly by one of the men once they had joined up with him and given themselves into his hands." Which even now ?is a civilized way to behave?.
"In contriving to make the Carthaginians see the magnitude of his victory over the Romans and the plight of their opponents, Hannibal sent into Libya three Attic medimni full of golden rings, which he had stripped as spoils from men of equestrian and senatorial rank."
"Certain Carthaginians who were sent out by Hannibal to spy fell in with the Romans. Though they were angry with him, Publius did them no harm but told them to inspect the camp, take dinner, and to go back safe to report to Hannibal the way things were with the army of the Romans." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2466 Ἀννίκερις: Anniceris: A Cyrenean, a philosopher, who became an Epicurean despite being an acquaintance of Paraebatus, the student of Aristippus. Anniceris also had a brother by the name of Nicoteles, [sc. also] a philosopher, and his student [was the] famous Posidonius. The sect called Annicerean [sc. originates] from him. He lived at the time of Alexander [sc. the Great]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2491 Ἀνθεμοῦς: Anthemous: It is a Macedonian city.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] Anthemousian land. "Trajan drove out as if against the Anthemousian land. For Abgar was directing him to go against this." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2499 Ἀνθ' Ἑρμίωνος: instead of Hermione: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those preserving shrines (?)similarly. For Hermione, a city in the Peloponnese, has an inviolate sanctuary of Kore and Demeter, so that it provided protection for suppliants. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2513 Ἀνθίνη: Anthene: A city; also the point of the shoulder.
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] anthinon ["flowery"], [meaning something] blossomy, bright.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'flowery chiton', and (?)nourishment. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2536 Ἄνθρωπος ἀνθρώπου δαιμόνιον: man (is) man's divinity: A proverb in reference to those who are unexpectedly saved by a man and who are popular because of them.
Also [sc. attested are the phrases] 'a man [like the] Euripos', 'fortune [like the] Euripos', 'thought [like the] Euripos'. In reference to men who easily change and are unstable. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2579 Ἄνω: up: [ἄνω ] [sc. can be used] instead of ἀνά . Homer [writes]: "not as many as Lesbos, seat of blessed men, encloses." And one must apply the augment to ἐέργει, so that it is restrains, tucks in; it tends to mean establishes boundaries. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2612 Ἀντανήγοντο: they attacked: [Meaning] they stood against, opposed.
"So the barbarians too attacked and sailed by the promontory of Pachynon with their ships arrayed in 2 columns."
And elsewhere: "for the men there, dying in the name of freedom, raised it to a level with Oita." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2634 Ἀντέρως: Anteros: [Anteros], also [called] Apollonius, of Alexandria. Grammarian. He taught in Rome under Claudius, who was emperor after Gaius; Heraclides of Pontus also lived in his time. He was a pupil of Apion Mochthus. Extant are his 2 books On Grammar.
"And this much-praised name Anteros was preserved in these noble men."
Meaning they loved one another.
"For Chariton and Melanippos breathed together in love. Chariton was the lover, but Melanippos, the beloved, his soul set on fire towards his inspired friend, made known the spur of love with equal honour." (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.2657 Ἀντιγενίδης: Antigenides, Antigenidas: Son of Satyros, Theban, musician, pipe-singer of Philoxenos. This man was the first to use Milesian shoes and he wore a yellow cloak in the Reveller. He wrote lyric poems. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2671 Ἀντικλείδης: Antikleides, Anticleides, Anticlides: This man wrote a work on Homecomings. For when the Pythian god demanded the golden lamb and [Pelops] offered other treasures instead, the Pythia said, "Give me what I want; don't give me what I don't want." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.2675 Ἀντίκυρα: Antikyra, Anticyra: Name of a certain place. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.2689 Ἀντιόπη: Antiope: Daughter of Nycteus. She was corrupted by one of the citizens. Her father sent her to his brother to be punished. He, however, pitied her when he saw her pregnant. She gave birth to Zethus and Amphion, and their uncle exposed them on a mountain. He had a wife, named Dirce, who suspected that her husband Lycus loved Antiope. She led her onto a mountain and tied her up to the neck of a bull and kindled torches on its horns, intending her to die. Antiope wailed and when a clamor arose a great crowd of farmers gathered, accompanied by Zethus and Amphion. And they recognized their mother and rescued her, but Dirce they delivered to her appointed punishment. Zethus and Amphion found Thebes and rule as kings there, and their descendents [extend] as far as the son of Laius and Jocasta, who is also called Oedipus. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2693 Ἀντίοχος: Antiochus, a king. This man seemed at first to be an attempter of great things and daring and able to follow through on his what had been begun, but as he moved along in life he proved much inferior to himself and the general expectation.
For from the sons of Alexander of Macedon came a sinful root, this Epiphanes, son of Seleukos Philopator. He was a terrible man and greedy and he committed many ravagings and lootings and acquired a lot of money and from intemperance and mad passion he fell to mimicking himself in the sight of everyone and doted madly after women. He seized Egypt with a heavy mob and chariots and elephants and a great army and took control of it. Turning back after losing all sense he took Jerusalem and slaughtered 180000. So he dared to go even into the sanctuary and set up an altar and an abominable idol of desolation and defiled the temple with unclean sacrifices and called it the shrine to Olympian Zeus. And thus enthroned on high and with his armed soldiers stationed around him in a circle he commanded the mercenaries to drag in each and every Hebrew and give him pork meat and force him to sacrifice to idols; unless they would eat the forbidden meat, they tortured and killed them. So many were seized, and a certain Eleazar, [one] of the foremost scholars, already advanced in age, would not eat the abominable meat and was flogged and slain with his seven children and their mother Solomonis. (Concerning these matters the Theologian too makes mention in his What the Maccabees did.) The king, struck rather mad and driven out of his senses, took all the sacred vessels and plundered the whole city and butchered its flocks and made slaughter and he returned boasting to Antioch. And after two years of fighting the Persians, he dispatched a commander to levy tribute from the city of Jerusalem. [The commander] neared the city and spoke words of peace to Jerusalem and went in — and dealt the city a huge blow: he tore down the walls and set the whole city alight, and defiled the temple and killed many and went away with prisoners, having left a commander behind to torture the Jews. A certain Matthias, a priest, had five sons, of which Judas Maccabeus was one; he was full of zeal and struck out against the commander and killed him and tore up the altars of the Greeks. So Antiochus came against him with great force. As the war went on, Eleazar, a brother of Judas, showed courage when he was crushed by the elephant. For he sneaked up on the elephant and struck it in the belly with his sword, hoping to take the king above him. So Antiochos marched out against the Persians and turned out the loser and lost his life foully.
This same Antiochos, when the Jewish people were in revolt against the regular tribute, again enslaved them: he pillaged the offerings of the temple and searching everything he found a statuette holding a book in its hands and a beard thrust deep; by which stood a gold-wrought lampstand. He smeared these things with pig blood and left them in the temple; and having imposed on the Jewish inhabitants a fine of many talents for extracting the tribute he returned to Syria. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2695 Ἀντίοχος: Antiochos: A deserter, Cilician by birth, who at first pretended to be a philosopher in the Cynic manner and in this way was a very great help to the soldiers in the war. For when they were in pain from the great cold he encouraged them, throwing [himself] into the snow and rolling in it; hence both the money and the honours that he received from Severus and Antoninus. But spurred on by this he joined Tiridates, with whom he deserted to the Parthians. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2703 Ἀντίπατρος: Antipatros, Antipater: Son of Iolaos, from the city of Palioura in Macedonia, general of Philip [II], then of Alexander [sc. the Great], and successor to the kingship; a pupil of Aristotle. He left a compilation of letters in 2 books and a history, The Illyrian Deeds of Perdikkas. And he served as guardian to the son of Alexander known as Herakles. He alone of the Successors he did not choose to call Alexander a god, judging this impious. He lived 77 years and left a son and successor, Kassandros, the man who killed Alexander's mother Olympias.
[It is said] that when the Athenians surrendered Athens to Antipatros the Macedonian, the demagogues, having urged the Athenians to revolt, were afraid that they would lay the blame upon them and fled. The Athenians condemned them to death in their absence. Among them were Demosthenes the orator and Hyperides and Himeraios, [Demades] having proposed the motion for death. For he had become in no respect more moderate in his opinion, since there cannot even be any change in a nature conjoined with wickedness. The injunction of law, as it does not completely hold [that nature] in check, is overcome by it, as is the force opposing it in its various inclinations. Neither by fear is over-confidence deflected, nor is a constraining shame sufficient to persuade it into subjection to the law. (Tr: D. GRAHAM J. SHIPLEY)
§ al.2710 Ἀντιπέρας: opposite, on the other side: It should be read paroxytone. For the word is feminine, in the genitive case, compound. [sc. It is used here] because there are gold mines [on the mainland] opposite Thasos. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2713 Ἀντιπέτρεια: Antipetreia, Antipatreia, Antipatria: Name of a city. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.2723 Ἀντισθένης: Antisthenes: An Athenian, a Socratic philosopher from [among] the orators, who was first called a Peripatetic, then became a Cynic; he was the son of a father who had the same name, but a mother who was Thracian by race. This man wrote ten volumes altogether: the first [was] on magic; it told the story of a certain mage Zoroaster, who discovered wisdom; but some have attributed this to Aristotle, others to Rhodon. So this man also began the philosophy of Cynicism, which was so called because he taught it in the Cynosarges gymnasium. And he became the mentor of Diogenes the Cynic and the rest.
When Antisthenes was suffering from a long and intractable illness Diogenes gave him a dagger, saying, "If you should require a friend's services." Thus that man thought of death as nothing painful, such that illness became altogether a luxury.
[Altogether] meaning totally. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2734 Ἀντιφάνης: Antiphanes: An Athenian, a comic poet, younger than Panaitios. There is also another Antiphanes, a Carystian, distinct [sc. from the above], who lived in the time of Thespis.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] ἀΝτιφάνειος κωμωιδία ["Antiphaneian comedy"], that of Antiphanes. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2735 Ἀντιφάνης: Antiphanes: Son of Demophanes — though others [say] of Stephanos — and, as his mother, Oinoe; a Kian, though some [say] a Smyrnaian, and according to Dionysius a Rhodian; a comic poet of the middle comedy, [born] from slaves as some [say]. He was born in the 93rd Olympiad and he wrote 365 comedies, though others [say] 280; he won 13 victories. He had a son Stephanos who was himself a comic poet. He died in Kios when he was 74 years old, having by some chance been hit by a pear. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2745 Ἀντιφῶν: Antiphon: Son of Sophilus; of Athens, of the deme Rhamnus. No one is recognised as his teacher; nevertheless, he was the leader in the judicial style [of oratory] after Gorgias. He is said to have been the teacher of Thucydides. He used to be called Nestor. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.2763 Ἀντώνιος: Antonios: Of Alexandria, who being rather deficient in words was not altogether someone precise; but he became most dedicated to the truth and was very enthusiastic, in soul to the service of god, both in a public and in a more esoteric capacity; as a result he proved Gaza far more holy than it was previously. And he went into civil lawsuits and he went to trial over his sister and championed her more ardently than was within measure and defended her very forcefully; neither did he stint on time spent until nothing was lacking, nor did he have any concern for a better reputation. For he was spoken of badly by the men then, not as being unjust, but as being litigious. For he even went up Byzantium to the lawcourt and he was thought to be someone exceedingly contentious. Although he prevailed over his opponents, yet he surrendered her [sc. his sister] to another man, and he himself spent the rest of his life in rest and away from politics, some in philosophy, but mostly he lived his life among holy men. He was simple in his habit and ready for public services, especially ones concerning religion. So I myself, personally, concede to this man uncontrivedly the greatest grace, for which I pray the gods repay him as someone worthy to live with [them] in the islands of the blest.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] ἀΝτωνίειος κλίνη ["Antonian couch"], that of Antonios. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2764 Ἀντωπεῖ: faces, meets face to face: [Used] with a dative. [Meaning he/she/it] looks at face to face.
Out of which also [comes]: "their eyes met."
Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] ἀντωπόν ["facing"], meaning face to face, opposite.
Agathias [writes]: "but he did not relent, now coming towards the crowd, now backing away slowly while facing them."
And elsewhere: "nor is the facing sea called 'Bosporus' after me." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2850 Ἀορτήν: knapsack: Many now say ἀβερτή [sc. as opposed to the headword ἀορτή ]. Both the article and the word [are] Macedonian.
Notice that ἀορτή [is] also a vein. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2925 Ἀπαροῦντα: being about to depart: Being about to withdraw.
"But the Carthaginians were each day expecting the army to be about to depart into its own [sc. country]". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2940 Ἀπατούρια: Apatouria, Apaturia: A public festival. It was celebrated amongst [the] Athenians for three days; during it the son of Sitalkes, the king of the Thracians, was registered in the citizenry. They call the first [day] Dorpeia, when the members of phratries come together and are entertained in the evening; the second [they call] Anarrysis, on account of the sacrificing — they used to sacrifice to Zeus Phratrios and to Athena; and the third [they call] Koureotis, from the enrolment of youths (κούρους ) and maidens into the phratries. This is the reason: the Athenians had a war on against the Boiotians over Melainai, which was a place in their borderlands. Xanthios, a Boiotian, challenged the Athenian king, Thymoites [to a fight]. When he did not accept, Melanthos, an expatriate Messenian from the stock of Periklymenos the son of Neleus, stood up to fight for the kingdom. While they were engaged in single combat, someone wearing a black goat-skin aegis appeared to Melanthos from behind Xanthios. So [Melanthos] said that it was not right to come two against one. [Xanthios] turned round. [Melanthos] smote him and killed him. And from this was generated both the festival Apatouria and "of the Black Aegis" as an epithet of Dionysos. But some say that because fathers go together alike through the enrolment of their sons, it is called the "same father" (ὁμοπατόρια ) festival; in the same way we say that a spouse [is] of the same bed and a bed-mate, so also [we say] "the same father," Apatoria. And Aristophanes [writes]: "he wanted to eat sausages from the Apatouria." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2954 Ἀπαίδευτοι: uneducated, untrained: Ignorant.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "more uneducated than Philonides of Melite". This Philonides was not only big, but also unlearned and swinish. Aristophanes mocks him as a man who had hangers-on and one who spent his time in Corinth, through the love of Lais. He was mocked also as gluttonous along with his companions, whom he called boars; and Lais [they called] Circe, since she used to drug her lovers. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2973 Ἀπέδει: fell short of: [He/she/it] failed [sc. to match up to].
Philopoemen the Arcadian "fell short of none of the Peloponnesians in size and strength of body, but the appearance of his face was ugly." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2979 Ἄπεδον: flat, level: Level ground and even [land]. Thucydides [sc. uses the word].
"The Athenians came down into some terrain which was flat and camped [there], wishing to take some food out of the houses."
Uneven or level. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2988 Ἀπεκαρτέρησεν: starved himself to death.: He disposed of himself. "Lycurgus came to Crete and starved himself to death, in order that he would not destroy the laws which he had established." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.2996 Ἀπεκορύφου: answered briefly: [He/she/it] said clearly. Herodotus [writes]: "Artaphernes the son of Hystaspes, governor of Sardis [...] briefly answered them thus: 'If the Athenians give King Darius earth and water, he will make an alliance with them. If they do not give it, he will order them to return'". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3008 Ἀπελλῆς: Apelles: A Colophonian, but Ephesian by adoption; a painter, a student of Pamphilos the Amphipolitan, but earlier of Ephoros the Ephesian; son of Pytheos; brother of Ktesiochos, who was himself a painter. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3025 Ἀπενιαυτίσαι: to go away for a year: To be banished from one's homeland for a year for some wrong-doings.
"They say that Apollonius of Tyana went away for a year to the Scythian people, because he had experienced a disappointment in love."
And elsewhere about Heracles: "having gone away for a year, as was customary, out of [the community] and been purified, to return to Athens." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3064 Ἀπέσπασε: dragged off: [He/she/it] took away by force.
"The Spartiates sat as suppliants of the god at Tainaron and begged for salvation. But they mercilessly dragged them off and, indeed, killed them." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3081 Ἀπετέμετο: cut off: [He/she/it] intercepted, separated. "Having arrived at the isthmus of the Sinopians, he cut off all those [sc. living] in the region." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3109 Ἀπεχρήσατο: attacked: [Used] with an accusative. [Meaning he/she/it] killed. Also [sc. attested is the plural] ἀπεχρήσαντο ["they attacked"], they killed. In Lemnian Women Aristophanes [writes]: "they attacked the men who begot their children."
But ἀπέχρησε [means he/she/it] gave an oracle. "And thrice, not just once, [he?] gave him the oracle, to tell the Tyrians to revolt against those close to Darius."
"Then [he?] did not give him the oracle that he would overpower his enemies, but even pillaged the temple of Apollo." And elsewhere: "so that would have been sufficient to destroy him in the worst way of [all] men."
But ἀπέχρησε also means was sufficient [for]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3136 Ἄπειρος: inexperienced: Unlearned.
Or "[inexperienced,] landlubber, not at Salamis." Aristophanes [sc. writes this]. Because of the naval battle at Salamis. Or because one of the sacred ships was called Salaminia, the other Paralos. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.3193 Ἀπήχθη: was led away, was diverted: [Meaning he/she/it] was carried away, or was turned aside.
But Apollonios "spoke in the Attic dialect, nor was his accent diverted by the local people," although he lived in Cilician Tarsus.
Also ἀπηχθημένον ["hateful"], [meaning] to be rejected [as bogus].
But ἀπηχθισμένον [means] weighed down/heavy. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.3201 Ἄπιδες: Apides: They were gods honored amongst Egyptians, having a sign around the tail and the tongue, indicating that they are Apides. These are begotten from time to time, as they used to say, from the shining of the moon. For them they would celebrate a great festival and certain priests perform the ritual around the ox that is born, presenting a complete banquet to feed them sumptuously. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.3205 Ἀπιθής: inflexible, unyielding: That which is difficult and hard to climb for those who want to go.
"Alalkomenai is a city; and I hear that it neither lies on an elevated and unyielding hill-top nor has a circuit of walls." (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.3207 Ἀπίκιος: Apicius: A Roman, who had spent countless sums of money on his stomach, in Kintouri [a city] of Galatia eating many shrimp, for they are bigger than the largest of those in Smyrna and the lobsters in Alexandria. So when he heard that very large shrimp occur in Libya, he sailed out without waiting even one day. But once he had observed that they were small, he ordered the helmsman to sail back again the same way to Italy, not even approaching land. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.3215 Ἀπίων: Apion: Son of Plistonicus; nicknamed Mochthus ["Toil"]; of Egypt (but according to Heliconius, a Cretan). Grammarian. A pupil of Apollonius son of Archibius; he also attended Euphranor's lectures when he was an old man, more than 100 years old; he was a slave born in the house of Didymus the great. He taught in the time of Caesar Tiberius and Claudius in Rome. He was the successor of the grammarian Theon, and a contemporary of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. He wrote a history organised by nation; and certain other works. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.3216 Ἀπιὼν ᾤχετο: departing he went away: Fleeing, running away.
"Having left the Peloponnese he went away departing into Aetolia."
Pleonasm [is] customary with Attic writers. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.3321 Ἀποθνήσκοντας: dying: "[Dying] in wars I see those who set the greatest store by life, and living, everyone who has given up on life. And I myself will go into battle to die, and know that I will survive. For I am a Laconian first and foremost and I know what the authorities wrote to Leonidas: let them go into battle so as to die and they will not die." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3380 Ἀπολεγόμενος: declining (an offer): [Meaning he] refusing. Polybius [writes]: "he refused the Achaeans, declining the command."
Also [sc. attested is the neuter plural] ἀπολέγοντα, [meaning] forbidding, turning away. "And he wrote letters forbidding the envoys outright ever to surrender the strongholds to the Persians." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3397 Ἀπολινάριος: Apollinarios, Apollinarius: Of Laodicea in Syria. He lived in the days of Constantius and Julian the Apostate, and until the reign of Theodosius the Great; he was a contemporary of Basil and Gregory, the much-admired Cappadocians. He was an acquaintance of them both, and of the sophist Libanius, and of a number of others. He was not just a grammarian and a talented poet, but also (and far more) he was trained in philosophy; and he was a very able rhetor. He wrote in prose 30 volumes against the impious Porphyry, and the whole of the Hebrew scriptures in epic verse. He wrote letters, and also many commentaries on the Scriptures. Philostorgius mentions Apollinarius in his history of his own times, and says: in those days Apollinarius was flourishing in Laodicea in Syria, Basil in Caesarea in Cappadocia, and Gregory in Nazianzus (this place is a way-station in Cappadocia). These three men were then champions of consubstantiality against difference of substance, completely overshadowing all those who previously, or subsequently up to my own time, had stood up for that heresy; Athanasius could be judged a child by comparison with them. For they were very advanced in the so-called 'external' education, and they had great proficiency in everything that contributes to the study and prompt recollection of Holy Scripture. This was especially true of Apollinarius, since he could understand Hebrew. Each of them was very well able to write in his own manner. Apollinarius far excelled in the style that suits commentaries; Basil was most brilliant in panegryic; but Gregory, compared with the two of them, had the soundest basis for written composition. Apollinarius was more powerful, Basil weightier, in speech. Such was their ability in speech and written composition; and in the same degree these men presented a character attractive to the public gaze. So all who saw them or heard them or received their writings were drawn into their communion, if they could easily be caught by any of their arguments. That is what Philostorgius the Arian wrote about them in passing. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.3398 Ἀπολινάριος: Apollinarius, Apollinarios: This man appeared after Paul of Samosata; he was bishop of Laodicea in Syria, and introduced another folly. The Arians said that our Lord's flesh had no soul; he said that the Lord took flesh ensouled with a living soul, but he did not take to himself a mind like ours. He says that flesh did not need a human mind, since it was guided by the divine Word which assumed it. On this premise he insists that there is one nature of the Word and the flesh, on the grounds that the flesh is incomplete with respect to being a human being, and so does not justify the application of the term 'a nature'. After him Theodorus, bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia, appeared.
There were two men named Apollinarius, father and son. The father was from Alexandria, but married in Laodicea in Syria and had a son called Apollinarius. Both flourished at the same time as the sophist Epiphanius, whom they met in his prime. Theodotus, the bishop of Laodicea, being completely unable to detach them from him, excommunicated them. The younger Apollinarius regarded what had happened as an insult, and relying on his sophistic ingenuity he too invented his own heresy, which is still current, and bears the name of its inventor. Others say that they disagreed with George, because they saw that his doctrine was unsound.
This Apollinarius had the audacity to believe in degrees of the divine nature, and attached myths to God's promises. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.3405 Ἀπολλόδωρος: Apollodoros: Of Gela; comic poet, contemporary of the comic poet Menander. His dramas: Hunger-Striker or Brotherly Lovers, Well Dyed Man, Priestess, Banquet of Letters, Liar, Sisyphos, Shameful Man. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.3407 Ἀπολλόδωρος: Apollodorus: Son of Asclepiades. Grammarian. One of the pupils of the philosopher Panaetius of Rhodes and the grammarian Aristarchus. He was Athenian by birth. He was the first of the so-called tragiambic poets. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.3415 Ἀπολλωνιάς: Apollonias, Apollonis: The wedded wife of Attalos, the father of King Eumenes. She was a commoner who became queen, and maintained that high status until her final day, behaving not with a courtesan's seductiveness but with a prudent and civilized dignity and nobility. For she gave birth to four sons and maintained toward all of them unsurpassed goodwill and affection up to the end, even though she survived her husband for a considerable amount of time. Moreover, those in the court of Attalos in his absence protected her good reputation, granting to the mother [of his sons] the appropriate gratitude and honor. For taking their mother by both hands and leading her around in between them they visited both the shrines and the city along with their retinue. At this, the spectators accepted the young men and deemed them worthy, and, recalling the case of Kleobis and Biton, they compared their choices, and complemented the splendor of their spiritedness with the distinction of the eminence of kings. These things were done in Kyzikos after the dissolution of the [peace] with king Prousias. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.3416 Ἀπολλωνιὰς λίμνη: Lake Apollonias: Attalos, the king of Asia, waged war against Nikomedes the One-toothed and gained control of his territory. But Nikomedes called on the Romans and regained his kingdom. Attalos laid to rest his deceased mother Apollonias alongside the greatest shrine in Pergamon, which he himself had built, and he named the neighboring lake after her. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.3417 Ἀπολλωνιάτης: Apolloniate, citizen of Apollonia: and [sc. also attested is] Apollonian [Apollonitis] territory. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.3419 Ἀπολλώνιος: Apollonios: An Alexandrian, writer of epic poems; spent some time on Rhodes; son of Silleus; a student of Kallimachos; contemporary with Eratosthenes, Euphorion, and Timarchos, in the reign of Ptolemy known as Euergetes, and Eratosthenes' successor in the Directorship [prostasia] of the Library in Alexandria. (Tr: PETER GREEN)
§ al.3420 Ἀπολλώνιος: Apollonius: Of Tyana, philosopher, son of Apollonios and a mother from that town, members of the gentry. With him in her womb, his mother saw a genius standing near saying that he himself was the child she was carrying, and that he was Proteus, the Egyptian; therefore, he was thought to be Proteus' son. He flourished during the rule of Claudius, Gaius [Caligula], and Nero until Nerva's reign, during which he did indeed pass away. Following Pythagoras' example he kept absolute silence all through five years. He set out for Egypt, then went to Babylon to meet the Magi, and then met the Arabs. He collected from all of them the numberless conjurations widely ascribed to him. So many works he composed: the Initiations or On Sacrifices, the Testament, the Oracles, the Epistles, the Life of Pythagoras. Philostratos of Lemnos wrote a biography that pays respect to this man as a true philosopher. According to Philostratos, Apollonios of Tyana had more self-restraint than Sophocles, who used to say that only after reaching old age did he escape a raging and savage beast of a master. Apollonios, on the contrary, with his virtue and temperance was not overcome by these urges, even in his youth. According to Philostratos, he approached wisdom in a more godlike way than Pythagoras because Apollonios bested tyrannies, and his was an era not so long ago. Men do not yet grant him recognition for the truth of his philosophy, which he practised both wisely and soundly. But some praise one aspect of the man, others another. Yet others, given that he consulted with the magi of Babylon, the Brahmins of India and the naked ascetics of Egypt, regard him as a magus and unfairly claim that he was not a true philosopher, misapprehending him. For Empedocles and Pythagoras himself and Democritus too, though they associated with magicians and spoke many marvellous and divine things, were never drawn to magic. Though Plato was in Egypt and, just like a painter adding color to a sketch, blended in his dialogues many teachings of the prophets and priests of that country, he was never regarded as a magus and yet was the most envied of men for his wisdom. Nor should we slur Apollonios' intuition and prescience in the things he predicted with this kind of wisdom any more than Socrates might be accused for his predictions and so Anaxagoras, who at Olympia, when there was not the slightest sign of rain, went out into the stadium under a fleece, so suggesting that it would rain. Though many attribute such to Anaxagoras, they turn right around to deny Apollonios the prescience that was intrinsic to his wisdom. So I think one should not heed the nonsense of the many, but should investigate what Apollonios said and did according to the times and the special character of the skill through which he succeeded in being thought supernatural and divine. I have collected information from the cities devoted to him; other information comes from sanctuaries whose lapsed rites he restored, and from what others wrote to him and he to others. He corresponded with kings, sophists, philosophers, Eleans, Delphians, Indians and Egyptians on gods, customs, and laws. We can know in more detail what he was doing among them through Damis, his student and witness.
This Apollonius of Tyana had an excellent memory, if anyone did. He truly kept his vow of silence but gathered much information, and when a hundred years old he had a sharper memory than Simonides. He composed and used to sing a hymn to Memory, in which he says that Time causes everything to waste away but Time itself through Memory is both ageless and immortal. With regard to Apollonius, look for other predictions of his under "Timasion".
[Philostratos also reports] that this Apollonius said the following about Anaxagoras: he was from Clazomenae and he said his teachings were meant for cattle and camels, and that he would rather philosophize with beasts than men . The Theban Crates threw his property into the sea, so ensuring that it was of no use either to beasts or men . (Tr: MASSIMO FORCONI)
§ al.3422 Ἀπολλώνιος: Apollonius [Dyscolus], Apollonios [Duskolos]: [Apollonius] of Alexandria, called Dyscolus ["Curmudgeon"]; father of Herodian the technical writer. Grammarian. He wrote the following works: On the Division of the Parts of Speech (4 books); On the Syntax of the Parts of Speech (4 books); On the Verb, or Rhematikos (5 books); On the Formation of mi-Verbs (1 book); On Nouns, or Onomatikos (1 book); On Nouns according to Dialect; On the Nominative Case of Feminine Nouns (1 book); On Paronyms (1 book); On Comparatives; and On Dialects — Doric, Ionic, Aeolic, Attic; On Homeric Figures; On Fabricated History; On Modifications of Forms; On Necessary Accents (2 books); On Skewed Accents (1 book); On Prosodies (5 books); On Letters; On Prepositions; On Didymus' Pithana; On Composition; On Words with Two Spellings; On the Word 'tis'; On Genders; On Breathings; On Possessives; On Conjugation. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.3451 Ἀπονεύειν: to incline away: [Meaning] to go aside, to turn.
"The situation was that the Aenians had for long been at odds with each other, but lately some inclined away towards Eumenes, others to Macedonia." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3484 Ἀποπορευτέα: necessary to go back: Agathias [writes]: "accordingly it seemed to him necessary to go back to the river Phasis, and from the difficult terrains there."
Meaning necessary to revisit, necessary to return. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3508 Ἀπορρῶγας: precipices: Cleaved-off promontories.
"When he found any precipices affording passage, Diocletian closed them off too."
Also [sc. attested is the nominative singular] ἀπορρώξ, [meaning] a fragment of a mountain.
And a branch of a family.
"This man was an off-shoot of the Furies."
"And the rock was entirely precipitous below, and there was no sort of way-up."
"There was a certain Timon, a vagabond, encompassed by unpassable thorns, an off-shoot of the Furies." He was a so-called misanthrope, whom Neanthes says fell from a pear-tree and became lame; he would admit no physician, but got gangrene and died, and after his death his tomb was inaccessible, beaten by the sea all around and in the road leading out from Piraeus to Sounion. "Unpassable" meaning [sc. he was] unapproachable and unstable and as if hedged round with thorns. Also harsh or hidden by stakes and pales. Meaning a sullen man and a misanthrope. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3561 Ἀποστοματίζειν: to recite, to dictate: [Meaning] to speak from memory.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] ἀπὸ στόματος ["by mouth, orally"], [meaning] without documents. "But he commanded them to speak orally to the leaders of the Mardians."
Also ἀπὸ στόματος, [meaning] as we [say] not by means of documents, but from memory. Philemon in Dispensations [writes]: "if you wish, I will say everything orally." Cratinus [uses] this the same as ἀπὸ γλώτης ["from the tongue"] in Laws: "but, by Zeus, I neither know my letters nor have experience [using them], but I will tell you the rest orally; for I remember well." Thucydides in [book] 7 [writes]: "and those from Nicias came into Athens and they reported orally as many things as he told them." Plato in Theaetetus [writes]: "but what indeed are words? Can you explain? — No, by Zeus, at least, not orally, but I wrote down notes right away when I came home."
Also, they say that a teacher ἀποστοματίζειν ["dictates"], whenever he tells the boy certain things orally. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3581 Ἀπόταξις: individual assessment: Assessing separately those who had previously been assessed together to pay the specified tribute. Antiphon in the [speech] On behalf of the tribute of the Samothrakians [uses the term]. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.3625 Ἀπουρώσαντας: having followed a foul wind: Polybius [writes]: "then having followed a foul wind into the [harbour of] Myndus they anchored." Not using a favourable wind. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3682 Ἀπραγμοσύνη: indifference, idleness, quietude: [Meaning] neglect, laissez-faire.
"Justinian called their indifference toward the Cutriguri unjust."
Also apragmosune, a type of flower. Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "[he] smelling of bindweed and of quietude." Meaning smelling of every sweet smell and of security. Or not being meddlesome. But others [say] that apragmosyne grew as a [sc. wild] plant in [the] Academy. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3729 Ἀράβιος ἄγγελος: Arabian messenger: Menander in Dedicated Girl or Messenian Woman [uses the phrase]. From the proverb [about the] "Arabian piper". "So I started an Arabian pipe going"; it is applied to those who speak incessantly. Long ago, they say, free men did not learn to play the pipe because it was vulgar. But many of the slaves were barbarians and Arabians, about whom a proverb is said: "he plays the pipe for a drachma, but he stops for four." Also "Arabian piper", in reference to the unceasing. Cantharus in Medea [writes]: "strike up this dance on an Arabian kithara."
The Arabians greatly surpassed the others in excellence; they used arrows the height of a man and, instead of using their hands, they stepped with the foot onto the string, drawing the bow into a circle. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3737 Ἀραρώς: Araros: And it is declined Ἀραρώ ["of Araros"].
An Athenian, son of Aristophanes the comic poet and himself a comic poet, he produced first in the 101st Olympiad. Amongst his plays are Kaineus, Kampulion, Descendents of Pan, Bride-song, Adonis, [and] Parthenidikon. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3745 Ἄρατος: Aratus: From Soloi in Cilicia (for there is also a city Soloi on Cyprus), son of Athenodoros. His brothers [were] Myris, Kalondas, Athenodoros. He was a student of the grammarian Menecrates of Ephesus, and of the philosopher Timon and of Menedemus, having lived in the 124th Olympiad, when the king of Macedonia was Antigonus, Demetrius Poliorcetes' son, who was called Gonatas. Aratus both lived with him and died at his court. He was a contemporary of Antagoras the Rhodian and Alexander the Aetolian; epic poet. He composed the following books:
Phainomena, whose introduction [is] wonderful, and which emulates Homer;
Hymns to Pan;
Astrologia and Astrothesia;
To Phila, the daughter of Antipater, wife of Antigonus;
To Pausanias the Macedonian;
Lament for Kleombrotos;
Edition of the Odyssey;
Letters, similarly, in prose.
But [the adjective] ἄρρατον [means] strong, sturdy. So Plato [uses it].
But [the participle] ἀράττων [means] beating, striking. (Tr: MARY PENDERGRAFT)
§ al.3746 Ἀραφήνιος: Araphenian: A deme of the tribe Aigeis. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.3754 Ἀρβέλαι: Arbelai, Arbele: Arbele [is] a small Sicilian city. Those who live there seemed to be easily deceived. And [hence] a proverb: "What will you not become when you go to Arbelai?" (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3758 Ἀργανθώνη: Arganthone: A proper name.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Arganthonian couch". But there is also a mountain [called] Arganthonion on the island of Kios. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3762 Ἄργελλα: argella, vapour-bath: A Macedonian building, which they heat up and wash [in]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3770 Ἀργείους ὁρᾷς: you see Argives: A proverbial saying in reference to those who see keenly and astonishingly [well]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3778 Ἀργίννουσα: Arginnousa, Arginousai, Arginusae: An island. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.3781 Ἀργόλαι: argolai, snakes: A type of snakes, which the Macedonian Alexander brought from Pelasgian Argos to Alexandria and threw into the river for the destruction of the cobras, when he moved the bones of the prophet Jeremiah from Egypt to Alexandria; the prophet himself killed them. So "argolai" [means] "ill-omened [laioi] out of Argos". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3792 Ἀργυρὶς θήκη: silver chest: ['Silver chest'] and 'silver-bearing land' and 'gold-bearing [sc. land]', that which when mined [yields] gold and silver. There were two kinds of mini-tablet which the Athenians used: one for writing on only for themselves, the other for depositing petty cash as well, which they used to call boxes or in other instances witnesses.
Also 'silver-men' is what those with plenty of silver used to be called. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.3799 Ἀργυροῦν: silver: [Silver] and gold [are] Ionian [words], but chryseion ["golden"] [is] a possessive adjective. Thucydides [in book] one [writes]: "he had the use of the golden mines". Just as he says argureia ["silver [mines]"] in the second [book]. "As far as Laurion, where the silver mines of the Athenians are." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3803 Ἀρδαβούριος: Ardabourios, Ardaburius, Ardabur: The son of Aspar; noble in spirit, [he who] often strongly repulsed the barbarians overrunning Thrace. To him therefore, as rewards for excellence, the Emperor Marcianus offered command of the eastern infantry army. But after accepting this [position] in peacetime he turned to relaxation and effeminate luxuriance. For he used to rejoice in mimes and charlatans and all theatrical pastimes, and passing his days in such shameful things he paid no regard whatsoever to those things which tended toward good repute. And after the emperor Marcianus had become "good", but had soon died, Aspar of his own will prepared Leon to be his successor. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3807 Ἀρδήττης, Ἀρδήττου: Ardettes, [genitive] Ardettou: A proper name.
Also Ardettos, a place in Athens, where all Athenians used to swear the jurors' oath in public. But Theophrastos in his [books] On Laws says that this custom has been abandoned. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.3817 Ἀραῖς: with curses: [Meaning] with hostile oaths.
"Indeed the curses were not about to be surrendered to forgetfulness. For a plague swept over the city of the Ephesians, a very heavy one."
And elsewhere: "[he] treated [this] as a curse; might I hiss like that man!" (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3821 Ἀρέθουσα: Arethousa, Arethusa: A spring on the island of Sicily, into which flows [the] Alpheus, a river of the Arcadian city [of that name], reaching open water through the Adriatic Sea and mingling in no way with the brine, as if [it were] the beloved of such a spring. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3834 Ἀρειανός: Arian: One should know that dissensions arose among the Arians also for the following reason. The contentious questions which were daily agitated among them led them to assert some absurd propositions. For whereas it is believed in the Church that God is the Father of the Son, the Word, they asked whether God could be called 'Father' before the Son had subsistence. Thus in supposing that the Word of God was not begotten of the Father, but came into subsistence out of non-being, and thus slipping into error on the chief and main point, they predictably fell into absurd disputations about a mere name. Dorotheus, therefore, when they sent for him from Antioch, began to maintain that God could neither be nor be called Father before the Son existed. But Marinus, whom they had summoned out of Thrace before Dorotheus (annoyed because they preferred Dorotheus to him) undertook to defend the contrary opinion. There arose a schism among them respecting this term, and each party began to hold separate meetings. [The followers of Marinus] asserted that the Father had always been Father, even when the Son had not come into subsistence. This section was denominated Psathyrians, because a certain Theoctistus, a Syrian by birth, and a cake-seller [psathyropoles] by trade, defended this opinion with great zeal. Selenas bishop of the Goths followed this party. This faction however soon quarreled among themselves, Marinus disagreeing with Agapius, whom he himself had preferred to the bishopric of Ephesus. They disputed, however, not about any point of religion, but in narrow-mindedness about precedence, in which the Goths sided with Agapius. [The Arians] continued to be divided among themselves for thirty-five years, until [the reign] of Theodosius the Younger. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.3838 Ἄρειος πάγος: Ares' hill, Areopagos: A lawcourt at Athens. In it [are] 2 councils: that of the 500 which is appointed each year to deliberate, and that which [leads] to a single [body] of the Areopagites. It also used to try homicide cases and it exercized solemn control over the other affairs of the city. It was given the name Areios pagos ["Ares' hill"], either because the court is on a hill and [thus] in a high place — and "of Ares" because it tries homicide cases; Ares [has a link] with homicides — or because he grounded his spear there in the suit in reply to Poseidon over Halirrhothios, when he [Ares] killed him [Halirrhothios] because he [Halirrhothios] had raped Alkippe, his [Ares'] daughter with Agraulos the daughter of Kekrops, as Hellanicus says in [book] one.
Also Areion teichos ["Ares' wall"] and Areiopagites ["Areopagite"]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3847 Ἀρήνη: Arene: Name of a spring. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3868 Ἀρριανός: Arrianos, Arrianus, Arrian: Of Nicomedia, an Epictetan philosopher; known as "the new Xenophon". He was in Rome during the reigns of the emperors Hadrian and Marcus [Aurelius] and Antoninus, and garnered honors even so far as becoming a consul himself, just as Heliconius says, through the excellence of his education. He wrote a great multitude of books. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3872 Ἀριγνώτη: Arignote, Arignota: Female student of the great Pythagoras and of Theano; Samian woman, Pythagorean philosopher. She composed the following: Bacchica; it is about the Mysteries of Demeter; it is also entitled Sacred Narrative. She also wrote The Rites of Dionysos and other philosophical works. (Tr: D. GRAHAM J. SHIPLEY)
§ al.3886 Ἀρίων: Arion: Of Methymna, a lyric poet, son of Kykleus. He was born in the 38th Olympiad. Certain people recorded that he was even a pupil of Alkman. He composed songs: [namely] preludes in 2000 verses. It is claimed also that he was the inventor of the tragic style and that he was the first to establish a chorus, to sing a dithyramb, to provide a name for what the chorus sang and to introduce satyrs speaking in verse.
[The name] retains [omega] also in the genitive. (Tr: TONY NATOLI)
§ al.3892 Ἀρίσταρχος: Aristarkhos: Of Alexandria by adoption, although he was born in Samothrace. His father was Aristarchus. He lived in the 156th Olympiad, under Ptolemy Philometor, to whose son he was also tutor. He is said to have written more than 800 books, counting only monographs. He was a pupil of Aristophanes the grammarian, and had very many disagreements with the grammarian Crates of Pergamum in Pergamum. His pupils included about 40 grammarians. He died in Cyprus, killing himself by starvation, because he was suffering from dropsy. He lived for 72 years. And he left two sons, Aristarchus and Aristagoras; both were simple-minded, with the result that Aristarchus was actually sold; the Athenians bought his freedom when he came among them. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.3893 Ἀρίσταρχος: Aristarkhos: Of Tegea, a composer of tragedies, who was sick with some disease; then Asclepius cured him and required him to give a thanksgiving dedication for his health. The poet allotted him the drama that bears his name. But gods of health would never request payment nor accept it. How could that be? — when with a good, philanthropic spirit they offer us the greatest things free of charge: to see the sun and to share in the all-sufficing beam of such a great god for free, and the use of water and the myriad advantages of the similar art of fire, and various and cooperative aids, and to breathe the air and from that to have breath, the sustenance of life. In these small things they want us to be neither ungrateful nor unmindful, and in such things they prove us better men.
This Aristarchus was a contemporary of Euripides; he was the first to establish the length of play which is still current. And he produced 70 dramas, won with 2, and lived over 100 years. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3894 Ἀρίσταρχος: Aristarchos: This man held the power of a monarch in Ephesus, having come by invitation from Athens. His relatives called him, because he had ruled them with care and consideration for 5 years. He withdrew from Athens when Harpagus happened to incite Cyrus the son of Cambyses into the revolt with the Persians [sc. against the Medes]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3897 Ἀρίσταινος: Aristainos: "The Achaeans Philopoemen and Aristaenus were alike in having neither a single nature nor a [single] political standpoint. For indeed Philopoemen was well-suited for the field of war both in body and in spirit, but the other [was suited for] the politics and logistics of deliberations. This is how the opinion of each concerning politics differed from the other. Since the supremacy of the Romans was already completely obvious in Greek affairs in the time [of the wars] against Philip and Antiochus, Aristaenus conducted his political affairs so that he would be ready to be of complete service to the Romans, sometimes even [acting] before they gave the order. However, he tried to seem to follow the laws and to attract such a reputation [for doing so], yielding whenever any of those [laws] clearly contradicted the written [instructions] of the Romans. Philopoemen, on the other hand, agreed with and helped implement without hesitation all requests that were in accordance with the laws and with the treaty; but he was not able willingly to comply with such [requests] as were beyond [the laws and treaty arrangements], but said that it was necessary for the officials to argue their point of view and first and put it as a request afterwards; if, though, they could not persuade [the Romans] even by this, [he said that] they should yield in the end, as if invoking witnesses, and then execute the order." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3898 Ἀρισταῖος: Aristaios: One of the Giants, who survived.
But [sc. a different name is] Aristeus, [genitive] Aristeos.
And Aristion likewise. He is a Samian or Plataian, and, since a lad, a companion of Demosthenes; he was sent by him to Hephaistion for negotiations. Hyperides mentions him in the [speech] Against Demosthenes.
Aristaios, the story goes, was the only Giant to survive on the Sicilian mountain called Etna; the fire of heaven did not reach him, nor did Etna crush him. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.3900 Ἀριστέας: Aristeas: The son of Democharis or of Caustrobius, from Proconnesos, an epic poet; [he wrote] the verses called the Arimaspea; it is a history of the Hyperborean Arimaspeans, [in] 3 books. They say that whenever he wanted, his soul would leave and return again. He lived in the time of Croesus and Cyrus, in the fiftieth Olympiad. This man also wrote a prose Theogony, in 1000 lines. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3902 Ἀριστείδης: Aristeides, Aelius Aristides: Of Hadriani. Sophist. (Hadriani is a city in Mysia, now Bithynia.) Pupil of the rhetor Polemo of Smyrna. Son of Eudaemon, who was a philosopher and priest in the sanctuary of Zeus in his native city. Others write that his father was Eudaemon. He attended Herodes' classes in Athens, and those of Aristocles in Pergamum. He lived under Antoninus Caesar, and survived until Commodus. As for his speeches, one would not find an end to them anywhere, and they are in different ways and in different respects successful. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.3903 Ἀριστείδης: Aristides, Aristeides: The son of Lysimachus; he was poor, and on account of his manner he was believed without [having to take] oaths. Once when Kallias was being tried he came forward and said "grant this man to me"; and it was done. When Kallias offered him gold, he declined and said: "The life of Kallias needs the poverty of Aristides, but the poverty of Aristides looks down on the wealth of Kallias." He was the political opponent of Themistocles. When he was on an embassy with him, he said, "let us leave our differences within the borders, and get along on behalf of the city." He was so just that when he was about to be ostracised, someone from the country gave him a potsherd (he did not know the man) and asked him to write up [Aristides] for ostracism. When he asked why Aristides displeased him, he said, "because he is totally just." And Aristides laughed and wrote the vote. This same Aristides was banished and spent time in Aegina. And Xerxes sent an ambassador to him in his banishment when he was coming into Greece and offered him three thousand darics. He [Aristides] said he had no use for Persian wealth, living the sort of life that he did. He happened to be serving low-grade bread.
Aristides was also rather like Miltiades. Each of these men was the very best: Aristides was just and Miltiades was general at Marathon. Mention is made of the battle at Marathon because all Greece achieved its other successes in common, but only the Athenians did so at [the battle] of Marathon. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3908 Ἀρίστιππος: Aristippus: Son of Aritades, from Cyrene, a philosopher, a pupil of Socrates; by whom the sect called Cyrenaic began.
He was the first of the Socratics to take wages. He was on bad terms with Xenophon, and he was able to adapt himself to both time and place. And he enjoyed what things were at hand and pursued pleasure, but he did not by toil chase after the enjoyment of things which he did not have. Hence Diogenes called him the "king's dog". His sayings [were] the best and greatest. His daughter Arete learned [from him], whose [student was] her son the young Aristippos, who was named Mother-taught, and his [student was] Theodoros, who was called "Godless", then "God"; and his [student was] Antipater, and his [student was] Epitimedes of Cyrene, his Paraibates, his Hegesias the Advocate of Death [by suicide], and his Annikeris, who ransomed Plato. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3910 Ἀριστογένης: Aristogenes: A Thasian, a physician, he wrote 24 books; to him are attributed one [book called] On Diet, one On Strength, one On Bites, one On Seed, one Health, Letters, [and] an Epitome of physical remedies [addressed] to Antigonos. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3912 Ἀριστογείτων: Aristogiton, Aristogeiton: Son of Cydimachus or Lysimachus, of Athens. Rhetor. His mother was a freedwoman. He was nicknamed 'Dog' because of his shamelessness. He was put to death by the Athenians. His speeches were a Defence in reply to Demosthenes the general, and against Lycurgus; Prosecution of Timotheus; Prosecution of Timarchus; Prosecution of Hyperides; Prosecution of Thrasyllus; Orphan Speech.
Investigate this Aristogiton: perhaps he is the comrade of Harmodius. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.3914 Ἀριστόδημος: Aristodemos: Son of Aristokrates; tyrant of Italian Cumae; a man who because of his birth was not just an ordinary man; he was called 'Softy' by the citizens — and in time the nickname was more familiar than his [real] name — either because he was an effeminate boy and let himself be treated like a girl, or because he was by nature mild and slow to anger. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3916 Ἀριστοκλῆς: Aristocles: Of Messene in Italy; Peripatetic philosopher. He composed On Philosophy, 10 books; Whether Homer or Plato is more Serious. In these books he catalogues all the philosophers and their opinions. He also wrote an Arts of Rhetoric; On Sarapis; Ethics, 9 books. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.3918 Ἀριστοκλῆς: Aristocles: Of Pergamum. Sophist. Lived under both Trajan and Hadrian. [He wrote] Art of Rhetoric; letters; On Rhetoric, in 5 books; declamations; To the Emperor, on the distribution of gold. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.3919 Ἀριστοκράτης: Aristokrates: General of the Rhodians; [a man] who was in appearance dignified and striking. Because of all these things, the Rhodians supposed they had a completely capable leader and commander in war. But they were deceived in their hopes: for when he came into action as if into fire, just like counterfeit coins he proved otherwise. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3922 Ἀριστομένης: Aristomenes: An Athenian, a comic poet among those of later date in Old Comedy who were during the Peloponnesian [Wars] in the 87th Olympiad. He was called Thyropoios ["Door-Maker"]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3924 Ἀριστόνικος: Aristonicus: Of Alexandria. Grammarian. He wrote On the [critical] signs in the Theogony of Hesiod and in the Iliad and Odyssey; 7 books of Ungrammatical Words. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.3927 Ἀριστόξενος: Aristoxenos: Son of Mnesias (also known as Spintharos), who was an authority on music, from Taras in Italy. Having taken up residence at Mantinea he became a philosopher, and on applying himself to music showed great talent for it, as a student of his father and of Lampros the Erythraian, then of Xenophilos the Pythagorean and finally of Aristotle. He heaped insults on the lattermost after his death, because he left Theophrastus as head of the school, although Aristoxenos himself had achieved great distinction among the students of Aristotle. And he flourished in the time of Alexander and the years following, so as to be around the 111th Olympiad a contemporary of Dikaiarkhos of Messene. He composed works on music and philosophy and history, and every aspect of culture. His books number 453. (Tr: GREGORY HAYS)
§ al.3928 Ἀριστόξενος: Aristoxenus: [Aristoxenus] of Cyrene; [the man] who because of his unsurpassable luxuriance used to water the lettuces in his garden with honeyed wine in the evenings, and used to say that green flatcakes were [thus] being supplied to him. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3929 Ἀριστοτέλης: Aristoteles, Aristotle: Son of Nikomakhos and Phaistias. Nikomakhos was a physician in the tradition of the Asklepiads, from Nikomakhos the son of Makhaon. [Aristotle came] from Stageira, a city of Thrace; he was a philosopher, a disciple of Plato, with a stammering voice. He had siblings Arimnestos and Arimneste, and a daughter by Pythias, the daughter of Hermeias the eunuch, who fathered her despite his being castrated. The daughter of Aristotle married three times and after giving birth predeceased her father Aristotle. He also had a son Nikomakhos from Herpyllis his concubine, whom he took after Pythias the daughter of Hermeias the eunuch, who was a ruler of Atarneus. This place [is located] in the Troad, and having become a slave of Euboulos the Bithynian, Hermeias received [it from him]. And Hermeias himself became the lover of Aristotle. He presided for 13 years over the philosophy which was called Peripatetic; it acquired this name because he taught on a walking path [peripatos] or in a garden after he left the Academy, in which Plato taught. He was born in the 99th Olympiad and died by drinking aconite in Chalkis, because he was being summoned to receive punishment, since he had written a paean to Hermeias the eunuch; but some say he died of disease when he had lived 70 years. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.3932 Ἀριστοφάνης: Aristophanes: A Rhodian or Lindian, though some said an Egyptian, some a Kameirean; but an Athenian by adoption; for he was admitted to citizenship among them; a comic poet, son of Philippos, born [or: lived] during the wars in the 114th Olympiad, the inventor of the tetrameter and octameter. He had sons [named] Ararotes, Philippos, Philetairos, comic poets [themselves]. But some have recorded that he was also a freedman. His plays are 44 — but we have studied the following plays of Aristophanes: Acharnians, Frogs, Peace, Ecclesiazusae, Thesmophoriazusae, Knights, Lysistrata, Clouds, Birds, Wealth, Wasps. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3933 Ἀριστοφάνης: Aristophanes: Of Byzantium, a grammarian, son of Apelles a troop-commander, student of Kallimakhos and of Zenodotos, the former as a young man, the latter as a boy; and in addition to these [he also studied under] Dionysios Iambos and Euphronidas of Korinth or Sikyon. He flourished in the 144th Olympiad. (Tr: ROSS SCAIFE ✝)
§ al.3946 Ἀρκάδας μιμούμενοι: imitating Arkadians, imitating Arcadians: [sc. A proverb] in reference to those who labor for others. For the Arcadians, though they had become the most warlike of Greeks, conquered no one on their own but many when fighting with others. Plato used this proverb in Peisandros: for since poverty compelled him to provide for others comedies he had composed himself, he said that he was "imitating Arcadians".
So [the noun is declined] ἀΡκάς, ἀΡκάδος, ἀΡκάδι . (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.3947 Ἀρκαδία: Arkadia: A territory. Also a proper name.
"There is a gravestone for Arkadia, the second wife of Zenon, in the Arcadian [baths] in the part near to the group of monuments known as 'Places' in the grounds of the Arch-general, where Zenon tried the followers of Basiliskos and made the place off-limits. [The grave] of his other wife, the first one, Ariadne, and of Zenon himself are in the royal gateway."
And [there is] a proverb: 'are you asking me for Arkadia? You are asking a lot, I will not give it to you.' In reference to those who make large and inconvenient requests. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.3958 Ἄρκτος ἢ Βραυρωνίοις: I was a bear at the Brauronia: Women playing the bear used to celebrate a festival for Artemis dressed in saffron robes; not older than 10 years nor less than 5; appeasing the goddess. The reason was that a wild bear used to come to the deme of Phlauidoi and spend time there; and it became tamed and was brought up with the humans. Some virgin was playing with it and, when the girl began acting recklessly, the bear was provoked and scratched the virgin; her brothers were angered by this and speared the bear, and because of this a pestilential sickness fell upon the Athenians. When the Athenians consulted the oracle [the god] said that there would be a release from the evils if, as blood price for the bear that died, they compelled their virgins to play the bear. And the Athenians decreed that no virgin might be given in marriage to a man if she had not previously played the bear for the goddess. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3960 Ἀρκτῖνος: Arctinus: Son of Teleus, the descendent of Nauteus; a Milesian, an epic poet, a student of Homer, as Artemon of Klazomenai says in Concerning Homer: "he was born in the 9th Olympiad, 410 years after the Trojan [Wars]." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.3975 Ἁρμόδιοι: fitting: [Meaning those who/which are] acceptable.
And [there is] a saying: "Harmodios' song", in reference to difficult things. For the songs about Harmodios are like this.
Harmodios and Aristogeiton attacked the tyrants, and Athenians killed Hippias. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.4015 Ἀρσάκης: Arsakes: King of [the] Parthians; he died after being struck by a spear against his rib in battle, a man most attractive in body and most pleasing to look at and most kingly in spirit and most experienced in the works of war; and whereas [he was] most gentle to every subject, [he was] most vigorous in putting down revolts. And [the] Parthians missed this man very much.
Also [sc. attested is the term] Arsakids/Arsacids, [meaning] the Persians' kings.
Arsakes, the Parthian, having expelled the Macedonians who ruled the Persian empire for 203 years, handed the kingdom over to the Parthians. Hence the Persian kings were called Arsacids. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4027 Ἀρτέμιος: Artemius, Artemios: Also [called] Anastasius, emperor of [the] Romans, who, perceiving an expedition of Saracens coming against the city, made commander of the war John, a deacon of the Great Church and accountant of the tributes, whom they call "Genicus"; he came to Rhodes and was overpowered by the mob and killed. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4030 Ἀρτεμισία: Artemisia: This woman was outstanding in serving [the] Persians; because of her the king said that the men had become women and the women men.
Two Artemisias existed, Carian by nationality and queens both. The first of them lived in the Persian [era]; the younger, of whom Demosthenes makes mention in the [speech] On the freedom of the Rhodians, was daughter of Hekatomnos and both wife and sister of Mausolos. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.4031 Ἀρτεμίσιος: Artemisios: The month of May amongst Macedonians.
Also Artemision: in a special sense Hyperides often used this name for the statue of Artemis. It is also said of a headland of Euboia, mentioned by Demosthenes in the [speech] Against Ktesiphon. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.4075 Ἀρχαῖος: simple: Meaning naive. Plato [sc. uses the word in this sense]. Or [talking?] nonsense.
But [the related adverb] ἀρχαίως [means] carelessly, unobservantly; or even foolishly, naively. "[They] humming tunes simple-honeyed- Sidon-Phrynichus-lovely." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4084 Ἀρχέλαος: Archelaos: Son of Apollodorus or of Midon; a Milesian, a philosopher, called a 'natural philosopher' with respect to his philosophical school.. [It is on record] that he was the first to introduce natural philosophy from Ionia. He was a pupil of Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, and he had Socrates as a pupil. Some assert that he also taught Euripides. He organized the study of natural philosophy, and he thought that the just and the base did not exist by nature, but by convention. He organized some other [fields of study] as well.
Basil, bishop of Eirenoupolis, similar in spirit and in training to his namesake Basil of Caesarea, wrote against Archelaos an elder of Colonea. (Tr: JEFFERY MURPHY)
§ al.4101 Ἀρχὴ Σκυρία: Skyrian empire, Scyrian empire: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who are paltry and possess nothing worthwhile. Inasmuch as Skyros, rocky and dreary and accordingly poor, produces nothing worth mentioning. Some [say], though, [that it comes] from Theseus; that when he attacked the realm of Lykomedes and tried to rape his wife he was thrown over a cliff. And Theophrastos, in the First Occasions, reports that Theseus was the first to be ostracized in Athens. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.4103 Ἀρχίας: Archias: "This man, who wanted to betray Cyprus to Demetrius, was caught and brought to trial, but hanged himself on a rope taken from the curtain-hangings. For in fact, because of their desires 'empty people think empty thoughts,' as the proverb goes. And that's not all: that man, because he thought he was about to receive 500 talents, discarded both the possessions he already had and his life." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.4104 Ἀρχίας: Archias: [Archias], a Syracusan, and Myskellos, an Achaian, had come to Delphi at the same time and they were asking to receive a good prophecy for the cities they were about to colonize, [about] what the life was that was fated to themselves and to their cities. And the Pythia said, "Since you have a people that inhabits the country and the city, you came to ask Phoebus [Apollo] what land to go to. But come now, tell me which boon you prefer, to have a wealth of possessions or most agreeable health?" Now when they heard this, Archias, since he was a lover of wealth, chooses the amplification of wealth, nor was he beguiled of his hope; at any rate Syracuse became a very rich city, in accordance with the Pythian oracle. Myskellos, though, chooses for himself and his city to have good health, and he got what he asked for. As proof, at any rate, of the good health in Croton, the inhabitants are of strong body, and the city became the mother of many fine athletes. Wealth and health are both gifts, then. The stout choice and healthy thought chooses the better things, and these men are evidence, the one that was wiser, and the other that was not altogether a gentleman. For, of the good things of mankind, one is greater and one is second, as Plato says and the song goes. (Tr: JOHN HENKEL)
§ al.4107 Ἀρχιγένης: Archigenes: Son of Philippos, from Apamea in Syria. Physician, student of Agathinos. Practiced medicine in Rome during the reign of Trajan. Lived 63 years and composed many works on medicine and natural science. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.4112 Ἀρχίλοχος: Archilochus: The gods never forget the important people even after they die. Archilochus at any rate was a noble poet in most respects, if one overlooks his shameful speech and his foul utterances, just as one might wash away a stain. The Pythian god took pity on him even when he was dead, and even though [he died] in war, where supposedly Enyalios was even-handed. When the one who had killed him, Kalondas by name, but nicknamed Crow [Korax ], came [to Delphi ] to ask the god about what he needed, the Pythia would not approach him, as he was accursed, but instead pronounced, allegedly, those frequently-quoted verses. He, however, put forward an argument about the fortunes of war and said that what he did came at a turning point between taking action or being acted upon. He asked that the god not be hostile him if he lived by his own spirit, and he swore that it was more a case of him not dying than of killing anyone. And at this the god took pity on him and bade him go to Tainaron, where Tettix was buried, and to appease the soul of the son of Telesikles and conciliate him with libations. He followed these instructions and gained freedom from the wrath of the god.
And [there is] a proverb: "you are treading on Archilochus", in reference to those who engage in foul speech and abuse. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.4119 Ἄρχων. Ἄρχοντες: archon (and) archons: [There are] nine of them: six thesmothetes, archon [eponymous], king, polemarch. And before the laws of Solon they were not allowed to sit in judgment together; instead, the king sat by what was called the Boukoleion, which was near to the Prytaneion; the polemarch [sat] in the Lyceum; the archon at the [statues of the] Eponymoi, and the thesmothetes at the Thesmothesion. They were empowered to pronounce judgment on cases on their own authority. But after Solon they had no other function besides interrogating the litigants. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.4121 Ἀρχύτας: Archytas, Arkhutas: Of Taras, son of Hestiaios or Mnesarchos or Mnasagetes or Mnasagoras; Pythagorean philosopher. This man saved Plato from being murdered by the tyrant Dionysios. He championed the [Greek-]Italian federation, and was chosen general with full powers by his fellow-citizens and the [other] Greeks of the region. At the same time he taught philosophy and had celebrated pupils and wrote many books. [It is said that] this man was plainly a teacher of Empedocles.
And [there is] a proverb: Archytas' rattle; [coined] because Archytas invented the rattle, which is a kind of instrument producing sound and noise.
"He made a bronze rattle and rattled it". (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.4127 Ἄσατο: was sated: [He/she/it] was satisfied, was full. "About Ochus the Persian. He sacrificed the sacred goat of Pan in Mende, and having prepared it in elaborate ways the unfortunate man was sated at the feast; also he uprooted a host of the Egyptian people with their wives and children and ruthlessly dragged them off to Persia." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4133 Ἀσδρούβας: Hasdrubal: The general of the Carthaginians, "was conceited and a rogue and very much lacked any pragmatic or strategic ability. Signs of his lack of judgment [include the fact] that once he came in full gear, cloaked in sea purple and with 10 swordsmen, when he met Golosses the king of the Numidians. And he stood as much as 20 feet away, putting in front of him a ditch and palisade, and he nodded to the king to come forward towards him, though it was right for the opposite to happen. Nevertheless, Golosses was serene in a certain Numidian fashion and went towards him alone, and when he approached he asked what he was afraid of since he came in full armor. And when he had spoken [Hasdrubal said] that it was the Romans. 'But then,' Golosses said, 'you would not have entrusted yourself to the city [Carthage ], without any need to.'" "He was fleshy by nature — he had put on his full armor — and had a pot-belly and was flushed with a color contrary to nature, so that he seemed to be living like fatted oxen at a festival, rather than presiding over so many and such great misfortunes that no one who endured them could describe in words; so that when someone looks at his declarations, he admires the man and the high spirit of his words, but when [someone looks] at his management of his affairs, he is shocked by his ignobility and cowardice." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4134 Ἀσδρούβας: Hasdrubal: General of the Carthaginians. When in the course of the war this man was doing badly in the attack on Megara, he brought all his Roman prisoners-of-war to the wall, whence it would be obvious to the Romans what was being done, and he pulled out the eyes or tongues or sinews or genitals of some with iron hooks, and of others he cut away the soles of their feet and chopped off their fingers, or he flayed the skin off the rest of the body and threw them headlong still breathing off the wall — contriving against the Romans things which were unacceptable to the Carthaginians. And thus he incited them to make their safety depend upon battle alone, but for him it turned out opposite from how he had planned. For the Carthaginians were made very fearful instead of eager by someone who knew about these lawless deeds, and they began to hate Hasdrubal since he had destroyed their forbearance; and the council especially cried out against him as someone who had done brutal and arrogant things in the extremity of his own misfortunes. So he killed some of the councillors and, in respect of everything which already made him fearful, came to behave more like a tyrant than a general — seeing his sole security as lying in being frightening to them and thus hard to attack.
Search concerning this man in [the entry about] Hannibal. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4140 Ἀσέλγεια: licentiousness: Meaning extravagance. Thus Aeschines [uses this word]. Or ἀσέλγεια, [meaning] prostitution, impurity.
It is derived, so they say, from this reason. Selge is a city of Pisidia, where the people used to live wickedly and have [sc. illicit] sex with one another. So by extension [we get the verb] ἀσελγαίνειν . And the ancients used to apply [the term] ἀσελγές ["wanton"] not only to something intemperate, but also, on occasion, to something large. For they also call a wind ἀσελγής; and a "prodigiously horned goat" [ἀσελγόκερως τράγος ], a large one. Or ἀσελγόκερως ["wanton-horned"], butting with the horns.
"They are prodigiously fat": Aristophanes says [this] in Wealth. Meaning heavy.
"Being agitated and having croaked with licentiousness, just as crows caw." Meaning they are being awfully noisy.
Also ἀσελγής, in reference to a wind blowing violently.
There is born many a wanton [wind] — says Aelian in his [work] concerning various narrations; the origin of this [is] deep glens and crevices, through which [the wind] is pushed and extends at its most boisterous. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4173 Ἀσκληπιάδης: Asclepiades: Son of Diotimus; of Myrlea (Myrlea is a city in Bithynia, now called Apamea); but by his original descent, of Nicaea. A pupil of Apollonius. He lived in the time of Attalus and Eumenes, the kings of Pergamum. He wrote on the textual criticism of philosophical books. He also taught in Rome in the time of Pompey the Great, and spent time in Alexandria under Ptolemy IV as a young man. He wrote many works.
Also [sc. attested are the phrases] "Asclepieian drug" and "Asclepeian drug", but "Asclepieion sanctuary". Also [attested are the] Asclepiadae, the doctors, [named] from Asclepius.
He [derived his name] from keeping bodies tough [askele] and gentle [epia].
Asclepius, the patron of medicine, could heal Pauson and Irus and any other hopeless case. See under Pauson and Irus.
And Aelian [writes]: "he, suffering miserably from an illness (the children of the Asclepiadae call it inflammation of the lungs) at first was in need of human medicine." (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.4174 Ἀσκληπιόδοτος: Asklepiodotos: This man from earliest childhood was agreed to be the keenest and most learned of his age-mates, to the extent that he did not stop busying himself with each of the things which he happened upon, both the marvels which nature produced and the creations which every art provided. For instance, in a short time he came to a complete understanding of all the mixtures of dye colors and of the manifold dyes used in decorating clothing, and furthermore the many differences of woods, how their fibers are disposed concerning straightness and curvature. But still further, the various properties and types of stones and plants, those lying near to hand and those which were rarer, were investigated and discovered by every means. He proved a great nuisance to those who made their living in each of these areas when he would sit down beside them for a long time and question them about each thing in the most minute detail. He held the history of plants in rather high esteem and still more the [history] of animals, and he investigated the local ones by observation and inquired into those which were not possible [to see] by report, up to the ends of the earth, reading over as much as the ancients had recorded about them. He was an Alexandrian by birth. Thus, I know by frequent experience that this man propounded well the goodly sect and did not fall far short of his father at all in his righteous zeal and in the sort of intense and passionate hope that leads to the divine; however, he was more philosophical than that man and was equipped with other preparatory education. Accordingly, the city of Aphrodite ascended in his time toward greater holiness. Already he had expelled abominable practices into the hinterlands, and into Alexandria, which worshipped Osiris and served as high priestess of the East. In addition to his loftiness he was easy-going and the company he provided to those whom he met was very pleasant. He was of a good disposition from childhood up until his old age, and he brought many innovations sprung from his own nature into the rites, for which he managed the adornment of the images and assigned hymns. Though he was a thrifty household manager and a farmer, when his father died he had to pay back many debts. Having established himself on a sound financial footing he nevertheless incurred great expenses, on account of his religious inclination and other political ambition which seemed to be necessary and customary for his family. As a result he himself was later compelled to leave an indebted estate to his daughters. Let these things be recorded by me rendering small favors in return for great.
Look in [the entry on] deisidaimonia ["religious awe"]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4183 Ἀσκώματα: oar-pads: [Meaning] the coverings of leather on oar handles, which they use on triremes, in the hole through which the oar handle was placed. For Thorykion wrote his plans on pieces of leather and sent them to the enemies in Laconia. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4202 Ἀσπασία: Aspasia: She became notorious. She was Milesian in descent, clever with regards to words. They say she was simultaneously teacher and beloved of Pericles. It is supposed she became the cause of two wars, the Samian and the Peloponnesian. It also seems that Pericles had a bastard child with the same name, Pericles, by her.
[Note] that there were two courtesan Aspasias. Pericles had the sexual use of one of these, [and] provoked to anger on her account he wrote the decree against the Megareans, forbidding them to be permitted into Athens. Hence these people having their way barred by the Athenians fled for refuge to the Lacedaemonians. Aspasia was a sophist and a teacher of rhetorical principles. And later she became his wife. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4203 Ἀσπάσιος: Aspasius: Of Byblos. Sophist; a contemporary of Aristides and Hadrian. He wrote On Byblos; On Figured Issues; Declamations; Arts; Commentaries; Informal discourses; Encomium of the Emperor Hadrian and of certain others. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.4205 Ἀσπάσιος: Aspasius: Pupil of the critic Demetrianus; of Ravenna. Sophist. Lived under Alexander son of Mamaea. [Wrote] Against Those who are Fond of Slander and Against Ariston [and] miscellaneous discourses. He attended the classes of Pausanias and Hippodromus, and enjoyed prolonged eminence as a sophist in Rome. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.4217 Ἀσταθμεύτους: not encamped; without soldiers quartered: "The king conceded that the Thasians be without garrison, not subject to tribute, without soldiers quartered on them and that they use their own laws." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4222 Ἀστάρτη: Astarte, Ashteroth: Goddess of [the] Sidonians, and Chamos, god of [the] Ammonites, whom Solomon served. He married wives from the gentiles, who, together with the Israelite wives, were seven hundred, as well as three hundred concubines. From all of these was born his son Rehoboam, from foreigners, [sc. and he was] unworthy of the throne. Polygamy, you see, does not result in fertility. (Tr: OLIVER PHILLIPS ✝)
§ al.4242 Ἄστιπτος: untrodden: Impassable, not to be travelled through. Sophocles [writes]: "this is the promontory of the sea-girt land of Lemnos, untrodden by mortals, and not inhabited." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4264 Ἀστυδάμας: Astydamas, Astudamas: [Astydamas] the elder, son of Morsimus the son of Philocles, both tragic poets; an Athenian, a tragic poet. He wrote 240 tragedies and won with 15. He was a pupil of Isocrates and turned to tragedy. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4269 Ἀστυνόμος: town-superintendent, astynomos: There were ten astynomoi — five in Peiraieus, five in [Athens ] town — whose business it was to supervise both the girl-pipers and the girl-harpists, together with the dung-collectors and suchlike. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.4289 Ἀσσύριοι: Assyrians: An ancient kingdom that rose up in mythic times and ruled a small part of Asia. Then Media took the land of the Assyrians and held it for no great time, but it was destroyed after four generations. The Persians conquered the Medes, and for more than two hundred years they held the rule. Then the dynasty of the Macedonians conquered the land of the Persians. After the death of Alexander it began to endure worse and in the time of the successors of Alexander, it was itself weakened and was conquered by the Romans. For the Greek forces were not worthy to be compared with them. For the Athenians ruled only the coast for seventy-eight years; the Lacedaemonians ruled the Peloponnese and the rest of Greece for a whole thirty years and then were stopped by the Thebans. The city of the Romans ruled the whole world, whatever was not inaccessible, for forty-five years beyond seven hundred — until the consuls were Claudius Nero (for the second time) and Calpurnius Piso — having no rival. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4299 Ἀσφόδελος: asphodel: A bulbous plant, having long leaves and an edible stem; and its seed when roasted and the root chopped up with figs fetches a high price. [It is] sacred to Persephone and the underworld [deities]. Also Rhodians wreath Kore and Artemis with asphodel. To be read proparoxytone. "Nor [do they know] the great advantage in mallow and asphodel." But the place in which it grows must be pronounced oxytone, as in Homer: "over the asphodel meadow". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4307 Ἀτταγᾶς: partridge: A type of bird, which pastures upon marshes and flat regions. Hence Aristophanes says that it inhabits Marathon. For in that place the bird [is] plentiful. And let the partridge go, the one inhabiting the plain of Marathon. It is the speckled partridge with multi-colored wings. The term is used for branded [katestigmenon] slaves, since the bird is also marked [katestikton]. "Walking in mud like a revelling partridge." Common parlance calls the partridge tagenarion. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4309 Ἀταλάντη: Atalante: The wife of Akastos, who, having become infatuated with Peleus, initiated discussions about sex, but fearing rejection, lest he denounce her to her husband, beat him to it and slandered him [to] her husband, [claiming him] as wishing to sleep with her. Having laid an ambush, he plotted against Peleus — who, perceiving this, waged war against him, having invited as allies both the Tyndaridai and Jason (who was an enemy to Akastos) with whom he was friends, thanks to having been their shipmate on the Argo; and he seized Iolkos and killed the wife of Akastos. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4360 Ἀττικισμός: Atticism: Friendship and goodwill towards Attikoi [Athenians]; like Lakonism, that towards Lakones [Spartans].
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "in Attic letters": Demosthenes [in the speech] Against Neaira [uses the phrase] to mean ancient ones. For the 24-letter alphabet was invented at some late date amongst the Ionians. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.4361 Ἀττικός: Atticus, Attikos: Bishop of Constantinople after Arsacius, who presided by proxy of Chrysostomos, his descent was from Sebasteia of Armenia, and from youth he was taught to philosophize by a monk of the Macedonian sect. Then they were prominent in philosophy all through Sebasteia from their company with Eustathius, who we know was the bishop there and leader of the best monks. And when he reached manhood he was converted to the catholic church. He was sensible more by nature than by education and became acquainted with moral duties, sufficient to plan and to stand fast in his plans, attractive in his character so that he was agreeable to many, mediocre in his discourses for the church so that those who heard did not consider them necessary to write down, nor were they completely without their share of education. For being of good taste, if the opportunity arose, he practiced on the most esteemed historians among the Greeks. Because he seemed to be an ordinary person, when he held discourse about these things, he often was overlooked by those who were knowledgeable. He was said to have been zealous towards those who were likeminded, but fearsome to those who held other opinions. And easily whenever he wished he inspired fear in these men, and then changing again he appeared gentle. And so they say he was this sort of man.
This man Atticus after being educated was pious and sensible, so it was agreed to bestow the churches upon him for the most part. For not only did he train the those of the household of faith, but he also beat down the heretics with his knowledge; and he did not prefer to maltreat them in any way, but frightened them and again became meek. But he was not neglectful of letters, for he labored over the lectures of the ancients and spent his nights studying them; wherefore he was not recognized by the sophistic philosophers. He was gracious and attractive to those he met and he grieved along with those who were distressed, and, after the example of the Apostle, he became all things to all men. And when he was an old man, he learned and labored at the words which he taught to the churches; but later on, along with his diligence being possessed also of a certain frankness, he taught even the most solemn things extempore, and saying farewell to the study of grammar he turned to the ascetic life. For these were not the sort of words as to be respected by the hearers or committed to writing. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4390 Ἀτρόμητος: Atrometos, Atrometus; untrembling: A proper name. Also [meaning] one who is fearless.
In the Epigrams: "the thick neck of a bull and the iron shoulders of Atlas and the hair and awesome beard of Herakles and the lion's eyes of the Milesian giant which not even Olympian Zeus looked upon untrembling."
Also [sc. attested is the related adverb] ἀτρόμως ["untremblingly"], [meaning] fearlessly.
"He turns around while running and fleeing fearlessly." The Pisidian [writes this] about a Persian. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4409 Αὔγαρος: Augaros, Avgaros, Abgar: King of Edessa, who reigned in the time of the emperor Trajan, and brought him gifts when he arrived there.
See under "phylarch."
Most people say Agbaros. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.4413 Αὔγουστος: Augustus: [Augustus] the Caesar, cousin of Julius Caesar; from whom also the month of August is named. Things that are honorable and great and illustrious are called "august." For in his reign the Lord Jesus Christ, our God and Saviour, assumed flesh from the holy Theotokos and ever-virgin Mary.
The Augusteion was named because on the fifth of the month of October the presidents of regions and priests of the cult of the emperor [sebastophoroi] used to go into the Augusteion, which is in the fishmarket, for the honor of Tiberius; they called this place thus from Augustus. But also Constantine the Great set up a monument to his mother in the courtyard of the laurel, from which he named the place Augusteion.
Augusteion, which is called fishmarket: see also under Justinian.
When Augustus Caesar died, Tiberius and Drusus took the lead in the mourning, completely avoiding touching the body: for this was not permitted to monarchs. But the Vestals kept the will which he had made.
Augustus Caesar made a sacrifice and asked the Pythia who would rule after him; and she said, "A Hebrew child, ruling over the immortal gods, bids me leave this house and to go again to the bard. For the rest, go away in silence from our altars." And going out from the prophetic shrine Augustus set up an altar on the Capitol, on which he inscribed in Roman letters: "This altar belongs to the first-born god." (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.4416 Αὐδηναῖος: Audenaios: Name of a month among Macedonians.
[Equivalent to] January. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ al.4450 Αὐξέντιος: Auxentios, Auxentius: Bishop of Mopsuestia, he was one of the so-called confessors. He was one of those attending the emperor Licinius in a prominent capacity in the army, having become one of the clerks whom the Romans call notarii. The manner of his confession was as follows: In a certain courtyard in the royal dwelling there was a water fountain and on it a statue of Dionysos; a magnificent vine grew all around it and made the whole place pleasantly shady and sheltered. Here Licinius arrived on the pretext of resting, with Auxentius and many others from his retinue following. Looking up at the vine he saw a certain bunch of grapes, ripe and large, hanging from the branches. He ordered Auxentius to cut it. And he straightaway took off the dagger that was attached to his breeches and cut it, suspecting nothing. Then Licinius said to him: "Now put the bunch at the feet of Dionysos." But he answered, "No, my king, for I am Christian." And Licinius said: "Then resign from the army and remove yourself from my presence, for you must do one or the other of those two things." And he, without hesitation, undid his belt and gladly departed, just like that, from the palace. And after some time the authorities made him bishop of Mopsuestia. His younger brother was Theodoros, one of those who were educated at Athens. He later happened to be assigned to the bishopric of the church of Tarsos. For previously Aetios by himself taught Eudoxios himself and other who were extremely worthy of note, but when he promoted Eunomios to teaching duty, he immediately began to use him as a teacher most often instead of himself, especially in the case of those who were most advanced and in need of instruction. For the former was best at providing foundations, but the latter was far more capable of perfecting and explaining in a clear and impressive manner those that had been provided. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.4461 Αὐσονίων: Ausonians: Italians.
Also [sc. attested are] Ausones, [meaning] the kings; [the term comes] from the [verb] αὔσω, [meaning] I dare. [So the name means] those daring everything by their ordinance.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'Ausonian main', [meaning] the Sicilian sea; [named] from Auson, the son of Odysseus and Kalypso, who was king there. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.4466 Αὐταῖσι διαβολαῖς: slanders and all: An Attic expression. He said this since Kleon, by slandering the other generals and currying favor with the masses, persuaded the Athenians to turn their eyes to him. As if we were to say: the chariots, riggings and all, horses and all. The subject is lacking. [As regards] 'the other Paphlagonians', [he is saying] that while all are scoundrels, Kleon is especially so.
[It is] natural to Athenians to say 'riggings and all', 'baskets and all', without the preposition syn ["with"]. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.4536 Αὐτόχθονες: from their own soil, autochthonous: The Athenians; [sc. socalled] either since they were the first to work the soil, that is the earth, when it was [still] fallow; or because of their not being immigrants. Arcadians and Aeginetans and Thebans, too, used to be called autochthones.
Also [sc. attested is the singular] αὐτόχθων, [meaning someone] from the same city. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.4537 Αὐτόχρημα ὅμοιον: exactly the same, straight away: Altogether similar.
Aelian [writes]: "leaping straight away over the trenches, one named Clatius threw his hands on Hasdrubal's ship as it was hastening to flee and vigorously kept hold of the stern."
And Aristophanes [writes]: "[it is] not possible to escape the notice of the Paphlagonian. For he oversees everything; for he has one leg in Pylos, the other in the assembly. So great is the stance of him when he has stepped across that his ass-hole is exactly amongst Chaonians." Meaning absolutely truly, no kidding. The Chaonians [are] a people of Epirus. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4556 Ἀφαρεύς: Aphareus: Athenian, rhetor, son of the sophist Hippias and Plathane, stepson of Isocrates the rhetor, flourished in the 95th Olympiad, at the same time as the philosopher Plato. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.4591 Ἀφέται: Aphetai: A place in Athens where the expedition of Xerxes had its first setback because of the unsuitability of the harbors. For this reason they consider Boreas to be an ally of the Athenians. The god had prophesied that they should sacrifice to their kinsman wind; he is called kinsman because of Oreithyia. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.4618 Ἀφίκετο: arrived: [Means] has come, came. "The army arrived in Attica at Oinoe, where they intended to invade". This is the syntax Thucydides uses.
Also [sc. attested is the perfect] ἀφῖκται ["has arrived"], [meaning] is present.
Also [sc. attested is the pluperfect] ἀφῖκτο ["had arrived"]. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ al.4648 Ἀφρικανός: Africanus: [sc. The name is connected with] Carthage, which is called both Africa and Bursa, having ruled the Libyan people dwelling in the area for 700 years after the first resettlement, was destroyed. Scipio took the same surname Africanus from his grandfather Scipio Africanus and was then so called because of his virtue and the similarity of their successes. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4655 Ἄφροι: Africans: Name of a people; the Carthaginians. [Named] from Afros who was king of Libya, the son of Kronos out of Philyra.
For where ἀφρὸς λευκός ["white foam"] comes from, look under "snow". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4656 Ἀφρουρήτους: ungarrisoned: "The Thasians told Metrodorus, Philip's general, that they would surrender the city if he should see to it that they were ungarrisoned, unsubjected to tribute, exempt from billeting, and [free to] use their own laws. When all had approved what had been said with a shout, they led Philip into the city." ["Had approved"] meaning had confirmed. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4660 Ἀφύα ἐς πῦρ: anchovy into fire: The proverb [is used] in reference to those who have a quick end; inasmuch as it happens that an anchovy cooks very quickly.
It is said in the singular in Aristophanes in Broilers, ἀφύη; but always [elsewhere] in the plural, τὰς ἀφύας .
Also found is aphros ["cloud fish"] [so called] because of its whiteness.
It is also called engraulis ["grayling"] by many people.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] ἀφύων τιμή ["anchovies' honour"], [meaning] olive oil; since they will go well in it.
Also [sc. attested are "Phalerian anchovies", [meaning] the big ones. Phalereus [is] a harbour of Attica.
But it is said in the plural, very rarely [in the singular] ἀφύη .
Aristophanes [writes]: "he used to get everything he wished through [calling you] gleaming, having attached [to you] anchovies' honour."
There are more kinds: one is called the aphritis, which is not born from procreation, but from the foam [aphros] floating at the surface of the sea. Another is called the kobitis ["little gudgeon"], which is born from small and lowly gudgeons which are washed up on the sand; from these [there are] others, which are called ἐγκρασίχολοι . And another, which is a type of sprat, and another from the anchovy, and another from small fish. The aphritis is the principal one.
"Apicius the gourmet presented Nicomedes, the king of the Bithynians who was far from the sea and had his heart set upon anchovies, [with a dish] pretending it was a little fish like anchovies. But this was the preparation. He took a delicate turnip and cut this into long and slender [pieces], mimicking the appearance of the anchovy, and he boiled them in oil and poured on salt, sprinkled on poppy seeds, and satisfied his longing." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4669 Ἀχαΐα: Akhaia, Achaia: [sc. Another name for] Hellas. For Memmius the consul set out against the Corinthians and deprived Metellus of the victory that was in his grasp. He attacked the hard-pressed Achaeans near the Isthmus, defeated them, and without a blow he took Corinth. This city was first of the whole Hellenic world at this time. This seems to be the reason why even now they call Hellas "Achaia". The Romans came and changed the name of the whole territory to [that of] the subdued people, who were at that point the leaders of Hellas.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Achaian missile," in reference to those who throw with good aim. In light of the fact that this sort of missile is most suitable of all against a siege, the missile of the slingers from Achaia. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4676 Ἀχαρίστως: ungraciously: Xenophon [writes]: "Cyrus led the Lydian prisoners, and those he saw making themselves look good and trying to please him he let [remain] with their weapons; but those he saw following ungraciously, he gave their horses to the Persians and burned their weapons."
So ἀχαρίστως [means] without goodwill. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4679 Ἀχαία: Achaia: Demeter.
Aristophanes [writes]: "he would not even have accepted Achaia". They used to call her this from the beat made by the cymbals and drums during the examination of the girl; or from her distress [ἄχος ] about her daughter; or from the sound [ἦχος ] which they used to produce near the bridge as she departed for Athens. The sense, however, [is that] he would not even have endured Achaia herself. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ al.4680 Ἀχαιΐδα: Achaean: Hellenic. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4683 Ἀχαιός: Achaios: Son of Pythodorus or Pythodorides, an Eretrian, a tragedian, he was born in the 74th Olympiad and he staged 44 plays, though some have recorded 30, others 24; he was victorious with [sc. only] 1. He was younger than Sophocles by a bit. [His plays] were performed jointly with [those of] Euripides from the 83rd Olympiad. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4687 Ἀχέρων: Acheron: A river in Hades mentioned in myth; [sc. the name comes] from ἄχη ῥεῖν ["flowing in sorrow"].
And Aristophanes in Frogs, wishing to cause a scare, says: "and a blood-dripping Acherontian crag [will prevent your escape]." Because [he wishes to alarm] Dionysos. (Tr: SAMUEL HUSKEY)
§ al.4688 Ἀχέρων: Acheron: A certain place in the middle of everything; in it occurs a drawing-up and swallowing of waters, until complete inundation; [it is] a dim and dark place. Yet Acheron is like a place of healing, not a place of punishment, cleansing and purging the sins of humans. (Tr: SAMUEL HUSKEY)
§ al.4695 Ἀχιλλεὺς Στάτιος: Achilleus Statios, Achilles Statius, Achilleus Tatios, Achilles Tatius: Of Alexandria, the writer of the story of Leucippe and Cleitophon and other love stories in eight books. He became at last a Christian and a bishop. He wrote "On the [Heavenly] Sphere", "Etymologies", and "Historical Miscellany", which mentions many great and admirable men. His style in all of these works is similar to [his style in] the love stories. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4696 Ἀχίλλειος εὐχή: Achillean prayer: "That someday a longing for Achilles shall come to the sons of the Achaeans."
Camillus, the general of the Romans, prayed an Achillean prayer, that in time the Romans would yearn for Camillus. It happened not too much later; for when the Celts took their city, the people fled to Camillus and again elected him dictator, as it is recorded in the Celtic Matters. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ al.4735 Ἀψίνης: Apsines: Of Gadara. Sophist. Begotten (so the story has it) by Pan. A pupil of Heraclides of Lycia in Smyrna, and then of Basilicus in Nicomedia. He was sophist in Athens under the emperor Maximian, and was awarded consular ornamenta. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ al.4739 Ἄψυρτος: Apsyrtos: Of Prusa, [or] of Nicomedia, a soldier, who had campaigned under the Emperor Constantine in Scythia by the Istros. This man wrote a book on farriery and a physical [treatise] about the same animals; and other things. Cimon the Athenian also wrote a marvellous book on the inspection of horses. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ ai.17 Αἰγαλέως: Aigaleos: [Ἀιγαλέως ] in the genitive instead of . . . (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ ai.23 Αἰγαῖον πέλαγος: Aegean sea: Thus called from a story. Theseus, the son of Aegeus the king of Attica, ruled the Cretans and pursued the Minotaur into the area of the labyrinth and killed him when he was hidden in a cavern. He took to wife the woman Ariadne, who had been born to Minos of Pasiphae, and thus he ruled Crete. Then he asked to go back to his father Aegeus and to announce his victory over the Minotaur. So as he was sailing to the land of Attica, one of the sea-faring merchants got a head start and lied to his father saying to him that the Cretans transgressed against Theseus (for they are under suspicion of being liars) and betrayed him to Minos to be a sacrifice. Aegeus believed him and with contempt hurled himself from the cliff into the sea and drowned. And so because of this even today the sea is called the Aegean. So Theseus came and found him dead. Despising the kingdom of Crete and his own wife Ariadne, he became king in Attica in place of his father.
From this [comes] also [the name] Aegean gulf.
"So [the] Aegean sea [is] the most fearful." But Αἴγαιον is the more Attic [accentuation]. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ ai.35 Αἰγείρου θέα: poplar: The white [sc. variety]. A type of plant.
Poplar's view: there was a poplar in Athens near to the shrine; there they used to set up the benches before the theater existed.
From this poplar those who did not have a place used to watch. But Aigiros [is] a name of a city. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ ai.40 Αἰγιάλη: Aigiale: Proper name. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ ai.45 Αἰγιεῖς οὔτε τρεῖς οὔτε τέσσαρες: Aigians [are] neither three nor four: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to the excessively paltry. For the Aigians in Argos, after they had beaten the Aitolians, asked the Pythia who they were. She responded to them: "Aigians [are] neither three nor four, nor even tenth." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ ai.48 Αἰγίλιψ: Aigilips: Name of a city.
It also means a lofty rock. Homer [writes]: "which pours water down an aigilips rock". So that even the goats [aiges] come to leave it because of the height. There is also a polis of Kephallenia so called. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ ai.55 Αἴγιον: Aigion: Name of a place. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ ai.76 Αἰγυπτία κληματίς: Egyptian vine-branch.: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to lean and fairly tall men; such a man was Zeno of Citium. It is said that he consulted the oracle to learn how he might live the best life, and that the god's answer was that he should assume the complexion of the dead. Hence, understanding the implication of this, he read the works of the ancients. (Tr: PHIROZE VASUNIA)
§ ai.79 Αἰδεσία: Aidesia: Wife of Hermeias. She was related by birth to the great Syrianos, and was the fairest and finest of all the women in Alexandria. In her character she was similar to her husband: simple, noble, and a devotee of justice no less than of propriety through her whole life. But her outstanding quality was her piety and her philanthropy. Because of this she tried to benefit those in need even beyond her means, to the extent that even when Hermeias died and she was left behind with orphan children she continued in her good works. In fact, she spent her life in debt to her sons, upon which basis some even tried to find fault with her. But she, thinking there to be but one storehouse of hope for the better — for whoever might wish to lighten the burdens of holy and virtuous men — spared nothing, out of her pity for the fortunes that befall humankind. Therefore even the most wretched of the citizens loved her. She especially took care for her sons in the area of philosophy, desiring to bequeath to them the wisdom of their father as though it were a sort of inheritence of paternal property. She saved for the children the public allowance given to their father when they were still young, so they studied philosophy. This is something that we know of no other man doing, much less any other woman. There was no small amount of honor and respect for Aidesia in the eyes of all. But when she even sailed together with her sons to Athens, who were sent there to learn philosophy, it was not only the common crowd of philosophers who marvelled at her virtue, but even their chief, Proklos. It is this Aidesia whom Syrianos would have betrothed to Proklos had not one of the gods prevented Proklos from entering upon marriage. In regard to divine matters she was so pious and holy and, to put it in a single word, god-loving, that she was deemed worthy of many epiphanies. Such was Aidesia, and she lived her whole life beloved and praised by god and by men. I met her when she was an old woman, and at her death, while I was still young, a mere lad in fact, I recited at her tomb the customary eulogy adorned with heroic verses. Of her sons by Hermeias, Heliodoros was the younger and Ammonios the older. The latter was more talented and more studious, the former simpler and more ordinary in his habits and in his speech. Both studied philosophy under Proklos, with their mother acting as pedagogue when they came to him. Proklos paid special attention to them as children of Hermeias, a man who was his friend and companion, and as children of Aidesia, who was related by birth to Syrianos and was there together with them at that time. In fact Hierax the brother of Synesios came to Athens with them also. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ ai.128 Αἰθιόπιον: Aithiopion, Aethiopium, Ethiopium: It is a place in Euboia. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ ai.130 Αἴθλη: Aithle: [sc. Another name for] Chios. (Tr: JAMES COUSINS)
§ ai.178 Αἰλιανός: Aelian, Aelianus: Of Praeneste in Italy. High-priest and sophist; surnamed Claudius. He was nicknamed 'honey-tongued' or 'honey-voiced'. He was a sophist in Rome itself in the period after Hadrian. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ ai.200 Αἰμίλιος: Aemilius: The consul, who defeated Perseus the king of the Macedonians. He was a judicious man who knew how to handle good fortune and was self-sufficient. For he received the man along with his royal retinues and when he [Perseus] made to fall toward his knees, he [Aemilius] bade him rise and said, "my good man, why are you ruining my victory?" and he had him sit down beside him on a royal type of stool. He commanded that the Macedonians and Illyrians, now that they had been released from their previous servitude, were to be free and autonomous, and he ordered their league to render a small amount of tribute, one that was considerably less than what they previously paid to each other's kings. As a result everyone could agree that the Romans waged war more on account of the prior misdeeds against them than out of desire to obtain the Macedonian empire. In any case, Aemilius, in the hearing of all those present [many had gathered, and from many nations], revealed the decree of the Senate and declared that the men were free. He entertained the ambassadors of the Europeans who had come to him at great expense, considering the splendor of the banquet a point of honor. For in fact he used to say that those who prevailed in war also had the responsibility to prove themselves careful and ambitious in their preparations for banquets. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ ai.205 Αἱμόνιος: Haimonios, Haemonius: A Roman; wounded during the war of the Persians against the Athenians he [nevertheless] ran to Athens, went in to [see] the prytaneis, and said to them 'Rejoice, we are rejoicing'; he then fell dead. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ ai.218 Αἰνή: dire: Terrible. But [sc. differently accented] Αἴνη [is] the mountain in Sicily. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ ai.219 Αἱ νῆτται: the ducks: [Attic αἱ νῆτται ]: [epic and Ionic] αἱ νῆσσαι "the ducks."
But Ainitai [means] the people from Ainos. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ ai.224 Αἴνιον: Ainion, Aenium: [Ainion] and Ainioi: cities.
"It happened that the Aenians were formerly split by factions; but recently some inclined towards Eumenes, others to Macedonia." (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ ai.225 Αἶνος: Ainos: It is a city of Thrace, which Greeks first inhabited with Alopekonnesians, who afterwards brought in additional settlers from Mytilene and Kyme.
And out of this [comes] Ainites, the citizen [of Ainos ]. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ ai.235 Αἴξ: goat: [αἴξ ], [genitive] αἰγός .
And [there is] a proverb: "the nanny-goat giving the knife." For as the Corinthians were sacrificing to Hera Akraia, [whose cult] Medea is said to have established, the hired men hiding the knife in the nearby earth claimed that they had forgotten it. But the goat dug it up with her feet. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ ai.238 Αἲξ Σκυρία: Skyrian nanny-goat: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who ruin good deeds: for they say that [these goats] have plenty of milk, but when they are milked, they overturn the pail. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ ai.239 Αἰξωνεύεσθαι: to be an Aixonian, to play the Aixonian: The [verb that means] to make slanderous accusations. A metaphor from the deme of the Aixoneis; for they are ridiculed in comedy [as] slanderers. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ ai.241 Αἰξωνεία: being an Aixonian, playing the Aixonian: Slander. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ ai.242 Αἰξωνηίς: Aixonian: It is a deme of the [sc. Athenian] tribe Kekropis. They used to be ridiculed in comedy as slanderers. Hence they used to call speaking ill [of someone] "playing the Aixonian". (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ ai.243 Αἰξωνίδα τρίγλην: Aixonian mullet: These seem to be very excellent and to differ from the others in this respect. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ ai.268 Αἴπεια: Aipeia: Name of a city. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ ai.274 Αἰπύ: lofty: High, large.
"[Phoebus], holding the lofty hill of Leukas, seen from far by sailors."
"And you, Helios, who drive your chariot up the sky, when you see the land of my fathers, draw in your golden reins and tell my disasters ..." (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ ai.278 Αἶρα: darnel, sphere, Airai?: [sc, A type of] grain. It also means a sphere. And the name of a city. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ ai.295 Αἰρετρία: Airetria, Eretria: A city. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ ai.317 Αἴσηπος: Aisepos: Name of a river. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ ai.332 Αἰσώπειον αἷμα: Aesopic blood: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those being killed unjustly. For the Delphians did not kill Aesop justifiably.
Thus 'Aesopic blood' [is used] in reference to those who are beset by irremediable disgraces and evils. For it happened that the divinity waxed wroth at the Delphians; they killed Aesop unjustly. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ ai.334 Αἴσωπος: Aesop: A Samian or Sardian, though Eugeiton said that he was a Mesembrian, and others [call him] a Phrygian from Kotiaiaon. He became a logopoios, which is an inventor of stories and responses. Being welcomed at [the palace of] Croesus he spent time there, in the era before Pythagoras; the midpoint of his life was the 40th Olympiad. He wrote about the things which happened to him at Delphi in 2 books. But some say, rather, that Aesop has only written responses. For [they say that] he perished unjustly in Delphi having been thrown off a precipice from the rocks called the Phaidriades in the 54th Olympiad. [Some say that] Aesop became the slave of Xanthus the Lydian, while others say [that he became the slave] of a certain Samian, Iadmon, who also had a female slave Rhodopis; Charaxos the brother of Sappho took her, a Thracian by race, as his wife after she had spent time as a hetaira, and he had children by her. (Tr: BOBBIEJO WINFREY)
§ ai.335 Αἴσωπος: Aesop: The composer of stories, a Samian, a slave not more by fortune than by his own choosing; neither senseless nor in terms of this very thing a man. For as the law [or: custom] did not give him a share in frankness, it befitted him to bring forward his counsels outlined and embellished with delight and grace — just as, amongst doctors, those who are free men enjoin that which is proper, whereas if anyone becomes a slave in fortune but a doctor in skill, being compelled he has his ways to flatter his master at the same time that he tends him.
'A certain bold and drunken bitch barked at Aesop as he was walking one evening from dinner. Thereupon that man said, "O bitch, if by Zeus you were to purchase from some place wheat in exchange for your bad tongue, you would seem to me to be sensible."'
Some say that Aesop became straightway so greatly beloved by the gods that he also returned again to life, just as Tyndareos and Herakles and Glaukos. And the comic-poet Plato says, "Swear to me that the body is not dead. — I [swear]. — [and that] the soul from victory, as Aesop's once [did]." (Tr: BOBBIEJO WINFREY)
§ ai.346 Αἰσχίνης: Aischines: Son of Charinos, a sausage-maker. [He was] a Socratic philosopher. Some, though, say that he was the son of Lysanias. [He was] an Athenian, of [the deme] Sphettos. His dialogues [are entitled] Miltiades, Kallias, Rhinon, Aspasia, Axiochos, Telauges, Alkibiades, and the ones called Preface-less — Phaidon, Polyainos, Drakon, Eryxias, On Excellence, Erasistratoi, [and] Skythikoi. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ ai.347 Αἰσχίνης: Aeschines, Aiskhines: Of Athens. Rhetor. Son of Atrometus and Glaucothea; he studied rhetoric with Alcidamas of Elea. Some have written that his parents were slaves. This man, when he was collaborating in some legal case and corrupted the jurors, was thrown into jail with them and died of drinking hemlock; their property was publicly sold, as if they were childless. However, he settled in Rhodes and taught there after he had been beaten by Demosthenes in the case concerning the crown. He was the very first whose improvisation excited the cry, 'Your speech is inspired!', as if he were possessed. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ ai.348 Αἰσχίνης: Aeschines: Of Athens; son of the elementary teacher Atrometus and Leucothea the priestess. He himself was an actor, then a secretary, then an orator; he was a traitor, who betrayed Cersobleptes and the Phocians. He indicted Ctesiphon for violating the constitution when he proposed that Demosthenes be crowned; he lost the case, and went into exile in Rhodes, where he became a teacher. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ ai.349 Αἰσχίνης: Aeschines, Aiskhines: The son of Lysanias. This man went to Dionysios in Sicily on account of money. And Plato is said to have compassed Charybdis three times on account of Sicilian lucre. Aristippos of Cyrene and Helikon from Cyzicus and Phoiton, when he fled from Rhegion, are said to sunk so far into Dionysios' treasuries that they were scarcely able to get themselves out from there. They say that Eudoxos of Knidos, when once he went to Egypt, confessed that he had gone there on account of money and conversed with the king on account of it. And, to round off my calumnies, they say that Speusippos the Athenian conceived such a passion for money that when he went to Macedon to celebrate the wedding of Cassander he composed frightful poems and sang them in public on account of money. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ ai.354 Αἰσχρίων: Aischrion: of Mitylene, an epic poet, who joined in the expedition of Alexander the son of Philip. He was an intimate of Aristotle and beloved by him, as Nikandros of Alexandria [says] in On the Students of Aristotle. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ ai.357 Αἰσχύλος: Aiskhylos: Athenian, tragic poet, son of Euphorion and brother of Ame[i]nias, Euphorion, and Kynageiros, who [all] fought bravely at Marathon together with him. He also had two sons who were tragedians, Euphorion and Euaion. He competed in the 9th Olympiad when he was 25 years old. This man was the first to invent the practice of actors having masks painted wondrously with colors and wearing felt half-boots known as embatai. He wrote both elegiac poetry and 90 tragedies. He won 28 times, though some say 13. Exiled to Sicily following a collapse of the stage during a performance of his, a tortoise was dropped on his head by an eagle that had been carrying it, and he died at the age of 58. (Tr: ROSS SCAIFE ✝)
§ ai.367 Αἰτηταί: requesters: Those who request something from someone. "The Rhodians, being requesters of peace with Perseus no more than they were granters, were especially singled-out by the Romans." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ ai.371 Αἰτιῶδες ψεῦδος: causal falsehood: [sc. This term means] either something that begins from a falsehood or does not finish up with a consequence or has, when it finishes, the premise as a consequence. For instance: because it is night, Dion is taking a walk.
Construction: "those who had escaped were from Mysia for such reasons as these." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ ai.376 Αἰτναῖος κάνθαρος: Etnaean dung-beetle: The big [kind]. Because the mountain too [is] big.
They say that Aristaios was the only Giant to survive; the fire of heaven did not reach him, nor did Etna harm him. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ ai.379 Αἰτωλία: Aitolia: A region [of that name]. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ ai.380 Αἰτώλιος: Aitolian, Aetolian; [no gloss] (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ beta.10 Βαβύλας: Babylas: Bishop of Antioch. When Numerianus — or some say Decius — was prompted by some demon to go into a crowded church, Babylas stood in front of the door and kept him from coming in, saying that as far as it was in his power he would not allow the wolf to go in among the flock. Numerianus at once backed off from the door, either sensing the sedition in the crowd or changing his mind for some other reason. But he was not happy about the bishop's opposition, so after he went back to his quarters at the palace he summoned him to his presence and brought an accusation against him for hindering him. He then ordered Babylas to sacrifice to the deities if he wanted to avoid a trial on this charge. The bishop spoke in his own defense against the charge and responded to the challenge, first of all, that for him as a shepherd it was entirely appropriate feel strongly about his flock. Moreover, he said that he would not turn away from the real God and sacrifice to destructive falsely-named deities. Then Numerianus, seeing that Babylas was not persuaded, ordered that he be bound by chains and fetters and taken off to his death by beheading. As Babylas was being led off to die, he answered in the words of the Psalm: "My soul, turn to your rest, for the Lord has made you prosper." They also say that there were three boys, brothers by birth, all very young, that had grown up in Babylas's household. The Emperor seized them also and, because they refused to sacrifice even though induced to by all kinds of threats, the Emperor ordered that they should be beheaded. When they came to the appointed place, Babylas stood before them and encouraged them not to tremble or to draw back from their deaths. And he proclaimed as they were being beheaded, "Look, I and the children God has given to me." Then he offered his own neck to the sword, bidding those who collected the bodies to bury the chains and fetters with him, "so that they may adorn me as I lie there," he said. And they say these [chains] are still with him. (Tr: ANNE MAHONEY)
§ beta.16 Βάδην: step-by-step: [Someone] proceeding at a walk.
"Some he sent off ahead, but he himself, leading the army in a square formation, withdrew step-by-step."
And elsewhere: "following step-by-step and in a leisurely fashion."
Aristophanes [writes]: "[the] Megarians, when they were starving step-by-step, appealed to [the] Spartans". Meaning they were starving, they were being destroyed by famine. Βάδην means that the famine was increasing little by little and incrementally, growing in size. (Tr: JOHN ARNOLD)
§ beta.30 Βάθρα: foundations, pedestals, steps, benches: "Just yesterday and the day before they had fled from the tavern, and cleaning its benches and sweeping the floor, but now they had put on purple-bordered mantles and pinned them on with gold brooches and [sc. their fingers] were bound by gold-encrusted signet-rings."
Also [sc. attested is the singular] bathron, [meaning] a foundation-stone. Also [plural] bathra ["pedestals"], [meaning] statues.
"When he had lost his slippers and brought one foot to a step one of the soldiers ran up with a dagger and cut him down."
And Sophocles [writes]: "holding the base of Salamis by the sea." That is, the foundation, the seat, through which Salamis stands.
A bathron ["bench"] [is] also what they sit on in assemblies. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.47 Βάκις: Bakis: An epithet of Peisistratos.
[Bakis] was a chresmologue. But Philetas of Ephesos says that there were three Bakises: the one from Eleon in Boiotia, the Athenian, and the Arkadian from the city of Kaphye — the one also called Kydas and Aletes. Theopompos in [book] 9 of Philippika has many extraordinary stories about this Bakis, including the fact that on one occasion he purified the mad womenfolk of the Spartans — Apollo having given him to them as purifier. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ beta.59 Βακχυλίδης: Bakkhulides, Bacchylides: Keian, [i.e.] from Keos the island, but of the city Ioulis (for it has 4 cities, Ioulis, Karthaia, Koressia, Poiessa), son of Medon, [who was] the son of Bacchylides the athlete; a relative of Simonides the lyric poet, himself a lyric poet also. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ beta.89 Βάμμα Κυζικηνόν: Cyzicene dye: Attic [writers] call impure indecorum [this].
And [there is] another proverb: "Sardinian dye [bamma Sardianikon], meaning may I not make you red; like, so that I do not turn you crimson. For Sardo [Sardinia] is a very big island near Italy in which there are various vivid purple [dyes]. So he is wanting to say, so that I will cause you to be given blows.
Search in [the entry on] ἄγχουσα concerning the rouge of women. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.99 Βάραθρον: pit: A certain well-like and dark chasm in Attica, in which they used to throw evil-doers; in this chasm there were hooks, some on top and some below. There they threw the Phrygian [priest] of the Mother of the Gods on the grounds that he had gone mad, when he told them that the mother was coming in search of the maiden. The goddess then was angry and sent a blight of crops to the country; and when they knew the cause [of the blight] through an oracle they covered over the chasm and made the goddess propitious with sacrifices. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.121 Βάρος: weight, influence, gravitas, dignity: Concerning Polemon [it has been written]: "he had gravitas of a kind found in some Dorian household management".
"Both foreseeing and fearing the influence and the quarrelsomeness of mankind." Meaning the bulk, the strength. Polybius says [this].
And elsewhere: "having taken note of the fortification of Sikyon and the influence of the city of Argos [Aemilius] came to Epidauros".
And elsewhere: "they busied themselves with the detail of the position and influence of the city [of Alexandria ]".
"For no dignity comes to me from these [mere words]: what encourages me to give my life lustre is not words but actions". (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ beta.128 Βαρυδαίμων: ill-fated: Unfortunate.
"But he, being a Cretan and naturally quick-witted, was weighing up every fact and sounding out every intention." ["Was weighing up"] meaning was examining. (Tr: RICHARD DAVIS)
§ beta.139 Βάσανος: touchstone, test: It is the stone which tests gold when it is rubbed against it. Thus Antiphon and Pindar and Sophokles. But Hyperides calls βάσανοι the things said in interrogation by those who are being tested and written up.
And [there is] a proverb: Test stone, in reference to those investigating things in words or in deeds; since the Lydian stone tests gold.
[Note] that those outside say: "let the disagreement depend on a verdict, let the verdict test the arguments, let the test set the boundaries on what is necessary, let the boundary be written, let what is written be validated, let what has been validated be corroborated in deeds, and let all quarrelling disappear, and let friendship parade back in." And it is necessary not to reach the verdicts without circumspection. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ beta.144 Βασιλεὺς μέγας: Great King: The [king] of the Persians. To the other kings they added also the names of those who were ruled: as "of the Lakedaimonians," "of the Macedonians." A king differs from a tyrant. For a king is he who receives sovereignty in succession from his ancestors with specified limits, but a tyrant is he who usurps the sovereignty by force. But [some] use both nouns without distinction. For Pindar calls Hieron a king, although he was a tyrant, and [others do the same with] Dionysios; and Eupolis calls Peisistratos a king. And kings [are also called] tyrants. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ beta.150 Βασίλειος: Basil, Basilius, Basileios: Bishop of Cappadocian Caesarea (which in the past used to be called Mazaca); a close friend of Gregory the bishop of Nadianda [Nazianzus]. He came from illustrious parents, Basil and Emmelia, whose family [is discussed] above. A very famous man and one who advanced to the summit of every [branch of] education. This man wrote many works, of which especially the commentaries on the Hexaemeron are admired. He also composed remarkable orations against Eunomius, and a book on the Holy Spirit, and the nine homilies on the Hexaemeron; another work on the ascetic lifestyle, [and] one on virginity; an oration in praise of the Forty Martyrs, another in praise of Gordius, another in praise of Barlaam, and another in praise of Julitta. [There are] several edifying orations on different Psalms; letters — unsurpassed — to the sophist Libanius and to his friend Gregory and to many others. On this Basil, also, Philostorgius has made a record in a story about him. He wrote as follows. "For in those times Basil flourished in Cappadocian Caesarea and Gregory in Nadiandus (this place was a station in Cappadocia) and Apollinarius in Laodicea in Syria. These three men then fiercely defended the consubstantiality against the heterosubstantiality, having surpassed by and large everybody who in the past and later, until my own day, supported this same heresy, so that Athanasius would be judged a child in comparison to them. They progressed far in the so-called education "from outside"; and of the holy scriptures, as much as they through the reading filled their memory, they had much experience and of them Basil had the most. And each one of them was in his own way a most respectable writer. Basil was by far at his best in the panegyrical genre: he was indeed most brilliant in delivering festival orations; Apollinarius on the other hand was excellent in the commentary genre. Gregory, however, had — and this was also the judgment of the other two — the largest resources for the composing of homilies." These things Philostorgius the Arian as if in passing wrote about them. Basil died when Gratianus held the scepter of the Romans.
Basil the Great had four brothers: Gregory the bishop of Nyssa, and Peter (also a bishop), and two others who became monks. (Tr: LEEMANS JOHAN)
§ beta.151 Βασίλειος: Basileios, Basilius, Basil: [Basil] of Ancyra, bishop of the same city, physician by trade. This man wrote Against Marcellus, and on virginity, and not a few other works. During the reign of Constantine he led the Macedonian heresy along with Eustathius of Sebaste. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ beta.152 Βασίλειος: Basileios, Basilius, Basil: Another [Basil], bishop of Eirenoupolis in Cilicia, in the time of the emperor Anastasius. He resembled his namesake Basil of Caesarea in his mind-set and his ascetic life-style. He wrote against Archelaus, an elder of Colonia. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ beta.157 Βασιλική: basilica: In the basilica behind the Milestone (Milion — where also the exammon was up until the time of the emperor Heraclius — stood a gilt statue of a man on bended knee, Justin the tyrant. There is where Terbelis addressed the people. In this place there stood an extremely large elephant which had been constructed on the orders of Severus. Here there was also a large company of guards. A silversmith also lived there, plying his trade with rigged scales. And when his house had been damaged he threatened the one guarding the elephant with death if he did not keep him under control. But the beast's handler did not back down, and the user of rigged scales killed him and gave him to the elephant as fodder. But the beast was a wild one and killed him as well. And Severus heard this and offered sacrifice to the beast. But in that very place statues of both the beast and his handler were immediately erected. This is also the place where Heracles was worshipped, the recipient of many sacrifices. [The statue] was transferred to the Hippodrome. In the time of Julian the consularis [the statue] came from Rome to Byzantium and was brought in on a wagon and a ship, as were ten statues (stelai). (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ beta.164 Βασιλίσκος: Basiliskos: [Basiliskos,] the emperor of the eastern Romans, exacted money from the bishops of the churches and came close to expelling Akakios the bishop of Constantinople, if he had not been prevented by a large number of the so-called "monks." He was also very desirous of money, so as not to be able to keep his hands off of the money even of those who practiced the base and mechanical arts. And everyone was full of tears at the collection of such taxes.
Look also under Harmatos. (Tr: CRAIG GIBSON)
§ beta.171 Βάσσος Κορίνθιος: Bassos the Corinthian: Apollonios had a dispute with this man. "For this man was thought and believed to be a parricide, but he pretended to a wisdom of his own, and no bridle could be set upon his tongue. But Apollonios put a stop to his reviling, both by sending him letters and by making speeches against him. For everything which he said about his being a parricide was thought to be true, for it was thought that such a man would not have condescended to personal abuse and would not have said what was not true." (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ beta.185 Βάττος: Battos: A person's name. [It means] stuttering and lisping. There was a Cretan city named Oaxos, in which Etearchos [was] king, who for his motherless daughter, whose name was Phronime [...]. Providing badly for her and contriving everything against her, and finally having accused her of lewdness, she convinces her husband that these things are true. Persuaded by his wife, he contrived an unholy deed against his daughter. For there was in Oaxos a man from Thera, a merchant named Themison. Taking this man into guest-friendship, Etearchos made him swear that he would do for him whatever service he asked. When he so swore, he (the king) brought in his daughter, handed her over to him, and ordered him to lead her away and throw her into the sea. But Themison was very angry [...] on the sea, and in order to discharge his oath to Etearchos, after binding her with ropes he let her down into the sea, and having pulled her back up again arrived at Thera. Then Polymnestos, being a reputable man of the Theraeans, took Phronime and made her his concubine. As time passed, there was born to him a son who was stuttering and lisping, to whom the name Battos was given. (Tr: CRAIG GIBSON)
§ beta.186 Βάττου σίλφιον: Battos' silphium, Battus' silphium: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those receiving scanty honors. For the Cyrenaeans gave a special silphium to one of the Battoi, and on one side of the coin they stamped [a picture of] Ammon, on the other [a picture of] silphium. The Ampeliotae in Libya dedicated a stalk of silphium at Delphi. (Tr: CRAIG GIBSON)
§ beta.187 Βάττου σίλφιον: Battos' silphium, Battus' silphium: Aristophanes in Wealth [writes]: "you would not even give me Battos' silphium". The [plant] in Libya, which cures many ailments; it is sweet-smelling and very expensive. For Battos founded Cyrene. (Tr: CRAIG GIBSON)
§ beta.190 Βάτραχος ἐκ Σερίφου: a frog out of Seriphos: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those without a voice. Inasmuch as when the frogs in Seriphos were carried to Skyros they did not make a sound. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ beta.206 Βδελύττεσθαι: to feel loathing at: [Used] with an accusative. [Meaning] to feel disgust at, to suffer nausea, to recoil from. Apollodorus of Cyrene [sc. uses it to mean] to hate. From this also [comes] the word nausea, from hatred; also disgust.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "feeling disgust at Lepreum from Melanthius". This man [Melanthius] had leprosy. He was also satirized in comedy for being effeminate. And he was a mischief-maker and an epicure and a blabbermouth. "Yes, by the gods, I who cannot look at Lepreum without feeling disgust from Melanthius". (Tr: CRAIG GIBSON)
§ beta.228 Βεκεσέληνε: bekeselene: Either apoplectic [i.e. stroke-disabled] and moonstruck [i.e. epileptic]; or the 2 are combined into one, bekos and selene; both [words are] old. Or because the Lydians or Phrygians called bread bekos. But they were accused of being stupid. So he is ridiculing them for their speech. But the story concerning beke, which is a Phrygian word signifying "bread," is well-known from the second book of Herodotus. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ beta.229 Βεκεσέληνε: bekeselene: "Old," that is "very foolish." It is formed from προσέληνε . For they called the Arcadians προσέληνοι ["before the moon"] because they claimed to be the oldest [people] and to have arisen before the moon. So βεκεσέληνε [is] like προσέληνε . But also βεκεσέληνε by itself is derived from a story like this. When Psammetikhos became king of the Egyptians, he wanted to know which of all men were the eldest and arose first. But as even after much investigation he was not able to find out the accurate truth because many were contentious in this matter, he devised something like this. Taking two newborn infants he shut them up in a house absolutely isolated. And some say that he sent she-goats to them, which suckled and nourished the infants; others say that he assigned wet-nurses, cutting out their tongues so that the infants would not hear their voices. Psammetikhos did this because he wanted to know what sound the children would first utter, apart from meaningless whimpering. So as the third year passed of this form of nurture, he sent into the house one of his closest friends bidding him go by in silence. But when he opened the doors, stretching out their hands the children called out "bekos." The Phrygians call bread by this name. And so Psammetikhos found and felt confident that the Phrygians had arisen first. But if the first story is true, that goats nursed the children and not a woman, it is no wonder that hearing the goat they imitated her voice, and it is a coincidence that such an expression occurs among the Phrygians. Thus then βεκεσέληνε indicates that which is old, the expression being compounded from βέκος, according the story which has been told, and from προσέληνε, because the Arcadians were called "before the moon" [προσέληνοι ]. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ beta.237 Βενεβεντός: Beneventos, Beneventum: Name of a city in Calabria, which Diomedes founded. In his voyage home, when he landed at his own country, he was not received, but was banished and departed for Calabria. There he founded a city which he called Argyrippe, the one which was later named Beneventum. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ beta.238 Βενεβεντὸν: Beneventon, Beneventum: They call the force of the winds "Beneventum." (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ beta.265 Βηρούνιον: Berounion, Virunum: Name of a city. For the Noricians are a people, where a divinely-sent monster of a boar was ravaging the land, and everyone who tried to attack it achieved nothing, until a certain man, turning the pig over, put it up on his shoulders, somewhat as the story is also related about Calydon. And the Noricians shouted out "One man!" in their own language — that is, berounous. From this the city was called Berounion. (Tr: CRAIG GIBSON)
§ beta.270 Βίαντος Πριηνέως δίκη: Bias of Priene's justice: This man [was] one of the Seven Sages. He is said to have been very clever at speaking in lawsuits; however, he used the power of his words for good. Hipponax [writes]: "to litigate more powerfully than Bias of Priene." (Tr: SUSAN SHAPIRO)
§ beta.315 Βλάκα: idiot, fool: Accusative case.
A simpleton and a mindless person. It is said because of a certain fish, similar to the (?)sheatfish, so useless that not even a dog could make use of it. [In book] four of Republic [Plato says]: "our condition was idiotic." As someone might say of the breath from a marine creature, which is insensate. Others [derive it] from Blakeia, the place in Kyme, which Aristotle mentions. And in Alexandria there is a blakennomion tax, which astrologers pay, because fools go to them.
"They let [him], resting and being a fool [sc. as he was], go weep."
And the accusative of the plural [is] βλάκας .
It [sc. the sense of this word] is a certain fool who does not know how to decide his affairs. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.327 Βλαισός: bandy-legged; curving: Paralytic. "Bandy-legged" [blaisos] and "crooked" [rhaibos] are different: one [means] the feet are twisted from the knees, the other means the shins themselves [are twisted].
"Often the blooming curving Acharnian ivy crowned his hair in the orchestras and on the stages."
Also βλαισοπόδης ["bandy-footed one"], a frog. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.355 Βοαδρόμος: one running to help: One aiding.
"Thus for the sake of Ambracia the one who ran to help raised his shield and chose to die rather than to flee." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.356 Βοηδρομεῖν: to run to help: To come near with eagerness; but Carians [sc. use this word] to mean to aid [βοηθεῖν ].
"And with the citizens running to help for this, a certain other barbarian appeared and wounded the other who was attacking, and nothing was decided." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.390 Βορᾶς: of food, of prey: [Meaning] of food or nourishment. But Borras [is] the wind, and it is declined Borra [in the genitive]; the nominative plural [is] Borrai.
"Harsh north winds blowing."
Also [sc. the declension occurs] Boreas, Boreou.
Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] Βορραίῃ ["northerly"]. "Broken by a northerly storm it fell(?)."
They consider Boreas to be an ally of [the] Athenians. And see the place where the army of Xerxes suffered misfortune, under Aphetai. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ beta.404 Βοτά: grazers: Grazing-animals.
Also [sc. attested is the feminine noun] βοτάνη ["pasturage"], fodder.
"Certain horse-feeders of the Cadmeians were contending with some of the Minyans over pasturage."
"Going past the nearby hills they will find the plain full of manifold grazers." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.412 Βούβοτον Ὀρβηλοῖο παρὰ σφυρόν: near a cattle-grazed foothill of Orbelos: Also [sc. attested is the nominative] βούβοτος ["cattle-grazed"], [meaning] that which has a lot of pasturage. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.429 Βουλεύσεως: conspiracy: It is the name of a charge [sc. in Athenian law], attached to two sets of circumstances. One is when someone plots to bring about the death of somebody, irrespective of whether the target of the plot dies or not; the other is when someone has been listed as a debtor to the public treasury and sues somebody for having listed him unjustly. And Isaeus says that the first charge of the two is brought to court in the Palladion; likewise also Aristotle; but Dinarchus [says that it is] in the Areopagos. Concerning the other charge Demosthenes has something to say in the first [speech] Against Aristogeiton. Hyperides, however, applies the word "conspiracy" in a special way to traps and scheming aimed at making money. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ beta.436 Βουλήσεται κἂν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ τυχεῖν ὢν μᾶλλον ἢ κρῖναι κακῶς: he will wish even to be in Egypt rather than to make a bad judgment: As [if] in reference to a curse; since Egypt used to be slandered as being infested by robbers. Or he wishes that he is as far away as possible, where rain will not harm him; since in Egypt he thinks that it does not rain. As Herodotus [says]: "for then Thebes was rained upon, never having been rained upon before." (Tr: CINDY WHITCOMB)
§ beta.453 Βούπαις: big boy, ox-boy, ox-child: Youth, adolescent, [or] cowherd.
Also [sc. a term applicable to] bees, because they are born of oxen.
"May the tomb always be surrounded by ox-children bees and dripping with Hymettian honey."
"For horses [are] the origin of wasps, but bulls of bees." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.463 Βοῦς ὁ Μολοττῶν: Molossian ox: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who divide and chop up things into many pieces. For in their oath-taking the Molossians used to make their compacts by cutting up the oxen into small pieces. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ beta.467 Βούτης: Boutes, Butes: This man held the priesthood, and those [sc. descended] from him were [sc. initially] called Boutadai. But [sc. now] the descendants of Boutes are called Eteoboutadai ["Real- Boutadai"]; for ἐτεόν indicates "true". (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ beta.474 Βουφόνια: Bouphonia, Ox-slaying: A very ancient festival among [the] Athenians. For in the Diipolieia they say that an ox ate a round cake that was prepared for the sacrifice, but a certain Thaulon, as it stands, slew the ox with an axe, as Androtion also says. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.475 Βουφόνια: Bouphonia; Ox-slaying: An ancient festival , which they say is held after the mysteries; also when they sacrificed the ox as a reminder of the first ox slain on the Acropolis, after the barley-meal in the offering of the Diipoleia had been touched. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.478 Βούχετα: Boucheta, Bucheta: It is a city of Epeiros; the word is neuter and plural. Philochoros says that it got its name because Themis went there, mounted on an ox [ἐπὶ βοὸς ὀχουμένην ], during the flood of Deukalion. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ beta.479 Βουχίλου: of fodder-rich: Name of a place; the nominative [is] Bouchilon.
"Pans, rulers of fodder-rich" — that is, bountiful — "Arcadia". (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ beta.491 Βωμόν: bomos, bomon: [What] Laconians [call] raisin[s]. (Tr: D. GRAHAM J. SHIPLEY)
§ beta.495 Βῶνος: Bonos, Bonus: The general of Mysia, the [region] stretched along the river Danube; a man who came to the height of intelligence and extremely good at matters both political and military. He lived in the time of Justinian. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ beta.505 Βωτεῖν: botein: To plough. Laconians [sc. use the word]. (Tr: D. GRAHAM J. SHIPLEY)
§ beta.514 Βραγχίδαι: Branchidai: Those living in Milesian Didyma, who, in seeking favor with Xerxes, betrayed the temple of the indigenous Apollo to the barbarians: the temple offerings, of which there were a great number, were plundered. The traitors, fearing vengeance from both the laws and the inhabitants of the city, asked Xerxes to pay them for this wretched betrayal and settle them in some Asian land. He agreed, and in exchange for what was evil and unholy, allowed them to live where they would never again set foot upon Greece and both they and future generations would be removed from the fear besetting them. Then, having obtained the land with birds of ill-omen, they established a city and gave it the name Branchidai, thinking they had not only escaped the Milesians, but also justice itself. But the watchfulness of the god was not asleep. For Alexander, when he obtained mastery of the Persian empire upon conquering Darius, heard of their daring and conceived a hatred for them and their successive generations; so he killed them all, judging that the offspring of evil is evil. He overthrew their pseudonymous city and razed it to the ground. (Tr: JOSEPH MCALHANY)
§ beta.519 Βρασίδας: Brasidas: The son of Tellis, a general of [the] Lakedaimonians. When Methone went over to the Athenian side, he waged war against it and restored it [sc. to the Spartans]. He also distinguished himself as a general at Pylos, being the first to leap from the ship. There he was also wounded and lost his shield. After these events a year-long truce resulted, which the Athenians were the first to break. Because he was popular in Amphipolis and Thrace they registered him as their city-founder in place of Hagnon. The war, up until the deaths of Brasidas and Kleon, lasted ten years, and was called the Archidamian.
'[Attacking] on the pretense that one favors Brasidas' side.' Meaning that of the Lakedaimonians' side. (Tr: JOHN HYLAND)
§ beta.521 Βραυρών: Brauron: A place in Attica, in which the Dionysia used to be held and they would drink and snatch up many prostitutes. And Aristophanes [writes]: "o master, how great a five-year-festival arse she has." [This] is said because of the fact that the sacred Dionysiac delegations are sent every five years.
See under "bear". (Tr: ELIZABETH MORGAN)
§ beta.524 Βραχμάν: Brahman: A king, who also gave his name to the country. He wrote the Laws of the Brahmans and a Constitution of the same people in his own language.
The Brahmans are a very pious people and possess a life quite without possessions, living on an island in the ocean, having been allotted this lot by the decisions of the god. Arriving at this place Alexander of Macedon erected a slab and wrote on it, "I, the great king Alexander, reached this point." On this island dwell the Makrobioi [Long-livers]. For they live 150 years on account of the pureness and the temperateness of the air. Among them there are no domestic animals, no farming, no iron, no house construction, no fire, no gold, no silver, no bread, no wine, no eating of meat. Only the humid, sweet and well-tempered air which relieves them of every sickness and morbidity. Feeding off a little fruit and the pellucid water they worship the god generously and pray continuously. The men live in the region by the ocean, but the women are on the other side of the Ganges, which flows to the ocean in the region of India. So the men cross over to the women in the months of July and August, which for them are more chilly, since the sun passes on high toward us and the north, and becoming more fecund, they say, stir them to passion, just as they say the Nile floods: not in the same way as other rivers, but by inundating Egypt in the middle of summer, since the sun passes completely through the northern zone and blocks up the other rivers and makes them disappear, but has absolutely no effect on this one. After spending 40 days with their wives they cross back over again. But when a women has given birth to two children, her husband no longer crosses over to her, nor indeed does she have relations with any other [man] on account of a great sense of propriety. If it should happen that one of the women is discovered to be barren, for a period of five years her husband will cross over and have intercourse with her. If she does not give birth he will no longer have relations with her. Because of this their land is not highly populated, because of their modest appetites.
And the plural is Βραχμᾶνες and [in the dative plural] Βραχμᾶσι . (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ beta.572 Βρύκουσα: gnashing: Grinding her teeth. "She spoke, gnashing besides her sharp tooth, like the Lakonian woman she was." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ beta.578 Βρυτίδαι: Brutidai, Brutidae, Brutids: Name of an Athenian clan. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ beta.588 Βυζάντιον: Byzantion: Byzantion in the reign of Severus, emperor of the Romans, was provided with a proper wall made of mill stone carved into rectangular blocks. There were seven towers stretching from the Thracian Gates down to the sea. If someone shouted or broke off a piece of stone in the first of these, it would echo and babble and cause the second one to do the same; and thus it would proceed through all of them.
See more about Byzantion under 'Severus'. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ beta.593 Βυρσαίετος: hide-eagle: Kleon. The expression is composed of "hide" [bursa] and "eagle" [aietos]. Simultaneously mocking Kleon for being a hide-tanner and for being a thief and a grabber of public goods. For the eagle is a creature that grabs things.
skytodepses ["leather-tanner"] [is] Attic, but bursodepses ["hide-tanner"] Asianic.
Or 'Paphlagonian hide-man.' It signifies the unpleasant smell that comes from soaking skins and leaving them in chemicals for many days so that they can take [them] apart, from the odor of the water and of the rotting skins. He thus lampoons him as being foul-smelling, and especially singles out Kleon's cheapness, on the foundation of which fortune he came to be pre-eminent among the Athenians.
Carthage is also called Africa [and] Bursa: see also under Africanus. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ chi.4 Χαΐα: genuine, fine, true: Meaning good. From the [verb] to gape. Aristophanes [writes]: "she is fine [...], and what is more, Corinthian". That is, a prostitute. Since Corinth was full of prostitutes. (Tr: ROGER TRAVIS)
§ chi.15 Χαλαίστρα: Chalaistra, Chalaestra, Chalastra: A city. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.16 Χαλεπὰ τὰ καλά: excellent things are difficult: [sc. It is on record that] as Pittakos was laying aside his authority, he said to those who were amazed, "It is difficult to be noble." [Also that] Solon, recognizing his weakness, said, "Excellent things are difficult." For this reason both sayings have become proverbial.
"Excellent things are difficult": they say that Periander of Corinth in the beginning was a popular leader, but later he changed his political loyalty and became tyrannical. From this comes the proverb. But some take "difficult" as meaning "impossible," since even he was unable to maintain his own resolve. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ chi.36 Χαλκεῖα: Chalkeia, Bronzes: A festival among Athenians, celebrated on the last day of [the month] Pyanepsion, for craftsmen in general and bronze-smiths in particular, as Apollonius says. But Phanodemus maintains that the festival is celebrated not for Athena but for Hephaestus. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.37 Χαλκεῖον: forge, smithy: [The place] in which [sc. bronze-]smiths work.
But 'Dodonian bronze' has two senses. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.42 Χαλκιδίζειν: to Chalkidize: [To Chalkidize] and to be Chalkidian. In reference to those who are being stingy. Also to phikidize, in reference to pederasty; since among them sexual acts between males were customary. But some [use it] to describe rhotacism, since both they and the Eretrians seem to use 'r' quite immoderately, employing it even in place of the 's'. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ chi.43 Χαλκιδικὸν δίωγμα: Chalkidian pursuit, Chalcidian pursuit: At the Thesmophoria [festival] at Athens [there was] a certain ritual [commemorating an occasion when] in wartime the women had prayed that the enemy be pursued, and what happened was that they were expelled to Chalkis; so also Semos [says]. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.46 Χαλκίοικος: Bronze-House; Chalkioikos: [An epithet of] Athena in Sparta. [The term arose] either because she has a bronze house; or because it is a solid one; or because exiles from Chalkis in Euboia founded it. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.82 Χάονες: Chaones; Chaonians: An Epirote people. Aristophanes [writes]: "his ass-hole is exactly over the Chaonians." Since Geres was also being accused of effeminacy. And elsewhere Aristophanes [writes]: "it's not possible to elude the Paphlagonian. For he sees everything: he has one leg in Pylos and the other in the assembly." "Among the Chaonians" comes from "to be opened wide" (κεχηνέναι ). The Chaonians [are] a tribe of Thrace. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.88 Χαραδραῖος λέων: ravine lion: [Meaning] one [which lives] in the ravines. Unless it means the Thespian [lion], which was the first one Heracles killed, in Thespiae. That place is called "Ravine" (χαράδρα ). (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.95 Χάραξ: Charax: Of Pergamum, a priest and philosopher. I found in an ancient book the following epigram about him: "I am Charax, a priest from the venerable heights of Pergamum, where once Telephus, blameless son of blameless Heracles, fought a war against city-destroying Achilles." He is much later than the ones after Augustus. At any rate, in the second of the books he mentions Augustus, as having become Caesar long ago, and in the seventh [book] Nero and the emperors after him. He wrote [sc. histories], Greek and [Roman?], in 40 books. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.108 Χαριεστέρους: more satisfactory: [Meaning them] more esteemed, fitter-looking. Eunapius [writes]: "Procopius, having inducted the more satisfactory men, was converging through Phrygia upon the Emperor Valens." (Tr: RONALD ALLEN)
§ chi.136 Χάρων: Charon, Kharon: Of Lampsakos; son of Pythokles; lived during the reign of the first [King] Dareios, in the 79th Olympiad; but rather in the time of the Persian Wars, the 75th Olympiad. A historian, he wrote Ethiopian Histories; Persian Histories in 2 books; Greek Histories in 4 books; Concerning Lampsakos in 2; Libyan Histories; Chronicles of the Lampsakenes in 4 books; Prytaneis or Archons of the Lakedaimonians — these are annals; Foundations of Cities in 2 books; Cretan Histories in 3 books — including the laws laid down by Minos; [and] Voyage past the Pillars of Herakles(Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.138 Χάρων: Charon, Kharon: Of Naukratis, a historian. [He wrote] Priests in Alexandria and in Egypt and the events under the tenure of each, Kings of each people from earliest times and [On] Naukratis, and others works about Egypt. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.144 Χάρυβδις: Charybdis: It sucks up the sea around Gadeira and furiously spirals around again. It is said that it all leads down to chaos and destruction.
Priscus says about Charybdis: "They sail by Sicily in front of Messene and by the strait of Italy where Charybdis [is], [and] with tempestuous winds coming upon them, they sank, men and all."
Charybdis and Scylla, lying in a narrow place, are subject to the currents of the oceans and sink those sailing past. There Odysseus lost all his companions with the ships; he himself was carried away hanging on to a board in the currents of the sea. For some Phoenicians saw him floating in the waters and took him up and led him naked into Crete before Idomeneus. He entertained him for the winter season and then sent him to Phaiakia, which is now called Corcyra; and they sent him off with two ships and companions. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.159 Χαιρεφῶν: Chairephon: Chairephon [was] one of the closest acquaintances of Socrates. None of his writings seem to be preserved. For he appears to have been very rude to and hated by his brother. And Xenophon says that Socrates, having gathered them together, said that there is no profit for eyes if there is no agreement [between them], nor to hands or feet. Chairephon was from the deme Sphettos. (Tr: JOSEPH WRIGHTSON)
§ chi.162 Χαίρειν: cheers, hail, take joy: This is a greeting of those who are leaving or even arriving; it is placed at the beginning of letters.
"Cheers", a salutation. Some consider it to be placed late in letters; in this way to correspond with each other the way Amasis said these things to Polycrates. Eubulus the comic [playwright] said that Kleon was the first to write a letter this way to the Athenians [sc. had retuned safely] from Sphakteria, at which he was also quite pleased, not knowing that the ancients had used [this word] and had thus greeted one another, not only when first they met (as we do) but also on taking leave from one another, instead of "good health" and "be well" they bade one another to "take joy". (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.171 Χαιριδεῖς: Chairideis: [Meaning those] educated from [by] Chairis. Or practising [sc. with him]. Chairis [was] an uncultured Theban piper. So Attic [writers] say Chairideis from Chairis and peristerideis from περιστερὰ ['dove']. This man used to play his pipes during the sacrifices. He was [sc. also] a kithara-player. Aristophanes [writes]: "if Chairis sees you, he will come, to play the pipes uninvited".
And [there is] a proverb: 'Chairis singing in a steep-pitched style'. The steep-pitched [is] a style [νόμος ] for playing the pipe, so called because it was rising and vigorous.
And Homer [says]: "the goddess [Eris] standing there uttered a great and terrible war-cry rising sharply upwards to the Achaeans". (Tr: IOANNIS DOUKAS)
§ chi.175 Χαίρων: Chairon: A Spartan, who went on an embassy to Rome; a man both intelligent and practical, but young and of humble origins with a commonplace level of education. This man, pandering to the mob and innovating in ways nobody else had ventured, quickly acquired a successful image with the masses. And first of all he took away from the sisters and wives and mothers and children left behind by the tyrants the lands which the tyrants had given them, and gave it to the poor, at random and unfairly, as his own inclination dictated. After this, using public money as if it were his own, he spent the revenues, without reference to any law or community decree or official. At this [some people] were indignant and took steps to have themselves appointed auditors of the public funds, as the laws required. Seeing what had happened and conscious that he had misused city property, Chairon murdered Apollonidas, the most distinguished of the auditors and the one most capable of exposing his greed, as he returned during the daytime from his trip to the bath-house. The [Achaian] people were outraged at these events, and the general set off for Sparta, where he put Chairon on trial for the murder of Apollonidas; and having secured his conviction he imprisoned him, while encouraging the remaining auditors to pursue their serious investigation of public affairs, and to see to it that the relatives of the exiles recovered the properties of which Chairon had recently robbed them. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.176 Χαιρώνεια: Chaironeia, Khaironeia: A city; also Chaironeiates, the citizen [of it]; and Chaironeus, [genitive] Chaironeos. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.185 Χελιδόνας: swallow, chelidon: A sort of fish.
chelidon is also a name for the [sc. sexual] part of women; and the hollow of the hoof of horses; some also [apply it to] the same part of dogs; and a Peloponnesian silver coin. The [part of] a man called the chelidon is that which is above the elbow, below the joint. And Chelidon is also said to be the ship which conveyed the men [going] into Massalia. And a certain soothsayer of old.
And the catamite of Cleopatra. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.190 Χελώνη: tortoise: [Meaning] the terrestrial animal, the shell-back; also the marine one; also the name of a battle formation; also a military fashion, from which there are 'tortoise sheds', siege machine, and rams.
The Thessalian women, out of jealousy for Lais the courtesan, murdered her by striking her with wooden "tortoises" in the shrine of Aphrodite while a festival was under way. Later they made a shrine of Unholy Aphrodite, since the women had dared to commit an unholy murder in the shrine. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ chi.211 Χέρνιβος: hand-bath: "I want to justly reproach [both sides] in common, you who sprinkle the altars from a single hand-bath — just like relatives — at Olympia, at Pylai, at Pytho; I could name many other places, if I didn't have to keep it brief." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.215 Χερρόνησος: Cherronesos, Chersonesos, Chersonese: A territory of Thrace. Also a city [sc. there] tributary to the Athenians, fertile for growing cereals; hence the Athenians also used to import grain [sc. from it]. [The people] whom Kleon might shake. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.234 Χειμὼν: winter: [χειμών, genitive] χειμῶνος .
Winter is the air above the earth that is frozen because of the departure of the sun.
Homer [says]: "they fled winter". [He is speaking] about the cranes. He is referring not to the winter-time situation, but to the wintry place, Thrace. For they do not leave because the winter has begun, but because it is expected. (Tr: IOANNIS DOUKAS)
§ chi.283 Χηναλώπηξ: goose-fox: A kind of bird.
This was also a word applied to Lysistratos, who was slandered for softness; [he was] also poor and a dice-player in the Cholargians' agora. Cholargeis [is] a deme of Attica. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.296 Χιάζειν: to play the Chian: Praxidamas [says that] Democritus of Chios and Theoxenides of Siphnos were the first to arrange their personal composition [? poetry] with exharmonic colors [or: to the chromatic scale]; as Isocrates in the Against Eidothea; as in Aristophanes of an established [scale]: "one of them offers to act the altar-ambusher, by showing that he plays the Chian or the Siphnian in harmonies." (Tr: ROBERT DYER)
§ chi.300 Χίδραν: groats: [i.e.] χίδρον, the pulse that comes from millet, a foodstuff [eaten] in the area around Caria; it is from green barley. But some [sc. define it as] a type of plant. From this there is indication of a good season. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.302 Χιβούλδιος: Chilboudios, Chilbudius: This man was from the household of the emperor Justinian, extremely efficient at matters of war, but above material things to such an extent that instead of a large acquisition in his estate he had been able to acquire nothing [....] The result was that, when he was the general in Thrace and appointed to the guard of the Danube, and when he was killed in the war, it happened that the Danube became accessible to barbarians in accord with their power and the empire of the Romans became [assailable], and in no way was the entire empire of the Romans able to compensate in that deed for the courage of one man. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.311 Χίλων: Chilon: [Genitive] Chilonos; son of Damagetos; a Lakedaimonian, one of the Seven Sages.
[The man] who was brief of speech. Hence Aristagoras of Miletos called this manner [of speaking] Chilonian.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'Chilonian way', [meaning] brevity of speech. For Chilon was brief of speech. (Tr: SUSAN SHAPIRO)
§ chi.316 Χίος: Chios: [Meaning] the island [of that name]. It is also called Aithle.
Interpretation of a dream: when snow [χιών ] appears it brings ill-wishers' hatreds. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.318 Χιωνίδης: Chionides: Athenian, a comic poet of Old Comedy; [the one] who they go as far as to call the protagonist of Old Comedy, [saying that] he produced a play eight years before the Persian Wars. His plays include the following: Hero, Beggars, Persians or Assyrians. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.349 Χλοῦναι: greenwood-men: [Meaning] robbers, who lie in ambush in the greenwood [χλοῇ ]. Also [sc. attested in the singular] "greenwood", [meaning] solitary, violent, wicked, difficult.
And the eunuch. "A castrated and androgynous man (if we should grant that he be a man), one who is enfeebled in soul through the study of Epicurus and has become womanish. Having borne a torch before Stratocles in Athens, a eunuch and a she-male, bewitched and bound as if in an unbreakable chain." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.364 Χοάς: pourings: [Meaning] outpourings, offerings over corpses, or libations.
An oracle has been issued that it is necessary to bring choai to the deceased of the Aitolians, year on year, and hold a festival of the choai.
The word is also used for sacrifices of [to] the dead. Sophocles [writes]: "first, from an ever-flowing spring bring sacred drink-offerings, borne in ritually pure hands." — "And when I have gotten this unmixed draught?" — "There are bowls, the work of a skilled craftsman; crown their edges and the handles at either side." (Tr: D. GRAHAM J. SHIPLEY)
§ chi.369 Χόες: Choes, Pitchers: It is a festival in Athens held in the month of Anthesterion. They say that the festival came about thus, when Orestes, after killing his mother, came into Athens and [the] Athenians welcomed him and entertained him; but they did not share their wine with him; instead, the people set aside a pitcher for him and entertained him this way — having apportioned a little aside for Orestes.
And otherwise: Pitchers [is] a festival at Athens, [instituted] for this reason; Orestes, after the killing of his mother, came into Athens to [the house of] Pandion, his kinsman settled there, who happened to be king of the Athenians. He encountered him in the act of celebrating a festival at public cost. So Pandion, ashamed to send Orestes away, yet thinking it impious to share drink and table [with him] as he had not been purged of the murder, set out one pitcher for each of the invited guests, so that [Orestes] would not drink from the same bowl. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.409 Χορός: chorus, choir: [Meaning] the body of singers in the churches. In the time of Constantius the son of Constantine the Great and Flavianus the bishop of Antioch, the choirs of the churches were divided into two parts, singing the psalms of David antiphonally. This began first in Antioch and spread to all the ends of the inhabited world. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ chi.418 Χοσρόης: Chosroes, Khosrau, Khosraw: The Persians' king. "They praise him and they wonder at his merit — not [only] the Persians, but even some of the Romans — since (they say) he was a lover of literature and came to mastery of our philosophy, when the Greek writings had been translated for him into the Persian language by someone. And therefore they say that he gulped down all of the Stageirite even more eagerly than the Paeanian did the son of Oloros, and was totally obsessed with the teachings of Plato the son of Ariston and nor could the Timaeus elude him, even though it is very much embellished with geometrical speculation and investigates the movements of nature, and neither could the Phaedo or the Gorgias [elude him], nor indeed did any other of the sophisticated and more difficult dialogues, like the Parmenides. But I," Agathias says, "would never have believed that he had such an excellent education and this consummate attainment. For how would it have been possible for that purity of ancient words, free and suited and completely fit to the nature of things to have been preserved in a unrefined and discordant language? How could a man who was exalted from childhood by royal pomp and a great deal of flattery, who had a very barbaric lifestyle, who was always on the lookout for wars and conspiracies, how could a man who was set on such a course of life [be supposed] to derive enjoyment from and be trained in these teachings? Therefore, if one should praise him, although he was a king and a Persian, concerned with so many peoples and matters, because he nevertheless desired to enjoy literature somehow or other and to be exalted in his reputation for these things, then even I myself would praise the man and consider him greater than the other barbarians. But as many as go too far in calling him 'wise' and all but superior to those who ever practiced philosophy anywhere, [saying] that he knew the principles and causes of every art and discipline ... those men would be caught straying far from the truth and following only the rumour of the masses." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.439 Χωρεῖν: to advance; to progress: [Meaning] to march, to set out. "[...] but to advance and to join in dying at the attempts of the matters."
"With matters in Sicily not progressing for him in accord with his intention (instead of how they were), because the leadership in evidence over the cities was not royal but tyrannical."
Also χωρῶ; [used] with an accusative. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.444 Χωρὶς ἱππεῖς: cavalry away!: When Datis had invaded Attica, they say that the Ionians, after his withdrawal, climbed trees and signalled to the Athenians that the cavalry were away; and on learning that they had gone Miltiades charged and so won a victory. Hence the proverb is said in reference to those breaking ranks. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.445 Χωρὶς τὰ Μυσῶν καὶ Φρυγῶν ὁρίσματα: separate are the boundaries of Mysians and Phrygians: "[Kreon:] Speaking a lot and speaking appropriately are separate matters. [Oedipus:] You talk as if you are speaking briefly but appropriately." That is, it is one thing to talk nonsense and another to say things that are necessary. "[Kreon:] No indeed, not for one whose mind is the equal of yours." Meaning I do not seem to you to be speaking appropriately.
And elsewhere: "it is not the part of one doing philosophy to profess and practice the art of prophecy nor any other sacred discipline; for the boundaries of the philosophers and those of the priests are no less separate than those said to be of the Mysians and of the Phrygians." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.457 Χρεωκοπεῖται: is being debt-damaged: [Meaning he/she/it] is being troubled by debts.
"When the debt-cancellation in Aitolia had been emulated in Thessaly and each city was erupting into civil strife and disorder..." (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.473 Χρῆμα: matter; thing: [Meaning an] issue, or possession, wealth, substance, income.
"The little house was gloomy and misshapen and in the summer season perticularly unsuitable, so that the thing seemed to be a prison."
And elsewhere: "[the chamberlain] quaked and stormed in every respect to such an extent that Salmoneus of myth seemed a little thing compared to him."
Julian [writes]: "we ran about the Hercynian forest and I saw an extraordinary thing. Therefore, taking heart, I promise you I never saw such a thing nor do we know so many things in the [land] of the Romans, but whether someone thinks Thessalian Tempe was impassible or the land in Thermopylae, or great and enormous Tauros, let it be [considered] trifling in terms of difficulty when compared to the name "Hercynian"."
And Eunapius [writes]: "he mustered his strength, urging on the matter of passage and forcing himself even though he did not have a body [to match] his good spirit." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.477 Χρήματα χρήματ' ἀνήρ, πενιχρὸς δ' οὐδέποτ' ἐσθλός: money money (is the) man but a pauper (is) never noble: [sc. A proverbial saying] in reference to those who are successful due to wealth. Aristodemos says [this]. And Alcaeus mentions Aristodemus: "for as Aristodamos once in Sparta", he says, "spoke a speech that was not helpless: 'money, money;' and so forth."
And elsewhere Aristophanes [writes]: "I don't know what the affair [χρῆμα ] is doing to me. — So consider: while it is possible for you and all these men to be rich, [you are somehow hemmed in] by those who are always catering to the masses."
Sophocles [writes]: "'what matter [χρῆμα ] do you attend to, Ajax? Why do you set out on this attempt neither summoned by messengers nor hearing any trumpet? In fact, the whole army is sleeping now.' But he said curtly to me, 'Woman, silence is an ornament for women.' And I understood and stopped; but he rushed out alone." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.478 Χρήματα, χρήματ' ἀνήρ: money money (is the) man: This is proverbial, like the sayings of the Seven Sages. Pindar and Alcaeus mention it. Similar to it [are] "the office reveals the man", "steer your own course" and "know thyself". Alcaeus says it is said by Aristodemus the Spartan, but Pindar by a certain man named Argeios, referring [to Aristodemus] like this. Aristodemus is counted among the [Seven] Sages by some people. (Tr: ANDREW MORRISON)
§ chi.484 Χρηματίσεσθαι: to transact business: [Meaning] to take money. Herophila, who was also the Erythraian Sibyl, wrote 3 books of oracles; and she came into Rome to transact business; but after being treated with contempt she burned two of the books. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.504 Χρησμός: oracle: [Meaning] prophecy.
"Scipio, the general of the Romans, when the Romans were confident after the destruction of Carthage that for the rest of time they would live in peace and quiet, came among them and said, 'But now these presents are the starts of wars'. And it was an oracle, not a story. 'For we shall be in danger, having neither people to terrify nor people by whom we are terrified'."
And elsewhere: an oracle is issued to the Athenians, saying that it is necessary to bring choai to the unjustly deceased of the Aitolians, year on year, and hold a festival of the choai; and from this the one in Attica was arranged.
See 'oracle' in the [entry] 'A spear as a herald's wand'. (Tr: D. GRAHAM J. SHIPLEY)
§ chi.523 Χριστιανοί: Christians: During the rule of Claudius as the Romans' emperor, when Peter the Apostle had selected, with the laying on of hands, Euodius in Antioch, the ones formerly called Nazarenes and Galileans had their name changed to Christians. (Tr: CHARLIE BROOKS)
§ chi.525 Χριστόδωρος: Christodoros: Son of Paniskos, from Koptos, a city of Egypt; epic poet. He was at his peak in the times of the emperor Anastasios. He wrote an Isaurika in six books; it contains the sack of Isauria by the emperor Anastasios. [He also wrote] an epic called Land of Constantinople in 12 books, an epic called Land of Thessalonike in 25 books, Land of Nakle (a city near Heliopolis where the so-called Aphaka is), Land of Miletos in Ionia, Land of Tralles, Land of Aphrodisias, Description of the Statues in [the baths of] Zeuxippos [at Constantinople ], and many other works. (Tr: ROSS SCAIFE ✝)
§ chi.526 Χριστόδωρος: Christodoros: of [sc. Egyptian] Thebes, illustrius [in status]. He wrote Bird-catching in verse; also miracles of the silverless saints, Cosmas and Damian. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.555 Χρυσάνθιος: Khrusanthios, Chrysanthios: This man was from Sardis, a philosopher; [sc. it was he] whom Julian sent for because of his writings. He stayed in the country, when it came to him to do this from divine revelation. He did not consider his life in the light of ephemeral and empty reputation, but entrusting everything to the divine, he carried it all out from that point. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.560 Χρυσῆ εἰκών: golden image: The archons at Athens used to swear to dedicate a golden image of themselves in the city, [sc. and] at Pytho, [sc. and] at Olympia, to deter them from transgressing against those over whom they were ruling. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.568 Χρύσιππος: Chrysippus: Son of Apollonides; of Soloi or Tarsus. He was a philosopher, pupil of Cleanthes, and he led the Stoic school after Cleanthes. He died at the age of 73 because he drank immoderately and fainted. However others say that in the 143rd Olympiad he died because he split his sides laughing too much. He wrote more than seven hundred books about philosophical, historical and grammatical subjects. (Tr: CLAUDIA MARSICO)
§ chi.569 Χρύσιππος: Chrysippos: A proper name.
The philosopher Chrysippus used to propose arguments of this kind: 'He who tells the mysteries to the uninitiated commits impiety. The priest tells [the mysteries] to the uninitiated. Therefore the priest commits impiety.' 'What is in the city, is also in the house. There is no well in the city. Therefore there is none in the house.' 'There is a head, but you do not have it. There is a head which you do not have. So you do not have a head.' 'If someone is in Megara, he is not in Athens. A man is in Megara. So there is not a man in Athens.' 'If you pronounce something, it goes through your mouth. You pronounce 'carriage'. Then a carriage goes through your mouth.' 'If you did not lose something, you have it. You did not lose horns. So you have horns.' (Tr: CLAUDIA MARSICO)
§ chi.579 Χρυσόπολις: Chrysopolis: A port in the territory of Chalkedon, where the Greeks serving as mercenaries with Cyrus stayed for seven days selling booty, as Xenophon says. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.582 Χρυσὸς Κολοφώνιος: Colophonian gold: The Colophonians worked the finest gold; Colophonian gold, they say, is far superior to any other. Perhaps Lydians exiled from their own country took possession of the gold-mines around Thrace and [the river] Strymon with certain Ionians and were eager for the gold.
Interpretation of a dream: by gaining gold you will fail to achieve the things you desire. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.586 Χρυσοχοεῖον: goldsmithy: Dinarchus says: "for when he again stopped going to Aeschines and [went] to this man, it is clear that he was learning to 'to smelt gold', but not [so much] to perform what was in store for him as to experience it". Plato too employs the proverb: "well, said Thrasymachus, is he 'smelting gold'?". They say that the proverb originated as follows. A certain rumor once struck the mass of the Athenians, to the effect that on [Mount] Hymettos a great mound of gold-dust had appeared and was guarded by warrior ants. [The Athenians] took up their arms and sallied forth against them; but once they had returned without accomplishing anything, and gone to a lot of trouble for no purpose they began to taunt each other, saying "you thought you would be smelting gold", that is, "you thought you would collect lots of gold-dust, smelt it and become rich". And they were mocked [sc. for this] by the comic poets. At any rate Eubulus says: "we once persuaded Kekropian men to take up arms and go out onto Hymettos". (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.594 Χοιρίλος: Choirilos, Choerilus: Athenian, tragedian, began competing in the 64th Olympiad; and he staged 160 plays, and won with 13. This man, according to some, experimented with the masks and the stage(?) of the costumes. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.595 Χοιρίλος: Choirilos, Choerilus, Khoirilos: Of Samos, though some [say] Iasos, and others report that he was from Halikarnassos. [It is recorded that] he was born in the times of Panyasis, and that at the time of the Persian wars, in the 75th Olympiad, he was already a young man; [and that] he became the slave of a certain Samian, being extremely handsome in his prime; [and that] he fled from Samos, and having spent time with Herodotos the historian he fell in love with stories; and they say he became his lover. He devoted himself to poetry and died in Macedonia at the court of Archelaos, the then king of that region. And he wrote these works: The Victory of the Athenians over Xerxes, for which poem he received a gold stater per line and was voted a public recitation alongside the [works] of Homer; [also] Lamiaka; and certain other poems by him are mentioned. (Tr: D. GRAHAM J. SHIPLEY)
§ chi.596 Χοιρῖναι: mussels: [Meaning] shells from the sea, which they also [or: even] used to use in the jurycourts in Athens.
Also the bristle of the hog.
"Thus do I crave to go round the tablets with a shell." (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.600 Χοιροκομεῖον: pig-pen: [Meaning a] woven receptacle, in which they used to tether and rear the young pigs. Or the peg, on which they used to shackle the pigs and rear them. Aristophanes [writes]: "these envoys from Sparta are coming, trailing beards as if they had a pig-pen round their thighs." Since they were arriving with their cloaks swollen up. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ chi.601 Χοῖρος: pig, piggie: [Meaning] the animal [of that name].
But among Corinthians [the word means] the female genitalia. From which [comes] a proverb: 'you seem about to sell 'piggie' in Acrocorinth.' Meaning you seem to be about to earn a wage in Corinth. For [there are] many courtesans there. (Tr: KATINA BALL)
§ chi.622 Χύτροι: Pots: A festival at Athens; on a single day both the Pitchers and the Pots used to be held; in it they would boil every [kind of] seed in a pot and sacrifice it to Dionysus and to Hermes. Theopompus says that those who had been saved from the flood boiled a pot of every kind of seed, whence the festival is thus named, and that they sacrificed in the Pitchers [festival] to Chthonic Hermes; but that no one eats from the pot. [He says] those who had been saved did this, propitiating Hermes on behalf of those who died also. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ chi.623 Χύτροι: Chytroi: There is a city in Cyprus, of this name. There is also a particular Athenian festival [called] Chytroi ["Pots"]. The festival used to be celebrated on the thirteenth [day] of [the month] Anthesterion, according to Philochorus. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.23 Δακία χώρα: Dacian region, Dacian territory: That which Trajan colonized in the regions on the other side of the Ister. And Aurelian abandoned this [region], once the region of the Illyrians and the Mysians had become afflicted [sc. by the Goths], thinking that it would be impossible to save the [region], which was cut off on the other side in the midst of rivers. Therefore, leading away the Romans who had been settled there, out of the cities and the fields, he established them in the middle of Mysia, having named the region "Dacia"; it now lies between the two Mysiae and divides them from one another. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.28 Δάκτυλοι: finger[-dates]: Among many [sc. this is the name for] the dates of the date palm.
And [there is] a proverb: "Daktylos' day"; in reference to those passing their days happily. For Daktylos was a man born in Athens who had the greatest honors. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.39 Δαμάσκιος: Damaskios: Stoic philosopher, Syrian, [but] a disciple of Simplicius and Eulalios the Phrygians; he flourished in the time of Justinian. Commentaries on Plato, On First Principles, and Philosophical History were written by him. (Tr: JASON KARNES)
§ del.40 Δάμασος: Damasos: Bishop of Rome, naturally adept at epic poetry, he produced many short [pieces] in heroic meter, and he died at age eighty under the Emperor Theodosius. He also wrote many other things. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.41 Δαμάστης: Damastes: A Sigean, from Sigeion in the Troad, son of Dioxippos, born before the Peloponnesian War, contemporary of Herodotus, among the wealthiest of men, historian. He wrote On Events in Greece, On the Children and Ancestors of those who took part in the Expedition to Troy, two books, Gazetteer of Peoples and Cities, On Poets and Men Noted for their Wisdom; and much else. He was a pupil of Hellanikos. (Tr: TONY NATOLI)
§ del.45 Δαμιανός: Damianus, Damianos: Of Ephesus. Sophist. He was raised to consular rank under the emperor [Septimius] Severus, was governor of Bithynia, and constructed the domed stoa which extends to the temple outside Ephesus. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.46 Δάμις: Damis: A man not without learning, an inhabitant of ancient Nineveh. This man was a philosophical associate of Apollonius and wrote up his travels, which he says he, too, shared. He wrote up his opinions and words and whatever he said by way of prophecy. Now Apollonius had come from Antioch to Nineveh. Damis the Ninevite came to him and was with him, remembering whatever he learned. But the Assyrian had a moderately effective voice, for he did not have a command of the language, being educated among barbarians. He was very capable at writing up their activity and association together and whatever he heard or saw and at describing it and compiling memoirs of this sort. And he did not neglect these two qualities, the boldness which Apollonius employed when he traveled through barbarian and bandit-ridden races, nor those subject to the Romans, and he did not neglect the skill with which he came in the Arabic way to an understanding of the language of animals. He learned this as he traveled among these Arabs. (Tr: OLIVER PHILLIPS ✝)
§ del.50 Δαμόξενος: Damoxenos, Damoxenus: An Athenian, a comic poet. One of his plays is Foster-Brothers, as Athenaeus says in [book] 3 of Deipnosophistai; and [another is] Being One's Own Mourner, as the same [writer says] later, in his eleventh [book]. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.57 Δανάη: Danae: A proper name.
[The daughter] of Acrisius. "Go be judged: you are not Danae [the daughter] of Acrisius."
For when she was responding stubbornly to a lawsuit, a certain wiseguy said to her: "Go be judged: you are not Danae the daughter of Acrisius. "And this mastered the mind of Danae"; that is, gold.
The danikon is in currency at great Antioch of Syria; they use it for small transactions. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.59 Δανάκη: danake: This is the name of a coin which in the old days they gave to the corpses as they buried them, as the fare on the boat over Acherousia. Acherousia is a lake in Hades, which the dead cross, and as they do so they give the aforementioned coin to the ferryman. (Tr: ROSS SCAIFE ✝)
§ del.73 Δαρεικούς: Darics: Darics are gold staters; each of them had the value of what the Athenians call a "gold." They were named not after Darius the father of Xerxes but after some other more ancient [Persian] king [of that name]. Some say that the daric is worth 20 silver drachmas, just as 5 darics are worth a mna of silver. (Tr: JAMES L. P. BUTRICA ✝)
§ del.82 Δασμός: dasmos, tribute: Division, first-fruits of tribute.
Xenophon [writes]: "they found 17 colts raised for tribute to the king."
And elsewhere: "fearing Minos' fleet, the Athenians and decided to bring tribute to Crete, whomever they [sc. the Cretans] might claim." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.89 Δᾶτις: Datis: A Persian, who engaged in the practice of Hellenizing. They say he used χαίρομαι, instead of saying χαίρω . And that [sort of thing] is "Datism".
Datis: "this man saw a vision of a dream, and they do not say what the vision was. But as soon as day dawned, he made a search of the ships. And he found a gilt statue of Apollo in a Phoenician one and asked whence it had been stolen. He learned that it was from such and such a shrine and he sent [it] in his own ship to Delos and entrusted the statue to the shrine and ordered the Delians to return the statue."
[Datis is the man] who, wanting to Hellenize, said ἥδομαι and χαίρομαι and εὐφραίνομαι .
Datis and Artaphernes, leaders of the Persians after Mardonius was relieved of command, sent envoys into Greece to make trial of the cities and to ask for earth and water. All the islanders gave it to them; but the Athenians took deep offense and banished the envoys. The Lacedaemonians agreed to give both [sc. tokens]; they threw them into a well, poured soil down onto them, and explained that they had given them the gift for which they had asked. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.92 Δάτος: Datos, Daton: A city of Thrace, exceptionally well-favored. From it comes the proverb: "Datos of good things". This city and the adjacent territory have names in both feminine and masculine. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.99 Δαφίδας: Daphidas: Of Telmessos. Grammarian. He wrote about Homer and his poetry, [claiming] that he did not tell the truth: for the Athenians did not fight at Troy.
This man was indiscriminately abusive, and did not spare even the gods. Attalus the king of Pergamum plotted against him for this reason. [Daphidas] once went to the Pythia and mocked the oracle; with a laugh he asked whether he would find his horse. The answer was that he would find it quickly. Then he made it widely known that he did not even have a horse — and had not lost one. As he was returning Attalus captured him and ordered that he be thrown down a cliff. The place where this happened was called Horse; and he realised before his death that the oracle did not lie. So having behaved outrageously he came to a bad end. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.134 Δεβελτός: Debeltos: A Thracian city. [also Δηβελτός](Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.172 Δεκαδαρχίαι: tenfold-regimes: Historians consistently give the name "tenfold-regimes" to the [regimes] set up in the cities by Spartans. And Philip, however, set up a tenfold-regime amongst [the] Thessalians, as Demosthenes [shows] in the sixth of [the] Philippics. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.174 Δεκάζεσθαι: to be bribed in tens: To take bribes.
Also [sc. attested in the active voice] 'to bribe in tens' [δεκάζειν ]: to corrupt with money or gifts.
Aelian [writes]: "he corrupted many of the nomads, having bribed them in tens into treachery".
Also [sc. attested is the participle] '[he] bribing in tens' [δεκάζων ], clear in its meaning. This is how the term came about. Lykos is a hero who has the shape of a beast. A stone monument to him stands near the jurycourts in Athens; at this [monument], bribers used to gather, forming themselves into groups of ten. This gave rise to the proverb: Lykos's Company of Ten. So from the Company of Ten came [the terms] bribing in tens and to be bribed in tens. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.175 Δεκαμναιαῖον: ten-mina, ten-mna: [Meaning] of ten m[i]nai.
"Scopas, general of the Aitolians, unsuccessful in his military campaign, wrote laws. And the king gave him a ten-m[i]na daily allowance for food, with those appointed under someone's command getting one m[i]na. Nevertheless he was not satisfied with these arrangements, and became the object of jealousy and dedicated his soul to money."
100 drachmai make a mina. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.186 Δεκάτην ἑστιάσαι: to feast the tenth: When children had been born to the citizens of Athens, it was customary on the 10th night after the birth to call together the paternal and maternal relatives and the closest friends, and when they were present to give the children their names and sacrifice to the gods for good omens; then to lay on a banquet for those who had come. And this is the tenth.
Also I tithe, a verb. As in "[Levi] who receives tithes has been tithed".
"[He] making you far more honoured than the Syracusans' tithe". (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.190 Δεκέλεια: Dekeleia: A place. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.206 Δελφίνιον: Delphinion, Delphinium: It is of course a place in Chios; but there is also a shrine of Apollo in Athens so called, where the Delphinion lawcourt used to be. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.209 Δελφὸς ἀνὴρ στέφανον μὲν ἔχει, δίψει δὲ ἀπόλλυται: a Delphian man has a crown but dies of thirst.: [sc. The proverb arises] since these men wear wreaths because they serve as priests for the god, but, lacking the necessities of life, they do not manage. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.210 Δελφοί: Delphi: The sanctuary of Apollo. It was thus named because the serpent Delphyne was found there, the one which Apollo killed. But [sc. it was also called] Pytho, because it rotted there.
Also Delphis, [meaning] the Delphian [woman], the [priestess] of Apollo.
"For the Delphian voice prophesied thus, that I might become the monument and story of his bride." (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.228 Δεξικράτης: Dexikrates, Dexicrates: This man [was] an Athenian, a comic poet. His dramas are: Men Deceived by Themselves, as Athenaeus says in the third [book] of Deipnosophists. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.234 Δεξιός: clever: The well-educated [man].
Also [sc. attested is the plural] dexioi, the well-educated [men].
Aristophanes [writes]: "turning around always to the more comfortable side is the mark of a clever man, a natural Theramenes." This Theramenes was one of those active in politics. [Aristophanes] is mocking him for being changeable and adapting himself to the situation. This Theramenes was a teacher of Isocrates; [he was the] son of Hagnon, of the deme of Steiria. He committed many crimes, but two are the greatest and most shocking: the arraignment of the generals [who had been in command] at Arginousai, which he contrived together with Kallixenos, and the establishment of the Thirty upon the overthrow of the democracy. And so he met a death worthy of his course of life, for he was done away with by the Thirty themselves, after Kritias had condemned him. And some say that after fleeing to the altar he was dragged away. On account of the instability of his character they were accustomed to stigmatize him as "Kothornos" since he offered himself to either faction of those opposing one another in politics, catering to the opportunities and preferring his own advantage to keeping faith, inasmuch as the kothornos fits men and women as footwear. It appears that he also voted for the three penalties, to be exposed in stocks or to drink poison or to go into exile. He appears to be from the island of Keos, and not to be a genuine son of Hagnon, but adopted. Thucydides praises him. And [Aristophanes] attacks them as robbers. (Tr: GEORGE PESELY)
§ del.238 Δέξιππος: Dexippos: Of Cos, a doctor, a pupil of Hippocrates. Summoned by Hecatomnus, the king of Caria, to cure his sons Mausolus and Pixodarus when they were desperately ill, he did cure them, on condition that Hecatomnus promise to end the war which was then in progress between them and the Carians. He wrote a Book for Doctors in 1 [volume] and On Prognoses in 2. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.250 Δέρας: skin: The golden-fleeced skin, which Jason took after coming through the Black Sea with the Argonauts into Colchis, and [sc. taking also] Medea the daughter of the king Aietes. This was not as is reported in poetry, but it was a book written on skins, concerning how it is necessary that gold comes about through alchemy. Therefore, the men of that time naturally called the skin "golden", because of the function which arose from it. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.300 Δεῖγμα: display, Deigma: As a technical term, the item of goods-for-sale being displayed. There is also a certain place in the commercial port at Athens, to which the display-items used to be brought, called this. It is the Attic custom, to designate actual places by the things in the place.
[The] Deigma was a place in Peiraieus, where many foreigners and citizens used to gather and converse. Aristophanes adds "of the lawsuits" [to the noun δεῖγμα ], so that he can display and criticize the Athenians as litigious: "in the Deigma of the Lawsuits what terrible troublemakers did I hear in dispute".
[The word] deigma also means proof. Aristophanes [writes]: "as proof of his [sc. style of] life, he was throwing out feathers in front of the doors". As a sort of sign and demonstration of the luxury to be found inside at his house, he was throwing down in front of the doors feathers from birds plucked and slaughtered for a celebration. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.333 Δείναρχος: Dinarchus: A Corinthian, a rhetor, one of those ranked with Demosthenes. Whose son he is, is not recorded. He wrote (according to some) 160 speeches in all; but a more accurate figure is only 60, all of them judicial; some are public, some private. This man died, having been appointed supervisor of the Peloponnese by Antipater, after Antipater's death; Polysperchon had plotted against him. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.338 Δεινόλοχος: Deinolochos, Deinolochus: Syracusan, or Akragantian, a comic poet. He was [born] in the seventy-third Olympiad, the son of Epicharmus, though some [say] his student. He produced 14 dramas in Doric dialect. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.361 Δείρα: ridges: Also deirades, the rough places of mountains.
"Fearing lest concerning everything [...] he determined to abandon the territory."
And again: "[Philip slew] the bull that earlier lowed on the ridges of Orbelus." (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.368 Δεισιδαιμονία: fear of the gods, piety, superstition: Discretion in regard to the divine, timidity, doubt concerning the faith.
Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] δεισιδαίμων ["god-fearing"], as if afraid. The Apostle [says]: "men of Athens, I see that you are rather god-fearing." Meaning pious.
And Crito in the Getica says: "the kings of the Getae, inducing in them fear of the gods and concord by means of deceit and magic are already aiming at great things."
And Polybius of Megalopolis says concerning Timaeus: "he demonstrated great cleverness and audacity in accusing his neighbors, but in his own denials he is full of dreams and marvels and unreliable stories and in short of ignoble superstition and old wives' tales."
Asclepiodotus was holy and pious and at first he had become so scrupulous and cautious that he did not dare even to offer sacrifice or to hear any secret word; for [he thought] that these were not appropriate for fleshly beings but only for Olympus and those who are believed to live on Olympus."
Piety happens to be the mean between impiety and superstition.
Untimely free speech is superstition.
As Pyrrhus was stealing the money of Persephone he said jokingly, "Untimely piety is superstition, and gathering up wealth without effort is good counsel." (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.400 Δηλίου κολυμβητοῦ: Delian diver: This [sc. proverbial phrase] was uttered in reference to a book of Heraclitus, because it was hard to understand, that it needed a Delian diver who would not be drowned in it. Some entitle [this book] Muses, others On Nature. Diodotos [calls it] "A helm unerring for the rule of life," others "a guide of conduct, the ordering of character, for one [and] all." Or thus: "of a Delian diver", in reference to those who swim deep. For when Euripides gave Socrates a book by Heraclitus the Obscure, [Euripides] asked, "How does it seem?" and [Socrates] said, "What I have understood [is] excellent, and I suppose what I have not understood [is] too — except that it needs a Delian diver not to drown in it."
And [there is] a proverb: "a Delian diver", in reference to those who are very experienced at swimming. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.414 Δημάδης: Demades: An Athenian, a rhetor, and a demagogue unscrupulous and fortunate. He had previously been a sailor. He wrote a Defence to Olympias On the Twelve Years; a History about Delos and the birth of Leto's children. This man suspended the jurycourts and rhetorical contests. He died under [the regime of] Antipater. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.416 Δημάδης: Demades: Of the deme Laciadae, an Athenian, a rhetor. The previous Demades (the one who was also a demagogue) adopted him, although his mother was an aulos-player. He was himself the father of the orator Demeas. He died when he was thrown into the marsh at Amphipolis by Antipater, the father of Cassander and Successor [sc. of Alexander]. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.421 Δήμαρχοι: tribunes, demarchs, leaders of the people: The people, having returned to their former good order, elected as tribunes Sicinnius and Brutus, who being invested with power equal to that of the consuls, wielded that authority for a year. They demagogued the masses with capricious policies.
The demarchs [are] a constitutional term among the Athenians; they were formerly called naukraroi, and they had the power to take pledges. And Pherekrates [says]: "a certain demarch came into the dance and dissolved it." Those [who were] leaders deme by deme. These men used to arrange the festival of the Panathenaia. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.429 Δημήτριος: Demetrius: Son of Phanostratus, of Phalerum (Phalerum is a harbour in Attica); he was called Phanus at first; a Peripatetic philosopher. He wrote on philosophy, history, rhetoric and politics, and about poets. He studied with Theophrastus, and was a demagogue in Athens. He composed numerous books. He was so handsome that the slander arose that he had been Neon's lover, and he was called by some Lampeto and Charitoblepharus. He rose to great glory and power, but because of envy he was out-witted; he was exiled by the Athenians, and went to Egypt, where he lived with Ptolemy Soter; he died of an asp's bite, and was buried in the Busirite nome, near to Diospolis in the marshes.
When the father of Demetrius Poliorcetes was an old man, the hopes of the kingdom brought to him in succession both command and the good will of the masses. He was outstanding in beauty and stature, and when arrayed in the royal armour he was distinguished and awe-inspiring, a fact by which he created high expectations in most people. Moreover, he had a certain mildness, appropriate to a young king, by which he excited everyone's enthusiasm, so that even people who were not enlisted came together to hear him, sympathetically anxious on account of his youth and the imminent crisis because of their partisanship. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.430 Δημήτριος: Demetrius: Nicknamed Ixion; grammarian; of Adramyttium. He lived at the time of Caesar Augustus, and spent his time in Pergamum. He got this nickname (according to some) because he was caught stealing gold leaf from the statue of Hera in Alexandria; others say that he robbed of its Euripidean aspirations the drama containing Ixion; others, that he quarrelled with his teacher Aristarchus, just as Ixion tried to act ungratefully towards the gods who had bestowed favours on him. He wrote a great deal: On -mi Verbs; On Antonyms; exegesis of Homer; likewise of Hesiod. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.431 Δημήτριος: Demetrios: Demetrios the son of Antigonos [I] and Ptolemy [I] agreed that there was a treaty of alliance between them for the liberation for all Greece and for the mutual defense of each others' territory. And there was a competition between them as to which would be more of a hindrance in deed to what had been decided. And the Macedonian leader, without a hint of sluggishness, arrives and casts out the garrison at Mounychia, kills Dionysios who had been selected to lead it, and deposes Demetrios of Phaleron who had reduced the affairs in Athens to an oligarchy; and he allowed [the Athenians] to be independently governed in accordance with their paternal custom, and [allowed] the Athenians and the Megarians to keep whatever was customary for them from their primordial government. But Ptolemy, having displayed an exceptional gentleness of manner and generosity in his deeds, inspired the Greeks to devote themselves even more to the hope of being liberated; especially since the encouraging nature of his words and the things that he did made them take heart, in the belief that what was being done occurred for the clear liberation of the Greeks and not out of a desire for empire. Indeed, he leaves the majority of the Greek cities autonomous and began announcing the Isthmian armistice, encouraging them to make the pilgrimage to Isthmia bearing olive branches as though [they would be gathering] for the purpose of liberation. Setting off from there he sailed to Egypt, having installed Leonidas at the head of the Greek command. He also gained control of all Libya, after Ophellas, the despot of Cyrene, was done away with by a trick at the instigation of Agathocles in Sicily. But the agreement between Ptolemy and Demetrios concerning the accord did not last long. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.442 Δημοκήδης: Demokedes: [Son] of Kalliphon (a priest of Asklepios born in Knidos); a Krotoniate, a doctor. He practised medicine in Aigina, where he married, and he also acted as physician to Polykrates, the tyrant of Samos, for two gold talents; and he was summoned by Dareios the Persian and stayed with him for a considerable time. He wrote a medical book.
When Dareios the king was out hunting he twisted his foot while dismounting from his horse, and did so rather violently; for the astragal came out from the joint. He first summoned the Egyptian doctors he had around him, considered to be the foremost, skilled in medical arts. They treated him, but, by twisting and stretching the foot they caused major damage. For seven days and seven nights Dareios could not sleep because of the hurt he was experiencing; but on the eighth day of his affliction someone who had heard, before leaving Sardis, of the skill of Demokedes of Kroton informed Dareios, who ordered [Demokedes] to be brought to him as soon as possible. Finding Demokedes utterly neglected somewhere among Oroetes' slaves, they brought him forward, dragging his chains and dressed in rags. As he stood there on public view, Dareios asked him whether he knew the skill [of a doctor]. Demokedes denied this, fearful that if he revealed himself he would not be able to return to Greece again. It was clear to Dareios that he was trying to trick him by craftiness, and he ordered the men who fetched him to step forward with whips and goads. So then, of course, Demokedes came clean, while maintaining that his learning was imprecise; he had, though, kept company with a physician and thereby picked up some insufficient knowledge of the art. But later Dareios entrusted himself to Demokedes, who with the use of Greek remedies and gentle rather than forcible means — after such procedures had been tried by others — succeeded in getting Dareios his sleep and, after a while, healed him completely, though he had lost hope of having the proper use of his foot again. So says Herodotus the historian. [He also says] that Atossa, Kyros' daughter and the wife of Dareios, found an abscess growing in her breast which broke and spread further. As long as it was small, she hid it because of shame and did not tell anyone about it; but when it turned for the worse she sent for Demokedes and showed it to him. He said that he could heal her but made her swear that she would do him any service he asked for in return, saying that he would not ask for anything that was shameful. And what he asked for was his return to Greece. (Tr: CARL WIDSTRAND)
§ del.447 Δημόκριτος: Democritus: The son of Hegesistratus, though some [say] of Athenocritus or Damasippus, born at the same time as Socrates the philosopher, in the 77th Olympiad, though others say during the 80th Olympiad [460 BCE]. An Abderite from Thrace, a philosopher, a pupil — according to some — of Anaxagoras and Leucippus; others [say that he was] also [a pupil of] Magi and of Chaldaeans, Persians; for he went to [visit] Persians and Indians and Egyptians and was educated in the wisdom of each. Then he returned and joined his brothers Herodotus and Damastes. He held office in Abdera, after being honoured because of his wisdom. A famous pupil of his was Metrodorus of Chios, who in turn had Anaxarchos and Hippocrates the physician among his listeners. Democritus was called Wisdom, and also Laughing-Man, because of his laughing at mankind's zealous pursuit of frivolities. There are two genuine books of his: The Great Diacosmos and On the Nature of the Cosmos. He also wrote letters. (Tr: CARL WIDSTRAND)
§ del.448 Δημόκριτος: Democritus: Democritus of Abdera did not visit Athens, but considered that great city beneath his notice; nor did he care to win fame from a place but rather preferred himself to make a place famous. When Hippocrates came to see Democritus, he ordered milk to be brought and having looked at it said that the milk came from a she-goat which had produced her first kid and was black; and Hippocrates marvelled at the accuracy of his observation. Moreover, Hippocrates was accompanied by a young girl, and the first day Democritus greeted her with "Good day, maid," but the next day with "Good day, woman." In fact, the girl had been seduced during the night. Now, when he was very old and nearing the end his sister was upset that he would probably die on the Thesmophoria festival and thus she would not be able to make a proper offering to the goddess. He told her to be of good courage and ordered that hot loaves should be brought to him every day; putting them under his nostrils, he managed to keep himself alive over the festival. When the days had passed — there were three of them — he let his life go out without great pain. (Tr: CARL WIDSTRAND)
§ del.452 Δῆμος: country-district: In Aristophanes [this means] the village. Or the island.
It also means the demos of the Athenians.
"In the sixth year I addressed you, having come into the demos." (Tr: BOBBIEJO WINFREY)
§ del.454 Δημοσθένης: Demosthenes: An Athenian, son of Demosthenes and Cleobule; rhetor, of the deme Paeania. [He was] painstaking rather than naturally gifted, Hermippus says; and he lacked self-control with regard to pleasures (the same source says this too). Hence as a young man he was called Batalus (because he often wore women's clothing), and after he was an adult, Argas (that is the name of a snake). He became ambitious to be an orator through hearing the orator Callistratus speaking on behalf of Oropus. He studied with Isaeus, the pupil of Isocrates, and conversed with Zoilus of Amphipolis when he was a sophist in Athens, and of Polycrates and Alcidamas, the pupil of Gorgias, and of Isocrates himself. He engaged in literary studies along with Aesion of Athens and the philosopher Theopompus of Chios. He also studied with Eubulides the dialectician and Plato. He died as an exile in Calauria, in the sanctuary of Poseidon, because of Antipater of Macedon; he took the poison he carried in his ring, aged 62. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.455 Δημοσθένης: Demosthenes: The orator; he was a man of outstanding ability in reflection and in the expression of his thoughts; hence, too, he was regarded as the most eloquent among his contemporaries, since he was most competent in inferring what was not apparent and in explaining what he had understood. In all that he tried to say or do in defence of the public interest, although he did not live at a time propitious for the reputation of political leaders, he alone among Athenians of his own time spoke out freely against the Macedonian tyrants; they saw him as someone impossible to bribe, at a time when it so happened that those in the other cities who, because they desired enrichment more than the public good, were bought by gifts of money, for the sake of their own gain placed what they saw as their own immediate interest before what was in the common interest. Hence, even the things for which they later blamed him were forgiven by the Athenians, and they welcomed him back again and relied on his advice in everything. And the nobility of his death most of all caused them to regret openly their decisions. Not long after the news came of Demosthenes' death, they went back on decisions they had taken more for fear of Macedon than with full integrity of judgement, and they voted to grant immunity from taxation to the eldest member of Demosthenes' family, and to set up a bronze image of him in the agora; and they inscribed an elegy on the base of the statue: 'If your power had been equal to your judgement, Demosthenes, never would the Ares of Macedon have ruled the Greeks.' (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.456 Δημοσθένης: Demosthenes: A knife-maker, of the [sc. Athenian] deme Paeania; Demosthenes the rhetor was his son. When he was orphaned he had 3 guardians, Aphobus, Demophon and Therippides; they neglected him and his property, so he put himself into the hands of Isaeus as his teacher. He was so dedicated to work that they say he shut himself in house and shaved part of his head, to stop himself going out or receiving visitors. When he had finished his education, he brought a successful guardianship action against his guardians. He wanted to be a sophist, but gave this up because he was slandered in connection with Moschus, a young man of good family. He began to act as a speech-writer, but was again slandered as having disclosed the opposing speeches to Apollodorus and Phormio. So he gave this up as well, and entered politics. He had a speech impediment, and moved his shoulder in an undignified way; his hearing was weak, and his breath inadequate. He corrected all these faults by practice. Because he was not good at delivery he was coached in this as well by Andronicus. He served as khoregos and trierarch, ransomed prisoners and helped people provide for their daughters' marriage. When he was serving as khoregos he was struck by Meidias, but (they say) took a 3000 drachma bribe to drop the case. He brought a case for wounding against his cousin Demaenetus, and (they say) agreed to a reconciliation. He proposed to the wife of the general Chabrias after Chabrias' death, and married the daughter of Ctesippus. In politics he opposed Philip. When Philip attacked Thebes, he successfully argued for an alliance; they were defeated at Chaeronea, losing 1000 dead and 2000 captured. He had a much-loved daughter, and was grieved by her death; but when the sorrow was a week old, news came that Philip had been killed by Pausanias, and he changed his clothes and sacrificed to the gods. He was also opposed politically to Alexander, Philip's son. When Harpalus stole a large sum of money from Alexander and took refuge in Athens, Demosthenes was thought to have received a share; he went into exile in Troezen. After Alexander's death in Babylon, Demosthenes was recalled and returned home. Antipater, as ruler of Greece, sent to demand the surrender of the ten orators; the Athenians agreed to their surrender, and Demosthenes went into exile in Sicily. The actor Archias, sent against him by Antipater, dragged him from the sanctuary of Poseidon, which was an asylum; but he had poison under the seal on his ring, and died with a groan. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.457 Δημοσθένης Θρᾷξ: Demosthenes the Thracian, Demosthenes Thrax: This man wrote a Paraphrase of the Iliad in prose; an Epitome of the works of Damagetus of Heraclea; On Dithyrambic Poets; Paraphrase of Hesiod's Theogony. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.470 Δημόφιλος: Demophilos: Bishop of Constantinople, he was a man inclined to mix everything together in a disorderly rush like a wild torrent, gathering a great heap of rubbish in his words, as one will know at any rate from the public speech which appears among his extant memoirs: there it seems that he took more thought for security, as he revised his spoken words in making written records. In these [spoken words] at any rate he said many disjointed things, and particularly in his discourses on the Father and the Son. For he says: the Son is born by the will of the Father alone, timelessly, without intermediary, so that he might become the minister and servant of the Father's intentions. For since God who foreknew what he would do + was impossible of the uncontrolled order of God who was going to make them in their coming-to-be.+ For either they would all have had to become gods according to the rank of the one who made them, and therefore they would be gods, or else they would have had to be destroyed as they came into being, like wax brought near to a hot fire. So the Son became an intermediary between those who would come to be and the God who had begotten him, so that subjecting himself and condescending to those who were coming to be he might accomplish the intention of the Father. And he has become an intermediary between God and us who have come to be through him. In saying these things [Demophilos] did not recognize that he was falsely attributing weakness and malice to the God of all and declaring the Son inferior to all the creation. For [the Father] was weak according to Demophilos, if when he desired he was unable to give being to all things; and he would not be acquitted of malice, if although it was possible for him to make everything gods he was obviously devising a way to keep the things which would come to be from attaining this rank. And of the creatures there was not one who was not shown to be better than the Son, since he did not happen to have come into being through himself, but through the purpose and need of their coming-to-be. For it must be the case that whatever comes to be for the need of others is inferior to those for the benefit of which it obtains its being. And he spoke a lot more nonsense too. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.513 Διαβιασάμενος: having overcome by force: Having been excessively compelled. Polybius [writes]: "and having overcome his weakness by force, by means of his earlier habits, he came from Argos to Megalopolis on the same day." (Tr: NICHOLAS WILSHERE)
§ del.522 Διαγνώμων: distinguishing: Discriminating, diagnosing.
"Heraiskos actually had a natural talent for distinguishing between religious statues that were animated and those that were not. For as soon as he looked at one his heart was struck by a sensation of the divine and he gave a start in his body and his soul, as though seized by the god. If he was not moved in such a fashion then the statue was soulless and had no share of divine inspiration. In this way he distinguished the secret statue of Aion which the Alexandrians worshipped as being possessed by the god, who was both Osiris and Adonis at the same time according to some mystical union. There was also something in Heraiskos' nature that rejected defilements of nature. For instance, if he heard any unclean woman speaking, no matter where or how, he immediately got a headache, and this was taken as a sign that she was menstruating. Even his birth had something mystical about it: he is said to have issued from his mother holding the shushing finger up to his lips, just as the Egyptians portray Oros and Helios. As a result, since the finger was fused to his lips, he needed surgery, and he went through life with a scar on his lip." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.523 Διαγόρας: Diagoras, son of Telekleides or Teleklytos; a Melian, a philosopher and a lyric poet; whom Democritus from Abdera, seeing that he was naturally talented, bought — since he was a slave — for ten thousand drachmas and made a pupil. And he also applied himself to the lyric art, being in time after Pindar and Bacchylides, but older than Melanippides: he flourished in the 78th Olympiad. And he was called Atheos since he held such an opinion, after the time when someone of the same art, being accused by him of stealing a paean which he himself had made, swore he did not steal this, and performing it a short while later, met with success. Thereupon Diagoras, being upset, wrote the so-called Apopyrgizontes Logoi, which includes his withdrawal and falling away from his belief concerning the divine. But Diagoras, settling in Corinth, lived out his life there. (Tr: JASON KARNES)
§ del.524 Διαγόρας ὁ Μήλιος: Diagoras the Melian: [A phrase used] in reference to atheists and unbelievers and impious people. For after the capture of Melos this man was living in Athens, and he disparaged the mysteries in such a way as to turn many people away from initiation. So the Athenians made the following proclamation against him, and inscribed it on a bronze monument: anyone who killed him would receive a talent, and anyone who brought him [alive] would receive two. This proclamation was made because of his impiety, when he described the mysteries to everyone, making them common knowledge, trivialising them, and turning away those people who wanted to be initiated. So Aristophanes says in Birds: "on this day in particular the proclamation is made: if one of you kills Diagoras the Melian, he will receive a talent, and if anyone kills one of the tyrants, the dead ones, he will receive a talent." 'Dead': that is, those who are fleeing under penalty of death. He has said with exaggeration, 'to kill the dead'. (Tr: NICHOLAS WILSHERE)
§ del.557 Διάθεσις: deposing, disposing: [Deposing/disposing] and to depose: each of these applies to the writing of depositions. Isaeus in the Response to Aristogeiton: "Yet after this reponse they brought another deposition, which they said Archepolis deposed in Lemnos." Also Lysias in the Response to Timonides: "how could we disregard the deposing of the deceased, which he deposed neither in an impaired mental state nor under the influence of a woman." They also used to use each of these [terms] in reference to transacting business. And in Isocrates 'to be disposed' is applied to experiencing, as he says in the Encomium of Helen: "from this as well one might realize how far it differs from these things: from the way we ourselves are disposed toward each of the fine things." But Antiphon uses 'disposing' in reference to an opinion or thought. The same [author uses it] also in the sense of 'disposing a speech', that is, in the sense of declaring something. In Book 2 of Truth the same [author] uses it also in the sense of 'arrangement'. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.619 Διαλλάττειν: to reconcile: "[... to reconcile] us with Lakonian men, in whom [there is] no more trustworthiness than in a wolf agape." The proverb [is] in reference to those who pillage other people's property. For in the same way that there is no trustiness in wolves, [there is] none in these people either. As for 'agape', [it is] in reference to those who gape [in anticipation] in vain. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.652 Διὰ μέσου τείχους: of the wall through the middle: There being three walls in Attica, the Northern and the Southern and the Phaleric, the Southern used to be described as "through the middle" of those on either side. Plato in Gorgias mentions it. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.654 Διαμησάμενος: having cut through: [He] having dug through. "For having cut through all the sand under the skirts of Olympus, he found much drinkable water".
And elsewhere: "having cut through the snow on it [...] he finished building up the edge of the cliff". (Tr: CRAIG GIBSON)
§ del.674 Διάνοια Εὔριπος: a thought [like the] Euripos: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to people who change very easily and are unstable. (Tr: CRAIG GIBSON)
§ del.733 Δίαρμα: passage by sea: Polybius [writes]: "at the same time, in regard to the sailing voyage from Libya and the passage by sea, the city was very favorably situated for the Carthaginians".
And elsewhere: "for from the palisade to [the] sea [sc. the distance was] was 120 stades, but the passage by sea [was] a little more than 60. And for this reason there was obscurity and continuity of outward appearance".
And elsewhere: "they [or: I] saw the sight of the sea passage spanned by a bridge from Byzantium as far as Kalchedon". (Tr: CRAIG GIBSON)
§ del.752 Διάσια: Diasia: A festival of Zeus the Kindly at Athens; it is called 'Diasia' because they escaped [διαφυγεῖν ] troubles [ἄσαι ] with their prayers.
And Aristophanes [writes]: "when I bought you a little cart at the Diasia." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.811 Διαφανῆ χιτώνια: sheer shifts, transparent shifts: Not the brilliant white [ones], but the thin, through which the bodies of the women are visible.
And Isaiah the prophet [writes]: "and the transparent Laconian [sc. shifts]". (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.850 Διαψήφισις: review-balloting: [Review-balloting] and voting-off. The citizens [sc. of Athens ] each come together in their own demes and engage in a secret ballot concerning those whose citizenship is the subject of accusation or has been mis-registered; e.g. Acharnians about Acharnians and the Eleusinians about Eleusinians and the remaining demesmen likewise. And this is called review-balloting. Accordingly, those who get more votes possess their citizenship indisputedly, but any who receive fewer votes are no longer acknowledged [sc. as demesmen and citizens], and this is voting-off. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.872 Δίδυμος: Didymus: Son of Didymus, a fishmonger. A grammarian of the school of Aristarchus; of Alexandria. He lived in the time of Antony and Cicero, and until Augustus. He was called 'Bronze-guts'[Khalkenteros] because of his indefatigable industry with regard to books; for they say that he wrote more than 3500 books. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.873 Δίδυμος νέος: Didymus the younger: [Didymus the younger] of Alexandria. Grammarian. He was a sophist in Rome. He wrote Pithana ['Plausibilities']; On Orthography; and very many other excellent works. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.901 Διεθρόησαν: they spread the word: Thucydides [writes]: the Athenians' envoys 'spread the word that they had seen lots of money'. Meaning they talked about [them], they made an uproar about [them]. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.929 Διεξιφίσω: you fought to the death: [Meaning] you fought it out for the territory. Battling against the Medes at Marathon, you used swords against them. Marathon [is] a place of Attica, at which Datis and Artabazos the Median satraps landed, having been sent by King Darius to enslave Greece. There, with Miltiades as general, the Athenians attacked them — only the Plataeans, with a thousand men, had come to be his allies, meaning that the number of the Greek forces of the Persian had been increased; and they were responsible for the freedom of the Greeks — they alone from all of the Greeks destroying the first of the Persians. (Tr: MEREDITH GRAU)
§ del.958 Διεσκευασμένην: prepared: [Meaning] written with deceit. Polybius [writes]: "they sent away some of the Cretans, after giving them a prepared letter ostensibly [directed] against piracy." (Tr: ANTONELLA IPPOLITO)
§ del.987 Διεψευσμένοι: deceived: [Meaning] ignorant. Polybius [writes]: "of all these things the Aetolians were deceived".
And elsewhere: "they were deceived in their calculations; for Hannibal forestalled them by taking the city [of Saguntum]". (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.997 Διειρωνόξενοι: falsely-hospitable, guest-dissembling: [Meaning] those totally deceiving foreigners and lying by dissimulation and acting. [Said of] the Laconians; among whom also existed the law about expulsion of foreigners. That the Laconians were disgracefully-covetous and small-minded is shown by the oracle 'Love of money shall destroy Sparta, but naught else'. They were also misanthropes regarding foreigners, and it was not permitted to any individual foreigner to set foot in Sparta all the time, but [only] on specified days. (Tr: D. GRAHAM J. SHIPLEY)
§ del.1047 Διισθμήσαντα: having di-isthmusized: Having crossed the isthmus [sc. of Corinth ]. "He called upon him to assist, once he had di-isthmusized his boats". (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.1055 Δικάζεσθαι Βίαντος τοῦ Πριηνέως κρείσσων: to litigate more powerfully than Bias of Priene: Also 'Prienian justice,' [sc. a proverbial phrase] in reference to those litigating with vigor. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.1062 Δικαίαρχος: Dikaiarkhos: Son of Pheidias, Sicilian, from the city of Messene. Pupil of Aristotle. Philosopher and rhetorician and geometrician. [He wrote] Measurements of the Mountains in the Peloponnese; Life of Hellas in 3 books.
This man wrote the Constitution of the Spartans; and a law was enacted in Lakedaimon that each year the story should be read out in the archive of the Ephors and that the men of youthful age should listen. And this persisted for a long time. (Tr: D. GRAHAM J. SHIPLEY)
§ del.1078 Δικαιοῦν: to think just, to exact justice: [It] means two [things], both to punish and to consider just; thus Herodotos [uses this verb].
"[He] thinking it just to defend themselves against the Skythians with the same means which they themselves had recourse to, in violation of treaty, against those of the Athenians who were surrendering the citadel."
And elsewhere, Appian [writes]: "...to make agreements on whatever terms the Gabii think just". Meaning consider to be just.
And Josephus: "and they, reckoning the exaction of justice to be an insult, drew down many of the weapons and departed to a certain place." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.1113 Δικταῖον σπήλαιον: Dictaean cave: [no gloss] (Tr: MEREDITH GRAU)
§ del.1117 Δίκτυς: Dictys, Diktys: An historian. He wrote Ephemeris; it is a prose version, in 9 books, of post-Homeric events; [also] Italic Affairs, [account] of the Trojan battle-order.
This man wrote up the events concerning the abduction of Helen and about Menelaus and the entire Trojan topic. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.1118 Δίκτυς: Dictys, Diktys: During the reign of Claudius, after an earthquake had flattened Crete and many graves had been opened, in one of these there was found the historical treatise of Dictys, covering the Trojan War; Claudius took this and allowed it to be copied. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.1127 Δινδύμοις: Didyma: [It is recorded that] those living in Milesian Didyma, in seeking favor with Xerxes, betrayed the temple of the indigenous Apollo to the barbarians. Also look under Branchidai. (Tr: ROSS SCAIFE ✝)
§ del.1140 Διογενειανός: Diogenianus: Of the other Heraclea, not in Pontus. Grammarian. He too lived under the emperor Hadrian. The possibility has to be considered that he is the doctor from Albace Heraclea in Caria, since he was an expert on literature in general; for I have not found it stated explicitly that he was from Heraclea in Pontus, though that is the opinion of some. His books are as follows: Miscellaneous Lexicon, alphabetically arranged, in 5 books — this is an epitome of Pamphilus' Lexicon in 405 books and of Zopyrion's; Anthology of Epigrams; On rivers, harbours, springs, mountains [and] mountain ridges; On Rivers, alphabetically arranged, a description in epitome; Collection and Table of Cities throughout the World; and so on. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.1142 Διογένης: Diogenes: [Diogenes] or Oinomaos, Athenian, tragedian. He flourished at the suppression of the 30. His plays [are]: Achilles, Helen, Herakles, Thyestes, Medea, Oedipus, Chrysippus, Semele. (Tr: ROSS SCAIFE ✝)
§ del.1143 Διογένης: Diogenes: Son of a banker [named] Hikesios, from Sinope. Diogenes, after running away from his homeland on account of having counterfeited some coinage, arrived in Athens. After meeting Antisthenes the Cynic, he fell in love with that lifestyle and embraced the Cynic philosophy; he became contemptuous of his own great wealth. When he was old, he was taken by a pirate named Skirtalos and after he had been sold in Corinth to a certain Xeniades, he stayed for a long time with his buyer, not choosing to be ransomed by the Athenians nor by his family and friends.
In the 113th Olympiad, he died after being bitten in the leg by a dog and refusing treatment, on the same day as Alexander of Macedon died in Babylon. (Tr: DIANE SPURLOCK)
§ del.1144 Διογένης: Diogenes: A pupil of Antisthenes; [the man] who was first named Kleon. He lived in a wine-jar. When he asked how he might be outstanding, the god replied that he was acting as a [sc. good] citizen if he were to re-stamp. He re-stamped the currency, and for this he was exiled and went to Athens. Happening upon Antisthenes who was conversing according to his reputation, he became a philosopher. On a sea voyage he was captured by pirates and sold. When he was being auctioned and was asked what he knew, he said, "How to rule men." And when he observed a rich Corinthian profligate, he said, "Sell me to this man, for he needs a master." The man bought him and took him to Corinth and appointed him tutor to his children. He said that a good spirit had come into his household. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.1145 Διογένης: Diogenes: Because Diogenes had a son in love and because he was a harsh father, he did not condone his son's brashness, but shutting him up and hindering his desire, he sharpened the passion all the more. And the vehemence of the evil was terrible, for the love flared up. Since the father stood in his way, the young man was impelled even more into his present disease. When [Diogenes] saw that the ill was battling back stubbornly, he came to Delphi and in his vexation and distress asked if the boy would ever leave off being sick. And she [the Pythia ] spoke as follows: "the boy will cease from love when with lightness of youth he will have consumed his mind with the lovely passion of the Cyprian. Thus calm your pitiless anger and do not increase it by trying to prevent it, for you are acting against your intent. But if you arrive at composure, the magic (of love) will quickly be obliterated and he, being sobered, will cease from his shameful impulse." When he heard this, Diogenes calmed his passion and was filled with good hope, having worthy assurances of his son's self-control; and thereby he became a better father, for he had become milder and gentler in nature. This, too, the tragic hero Haemon, Sophocles' [character], demonstrated, when he was in love with Antigone and quarreled with his father Creon; for you see he likewise charged with a sword to his love and settled matters with his father in respect of the disease. (Tr: OLIVER PHILLIPS ✝)
§ del.1146 Διογένης ἢ Διογενειανός: Diogenes or Diogenianus: Of Cyzicus. Grammarian. He wrote Ancestral Customs of Cyzicus; On the Signs in Books; On the Art of Poetry; On Letters. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.1149 Διόδωρος: Diodoros, Diodore: A monk, in the times of Julian and Valens, bishop of Tarsus of Cilicia. He wrote a variety of things, as Theodore Lector says in his Ecclesiastical History. They are as follows: Interpretations on the entire Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, and so forth; and On the Psalms; On the Four Books of the Kingdoms; On Inquiries into the Books of Chronicles, On the Proverbs, What is the Difference between Exposition and Allegory, On Ecclesiastes, On the Song of Songs, On the Prophets, Chronology, straightening out the error of Eusebius [the spiritual son] of Pamphilos about the times, On the Four Gospels, On the Acts of the Apostles, On the Epistle of John the Evangelist, About the One God in Three, Against the Melchisedekites, Against the Jews, About the Resurrection of the Dead, About the Soul against the Various Heresies Concerning It, Chapters to Gratian, Against Astronomers and Astrologers and Fate, About the Sphere and the Seven Zones and of the Contrary Motion of the Stars, About Hipparchus' Sphere, About Providence, Against Plato on God and the Gods, On Nature and Matter, in which is "What is the Just," Concerning God and the Falsely Imagined Matter of the Greeks, That the Unseen Natures are not from the Elements but Were Made from Nothing along with the Elements, To the Philosopher Euphronius by way of Question and Answer, Against Aristotle concerning Celestial Body, How Hot is the Sun, Against Those Who Say the Heaven is a Living Being, Concerning the Question of How the Creator is Forever but the Created is Not, How is there the Capacity to Will and to be Unwilling in the God who is Eternal, Against Porphyry about Animals and Sacrifices. (Tr: OLIVER PHILLIPS ✝)
§ del.1150 Διόδωρος: Diodorus: [Diodorus,] surnamed Valerius. Philosopher; a pupil of Telecles; of Alexandria. Son of Polio the philosopher, who wrote the Attic lexicon. He lived under the Caesar Hadrian. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.1151 Διόδωρος: Diodorus: Sicilian, historian. He wrote the Library; it is a history, both Roman and diverse, in 40 books. He lived in the times of Augustus Caesar and earlier. (Tr: KENNETH MAYER)
§ del.1155 Διοκλῆς: Diokles: Athenian or Phliasian, an ancient comic poet, contemporary with Sannyrion and Philyllius. His plays [are] Sea, Bees, Dreams, Bacchae, Thyestes (2 versions).
They say that this man also invented the music of saucers, pottery vessels, which he used to hit with a wooden stick.
This Sea is a courtesan's name, as Athenaeus says. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.1156 Διοκλητιανός: Diocletian: Emperor of the Romans. During his reign and that of his in-law Maximian a horrific persecution against the Christians occurred. For they gave the order by territory and city that the churches of Christ be destroyed and their sacred writings burnt, and that any Christians discovered be forced to worship pagan deities. Overwhelmed by the number of Christians seized, they made an ordinance that any Christians who were discovered should have their right eye gouged out, not only for the pain, but for the dishonor and the mark and the distinction from the Roman way of life. Divine justice came upon them and justly struck them down: the one had his throat slit by the senate, the other was strangled.
This mad and Christ-hating man, angry in his memory of those who had plotted trouble concerning the empire, did not seek to rule in Egypt moderately or gently, but rather he went there defiling [the land] with proscriptions and murders of the notables. After seeking out the books written by the ancient [Egyptians] concerning the alchemy of gold and silver, he burned them so that the Egyptians would no longer have wealth from such a technique, nor would their surfeit of money in the future embolden them against the Romans.
In regard to his character he was capricious and evil, but with his sharp and intelligent mind he often covered up the shortfalls of his inner nature, and blamed each hard act on other people. But he was careful and quick when it came to applying what had to be done and he transformed many aspects of devotion to the emperor to something far more presumptuous than had been the ancestral custom for the Romans.
[It is said] that Diocletian and Maximian gave up their imperial positions and returned to private life. Diocletian went to an Illyrian city named Salonai, whereas Maximian went to the territory of the Leucanians. And whereas Maximian came to regret this out of longing for his rule, Diocletian grew old peacefully for three years, demonstrating his abundant virtue, though not completely abandoning Hellenic religion. (Tr: ROSS SCAIFE ✝)
§ del.1161 Διόμεια: Diomeia: A deme of the tribe Aegeis; [named] from Diomos the [sc. lover?] of Herakles. Aristophanes [writes]: "it just came across my mind, when the festival of Herakles at Diomea is due to take place". The Herakleion [is] a shrine of Heracles. He also says διομειαλαζόνας [Diomeia-braggarts"], [sc. a term stemming] from the deme Diomeia, which is named so from a certain Diomos. (Tr: ANTONELLA IPPOLITO)
§ del.1164 λέγεται καὶ ἵππος: Diomedeian compulsion: Another version is [Diomedeian] horse. A proverb, [stemming] from [Diomedes] the son of Tydeus or from the Thracian [Diomedes]. The latter compelled his guests to have intercourse with his daughters and then killed them. His daughters were disgraceful (and the horses are allegories for them). Others say that Diomedes and Odysseus were returning after stealing the Palladium. Odysseus, following behind, intended to kill Diomedes; but Diomedes saw the shadow of his sword in the moonlight and, out of fear, made Odysseus lead the way, poking him in the back with his sword. The proverb is used to describe those who do something under compulsion. The reason for the proverb is this: because Diomedes had man-eating horses.
[Note] that Diomedes on his homeward journey put in to his own land, but was not welcomed. He was chased out, and he went to Calabria where he founded a city which he called Argyrippe; this has since changed its name to Beneventum. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.1168 Διονύσια: Dionysia: A festival amongst Athenians.
[There is] also a saying: "from the same [date] just about that, plus the time since the Dionysia". It was customary for Athenians to reckon the years and the exceeding number [sc. of the months] starting from the Dionysia. And elsewhere: "O Dionysia! These smell of ambrosia and nectar". It is said of things deserving approbation. [Dicaeopolis] is looking forward to the celebration of the Dionysia, as there is a period of peace. It means very pleasant, worthy of the Dionysia. So the Dionysia [was] a festival of Dionysos, which Naupaktians used to celebrate. (Tr: ANTONELLA IPPOLITO)
§ del.1169 Διονυσιάδης: Dionysiades: Son of Phylarchides, of Mallos, tragic poet. This man was a member of the Pleiad, and he also wrote, amongst other things, Characters or Comedy-lovers, in which he describes the characters of the [comic] poets.
Apollonion [is] shorthand for sanctuary of Apollo. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.1170 Διονύσιος ὁ Ἀρεωπαγίτης: Dionysios the Areiopagite, Dionysius the Areopagite: bishop of Athens, a most illustrious man, who reached the highest level in Greek culture. A disciple of Paul, who introduced him to the Christian faith, Dionysius was enthroned by him as the very bishop of Athens. As for the skills in the Greek disciplines, his inherited culture, he was judged the most eminent of all [his equals], for generally speaking he came to gain a great experience in each study field they [sc. the pagan Greeks] cultivated. This man was an auditor of Paul, when the latter was teaching at Athens and frankly proclaiming among the Greeks the good news of the Christ and His resurrection. After he put faith in Paul's preaching Dionysius was appointed by him as the bishop of the city. So during the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when he also was in the prime of his manhood, he left for Egypt, because he longed to meet with the learned men of that country. Along with him also came the well-known Apollophanes the Sophist, whose disciple at Smyrna was Polemon of Laodicea, the master of Aristides. Around the time of the saving passion of Christ the Lord, the two of them were staying at Helioupolis, the city of Egypt. Now, since the solar eclipse took place in an unnatural way — it was not the appointed time for conjunction — it is said that Apollophanes the Sophist addressed the blessed Dionysius with these words: "my good Dionysius, [these are] the requitals for divine things!". It is Dionysius himself that mentions all of these events in the letter he wrote to Polycarp the Great, bishop of Smyrna, as Apollophanes was attacking Dionysius because of his adherence to the Christian religion. And [Dionysius] said: "but you say that Apollophanes the Sophist is railing at me, and calls me parricide on the grounds that I impiously use the [thought] of the Greeks against the Greeks. However, it would be more true for us to reply to him that the Greeks impiously use divine things against [other] divine things, because they attempt to overthrow the respect due to God through the wisdom, which comes from God". After a while, he said: "but even Apollophanes himself is impiously using divine things against [other] divine things. The true philosophers ought indeed to be led by the knowledge of reality, which he does well to call 'philosophy' and the divine Paul has called 'wisdom of God', toward the Cause of the reality itself and the knowledge of that [reality]". And after a while: "since Apollophanes is a wise man, he should be aware that of the order and the movements of Heaven, nothing could otherwise be altered, [than] if it were moved to that point by the one who holds it together and causes its existence, [the one] who creates and transforms everything, according to the Scriptures." And after a while again, "tell then to him: what do you say about the solar eclipse that took place at the time of the saving Cross? Then indeed, when both of us were present at Helioupolis and were together, we saw the Moon falling upon the Sun, contrary to any expectation, for it was not the appointed time for conjunction. And again the Moon from the ninth hour up to the evening was set up against the solar disk in an unnatural way. And let him remember some further detail: he [sc. Apollophanes] knows that we saw the contact itself starting from east and moving up to the edge of the Sun, then stepping back with a retrograde motion; and again the contact and the end of the eclipse did not take place from the same direction, but from diametrically opposite points. So great were the prodigies of that time, possible only for Christ, the cause of all, the One who makes great and extraordinary things, so numerous that it is impossible to count them.[14a] "If you think you can do it righteously and are able to, Apollophanes" [said Dionysius], "try to deny it in front of me, who was with you on that occasion, and who has seen, examined and wondered with you at these events. Actually, I don't know whence, Apollophanes at that time started prophesying, and said to me as if he was interpreting the things which happened: 'My good Dionysius, [these are] the requitals of divine things'". Such marvelous events the great Dionysius narrated in his letter to the inspired Polycarp. A demonstration giving a precise idea of his wisdom and his eloquence is the style of the books he wrote, that could never be surpassed: his knowledge was great in both kinds of culture, the one so-called by the pagans, and ours, the divine one. Indeed, if one looks at the beauty of his words and the depth of his thoughts, one would think that they are the offspring not of a human nature, but of an incorruptible, divine power.
Now, the following are the books he wrote: to Timothy, bishop of Ephesus, who was himself a disciple of Paul, 12 books On Divine Names; [these include:] On Unity and Distinction of Divine Word; On the question What is the might of prayer and On the blessed Hierotheus, On Piety, Theological summary; On Good; On Light; On Beauty; On Love; On Ecstasy; On Zeal; Evil is not a being, nor derives from existing things, nor is inside existing things; On Being, therein Examples; On Life; On Wisdom; On Mind; On Reason; On Truth; On Belief; On Power; On Justice; On Salvation; On Purification; On the great and the small; On Identity; On Alterity; On Similarity; On Difference; On Rest; On Movement; On equality; On the Sovereign of All, the Ancient of days, therein On Eternity and Time; On Peace; What means "being itself"; On the Holy of the Holies, King of Kings, Lord of Lords, God of Gods. Another book, dedicated to the same Timothy, [is] On Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, including 15 chapters; another book, to the same Timothy, On Celestial Hierarchy, also in 15 chapters, another book to the same Timothy On Mystical Theology, including 5 chapters, On the heavenly orders and what their number is.
Letters of Dionysius are transmitted to the monk Gaius in number of four; one to the deacon Dorotheus; one to the priest Sopatros; one Polycarp, hierarch of Smyrna; one to the monk Demophilos; one to John the Theologian, the apostle and evangelist. We should know that some of the pagan philosophers, and especially Proclus, often have used the theories of the blessed Dionysius, and they did it also with his bare words. One might suppose from that, that the earlier Athenian philosophers, after having usurped his works — as Dionysius himself mentions, writing to Timotheus — hid it, in order to be seen as the authors of his divine books.
Thus, Dionysius, the revealer of God, already aged and old, died as a martyr for Christ under the reign of Traian Caesar, when also the inspired Ignatius at Rome entered the combat for immortality.
§ del.1171 Διονύσιος: Dionysius: Of Halicarnassus; lived under Caesar Hadrian. Sophist. He was called 'Musician', because of his expertise in music. He wrote 24 books of Treatises on Rhythm; a History of Music in 36 books, in which he mentions all manner of aulos-players, citharodes and poets; 22 books on Musical Education or the Musical Way of Life; Observations on Music in Plato's Republic (5 books). (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.1172 Διονύσιος: Dionysius: Of Alexandria; but a Thracian on the side of his father Teres, called Terus; a pupil of Aristarchus. Grammarian. He was a sophist in Rome under Pompey the Great, and taught the elder Tyrannio. He composed very many works on grammar, treatises and commentaries. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.1173 Διονύσιος: Dionysius: Of Alexandria; son of Glaucus. Grammarian. From Nero onwards he was a companion of the emperors until Trajan. He was director of the libraries, and was secretary with responsibility for correspondence, embassies and rescripts. He was the teacher of the grammarian Parthenius, and a pupil of the philosopher Chaeremon, whose successor he was in Alexandria. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.1174 Διονύσιος: Dionysius: Son of Alexander; of Halicarnassus. Rhetor, and an expert on literature in general. He lived under Caesar Augustus, and was an ancestor of the Atticist who lived under Hadrian. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.1175 Διονύσιος: Dionysios: Of Mitylene, epic poet. This man was called Leather-arm and Leather-worker. [He wrote] the Expedition of Dionysos and Athena, the Argonauts in 6 books. These works are in prose: Fables for Parmenon. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.1176 Διονύσιος: Dionysios: Of Byzantium, epic poet. [He wrote] Description of the Sailing Route through the Bosporus, [and] On Dirges (it is a poem full of funereal laments). (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.1177 Διονύσιος: Dionysios: Of Corinth, an epic poet. [He wrote] Instructions, Causes in one book, Heavenly Phenomena, and in prose, a Commentary on Hesiod; Description of the Inhabited World in epic verse. I also found these things under the Dionysios who wrote the Gemstones; so which one of them [it is] I do not know. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.1178 Διονύσιος: Dionysius: Tyrant of Sicily; he wrote tragedies and comedies and historical works.
"Others, too, became despots, but the tyranny of Dionysius was responsible for the greatest and most extreme ill-treatment [inflicted] on any state."
Concerning the tyrant Dionysius and Philoxenus the dithyrambic poet, see in the [entry] 'take me away to the quarries'. (Tr: TONY NATOLI)
§ del.1180 Διονύσιος: Dionysios: Of Miletos, a historian. [He wrote] Events after Dareios in 5 books, Description of the Inhabited World, Persian History in Ionic dialect, 3 books of The Trojan War, Myths, Historic Cycle in 7 books. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.1181 Διονύσιος: Dionysios: Son of Mousonios, a Rhodian or Samian, historian; he was also a priest of the shrine of Helios there. [He wrote] Local Histories in 2 books; Description of the Inhabited World; ten books of Educational History.
I conjecture that Dionysios the Periegete was from Byzantion, because of [sc. his mention of] the river Rhebas. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.1187 Διοπετές: heaven-sent: [sc. Something] falling down out of heaven.
"Those among Greeks preparing cult-images [and] wanting to put fear into those seeing them used to maintain that the statue was sent out of heaven from Zeus and flew down, that it was something better than every human hand and invincible, for which reason they used to call it heaven-sent and a heavenly image [bretas], inasmuch as it resembled a mortal man [brotos]. Which is not to say that the opinion about the statues was vain and aimless; rather, they were either killing or banishing the sculptors, in order that no one would be able to say that the cult-image was made by hand; having concocted a rumour they sent it forth into the hearing of those who had been tricked, and this rumour led the city of the Ephesians astray. And that this is true, the thing which happened [...] in Alexandria confirms: for when Ptolemy had gathered craftsmen so as to make the statue of Artemis, after the work when he had dug a great hole and had hidden his trick, he ordered the craftsmen to dine in it; these men dining were buried there and died, having collected a wage worthy of their wickedness." (Tr: BOBBIEJO WINFREY)
§ del.1202 Δῖος: Dios: Name of a month amongst Macedonians, [namely] November, [sc. also denoting] the young and the illustrious. The vocative [is] ὦ δῖε . It also indicates the name of a place. (Tr: ANTONELLA IPPOLITO)
§ del.1207 Διὸς Κόρινθος: Zeus' son Korinthos: A proverb applying to those who keep saying the same things, it was coined for the following reason: the Megarians, subject to the Corinthians, were oppressed with their orders and clearly vexed on this point. Corinthian envoys went to Megara, grew irritated when the people would not listen to them, and began to shout 'Zeus' son Korinthos will not put up with this.' So they say that the Megarians threw the envoys out and beat them, saying 'take that, Zeus' son Korinthos'! (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.1217 Διοφάνης: Diophanes: This man was from Megalopolis. [He was someone] who had great expertise in military matters because, during the lengthy war against Nabis which was waged in the vicinity of Megalopolis, he had served all the time continuously under Philopoemen and [thus] acquired authentic experience in the affairs of war. Besides, in appearance and in physical prowess the man was able and formidable. And most important, he was a valiant man for war and exceptionally skilled in weaponry. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.1229 Διώκειν: to prosecute, to pursue: In reference to bringing to court and accusing [there] and in reference to desiring and yearning for [something]; for we say "to pursue excellence". Also in reference to going through [something].
"After the ships had taken to flight, they headed for many places, since some of them sailed away towards the Ionian sea, others elsewhere". (Tr: ANTONELLA IPPOLITO)
§ del.1238 Δίων: Dion: Son of Hipparinos; a Syracusan, a Platonic philosopher. [He was] the brother of Aristomache, the wife of the older Dionysius, tyrant of Sicily. He also ruled over Sicily as tyrant, expelling Dionysius, the son of the older Dionysius, whose brother Nisaios in turn expelled this Dion. He wrote letters to Plato and to some others. (Tr: TONY NATOLI)
§ del.1239 Δίων: Dion, Dio: known as Cassius, and nicknamed Cocceius — though some [say] Coccieanus. Of Nikaia, historian, lived in the time of Alexander [son of] Mamaia. He wrote a Roman History in 80 books; they are divided into groups of ten. [He also wrote] Persika, Getika, Portents, Events of the Reign of Trajan, [and a] Life of Arrian the philosopher. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.1240 Δίων: Dion, Dio: Son of Pasicrates; of Prusa. Sophist and philosopher; they called him 'Golden Mouth' [Chrysostomos]. He affected gravity to such an extent that he went out wearing a lion's skin. He was physically slight, and he spent much of his time with the Caesar Trajan, so that he even sat with him in the imperial chariot. He wrote Is the Cosmos Perishable?; Encomium of Heracles and Plato; In Defence of Homer against Plato, 4 [books]; On the Virtues of Alexander, 5 [books].
This man even attacks Homer for falsifying his record of the Trojan War. (Tr: MALCOLM HEATH)
§ del.1263 Διποδία: two-step; two-footer: A kind of dance. Aristophanes [says]: "[...] so that I may dance the dipodia, and may sing a fine [song] for the Asanians and at the same time for us also." [He says "Asanians"] instead of Athenians. (Tr: ELIZABETH VANDIVER)
§ del.1265 Δίπυρος ἄρτος: twice-baked bread, biscuit: What amongst Romans is called paxamas.
"Wearing on their shoulders goat-hair cloaks, in which they had put nothing else from home but loaves of twice-baked bread, they arrived [sc. in Byzantium ]." (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.1289 Διφάσια: twofold: "In these [years] twofold great wounds of [suffered by] the Milesians occurred, one after the fighting in Limeneion in their own territory and one in the plain of [the river] Maeander." (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.1290 Διφθέρα: leather: A shepherd's wrap [made] out of hides.
That they call "pads" the coverings [made] from leather on oar handles that they use on triremes, in the hole through which the oar handle was placed; for Thorykion wrote his plans on pieces of leather and sent them to the enemies in Laconia. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.1319 Δογματίζει: dogmatizes, sets forth dogma: [Meaning he/she/it] theologizes, is puffed up.
To dogmatize is to set forth dogma, just as to legislate is to set forth laws. Dogmas are the name for two things: the thing opined and the opinion itself. Of these the thing opined is a proposition [protasis], and the opinion itself a conception [hypolepsis]. Now Plato 'revealed' things he understood; he 'refuted' false things; and he refrained from judgment concerning unclear things. And concerning the things which appeared correct to him, he revealed them through four characters, Socrates, Timaeus, the Athenian stranger, [the Eleatic stranger]. And the strangers are not, as some have understood, Plato and Parmenides, but nameless creations.
Concerning dogmas. Some [consider a dogma] begotten [or generable], some unbegotten [or baseless]; and some [consider it] ensouled, some without soul. When Anaxagoras and Pythagoras went to Egypt and conferred with the wise men of Egyptians and the Hebrews there, they acquired their knowledge about the things that exist, and later Plato did so as well, as Plutarch says in his Parallel Lives. Indeed, Egyptians were the first to name the sun and the moon gods: they called the sun Osiris, and the moon Isis, since they saw these going at a run and running, [deriving the word] gods [theoi] from running [theein] and going. (Tr: NATHAN GREENBERG)
§ del.1345 Δόλων: Dolon: The women's cult-association among the Cyzicenes worshipping Artemis goes by this name, according to Aelian.
Also Dolon, the one in Homer. And it keeps [sc. omega in the oblique cases]. (Tr: ROSS SCAIFE ✝)
§ del.1352 Δομετιανός: Domitian, Dometianos: Emperor of [the] Romans, brother of Titus, whose successor he became. He emulated not his father's or his brother's habit of good government, but, on the contrary, the appetite for iniquity of Tiberius and Nero. He canvassed every form of evil, and having had his fill of murder, woman-craziness and even man-craziness he, though godless, finally made himself into a god. Then that wretched man, having proved himself to be hateful to all, and despised on account of his murderous nature and the beastliness of his polluted mind, quite appropriately brought upon himself the rewards of his own malevolence, and brought an end to his depraved and obscene life with the most shameful of fates.
This man, under the influence of some demonic bewitchment, grew spiteful of his brother and did away with him by poison, out of his passion for power. And although the affairs of the Romans were in a wretched state, he did not curtail any of his forms or pursuits of savagery, greed, murderous activity or anything else, along with his lack of self control and discipline as regards matters of the body. He also exiled Nerva on the charge that he was plotting to obtain the principate, and he arrested Apollonius of Tyana as a friend of Nerva and had him shorn and brought into court in fetters. And when the philosopher did not relent in his ridicule of the things that had happened on account of him and in his criticism of the things that had been done, out of shame he ordered him taken away. It was then, they say, that Apollonius uttered that famous remark — "You will not kill me, since, I assure you, I am not mortal" — and thereupon immediately disappeared.
This man banished even the philosophers and the mathematicians from Rome. In his reign also John the Evangelist was exiled to Patmos. And he ordered those from the family of David to be executed, and many Christians were martyred under him. Nerva released John the Theologian from exile. Hadrian, who was a restorer in many respects, also installed a king over the Lazoi or Kolchoi. But it was ill-advised when he withdrew from Mesopotamia (which had been annexed by the Romans under Trajan) at the request of the Persians, making the Euphrates the border of the empire.
This man [Domitian], being universally hated on account of his murderousness and beastliness, was assassinated at the hands of members of his household who had conspired against him. They arranged to send in Stephanos the freedman with a dagger; and he fell upon Domitian while he was sleeping in the middle of the day and struck him, not, in fact, at the right time, but when he had already leapt up from bed. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.1355 Δομνῖνος: Domninos: A philosopher, Syrian by descent, from both Laodicea and Larissa, a city of Syria; a pupil of Syrianus and the schoolmate of Proclus, according to Damascius. He was a capable man in mathematics, but rather superficial in other philosophical matters. As a result, he also perverted many of Plato's opinions with his own. Although he corrupted them, he nonetheless gave a satisfactory defense to Proklos, who had written to him an entire treatise that, according to its title, was a purification of Plato's opinions. He was not even strong enough in his way of life that one could truly call him a philosopher. At Athens Asklepios prophesied the same remedy for the Athenian Plutarch and for the Syrian Domninos: the latter was frequently spitting blood and had brought this as the name of his ailment; the former suffered from some other sickness. The remedy was to stuff oneself with pork. Now Plutarch did not submit to this cure, even though it was not a traditional religious offence for him, but arose from sleep, propped himself up on the couch on his elbow, looked towards the cult statue of Asklepios (since he happened to be sleeping in the anteroom of the shrine) and said, "What, my lord, have you commanded for the Jew who is sick with this illness? Since surely you would not have ordered that man to fill himself with pork." So he spoke, and Asklepios from the statue immediately prescribed another treatment for his illness: a very fitting utterance indeed. But Domninos, contrary to the traditional law of Syrians, persuaded by the dream and failing to follow the example of Plutarch, then and ever afterwards consumed pork. It is said that if he somehow went one day without tasting it he was afflicted with the full force of his illness until he gorged himself. Asklepiodotos as a youth is said to have encountered Domninus when he had grown old, and to have seen a man somewhat excessive and stiff, who did not deign to speak at length with those he met, whether private individuals or foreigners: not even with those who could claim some distinction. Asklepiodotos was unconcerned that he would also be treated rather harshly, since he did not think he ought to agree with Domninus about some numerical theorem or other because he was a young man, nor to submit meekly, but rather to debate the argument so forcefully that Domninos no longer admitted him into his company. (Tr: BRADLEY BUSZARD)
§ del.1376 Δορά: hide: Skin.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'hide of donkeys'. Empedokles was called Kolusanemas ["wind-restrainer"] because when a strong wind was oppressing Akragas he surrounded the city with the hides of donkeys. (Tr: KONSTANTINOS KOPANIAS)
§ del.1395 Δόρυ κηρύκειον: a spear as a herald's wand: A proverb in reference to those who encourage and threaten at the same time. The Gephyraeans on whom the Athenians had imposed a tithe for Delphi received this response [from the oracle]: "to a Gephyraean man a house [is] dear." Following oxen, until they grew tired, because the god had told them that they should remain there, while the Athenians were being fought in a war by Eumolpus, they journeyed to the [place] called Tanagra, giving a herald's wand to their leader, but arming the young men behind him. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.1421 Δουλοσύνη: servitude, slavery: "The Phokaians were vexed at the [prospect of] servitude". Meaning they were despondent. (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.1423 Δούλων πόλις: slaves' city: A proverb; [sc. also a city] in Libya: Ephorus in [volume] 5 [mentions it]. Also another [city] of sacred slaves, in which one man is free. There is also, in Crete, Slave-city [Doulopolis], as Sosicrates [says] in [Book] 1 of his Cretan Matters. There is also, somewhere in Thrace, Scoundrel-city [Poneropolis], which Philip allegedly founded having gathered there those who had been charged with some sort of knavery: informants, perjured witnesses, advocates and the other scoundrels, some two thousand in all; so [says] Theopompus in [Book] 13 of his Philippica. (Tr: WILLIAM HUTTON)
§ del.1441 Δωδεκάκρουνον στόμα: twelve-spouted mouth: For Cratinus praised himself in Putine saying: "Lord Apollo, the springs of the flow of verses resound, a twelve-spouted mouth, I would say Ilissos in the throat, will inundate with words unless someone stops up his mouth." (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.1442 Δωδεκαμήχανον: twelve-device, twelve-trick: [sc. A term used] in reference to those who use manifold and varied customs. For Cyrene was a remarkable courtesan, called "twelve-trick" because she employed that many positions in intercourse. [The word also] comes from the Hypsipyle of Euripides: "above the twelve-crafted star".
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "twelve-trick whore", she who uses 12 positions, Kyrene by name. (Tr: JENNIFER BENEDICT)
§ del.1445 Δωδωναῖον χαλκεῖον: Dodonian bronze: [sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who speak little. For Demon says that the oracle of Zeus at Dodona is surrounded by cauldrons in a circle. They touch each other, and when one is struck all of them resound in succession, so that the sound continues to go around for a long time. But Aristotle, refuting this story as a fiction, says that there are two pillars, and on one of them a cauldron and on the other a boy holding a whip. The thongs of this are of bronze and when they are shaken by the wind they strike against the cauldron, and when it is struck it resounds. Menander uses the proverb in Pipers. [...] in reply to Demon: if there were many [cauldrons], the proverb would not be stated in the singular. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.1447 Δωδώνη: Dodone, Dodona: A city in Pelasgian Thesprotis.
In it there stood an oak-tree, by which there was an oracular shrine with women prophets. When people entered to obtain oracular answers, the oak-tree was moved and made sounds. [The prophetesses] declared that "Zeus says this." And a statue stood in a lofty position holding a staff, and beside it a cauldron stood; and the statue would strike the cauldron, from which a certain harmonious sound came.
But the utterances of the demons are inarticulate. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.1458 Δωριάζειν: to dress like a Dorian girl: [Meaning] to be half-naked: for it is a Dorian custom [sc. for girls] to reveal the body at the side, because they do not have girdles, but for the most part they wear chitons; but in Sparta even the maidens appear [completely] naked. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.1461 Δώριος: Dorian: [A kind of] musical pipe-playing, just like Lydian and Phrygian.
"He chose a moderate and frugal diet which neither did him harm through its poverty nor made him soft through its richness — but one which was intermediate and harmonious, truly befitting the Dorian mode of his fortune."
And [there is] a proverb: "from a Dorian to a Phrygian." "I shall not present well-rounded phrases [as proems and preludes ...] but setting forth the plain expressions of my thoughts [I will compete on the basis of facts], provided only that I change the tone of my language from disputation to attentive exposition, [as] they say, from a Dorian to a Phrygian [mode]. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.1462 Δώριος: Dorios, Dorius: A proper name.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] Dorian economy: "Polemon had assumed the simplicity and squalor of Xenokrates and his gravity, as if a kind of Dorian economy."
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] Dorian song. (Tr: CATHARINE ROTH)
§ del.1463 Δωρίς: Doris: [Genitive] Δωρίδος, [vocative] ὦ Δωρί . (Tr: DAVID WHITEHEAD)
§ del.1469 Δωροδοκήσαντα: having engaged in bribery: [The word means] not only to give bribes and use them persuasively, but also to take