Tzetzes, Ad Lycophronem

Scholia to Lycophron's Alexandra, marginal notes by Isaak and Ioannis Tzetzes and others, from the Greek edition of Eduard Scheer (Weidmann 1881) (downloadable at archive.org, translated by CHATGPT 4.0 with more speed than accuracy, with prompts and work-arounds by Bruce Hartzler and a few manual improvements (?) by Brady Kiesling. This text has 2332 tagged references to 543 ancient places.
CTS URN: urn:cts:greekLit:tlg9022.tlg001; Wikidata ID: Q103979798; Trismegistos:     [Open Greek text in new tab]

§ i  These explanations of Lycophron's deliberately obscure allusions are, even when misguided, a rich source of otherwise lost mythic versions. Variant names are not necessarily to be trusted. The many repetitions reflect parallel comments in various manuscripts, and also glosses to Lycophron drawn from lexica compiled in late antiquity. A few repetitions have been deleted for readability. More should have been.

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§ intro.1  ON LYCOPHRON'S COMMENTARY BY ISAAC THE GRAMMARIAN TZETZES.
This work of the song-basher Lycophron, was previously a blank book, its sights invisible. But now, through the craft of Hermes, Isaac Tzetzes has made it visible, untying the well-tangled knots.

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§ intro.5  Those intending to begin the study of poetic books should first understand the differences among poets, and then plunge into their works, knowing what kind of poets' books they are dealing with. The term "poet," used without specification, is a general term divisible into several categories: the poet par excellence, referred to without further specification, the lyric poet, the dithyrambic poet, the iambic poet, the tragic, the satiric, the comic, the elegiac poet, the epigrammatic (and anathematic) poet, the hymnodist, the song-writer (also called the singer), the epithalamium writer, the monodist, and countless others which are too many and tiresome to mention, even though I have precise knowledge of them. I will discuss the distinguishing features and characteristics of the aforementioned poets.

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§ intro.15  Now, the four distinguishing features of those who are called preeminent poets are these: the use of the heroic meter, allegorical myth, ancient history, and a grand style of speech, without which they would be called epic poets. Five famous poets have arisen: Homer, Hesiod, Panyassis, Antimachus, and Peisander. As for the newer poets, there are as many “as leaves and flowers come into bloom in season”. These are the distinguishing features of those called preeminent poets, while the characteristics of lyric poets are their songs sung to the lyre and the presence of a standing chorus of fifty men arranged in a circle, who also received a bull as a gift. This is also common to the dithyrambic poets. But the dithyrambic poets had something more in their favor compared to the lyric poets. They composed intricate hymns dedicated to Dionysus and received tripods as a reward, hence they were called "dithyrambs" after Dionysus who passed through two doors, from the womb of Semele and the thigh of Zeus. The famous lyric poets were ten: Stesichorus, Bacchylides, Ibycus, Anacreon, Pindar, Simonides, Alcman, Alcaeus, Sappho, and Corinna. The famous dithyrambic poet was Philoxenus of Cythera. The dithyrambic dance in a circle was first established in Corinth by Arion of Methymna, then secondly by Lassus of Hermione, son of Chaurinus.

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§ intro.41  The distinguishing characteristic of iambic poets is that they use invective through iambs or another kind of meter sarcastically. Famous iambic poets were Ananias, Archilochus, and Hipponax. For tragic, satyr, and comic poets, the commonality is to have the chorus set up in a square formation and to partake in new wine, either grape juice or wine, and to have their plays spoken and performed mimetically on the stage. The difference between them was that comedy was filled with laughter and jest, and had fifty dancers, while tragedy and satyr plays both had twelve dancers, but they differed from each other, in that tragedy contains only laments and lamentations, whereas the satyr play blends cheerfulness with the dirges and stops the tears leading to joy. In this regard, comedy and tragedy also differ because tragedy undoes life, whereas comedy puts it together. And it was called comedy perhaps because it was found during the time of festivity (koma), that is, during sleep, or because it was in the komai, namely in the back-alleys of the city, or because it was in the komai, that is in very large villages, or because it was found in the komai and places of Dionysus. As for tragedy, it gets its name from the "tragon" goat or "triga" that is, new wine or from the grape-must "triga" with which the faces of the actors were anointed originally; or because they stood in a tetragonal manner, it was called tetragodia or because they have rough (tracheia) songs, hence trachodia and tragoedia. The "satyr drama" comes from the satyrs who found it or the farmers and low-class people. The famous tragic poets are Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Arion, Thespis, Phrynichus, Ion, Achaius and many other young ones. The active comic poets are, for example, Aristophanes, Cratinus, Plato, Eupolis, Pherecrates and others, young ones like Menander, Philemon, Philistion and many more, the satirical one is Pratinas.

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§ intro.69  So much for tragic, satyr and comic poets, elegiac poets are known for having composed laments and wailings in elegiac meter primarily for the deceased, but also in a different meter. Poets of elegies include Callimachus, Mimnermus, Philitas. The characteristics of epigram writers and of those who write dedicatory inscriptions include the practice of writing inscriptions on statues and on the dedicatory offerings in the temples, and on other such things, as Homer did in the given case of this bowl from the sons of the Medes, which he dedicated to Apollo at Delphi, inscribing it thus, 'Lord Phoebus, receiving this gift, Homer gave it to you for joyous occasions, may you grant me glorious renown' (Cert. Hes. 260 R).

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§ intro.83  Epigrammatists include the ancient Simonides, whom Herodotus mentions, the younger Alcaeus, who lived during the time of Vespasian and Titus of Rome, Athenaeus, Proclus, Palladas, Agathias, and countless others. Hymn-writing poets, those who write hymns to the gods, include the ancient Orpheus, Homer, Hesiod, Asclepiades, and others. Orpheus writes, apart from the astrological, the incantational, the magical, and other such things, hymns to Zeus and the rest thus, 'Zeus was first born, Zeus the last, the lightning-bearer, Zeus the head, Zeus the middle, from Zeus all things are made.' (Orph. fr. 46). And Homer, 'I will remember, nor will I forget, far-shooting Apollo' (h. Ap. II 1). And the rest likewise, lest I be long-winded; for I am not ignorant of their works and those of many others.

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§ intro.95  Signs of lyric poets and singers include the writing of songs and odes to music and lyre and barbiton and kithara and every musical instrument that is played, such as the poets, as Demetrius of Phalerum writes, Automedes, and Demodocus and Lairis [or Chairis] the Corcyreans, and Phemius the Ithacan and the rest, whom the Phalerean writes; for I am not ignorant myself. Poets who write epithalamiums, those who wrote praises for the bridegrooms in weddings, such as Agamestor the Pharsalian and others and Hesiod himself, writing an epithalamium for Peleus and Thetis, 'Thrice blessed, son of Aeacus, and four times fortunate Peleus, who ascend the sacred bed in these halls' (Hes. fr. 81 7). They call Monodists those poets who write funeral odes in a single character, and by extension, those who narrate the entire plot in a single character, as Lycophron does now in this Alexandra; for he presents the servant alone narrating the entire plot. For elsewhere, this Lycophron is a tragic poet, having written 24 or 26 tragic dramas. But since we have examined and accurately stated things about the poets, it is fitting to speak also about this monodist Lycophron.

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§ genus  The lineage of Lycophron. This Lycophron was by birth a Chalcidian, the son of Socles or Lycus the historian, according to some. He was one of the Pleiades, poets who were called so because they were seven like the Pleiades; their names were Theocritus, who wrote the bucolic poems, Aratus, who wrote the Phaenomena and other works, Nicander of Colophon or Apollonius, who wrote the Argonautica, Philicus, Homer the Young Tragic Poet — for there is another Homer, whom I consider contemporary with Hesiod, even if they attribute the works of the old Homer to him — Andromachus of Byzantium, who wrote 27 dramas, and this Lycophron, and others who, not knowing any others, say they were of the Pleiades. These men lived in the times of Ptolemy Philadelphus and Berenice, who were both children of Ptolemy son of Lagus and Berenice, the daughter of Antigonus. At that time, Lycophron was not so much renowned for his poetry as for his anagrams, such as saying that Ptolemy is derived from honey, and that Arsinoe is the violet of Hera, and other such things similar to these. This Lycophron, to please the young men who loved reading, published this present book, which is full of histories; for he writes about everything from Hercules and the Alexander of Macedon and even later, and at the end of the book he goes back and briefly mentions the abduction of Io by the Phoenicians, from which the war between the barbarians and the Greeks broke out.

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§ hypo1  The plot is as follows: Priam, the son of Laomedon and Leucippe, by Hecuba, the daughter of Dymas or Cisseus, has twin children, Cassandra, also known as Alexandra, and Helenus, whom they brought to the temple of Thymbraean Helios Apollo, and they celebrated their birthdays there. After feasting and reveling all day in the temple, they returned to the city and the palace in the evening, leaving the children in the temple, according to some out of forgetfulness, but according to me, intentionally, as they were accustomed to do this to see what kind of people the children would turn out to be. So, Priam and his people did this with the aforementioned children. The next day, when they went to the temple, they found two snakes coiled around the children and cleaning their sense organs, but not harming them. Apollo, being a prophet and seer, in the aforementioned sanctuary of Helios, said that the children would become seers, and he taught them the art of prophecy as they grew. He promised Cassandra that if she would be with him, he would make her the best seer. But when she refused to do this, that prophet Apollo proclaimed that Cassandra is not a seer, but raves and speaks like a madwoman. Therefore, her father confined her in a rocky dwelling, so that she would not seem to the Trojans to be mad and be ridiculed. He ordered a "wheel" or messenger standing there and listening to her to report to him.

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§ hypo50  This messenger, alone and in person, tells Priam in detail everything that Cassandra has said, telling him: I will tell you, Priam, truthfully about everything that Cassandra has said, as much as I myself remember and my memory has not slipped. Or thus: I will tell you everything, Priam, about what you ask, from the very first word that Cassandra began to speak, until the end. But if the story becomes long or if my speech becomes long, do not be weary of listening and become angry because of this, but forgive or be patient with me speaking at length, because Cassandra did not open her mouth quietly as she did at first, but now she has opened it, newly made, varied, but bringing forth a great cry from her mouth, mixed about things that have happened and things that are about to happen, she brought forth from her prophetic lips. From all these things that Cassandra has said, listen to and learn what I have in my soul and will remember, O king, and turning these things over in your mind, follow the difficult words of Cassandra's prophecies, investigating where the true and clear path leads you by its tracks; for she said many things, not being quiet.

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§ hypo72  And indeed, you listen, and I begin to speak: The day was already beginning to dawn from Oceanus, and the sailors with Alexander, having loosened the land-ties and having drawn up the anchors and having spread the sails, were beating the sea with their oars, and they were sailing there, a northern wind blowing, from the Calydnian islands, which are Trojan islands. But Cassandra, from her high rocky chamber, begins to lament the things concerning Troy in this way.

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§ hypo78  But these things have been sufficiently said, let us also speak about the title: why was the present poem titled "Lycophron's Alexandra"? To distinguish it from the rest of Lycophron's writings; for I have said that he composed 64 or 65 tragic dramas. Cassandra is said to be derived from the word 'kasin' meaning 'manly' and 'Hector' is written in Aeolic with two 's'. Alexandra either comes from 'alyxai' meaning 'to ward off' and 'to escape' the company of men, or from 'alexein' meaning 'to help' and 'to assist' men or people through her prophecies. These things are also trivial, but they must be written for some fools who are puzzled by such nonsense. Why is he called Lycophron? Because he speaks in riddles and cunningly; for wolves (lykos) are cunning.

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§ hypoth.1  It is known that the servant accompanying Cassandra was this Lycophron, Priam's secretary, who was ordered by Priam to listen to what was said to Cassandra; for Cassandra was Priam's daughter. Cassandra, who prophesied the truth and was disbelieved due to Apollo's wrath, was assigned a servant by her father to listen to her prophecies, so that he could write them down and report them to him. The poem contains prophecies and the history from Heracles to the beginning of the Romans, with various other histories intertwined. It should be understood that, according to the external hypothesis, Priam asked the messenger about what Cassandra was saying, and he narrated everything from the beginning. Priam seems to be predicting. The story is as follows: Apollo, in love with Cassandra, pursued her. She, being caught by him, asked him to give her the gift of prophecy, promising marriage; but when the god offered her marriage, she deceived him, which is why the angry god did not take away the gift of prophecy, as it was a divine gift, but made her disbelieved when she prophesied the truth and considered as mad.

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§ 1  "I will tell you what you ask me": there are three types of elision, simple and four compound; simple are elision, blending, and contraction, compound are elision and blending, elision and contraction, blending and contraction, elision, blending, and contraction. Simple elision is like "not so, not so", blending is like "I did, I will do" and contraction is like "child, child", compound are like elision and blending as "I too, I too", elision and contraction as "I'm not in pain", blending and contraction as "the shepherd" instead of "the shepherd", elision, blending, and contraction as "then and then" and "the shepherds" instead of "the shepherds". "I will tell": this figure and the poetic style is a paraphrase, because what is not shown above, is shown paraphrased from the existing writing. For example, Priam does not appear to be asking here, but from the "I will tell" you it is clear that he asked before. This style, as I said, and the figure is called paraphrase. Those who try to obelize the prologue seem to me to have ignored the poetic styles. "Everything": what everything? These things that I remember hearing from Cassandra. "Truly" truly from the 'ne' negative particle and the tremble I fear; for those who tell the truth do not fear condemnation as those who lie. "I will tell everything": this is given in three ways; I will tell you truly, O Priam, what you ask me ... either then the dissolution of the elision must be thus† "but tell or what you ask me" what you did not even know to ask "or what you ask me" as Priam asked before according to the silence as Aristophanes "if I am not Prometheus, I lie in everything else" (fr. 624 Dind.). "What you ask me": "what you ask me" is said in three ways. The "me" is antithesis instead of to me. And the poets lighten the long vowels and 'i' and 'n' and other such two letters as "how soft" (Hes. Θ 3) instead of how. It is composed, as I said, in three ways "what you ask me" either you ask, "or what you do not ask" by elision or it must be marked to "truly" and from another beginning say "but tell" either asking and hearing learn. The servant is the one who calculates for Priam. The prologue is thrown out by some; for Priam does not appear to be asking anything.

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§ 2  "Let it be lengthened"; let it be long, and in Ionic let it be lengthened, and it will squeeze out the 'r' in Aeolic let it be lengthened.

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§ 3  "Quiet girl" the quietest; for silence is fitting for women, not only for virgins, as Sophocles says "Woman, silence brings adornment to women" (Ai. 293). ? Otherwise. These things are twofold; either thus "for the girl is not quiet" and you punctuate here or thus "for the girl is not quiet; for not being quiet before" she "unleashed her mouth" of the varied "oracles". ss 5 Otherwise. These things are twofold; either thus "for the girl is not quiet" and you punctuate here or thus "for the girl is not quiet, she unleashed" either she stopped from the "oracles the versatile mouth as before". "Quiet" is a misuse instead of quietly and cheerfully. cf. 6 16 "Versatile" because of the erudition of the oracles or because of the riddles as if speaking enigmatically like the Sphinx.

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§ 4  "She unleashed oracles"; the following .... "She unleashed the versatile mouth of oracles"; for she prophesied many things. Or thus; "for" by nature "the quiet girl", but being prevented by the prophecies from being quiet, she "unleashed as before the versatile mouth". "Versatile" because of the multitude of oracles. Or varied because she was a prophetess and a musician. "Versatile" the varied from the old Aeolus being versatile as the Daedalus from the statue-maker Daedalus "versatile" but "mouth" he said because of the variety and turn of her oracles. Homer uses "versatile" for the fastest as in "Hector of the gleaming helmet", but this one for the varied. "Mouth" from the cutting of the food.

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§ 5  "Infinite" unfulfilled, much. Eg. (EM 156 51). "Infinite" much, unattended, from the verb to follow or to partake, which one cannot partake and understand or which one cannot follow because of the multitude of things said. "She poured"; the expression is figurative and metaphorical, from the pouring of waters.

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§ 6  "Eating laurel leaves"; seers are accustomed to eating laurel leaves. "Eating laurel leaves" is a form of divination or "eating laurel leaves" or of seers or diviners from their throats. They mock that the seers, eating laurel leaves, prophesied so that the god, delighted by the sight and smell, would give them divine prophecies. But the story will make it clear to us: Ladon, the river in Arcadia, having mingled with Earth, fathered a child named Daphne, very beautiful in appearance. Apollo, having fallen in love with her, pursued her. She, about to be caught, prayed to her mother Earth, who, opening up, received her. Earth, to console Apollo, gave him a plant named after the girl, which is also called laurel. It is evergreen and never withers, since the girl remained untouched by Apollo. Apollo, having woven a wreath from the leaves of the plant, crowned himself because of his love for the girl of the same name. Hence, the crowns in the temple of Apollo were made of laurel. Hence, they mock that the seers also ate laurel for the joy of Apollo. And these are the ridiculous and mythical things, but the truth is this: the oracles and seers, wearing laurel wreaths, as the plant is evergreen and wards off evil, thus speak the oracles to those who need them, and receiving something from them, and thus being nourished, were put into the myth that they eat laurel, either from being crowned with laurel and speaking the oracles, they have their nourishment. "To prophesy" means to divine. "He prophesied" from Phoebus Apollo.

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§ 7  "Of the dark Sphinx" because of the murders or the riddles. This Sphinx was the daughter of Laius, having the appearance of a lion in front, and a human in the back. Appearing to the locals, she spoke such a riddle: the Sphinx is said to have the appearance of a lion in front, a human in the back, the wings of a griffin, the claws of an eagle, and such monsters. But the truth is this: she was a bandit around Moabe, a region of Thebes and the Phician mountain, and she killed those who passed by. Whoever could solve her riddle, she would set free. It is also superfluous and excessive to speak the riddle as it is clear to all: if someone wants to learn it not knowing, it is this: "There is a two-footed and four-footed creature on earth, of which there is one form, and three-footed; but it changes its nature only, as many as creep on the earth and fly in the air and in the sea. But when it walks with the most feet, then its speed is slowest in its limbs." To which they answered that this riddle signifies a human; for when a child is born, it walks on all fours, growing up it walks on two feet, and growing old on three, because it walks with a stick. They indeed mythologized her as a lioness because of the murderousness, having eagle's claws because of the rapacity, and griffin's wings because those who were robbing with her ran around quickly and killed the travelers. This Sphinx was killed by Oedipus, who came with others as if needing to rob her, and having put her body on a mule, he brought it down to Thebes and showed it to the Thebans, and he received the kingdom as a gift and his mother as a wife, unknowingly.

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§ 7bis  Of the 'black' one, which is nameless and dark due to the riddles. He compares Cassandra to the Sphinx because her prophecies are enigmatic. 5 They say the Sphinx is the daughter of Laius.

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§ 8  "Assa" and "atta" instead of "hatina" are two parts of speech that are roughened, and "atta" instead of "tina" they say (EM 167 35) that it is simplified. But to me, this also seems to be roughened, and "atta" instead of "tropheu" I say is simplified. "Thymo" from the sacrifice of blood, thymos and thumos.

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§ 9  "Klyois" instead of "kluthi" in Attic, the optative instead of the imperative. "Onax" instead of "anax" is sharpened in Doric; for the Dorians turn the 'a' into 'o' greatly, saying "onthropon" for "anthropon" and the like. So also "anax" becomes "onax". But if it is an Attic contraction instead of "o anax", it is drawn out because of the 'o' of the vocative. It also has a small acute accent of "anax" and into the 'n' a simple one of the crushed 'a'. It is properly to measure by the number of e as the ancients did. To send properly is to measure according to e e, but now "pempazon" instead of "analogizomenos" lies and the voice is Aeolian. To send back metaphorically is to measure and calculate. Eust. Il. I 112 1. "With a dense mind" very wise "go" go, go through; the word is metaphorical instead of "understand"; "difficult to speak" difficult, terrible "of riddles"; he calls the oracles of Cassandra "riddles"; "winding paths" exploring roads. And here metaphorically he says "paths" and roads are the impulse of Cassandra's words "or songs"; for a path is a road, a song is a song.

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§ 11  "Where there is an easy path"; he very rhetorically kept the turn and as if on a road he says "path" and "guide" the investigation and learning of Cassandra's words.

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§ 12  "On the right path". For this, he says, is the path that finds what is in darkness and unseen. "Easy path" a well-known road "on the right path" with a straightforward journey "guides in the dark" reveals and clarifies the terrible and difficult to understand. But "guides" was transferred from the hunters. For the dogs follow the tracks of the beasts in the hunts. Some, however, read it as an imperative. That is, wherever there is an easy path or road that leads you clearly.

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§ 13  "Having split the myrtle" he said antistrophically; for he had to say "I, having split the top of the valve's myrtle" instead of having torn. He has moved to another turn, considering and equestrian contests and says "I" but the "top" that is the first "valve" the starting gate the barrier "having split" and opened through the "myrtle" that is rope I ascend to the "exits" and roads of the oblique sayings of Cassandra.

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§ 14  "I go up obliquely" that is, I ascend and begin to speak the oblique oracles of this prophecy. This figure of speech is rhetorical, and it is called proanaphonema, promise, preparation, establishment, attention, and prologue; for it announces, promises, and prepares that it will write the narrative of the poem in an oblique, enigmatic, and difficult manner. For this reason, it intends to imitate Cassandra, as she spoke obliquely and crookedly. For the orator and poet must imitate the characters of the persons proposed, and not be unrefined like Euripides, who sometimes introduces barbarian women philosophizing, slaves contradicting their masters harshly, and kings begging with baskets or cloaks, which would not happen; for who would not be ashamed of a king holding a basket and seeking bread after the overthrow of his kingdom? Or who, seeing his former fortune, would not honor him again even in this state? Euripides, indeed, says many such things, and therefore he is blamed in these matters as not preserving the character of the characters. The greater thing is that he often says things contrary to himself.

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§ 15  "Having struck the first sting" the "first sting" and exit and beginning and the prologue "having struck" applauding, that is, starting to run with the words as winged and fast "runner". Sting is called the starting point and the beginning of the race from the sting, I arouse and wound; for in the starting point of the horse races, the bystanders spur the horses with iron goads, so that they might jump out more sharply from the blow, but the footmen they spur with words and exhort and they themselves alone spur themselves into the race. And so the starting point is called a sting; but the turning post is called a sting from the nod, I will nod, having nodded and a sting; for they nod around the turning post and bend. Now the beginning. Or the turning post and the starting point from where the runners are released.

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§ 16  "It was dawn"; it was day, he says, when Alexander sailed away from the lands of Troy and immediately, says Cassandra, began to speak. Here begins the narrative and he says: Day indeed already was flying over Phegion Mountain of the Ocean, being carried by the Pegasus horse, leaving your brother Tithonus around Kerne, which is an island of the Ocean. Dawn signifies four things: the time from morning until lunch and the whole day, the day and night, and more generally the very name of Dawn and Day, which the mythographers said was a bodily goddess as in "Dawn from the bed" (Iliad 1) and the distance from sunrise to midday of the sun as in "while it was dawn and the sacred day grew" (Iliad 8 66) and the interval of night and day as in "this is the twelfth dawn for me, since I came to Ilium" (Iliad 21 80). But Fig Mountain is a mountain around the Ocean having oaks or oak trees. Fig Mountain — a mountain that had many oaks. Eust. Il. 141 33 but the fig is the oak from the fig; for before the discovery of bread, people ate acorns and tree-tops instead of fruit. "Peak" (pagos) but a cape.

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§ 17  "The swift is strong when it flies high and breathes into the head. "Overpowered" means "surpassed". "On the wings of Pegasus"; Homer speaks of the horses of Day, Lampus and Phaethon (ψ 246), but this one says he is carried by Pegasus. "On the wings of Pegasus" is a periphrasis for Pegasus. Homer, writing wisely and allegorically, speaks of the horses of Day as Lampus and Phaethon, but the young ones introduce her mythically as being carried by Pegasus, just like Lycophron. This Pegasus, the mythical horse, is said to have been born in this way: Perseus, sent to the Gorgons by the command of Athena, bypassed the immortal Stheno and Euryale, but beheaded Medusa. From her neck sprang this Pegasus, a winged horse, and Chrysaor, a man wielding a golden sword. Bellerophon, a Corinthian also called Hipponous, a man from Phrygia, unwillingly killed some Corinthian named Belleros or else his own brother Heliades or Peirene or Alcimenes, and went to Argos to be purified by Proetus. Anteia, also called Stheneboea, the wife of Proetus, fell passionately in love with Bellerophon. When he refused to sleep with her, she slandered him to Proetus, claiming he had tried to seduce her. Proetus did not want to kill him with his own hands, according to an old custom that forbade those who had eaten together from killing each other, unless it happened unintentionally. For this reason, Proetus did not want to kill Bellerophon, but sent him to Lycia to his father-in-law Iobates, giving him a letter containing Anteia's slander. Iobates likewise entertained him for nine days, and on the tenth day, after reading the letter and finding that he too could not kill him because they had eaten together, he ordered him to go and fight the Chimera, then the Solymi, then the Amazons. The gods sent him a winged horse, which they call Pegasus, and riding on it, he killed the Chimera by attaching lead to his spear and thrusting it into her fire-breathing mouth, where the heat melted the lead and killed her. For he had been warned by someone to beware of the Chimera's fire, as Lysias the orator says (fr.r. 101) In a mythical manner. Thus, he killed her, and the Solymi and the Amazons in war. On his return, he was about to be killed in an ambush by the Lycians. But when he also killed those who ambushed him, Iobates made him his son-in-law, giving him his daughter Philonoe, and on his death, left him his kingdom. Bellerophon, they say, elated by his successes, wanted to patrol the sky on Pegasus. But Zeus, by sending a gadfly to this horse, persuaded Bellerophon to fall off his back and threw him to the ground. So, Bellerophon, having fallen around the Aleian plain and wandering blind from the fall, Pegasus was patrolling above and below. Day, therefore, asks this from Zeus, so that, by holding on to him, she may walk her daily cycle. These are the ridiculous and mythical things. Homer, however, says that the horses of Day are Lampus and Phaethon. The horse of Day is the swift movement of the sky, by which it shines and appears. And these are the Homeric things; but we must speak about Perseus and Pegasus and the Gorgons. Perseus is the sun and the swift movement of the sky, and Athena is the air and the fumigation that moves the sky; for it is moved by fumigations. Perseus is said to be from the excessively shaking and rushing. This airy fumigation sends him to the Gorgons, that is, the sea and the system of the wet things called Gorgons because of their stupefaction. For the stupefying thing is a Gorgon. But it sends him to kill Medusa, the most subtle substance, as if it were equal to her. For the whole sea is airy, and its subtlest part changes into air. So, Perseus, or the sun, thus moved by the heavenly motion, does not kill or change or animate Stheno and Euryale, that is, the powerful and long sea stretched out, as if it were immortal, as if it could not be changed, but he only kills Medusa as if she were mortal, striking her with the sword, that is, the most royal and sharp movement, he makes it subtle and animates it. From her beheading, Chrysaor and Pegasus rush from her neck; for when the sun and the air are animated, the head, as I said, and the subtlest and most atmospheric part, it happens that the heavier part, being carried up again, flows down and pours out, which they also call Pegasus because of the downward tendency — for the irrational things are downward — and the subtlest part changes into the more ethereal and even into the fiery part, which they have also called Chrysaor. Therefore, with this Pegasus rising from the water, carried by the movement of the sky and the solar animation, Day, holding on to it, is carried up with it; for the sky is spherical and moves from the east to the west, carrying the sun with it, of which, when the sun is spun into the hemisphere under the earth, it becomes night, but from the sun running from under the sea and the earth into the upper hemisphere, from where it also draws up the said vapors of Pegasus, it makes day. Thus, to us Tzetzes, these myths seem to hold that Day is carried by this Pegasus, not by Bellerophon's. And that one was not a horse - for there is no place where one will find a winged horse - but boarding a ship whose oars happen to be wings, Pegasus is the name, as if through the gushing waters, he destroys the three-headed and fiery Chimera, which is allegorically spoken of: for Chimera was a woman, the daughter of Amisodarus, ruling over the region of Lycia. She had two brothers, Lion and Dragon, who held the invasions of Lycia and also killed those who came by. Therefore, because of their unity, they called these a three-headed beast, and because of their warlike and active nature, fiery-breathing. Bellerophon, having defeated them, throws lead into their mouths, that is, a bridle of slavery. Before, the Lion was waging war, the Dragon from behind, and in the middle was Chimera, being weaker than them. Or else, we should understand Chimera differently, as Homer implies, the Solymi, a warlike tribe, whom he compares to a lion because they fight bravely face to face, and the Amazons, whom he compares to a goat or a chimera because they climb cliffs like goats and live on cliffs, and the ambush of the Lycians against him, which he called a snake because of its secrecy. "With the wings of Pegasus": instead of saying that the day rose from the hemisphere under the earth and water with the sun from the parts of the eastern Ocean, he said "with the wings of Pegasus". And the fall of Bellerophon from Pegasus from the sky is this: having been exalted by his heroic deeds, which he accomplished with that ship, he seemed to be a demigod and thought higher than the ether. But when his fate, which Homer calls Zeus, blew against him, suddenly that fortunate, victorious man appeared most unfortunate: for he threw away his children and, as if he had become blind, mourning over the desolation of Lycia, he spent his life, which was called Aleian from his wandering and wandering. Or, having lost his mind and blinded his intellect, he spent his life wandering: for according to Epicharmus, the mind sees, the mind hears, the rest is blind.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 18  "Tithonus in the bedchamber": According to the myth and history, Tithonus was the half-brother of Priam. "Tithonus" is the son of Rhoeo, the daughter of Scamander, while Priam is from Leucippe. Priam was the son of Leucippe, and Tithonus was the son of Rhoeo or Strymo, the daughter of Scamander, both of them were sons of Laomedon. They say that this Tithonus was the husband of Hemera (Day), from whom she bore Memnon and Emathion. Having made Tithonus immortal, she forgot to make him ageless. When he grew so old that he was turned around in a cloak and cradle like a baby, she transformed him into a cicada. And for this reason, they say that Hemera left him in the bedchamber. These things have been said more mythically, but allegorically they should be interpreted as follows: this Tithonus, having married the day and the dawn, had the aforementioned children, and he became so old that he was worn out by old age, sitting in a cloak. They mythologized that Hemera, that is, the balance of the morning parts, took him as a husband and made him immortal, or Hemera and the light loved him, because he had become very old, as I said. Hence, they say he was transformed into a cicada. For cicadas, like snakes, shed their old age. These things have been allegorically interpreted rhetorically; but physically it should be said: Eos is the morning state, and Tithonus is the state of the day, when they set out the goods and the workers go to their jobs. Hence, he is the man of Hemera, because the manly and laborious things happen in it, not as in the night the feminine and restful things. Thus, as I said, the day is Tithonus, or rather that state of the day, when the goods are set out and the markets are established. He mythically called Tithonus the brother of Priam, wanting to charm the young with stories and myths alone. "In the bedchamber" means in the beds; in the Ionic way, the 'a' was turned into 'η' and the prefixed remains. "Kerne": Kerne is an Oceanic island, from where the sun seems to rise. Kerne is an island around the Ocean at the eastern end, where Tithonus sleeps with Eos; below is the Phaegion, where the horse Pegasus is harnessed by Hemera, about to cross the earth. The poet presents this horse as winged (Hes. Th. 284).

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 19  "The double-measure" was said. "Being" the ropes from the sheep I carry, knowing and in the manner of the double-time into double-time and being in the Ionic way. Or the ones from the carrying of a plant or willow; for they used to make ropes from willow before the discovery of hemp. ? "Grone" of a hollow rock from the "gro" the dry and the shake or from the "tro" the bore, trone and grone.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 20  "Being" the ropes with which the ship is carried, as if carrying something from the "I will carry" intending to indicate the "I will bring". For they are carrying things. "Grone" the hollow and eaten or the bored rock. "The grone" being a bored rock and as the ancients say, a certain trone. Eust. Od. I 210 30 (cf. cod. V EM l. l.) from the "tro" the bore or from the "gro" the eat. ib. II 39 11 "Chermados" of rocks. 6 and grone and chermas rock, in which the ropes of the ship are tied to the shore. Chermas primarily the small rock, which someone can knead with their hand and grasp, but now abusively called the large seaside rock of the harbor, against which they tie the ropes of the ships. "Eugalena" the things making the ship calm when it is being tossed, whenever it is tied and stabilized with the anchors.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 21  "Sailors were loosening"; the sailors, he says, were loosening the ropes that provide calm from the bored rock. 6 "They were loosening" they were loosening in the manner of the double-time into double-time as the "byblos" biblos Aphrodyte Aphrodite tetraduon tetradion and the like. "And from the earth they were tearing" instead of they were releasing; these are idioms of the Chalcedonians. Choerob. sch. II 64 30 H. The word is Euboean int. lin. Coisl. 345. "From the earth they were tearing" they were pulling up the anchors from the earth; for when they are about to sail, they pull these up from the earth; but the "they were tearing" is said from the "schazo" the open and the cut the making the passage. It is Chalcidian or of the Attic dialect.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 22  "Hysplex and hystrichis primarily means a whip made from pig bristles, but can be used improperly for any whip or ox-goad. Now he refers to the anchors. The iron is called hysplex by Lycophron, the iron of the ship. Of the starting point. "The maiden-slaying" up to "the bald maidens" is arranged in order according to the order of the 'a' and 'b' and the rest of the elements. He speaks of the sea around the Hellespont. They tell a myth about Helle that maidens were sacrificed to her. "Maiden-slaying"; Athamas, the son of Aeolus, the son of Hellen, was king of Thebes, married Ino, the daughter of Cadmus, and had two sons, Clearchus, who some call Learchus, and Palaemon, also known as Melicertes. But by Hera's command, he sent away Ino and married Nephele and had two children from her, Hellen and Phrixus. But when he secretly mingled with Ino, Nephele, spying on him, left. Ino, however, regained control of the house and plotted against Nephele's children, and finding some device, she parched the grain so that it would not sprout. And indeed, because of the great barrenness in the land, the Athenians sent sacred officials to Pytho, and Ino suggested to the seers to say some oracle against Phrixus to Athamas, that because of him the grain and the rest of the crops would not grow, because one of Nephele's children needed to be sacrificed to the gods. So when Athamas learned the oracle from the emissaries and was forced, he sent for Phrixus from the fields, wanting to sacrifice him, but as a pretext, he ordered him to bring the most beautiful sheep in the flock for a sacrifice. It is said that when Phrixus arrived with his sister, at the appearance of some demon, the ram spoke in a human voice and announced to him the whole plot and ordered him to sit on its back with his sister, so that they could escape the impending danger. Others say that Nephele snatched up Phrixus and Helle and, receiving a golden-fleeced ram from Hermes, gave it to them, and as they were carried through the air with great force, it happened that Helle, unable to hold on, fell into the sea below and was drowned, and this strait was named after her, the Hellespont; hence he called the sea "maiden-slaying Thetis". Phryxus then went to the Colchians and there sacrificed the ram to Phyxian Zeus. The skin was nailed by Aeetes in the grove of Ares around an oak tree. Phryxus, having taken Chalciope, the daughter of Aeetes, fathered Argos, Melia, Katis, Phrontis, Soros, and Hellen. Later, Athamas, due to the wrath of Hera because he raised Dionysus as a girl, having received him from Hermes, was deprived of his children from Ino; for he, in madness, shot Learchus with an arrow, and Ino, with Palaemon, also known as Melicertes, threw herself into the sea, and Athamas, having been exiled from Boeotia, received an oracle to live where he would be hosted by wild animals. Wolves, around the place named Athamantia after him, seeing him, fled, leaving behind the meat of the sheep they were eating. There, marrying Themisto, the daughter of Hypseus, he fathered Leukon, Erythros, Schoeneus, Titon. And while the rest of the story is true, the part about the ram is mythologized; for Krios, being a man, a friend to Helle and Phryxus, knowing their plot against them, embarked on a ship with them and was carried along. And Helle, around the Hellespont, either due to illness or falling from the ship, dies, but they arrived at the Colchians and, having gilded the skin of the ram, they sacrifice the ram to Zeus, and a certain man, Drakon, guarded the skin. Thetis is the sea, because she is the cause of good order; for when the water was gathered together at the beginning, the dry land appeared and there was order in the universe.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 23  Ioulos: A small many-legged worm climbing up walls, to which he compares the ships of Alexander because of the oars. But I speak of one ship of Alexander and one barbarian boat (97): having four soldiers, it sailed to Greece. Ioulos has four meanings: this worm, the sprouting of the beard, the twisting of the hairs and the hymn, as Eratosthenes says in Hermes "the handmaid of the barley, climbing up the high gate with a torch, sang beautiful songs of the Ioulos. The worm" is the many-legged animal from which, by metaphor, the many-oared ships are called worm-footed from it. Or the worm is a many-legged sea creature, from which the ships are called worm-footed. Foot is from the ground, and this is from the verb to sit. Therefore, the feet of the ship are properly the keels or even the oars. "Fair-eyed" means good-sighted because of the eyes, hence they move the oars while sailing. "With swords" means with oars.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 24  "Stork-colored" the ships are due to being whitened with wax. White-haired due to the sails. Phalakrai instead of Idaiai. The area around Phalakra is bare and treeless, hence it got this name. "? Phalakrai" the peaks of Ida, which does not have a living plant due to the snow and the crystal, but has been stripped. And all the stripped mountains were called Phalakrai. Otherwise. A mountain of Troy, since Paris made the ships there and made the place bald. Some say that the wood for the shipbuilding of Alexander's ships was cut from Phalakra, and since then this mountain, having been stripped, was named Phalakra due to being made bald for the construction of the ships by Phereclus. He called the ships "daughters of Phalakra" as they were built from the wood of Phalakra. It should also be known that the mountain Ida has three peaks, Lekton, Gargaros and Phalakra, from which Alexander's ships were built. Idaiai from the surrounding. For there are four peaks of Ida, Phalakra, Lekton, Gargaros, Pergamon.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 25  Calydnai are islands and mountains of Troy from someone named Calydnos. "Ptila" are the sails, from the word "tillo" EG 485 50 EM 694 33 "white ptila" are the oars, because the water is whitened by them "ptila" are also the wings from the action of flying? to pluck and cut the air.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 26  The ends of the ship, the acrostolia cf. PS 295 "Aphlasta" is an independent word instead of saying 'and aphlasta'. Aphlasta are called the sterns from being easily molded and easily burned or from being aphlasta euphemistically and unburnable, because the sterns of the royal and military ships had gods inscribed on them, which out of piety no one would burn. The sterns of the other ships one could call aphlasta as if they were easily molded and easily burned; for if someone throws fire at them, they will quickly burn due to being compacted. "Phosson" is the inflated sail of the ship ×Eg (EM 804 23) "phossonas" are the sails, the oars from the word "pho" to shine; for they are white. Or from the word "phusao" to inflate by wind phussones and phossones or from the word "phero" to carry the winds. "Orguiomenous" extended, spread out or from the orguia or the extension of the hands or from the word "orgo" to rush. To rush is to quickly pull something out of the ground of the plants or the herbs. "Orguiomenous" should be written both with and without the addition of 'i'; for the feminine words through 'uia' end with 'i', fly, harpyia, metruia, but aguia and orguia are different.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 27  "With the winds blowing from the north." This is the wind that carries those sailing from Troy to Greece, and the north wind is favorable (ourios).

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 28  "She opened her mouth in divine frenzy." This is her opening her mouth in a frenzy and prophetic. For it seems that Dionysus and Apollo are the same, hence a tripod was given to the victors. The prophetic moved by the god. "Burning, sharp, caustic." "Divine" means divine prophetic, the divine speaking voices. "Opened" means opened. "Bacchic" means speaking like the Bacchae of Dionysus. It is etymologized from the pouring out of the cry.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 29  "From the heights of Atë." The hill of Atë was formerly called Ilium. "The hill of Atë" and "cow-wandering-founded" he refers to Troy. For Electra daughter of Atlas and Zeus, Iasion and Dardanus. And Iasion, having fallen in love with Demeter, is struck by lightning, and Dardanus, after a flood, crosses from Samothrace to the opposite land, then ruled by Teucer of Scamander and the nymph Ida, whose sister Bateia Dardanus took, and even if Lycophron calls her Arisbe (1306), she gives birth to Ilus and Erichthonius, of whom Ilus dies childless, and Erichthonius from Astyoche daughter of Simoeis gives birth to Tros. Tros and Callirhoe daughter of Scamander hadIlus and others. Hellanicus says about this place in the first of his Trojan histories that when Ilus was divining in Priepos of Phrygia, the Priepean Apollo advised him not to build on this hill; for he said it was Atë. Therefore, Dardanus did not build it, but the Dardania called under Ida. This hill was formerly called Scamander. In Phrygia, having found a contest set up by the king, he wins a wrestling match and, having received from the king fifty girls and fifty boys, he followed a cow that had strayed from Mysia. Having arrived at the place called Acte of Phrygia, it lay down, and there Ilus built a city and called it Ilium. "Cow-wandering-founded." Lesches the Lampsacene says that when Ilus was pasturing cows in Mysia, one cow jumped away and ran, and he, pursuing, came to Ilium. "Cow-wandering-founded." Lesches the Lampsacene says that when Ilus was pasturing cows in Mysia, Apollo advised him to build a city there, where he would see one of his cows falling. So one of his cows, having jumped away from the herd... he pursued it, and it, having stumbled, fell where Ilium now is. And Ilus, remembering the oracle, built a city there and called it Ilium after himself. Otherwise. They say that when Ilus was divining where he would build a city, the god revealed to him that he would find a wandering cow and where it would lie down, there he should build a city. "From the high hills." For in those parts was the tower of Cassandra.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 30  From the act of defending men; for she was a virgin.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 31  She speaks these words to the city. "Ai Ai" is a lamenting adverb, which everyone marks with a grave accent, but Stephanus and Melampus insist on using this rule: adverbs ending in 'ai' diphthong, if they have the accent at the end, are long, like iatatatai, papai, ai and similar ones except for babai and nai. I say also for ai. "Thelamon" is the nurse. "Thelamon" is a nurse from the word nipple. She refers to Troy itself as the nurse.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 32  "Before"; note from this that even the adverbs ending in 'the' when a vowel is added, they draw the 'n', but no longer when a consonant is added. With the torches shining or with war-bearing ships. "Peukaisin" is pines in the Ionic way, with the 'a' of the 'ai' diphthong remaining as 'e' and the 'i' added. Pine is a type of wood suitable for shipbuilding. He spoke from the maker to the made, or from the container to the contained. "Oulamephorois" means "with the destructive" or "bringing destruction and war". Otherwise, oulamos is properly a certain measure and quantity of horsemen. Note that there are five ranks of horsemen: phalanx, stix, tower, lochos, and oulamos. The phalanx consists of 16 horsemen, the stix of 6, the tower of 100, the lochos of 50, and the oulamos of 40.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 33  "Of the three-evening lion"; he calls Herakles a lion because of his bravery or because of the lion skin, and he calls him three-evening because they say that Zeus, during Amphitryon's absence against the Teleboans, spent three nights with Alcmene and thus begot him. When Amphitryon went to war against the Teleboans, wanting to avenge the murder of Alcmene's brothers and her father, Zeus made three nights into one and slept with Alcmene. On the same evening, Amphitryon also returned and slept with his wife, and she gave birth to twin sons, Herakles from Zeus, and Iphikles from Amphitryon, which is why he calls him three-evening. As for the allegories, unless some are necessary, they should be left out because of the multitude of stories, because it is not even appropriate to allegorize here; for he writes everything in a mythical way. Some say this about the three evenings. But I say that Lycophron calls Herakles three-evening because he spent three days in the belly of the beast, which he calls evenings because of the darkness and the belly of the beast was dark. But about Zeus, it should be understood this way: a king was rejoicing and sleeping with Alcmene for three days while Amphitryon was away. Since sleeping with women is a night-time activity, they made up the story that he made the three days into one evening. He calls him a lion because of his strength and because he crushed the invulnerable lion of Nemea with his own hands and used its skin as a weapon and a shield, as it was invulnerable. He called him a lion because of his royal, noble, and brave nature.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 34  "Triton smoothed it out." He refers to the sea monster as Triton's dog; Triton is the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite. He refers to the sea monster as Poseidon's. "Triton"; Triton is primarily the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite, his upper body up to his navel is human, and from his navel to his tail he is a dolphin, so to speak, like a fish-centaur. Now he calls Poseidon Triton, and Triton's dog is the sea monster. The story is as follows: When the gods wanted to bind Zeus, Zeus, knowing this from Thetis, honored the other gods, but sent Poseidon and Apollo to serve Laomedon. So Laomedon honored Apollo with sacrifices, supposedly as a reward for his service, but he did not honor Poseidon, who had served him and fortified Ilium. When Poseidon did not receive his due after the appointed time of service, he, being angry with Laomedon, sent a most terrible sea monster which flooded the land by spitting out the sea. Laomedon, compelled by an oracle, dressed his daughter Hesione in royal attire and exposed her to the monster. Hercules, passing by and having promised to receive immortal horses from Laomedon, which were given to him as a ransom by Zeus for having abducted Ganymede, who was Laomedon's brother, built a high wall and stood armed by the mouth of the monster. When the monster opened its mouth, he jumped into it all at once. After cutting it up from the inside for three days, he came out, having lost his hair. Not receiving what he had been promised by Laomedon, he filled six ships with men from Greece and, having returned, he sacked Ilium, with Telamon being the first to break through the wall and enter. Hercules killed Laomedon along with his sons, except for Podarces, also called Priam, and Hesione, and set the city on fire. He gave Hesione as a prize to Telamon for his valor, from whom Telamon later fathered Teucer. Then Hercules allowed Hesione to buy whichever prisoner she wanted, and she bought her brother Podarces with her veil, hence he was called Priam. "He smoothed it out" is instead of "he made it disappear." "He smoothed it out." — he swallowed it. The word "jagged" signifies rough.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 34b  "Burning" means being set on fire. "He rubbed" means he hid, but more specifically it means he harvested. For "amale" is said to be the handful of ears of corn. I rub, from which also "he rubbed". "Sharp-toothed" is the sharp-toothed dog, but now it is the sea monster. "Burning" means being set on fire; for it is made from being set on fire and burning. "Of the feast"; the following; "And the breath of the feast burning in the pot dripped fat from the liver on the fireless hearths in the plain". "In the pot" means the belly of the beast and the cavity of the stomach, "on the hearths" means the intestines, "fireless" means, because ... hairs "in the plain" means the head.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 37  "He dripped fat"; for they say that he, having been swallowed by the beast, due to the moisture of the intestines, that is, the innards, became bald.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 36  "In the pot" means the beast and the cavity from "I pay" the "I give" and "I put" all cavity and the stomach towards which we pay and deposit. With a wide cavity of the beast fireless. "Pot"; he calls the beast a pot and fireless hearths the innate warmth of the beast in the entrails.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 37  "Hairs" the hairs of the head. "Hairs" hairs from "I divide" I will divide "part" and "part"; for the hairs were divided into many and thin and by the increase of the 's' part. The head is called "in the plain", from "to lie" in it the necessary; for the rational is in it, even if others say it is around the heart (P 435). So it is called "in the plain" or from the similarity of the "in the plain" herb, which is called "in the plain", because it induces sleep and coma to those who eat it; for the plant is soporific. "In the belly" now in the belly of the beast.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 38  "The child-killer"; after the ascent of Cerberus, Heracles, coming to Thebes during the reign of Lycus, who raped his wife Megara, shot him with an arrow. Through the anger of Hera he went mad and killed Megara and his four children, Onites, Therimachus, Demokoon, and Creontiades. Heracles, after the ascent of Cerberus, coming to Thebes, shot Lycus, the king of Thebes, and forced Megara, the daughter of Creon, the wife of Heracles, and killed him. But being seized with madness by the anger of Hera, he also killed his own wife, this Megara, and her four children, Onites, Therimachus, Demokoon, and Creontiades, by shooting them with arrows. But Pindar says that the children of Megara and Heracles were killed by him (I IV 63). Others also say that he killed two sons of Iphicles, his brother, along with the children of Megara (Ap. bibl. II 72). "Destroyer" means destroyer and ravager. "Of the fatherland" was said in the Ionic way. Laomedon, the king of Troy, intending to send his own daughter to be eaten by the beast, ordered the one who killed the beast and took his daughter and the immortal horses, which he had received from Zeus for Ganymedes, his son, which Heracles did and not receiving the horses, but other mortal ones, he gathered the best of the Greeks, that is, Telamon, Peleus and many others, and destroyed Troy. Troy was destroyed three times, first by Heracles, the second by the Greeks, the third by the Amazons.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 39  "She who gave birth a second time," he refers to Hera; for she led him through her bosom as if giving birth and becoming a mother; and when she breastfed him, persuaded by Athena, she gave him; and he wounded Hera. Or as a mother-in-law; for she was the wife of Zeus. Hence, he reproaches him for not sparing the breast. And Homer says, "Hera suffered when the strong son of Amphitryon" (E 392). Eurytus, the king of Oechalia, offered his daughter Iole's marriage as a prize to the one who would defeat him in archery, and Hercules, having defeated him, did not give him his daughter. Angered, he destroyed Oechalia, took Iole, and killed Iphitus, the son of Eurytus, who had come to Tiryns in search of his horses. Fleeing from the murder, he went to Neleus to be purified; but Neleus not accepting him, he went to Deiphobus, the king of the Arcadians, and having been purified of the murder, he waged war against Neleus and destroyed both the city and Neleus, and his sons, except Nestor, and Hera, who was allied with Neleus, he wounded. "Unwounded" Hera as a goddess not being wounded. For when Hercules was waging war against Pylos and Nestor's father Neleus, for not purifying him of the murder of Iphitus, Hera, who was allied with Neleus, he shoots in the right breast with a triple-barbed arrow, as Homer says (E 393). This, in Homer, is beautifully allegorized, but now it lies childish and mythical. "With a heavy spindle" means a terrible arrow.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 40  "Chest" means the chest from the firmness of the mind being there. For there is the heart and the vital part, from which the mind draws its powers. "In the middle of the court" in the middle of the passage and the stadium.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 41  "Father of the wrestler". Hercules, having waged war against Augeas, the king of Elis, the son of Helios and Iphiboe, for not receiving the wage for the purification of the dung of the oxen, and having destroyed Elis, from the spoils there he established a contest for Olympian Zeus and called it Olympian. The contest was held every five years, or to be more precise, every fifty months. The athletes competed in pentathlon and other contests. The pentathlon was boxing, running, jumping, discus, and wrestling. "Father of the wrestler"; Hercules, while holding the contest in Olympia, challenged anyone who wanted to wrestle, but no one daring, Zeus, disguised as a man, came and after a long equal wrestling match, he revealed himself to his son. The Olympic Games were held for five days from the 10th of the moon until the 15th. They trained the day before for 30 days. "Falling upon" means falling and seizing from the word ochos and by the pleonasm of the 'm' ochmos and from it I derive the word ochmazo meaning to lie upon. "Body" means the living body from the word dedesthai meaning to be bound and composed. Body is also said to be the dead from the word dmo meaning I tame, the tamed and dissolved and body the living from the word sozon meaning to be safe and body the dead from the word semeion meaning to be a sign of the once living. But those who say that body and body differ are talking nonsense.

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§ 42  "From the steep of Kronos"; it is a place in Olympia called the hill of Kronos, which Callimachus also mentions (fr. 563b). "The bank of Kronos"; the bank is Olympia; for it was formerly called the hill of Kronos. "Where the earth-born" Ischenus. "Earth-born" means giant. Gigas, the son of Hermes and Iereias, and Ischenus was the son of Gigas. When a famine occurred, an oracle was given that the famine could not be ended unless one of the nobles was sacrificed. So, when the others refused, Ischenus volunteered to be sacrificed. His tomb is shown near the so-called hill of Kronos, close to the bend of Olympia, and he was honored with the greatest honors, on the day he was sacrificed, and a competition was established. They call him Taraxippus, because the competing horses, when they get there by the memorial, are disturbed. He is said to be a disturber of horses, since he disturbs and confuses the competing horses either by some unspoken and irrational power or by a laurel standing around the tomb and its shadow shaking the horses with the shadow of the leaves. Others say that there is a laurel there and its shadow shaking the horses with the shadow of the leaves.

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§ 44  "He who the sea"; the following thus: "he who" of the Italian "sea's narrow recesses" overlooking the "wild" Scylla "having killed". "Or narrow" the descents and twists of the ports. The Italians are Ausones, the Italian is Ausonitis from Auson, the child of Odysseus and Circe. Others say from another Auson (702). Auson the Italian from Auson, who was born from Calypso to Atlas. Ausonia, however, properly, as Dion writes the Cocceian (I p. 356 Boiss.), is said to be only the land of the Aurunci, lying by the sea between the Campanians and the Volsci, but many thought Ausonia to be up to Latium so that all of Italy is from it. Some even call us Greeks, Hellenes, Ausones, doing this with authoritative audacity and not poetically. "Recesses" from the verb "myo" which means "I hide".

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§ 45  "Observing" means watching, from the word "see" I derive "observe" and with the Attic increase, I observe. "Wild dog" refers to Scylla, the daughter of Phorcys, a beastly creature that devours some of those sailing the Sicilian sea. And indeed,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 46  "Having killed over the cave," Heracles, driving the cattle of Geryon from Erytheia, happened to be at the strait between Italy and Sicily. He killed Scylla who had seized some of the bulls. Her father Phorcys burned her and revived her. "Having killed over the cave," Heracles, driving the cattle of Geryon from Erytheia, happened to be at the strait between Italy and Sicily. The aforementioned Scylla, having seized some of the bulls, was killed by Heracles, and later her father Phorcys, having burned and boiled her, revived her with a torch. Scylla was a beautiful woman who was with Poseidon, but Amphitrite, being jealous, threw a potion into the spring where she used to bathe, and she was turned into a beast. He called her a "lioness" because of her terror. These are the mythical stories, but the truth is as follows: Scylla is a cape near Rhegium of Sicily that juts out into the sea, beneath which are many large rocks with hollow places and caves, where sea creatures dwell. Ships that are dashed against the rocks by the water of Charybdis and the men are eaten. Charybdis and Scylla are close to each other; Charybdis is near Messene, and Scylla is near Rhegium, as I said. Rhegium was founded by Iocastus, son of Aeolus, as Callimachus says, "Leaving the city of Rhegium, son of Iocastus of Aeolus." Therefore, Heracles, being the wisest and most strategic, and sailing these places with the cattle of Geryon, lost some of them there and from there he cleansed the place with some devices, hence they mythologized that he killed Scylla. Phorcys, either the sea, her father - for the sea made her this difficult -, revived her again with a torch, that is, with the movements and times of the sun, the sea, having poured out the cleansing and the device by Heracles, turned her back into her original difficulty. A cave is a cave. It is etymologized as a cave from the drawn stone and diminutively a cave is the drawn stone or lithic, hence it is better to write with 'ι', but the diphthong is turned into a diphthong through 'υ' cave. "Holding fish" holding fish "or swimming" either swimming like a fish. For Lycophron's things are understood mythically. Instead of hunting fish as Homer (m 95). Or swimming like a fish. 5

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§ 47  "He called her 'bull-slayer'" as if she ate from Geryon's bulls, and 'lioness' due to her murderous nature. He said 'bull-slayer' and not 'bull-eater' because of the meter, in the Ionic way; for the Ionians say it this way with the 's', like Theosdoros and Theosdotos and similar names, while the Attics drop the 's'. Generally, 'bull-slayer' is said of the one who slaughters bulls, and 'bull-eater' of the one who eats bulls.

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§ 48  She was said to 'consume flesh'. A great torch, a certain bright light, appearing very large and with an Aeolic syncope, a torch. 'She built': the expression is metaphorical, from builders and constructors, instead of 'she revived', 'she raised'. But 'she built' pleases me little to write; for the 'm' extends it like the beloved Aphrodite, and even there (EG 553 22) some doubled the 'm' because they did not know the meters precisely. But if someone writes this large, even if he is ignorant, let him learn that he writes large in the Attic extension, like 'giver' and 'drinker' and the like.

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§ 49  "Leptynnis" as if she did not fear Persephone as much as she was immortalized. Or otherwise. Leptynnis the soul, for it is most subtle. Therefore, Phorkys, having burned Skylla, called back the soul that did not fear Hades. "Leptynnis" some mean Hades, others Persephone, as if thinning the bodies of the dying. "Leptynnis" as if she did not fear Persephone as much as she was immortalized. Or otherwise. Leptynnis the soul, from being thinned and airy — she speaks of Skylla ..., the whole from a part — or Leptynnis Persephone, that is, fate and death, from thinning the bodies of the dying and making them dust. But Phorkys raised her who from then on did not fear Persephone. "The Judean goddess" is Persephone.

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§ 50  "Whom once the corpse" Nessus "welcomed" and befriended "long ago Hades" because of the supposed death of Heracles. "Or welcoming" so that it may be: the dead Nessus killed Heracles "the welcoming" and friend who had "Hades", when he went down to bring up Cerberus. The story about Nessus is as follows: Heracles, having wrestled with Achelous in Calydon and breaking his right horn and giving it back to him, received from him the horn of Amaltheia, the daughter of Haemon, and Deianira, the daughter of Oeneus, instead of Achelous as his wife. But during the wedding, he struck one of Oeneus's relatives, Ennomus the son of Architelus, with a club and killed him, having drunkenly hit him with his hand in a friendly manner. He chose to flee to Trachis to Ceyx. But as he was crossing the Euenus river, he was first ferried across by the Centaur Nessus. But as he was in the...

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§ 50bis  "He killed him," said Nessus, having kidnapped Deianeira, the wife of Heracles, as it happened by the river Euenus, he violated her. But the hero arrived in time, shot Nessus with an arrow, and as he was about to die, he told Heracles' wife: "Take this blood, and when your husband wants to leave you, smear his flesh with it and he will love you." And deceiving the woman, he gave her some of the hydra's venom, which Heracles' arrow had, in a vessel. Later, having done this and smeared her husband with it in order to be loved by him, she unintentionally killed him. Nessus was ferrying Deianeira and tried to violate her, but was shot by Heracles. Knowing that he was dying — for Heracles' arrows were inescapable, being smeared with the hydra's venom — he put the blood flowing from his wound into a vessel, gave it to Deianeira, deceiving her, and said that he was dying because of her. "I give you this as a gift, capable of attracting love; for if you perceive Heracles being captivated by another woman's love, smear this on his clothes and he will turn his love back to you." Deianeira, having this vessel, when she later heard that Heracles had sacked Oechalia and was leading away Eurytus' beautiful daughter Iole, and was in love with her, smeared Heracles' clothes with this blood and sent them with the servant Lichas. But while Heracles was sacrificing to Zeus near Cape Cenaeum in Euboea, he put on this poisoned tunic, and being seized by a violent and fiery itching, he died in the nearby river from which the Thermopylae originated, after throwing Lichas from a rock and killing him. Heracles left his bow to Philoctetes, as Philoctetes' father Poeas had assisted him at his death. These bows, as this Lycophron says (56), Heracles got from Teutarus, a Scythian cowherd, son of Amphitryon, who taught him archery. Others say that Eurytus taught him archery (Ap. l. l. 63), others that Rhadamanthys, the Cretan, who was his maternal uncle; for after the death of Amphitryon, Rhadamanthys killed his own brother and fled from Crete, and having gone up to Ocalea in Boeotia, he married Alcmene and taught Heracles archery (ib. 70). So he says that Nessus, being dead, killed Heracles "with a treacherous sword," that is, with the venom of the hydra, the one who had long ago overpowered Hades, as Homer also says, "mighty Hades suffered" (E 395) "a swift arrow".

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§ 51  "Hades receiving him" long ago; Admetus had a wife, Eriboea, who happened to die. At the time of her death, Heracles was being hosted by Admetus. Not knowing about the death of the aforementioned Eriboea, he began to celebrate. One of the maidservants approached him and said: You should not celebrate here because Admetus' wife has died. He then said: Where is she buried? And sitting down by the tomb, when Hades came out to touch the sacrifices, he seized him strongly, until he gave back the woman.

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§ 52  "I will destroy you, I will see you, oh Troy," for the second time being destroyed by the hands of Neoptolemus, the descendant of Aeacus and Epeius, who constructed the Trojan Horse. For previously, you were destroyed by Heracles and given to the fire, and now you are about to be burned by the hands of Aeacus, either Epeius or Neoptolemus. For both are second descendants of Aeacus as you will learn. Therefore, he says you are about to be burned by them and by the bones of Pelops lying around the city of Laetrina in Elis. Pelops, however, is the son of Tantalus and Euryanassa of Pactolus. The arrangements should not be written, but I will mark them with diagrams a and b and the rest, rather those that are considered and terrible.

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§ 53  "With the hands of Aeacus" with the hands of Neoptolemus and Epeius because of the Trojan Horser. Epeius traces his lineage from Aeacus in this way: From Aeacus and Psamathe came Phocus, from Phocus came Panopeus, from him came Epeius from whom the Epeian tribe. "With the hands of Aeacus": From Aeacus and Endeis came Peleus and Telamon, from Psamathe the Nereid came Phocus. From Peleus and Thetis came Achilles. From Achilles and Deidamia, the daughter of Lycomedes, came Pyrrhus also known as Neoptolemus. From Telamon and Eriboea came Ajax, from Hesione came Teucer. From Ajax and Lysidice, the daughter of Coronus, came Philius. From Tecmessa the captive came Eurysakes. From Phocus again and Asteria came Crissus and Panopeus, from Panopeus came Epeius who constructed the Trojan horse through which Ilium was destroyed.

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§ 54  "Remains of the fire": what the fire left behind, bones, are called remains of the fire. "Son of Tantalus" the son of Tantalus, Pelops. "They inhabit Laetrina" those lying around Laetrina; Laetrina is a city of Elis. The bones of Pelops were lying there, which the oracle indicated to be brought back. "The son who was devoured": The Greeks received an oracle that Ilium would not be destroyed earlier, unless they took the bones of Pelops from Elis. An oracle fell to bring the cotyledons of Pelops and the bow of Heracles, which Philoctetes had to Greece, and Neoptolemus the son of Achilles, since otherwise they would not be able to destroy Ilium. "The son who was devoured": The Greeks received an oracle that Ilium would not be destroyed earlier, unless the bones of Pelops were moved from Elis to Greece and Neoptolemus the son of Achilles. An oracle fell to bring the cotyledons of Pelops and the bow of Heracles, which Philoctetes had to Greece, and Neoptolemus the son of Achilles, for if this did not happen, Ilium would not be destroyed. Laetrina is a city of Elis.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 55  "Having been swallowed" means that Pelops was consumed in the soot and ash when he was prepared for the feast of the gods.

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§ 56  "To the Teutareans": Teutarus, a Scythian herdsman, taught Heracles to shoot, providing him with his own bow. When Heracles died, Philoctetes, who buried him, took these and his bow. The word "and" is missing, so it should read "and to the Teutareans with winged arrows" or the arrows of the herdsman. Who is Teutarus, I have said.

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§ 57  "Everything in the light": Before Helen, Alexander had a wife, Oenone, who, because of Helen's subsequent marriages and the reproach and blame of her father for criticizing her, became angry and sent her son Corythus to lead the Greeks to Troy, being reproached by her father for the reproach and blame of her father and Helen's subsequent marriages. "Heavy with jealousy" is Oenone, the wife of Alexander, who was the daughter of Cebren or Oeneus. Alexander had her before Helen, and they had a son, Corythus, whom she sent to lead the Greeks to Troy, being reproached by her father for the reproach and blame of her father and Helen's subsequent marriages. "The son" refers to the son of Oenone and Alexander.

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§ 60  "Subsequent" refers to the unlawful ones.

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§ 61  "Sorceress": They say that Oenone, wanting to heal the wounded Alexander, was prevented by her father. But after he died, when she later brought the drugs, she found him already dead and killed herself, either by throwing herself into Alexander's funeral pyre, according to Quintus, or by hanging herself, according to Dictys, or by falling from the tower, according to this Lycophron. "Incurable" either because Alexander was dead and could not be healed, or because the arrows of Philoctetes were smeared with the gall of the Hydra, or because she applied the drugs after the wound had been smeared; for Oenone was skilled in prophecy and medicine. Or because she applied the drugs after the wound had been smeared; incurable either because Alexander was dead and could not be healed, or because the arrows were smeared with the poison of the Hydra, in which Alexander was shot, or because she applied the drugs after the wound had been smeared; for Oenone practiced medicine and prophecy.

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§ 63  "To the Giant-slayers"; for Heracles killed the Giants with these arrows. The Earth, angry at the Titans, in Phlegra of Pellene, gave birth to the dragon-footed, deep-born, and deep-haired Giants, who hurled burning rocks and oaks into the sky. The first of these were Porphyrion and Alcyoneus, who were immortal as long as they fought on the land where they were born. But when Heracles sided with Zeus and shot them with his arrows, they were killed. First, he shot Alcyoneus, who, when he fell to the ground, grew stronger. But by Athena's advice, he dragged him out of Pellene and killed him. Zeus instilled a desire for Hera in Porphyrion, and while he was tearing Hera's robes, Heracles shot him and Zeus struck him with his thunderbolt and killed him. He also killed the other Giants in the same way, except for a few, with the help of Zeus. The arrowhead is named after the curses and harms it causes. He used "pierced" metaphorically instead of "shot". And "pierced" is appropriate: "pierced" for Alexander, and "pierced" for the wound.

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§ 64  "Fellow archer" instead of "fellow craftsman archer". He calls Philoctetes "self-taught" because both Alexander and Philoctetes were archers. For when Philoctetes was brought from Lemnos, he and Alexander fought a single combat with their bows. Alexander shot first and missed Philoctetes, but Philoctetes, shooting second, hit Alexander in the left hand. Immediately releasing a second arrow, he cut out his right eye, and with a third arrow, he pierced his ankle and killed him.

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§ 65  "From the tops of the towers"; when Alexander was wounded by Philoctetes, she who could heal the wound with drugs did not heal it, and when he died, she threw herself down from the longing for him and died with her husband.

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§ 67  "Hooked" is used metaphorically from the fishing term for fish caught by the hook.

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§ 69  "I mourn, I mourn for you" because Troy was sacked three times: first by Heracles because of Laomedon's horses, second by the Greeks because of the much-talked-about Helen, and third by the powerful Amazons. "I mourn, I mourn for you" because Troy was sacked three times: first by Heracles because of Laomedon's horses and Hesione, second by the Amazons, as Homer says in the G (198) rhapsody that they came from Priam "when the Amazons, the equals of men, came", and third because of the much-talked-about Helen, it was sacked and completely burned and disappeared.

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§ 70  "Again to battle"; intending to go to war again and to be inflamed.

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§ 72  "And the tombs of Atlantis"; the following: the tombs of the swimmer, the son of the daughter of Atlas and Pleione. She is one of the Pleiades. He speaks of Electra. I mourn for you, O city, and the tombs of our ancestors within you, of Electra and her son Dardanus who once, during the flood, covered his body with a sewn skin, as the four-footed animal around the Ister is accustomed to do, when it inflates its own skin and crosses the Danube river, leaving the dwelling of the Corybantes, and came to Ilium. When did he do this? When Zeus flooded the earth during the time of Deucalion and all men were sailing in the waters and the walls were falling, the sea creatures were eating the fruits of the trees and vines, the dolphins and seals always desiring the company of men. "And tombs" instead of the tomb of the "diver" and swimmer "Celerus" and son of the daughter of Atlas, Electra, who once "in the sewn skin" and skin "or vessel" and vessel "he embarked and" sailed "like a Cretan jar" he sailed "alone" one-eyed or alone "having stripped off" and covering the body in the "skin such as" and as "a pig" an Ister animal "four-legged".

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§ 73  "Celerus" of Dardanus, the son of Electra and Zeus, who, leaving Samothrace in the flood, made a raft and 〈made a skin for himself〉 sewn, came to Ilium. Therefore, he says, I mourn, I mourn for you and the tombs of the son of Electra. "Of Atlantis"; Dardanus, the son of Zeus and Electra, the daughter of Atlas, leaving Samothrace in the flood, made a raft and coming to the parts around Troy, founded Dardania and there he died and his tomb lies around Troy (72) in a part of Dardania. Later, however, Dardania and Ilium and Troy have become one city. When Nyctimus took over the kingdom, the flood, as they babble, happened because of the butchery of Pelops. I know Pelops to be the fifth from Dardanus. Therefore, they babble that the flood happened either because of Azan, the son of Lycaon, and the impiety of the sons of Lycaon, because they cut up Nyctimus and sacrificed him to Zeus. But according to other historians, the flood happened thus: around Helice and Bura, the cities, when opposing winds blew, a great cloud formed and rain poured and the flood happened (591). "Diver" he said of the one constantly sinking in the raft because of the storm or of the swimmer or from the two pieces of wood, having fixed the raft, to sail from Samothrace, fleeing the flood during the time of Deucalion. And he called the raft a sewn vessel.

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§ 74  "Porkos" is a four-legged animal around the Istrus river, now called the Danube. It is covered with a thin skin and when inflated, it becomes bag-like and thus swims, until it thins out, and then it comes onto the land and grazes and immediately upon cooling, it dies. The following is thus: as the porkos wraps its body with its own skin like a bag and swims, so too did Dardanus sail on the raft; he sailed carrying four stones and covering his body like a porkos.

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§ 75  They called Dardanus "moneres" because he used one oar on the raft for as long as one day, living and dying late.

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§ 76  Rethymna is a city of Crete. "Rithymnia" is a city of Crete. "Cepfos" is a hard-to-catch sea bird. It is a sea creature similar to a gull, which the children of fishermen hunt with foam.

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§ 77  "Zerynthos" is a cave of Hecate in Thrace. "Antron" is a cave from the upper part being pierced or bored. Leaving the Thracian cave of Rhea, or as some say of Hecate, Dardanus; for Sophron in his Mimes says that dogs are sacrificed to her. Leaving the Thracian cave of Rhea or Hecate, Dardanus; for both Rhea, who is said to be accompanied by a lion, and Hecate, who is foreign and fearsome, they sacrifice dogs to them, as Sophron says in Mimes; for the barking dog dispels apparitions as well as struck bronze if there is such a thing.

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§ 78  "Saon" is Samon by contraction of the 'm'. "Saon" is a mountain of Samothrace, which Nicandros mentions in his Theriaka, saying something like "or of Saos or of Mosychlos". The Corybantes are spirits around Rhea, those who guarded Zeus. The name of a nation or of spirits. Otherwise, the Corybantes, who are spirits around Rhea, established the Saon cave. But the Curetes are the children of the Danaid nymph Cresse and Apollo, while the Corybantes are the children of Thaleia and Apollo.

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§ 79  "He made it sandy" he made it sandy, he flooded it. "Amathos" is written with one 'm' from being derived from "amathes" and "ametretos" and "amos" becoming by apocope and is written with one 'm', only the Aeolians double this as well as the rest.

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§ 80  "Resounding" echoes of noise carried by sound. "Nasmos" rain, flood from the verb "nao" which means to flow, hence also "nama" and "nautes" and "naus" and "navigating the edge". "Nasmos" rain from "nao", hence also "nama" and "nautes". It signifies here the flood.

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§ 81  “They” elliptically instead of "the people".

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§ 83  "Phegon" the acorn from "phago" to eat, hence also "phagon" and "phegon" are said; for the ancients, before they found grain, they ate acorns and fruits. "Drykarpa" all fruit as Orpheus says in the Dodekaeteris (p. 151 Ab.) "throw all shoots, those that are said to be the top of the oak".

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§ 84  A phalaina (whale) is a wick that is added to the lamps, which is also called pyraustomoros, psyche, and psora. It is called a whale from its jumping into the light". It has a long 'a' [and] it should be written with one l; for the names of the verbs are shorter, like "thallo" becomes "thalos", "angello" becomes "angelos". And about the whale of the land wick, which we also call a candle snuffer, we have said; a whale (phalaina) is also a monstrous fish. He said "phalai" by truncation. "Phalai te"; the following; "Phallai te ferbonto hai te phokai hai ep' arsenon broton lektra thourosai". For seals are said to have a desire for sex with men. Otherwise. The following; "Whales and dolphins were fed on acorns" and the rest; the seals that erotically rush "to the beds of male mortals". The seal is a sea monster similar to a land ox or rather a bear, and it desires the company of men. It is also suitable for magic.

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§ 86  "I will see the running log"; the speech is about Alexander. For he says that I see Alexander eager for the abduction of Helen. But he called Alexander "grynon" by metonymy; for "grynos" is the trunk. And Homer (EGF I p. 74 Kink.) "Grynoi men daionto, megas d' Hephaistos aneste". "Grounoi" trunks like "grounoi — aneste". Eg (EM 241 45) he calls the same a torch, as much as Hecabe seemed to give birth to a torch in a dream. Some heard "winged grynon" the ship because of the oars or the wings, as much as it makes its journey through them. Now, however, he says "grynon" the ship of Alexander because it is made of wood, "winged" because of the sails, as much as it makes its journey through them by metonymy "or grynon" Alexander himself because of the dream, which Hecabe saw, that she gave birth to a burning torch, who set the whole city and the forest on Ida on fire. Having heard this dream, the seers and those skilled in dreams said to throw the child to be born immediately. But when Alexander was born, they exposed him on Ida, whom a shepherd seeing very handsome took up and raised. "Winged" but because of the journey with a ship.

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§ 87  "Of the timid, swift, and low-flying turtledove; for the creature is associated with Aphrodite. Or because he also likened Alexander to an eagle, rushing to seize his prey. "Pephnaia's dog" refers to Helen, either from the place in Laconia or because many died because of her. "Dog" either from the place in Laconia or of the timid, swift, and low-flying; for the creature is associated with Aphrodite; or because of the cause of death for many. He speaks of Helen, since he also likened Alexander to an eagle, rushing to seize his prey. He calls her a turtledove because of her lustfulness; for the dove alone among birds mates and reproduces throughout the year, hence Aeschylus says "of the all-nourishing dove" (S. 277). "Dog" of the shameless, according to Homer "because of me, dog" (Z 356) "of evil contrivance" (344). Pephne is the cape of Laconia from where Helen set out. "Turtledove into a seizure into the seizure" of the most lustful "turtledove" either of the dove worthy to be killed "dog".

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§ 88  "Moist-footed Torgos" is Zeus or Nemesis, as much as Zeus, likened to a swan, mated with Nemesis, the daughter of Oceanus, from whom an egg is born, which Leda, having taken it, warmed and gave birth to Helen and the Dioscuri. But "moist-footed" is also written as "high-footed. Torgos" is primarily the vulture, but now he refers to the swan, which Zeus, imitating, mated with Leda. "Moist-footed" is the one who wanders and lives in wet places. The vulture, but now he refers to the eagle or the swan. He took one animal for another. For Zeus, likened to a swan, mated with Nemesis, the daughter of Oceanus, into a goose, as they jest (Ap. III 127), changing her, and she, having given birth to an egg, left it in this marsh. A shepherd, having found it, brings it to Leda, who, having placed it in a chest, guarded it. In due time, Helen is born from the egg, whom Leda raised as her own child. Some also say that Castor and Polydeuces were born from the same egg. In other historical accounts, I found that Zeus, likened to a star, and having mated with Leda, begets Castor and Polydeuces, and later, as we said, Helen. Others again say (Ap. III 126) that Zeus, likened to a swan, mated with Leda, and on the same night so did Tyndareus; she gives birth to Polydeuces and Helen from Zeus, and Castor from Tyndareus, hence Castor was mortal, the other immortal, but at the request of his brother, he too became immortal, as Pindar says (Pind. N X 50 c. sch.). As for the allegories, as I said, they should be left alone; but since you desire to learn these too, listen. The ancients called all kings Zeus. A certain king mated with Leda adulterously by the Eurotas river, who, having become pregnant from him, gives birth to three children in one womb, the aforementioned Castor, Polydeuces, and Helen. For he likens her womb to an egg and that one skin was born from it, which they made a skin and a talisman (Al. 506). He says that Zeus changed into a swan, because he did not mate with her in a kingly manner, but in public places like the swans.

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§ 89  "Shell-like"; a shell is the entire eggshell (506) and a spiral is everything that is wrapped around the round shell. Now it peels the egg with a shell-like tool; for all peelers are called shell-like. But specifically, the thinnest skin inside the eggshell is called shell-like. A spiral is round, spiral-like; for a spiral is something that is round. "Covered with a shell" means covered with the eggshell. He refers to the egg, which Nemesis gives to Tyndareus, who then gives it to Leda, from whom Helen and the Dioscuri were born, or to the yolk and membrane of the egg because of the story that Helen and her brothers were born from an egg.

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§ 90  "And now you"; the figure of speech is a turn; for now he has turned his speech towards Alexander and says "and now you", oh Alexander, "the Acherusian" and "the downward path" "will receive you". He refers to the Taenarum, the cape of Laconia, where they say there is a descent to Hades. Wanting to say that he will arrive in Lacedaemon by sailing, he mentioned the Acherusian path, to show that from this pretext he will arrive, oh Alexander, in Hades; for he later died because of Helen. "And now you"; the figure of speech is a turn; for now he has turned his speech towards Alexander and says "and now you", oh Alexander, "the Acherusian" and "the downward path" "will receive you". "Acherusian path" is either Hades, because he was going to die because of Helen, or the Taenarum of Laconia instead of saying that he will arrive in Lacedaemon, where there is "the Acherusian path". He shows through this that from this pretext he will arrive, oh Alexander, in Hades; for he later died because of Helen. For there is a mouth of Taenarum in Laconia, from where they also say there is a descent to Hades, as Menander says "there is a gate of Taenarum towards the ends. "Downward" is what leads down.

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§ 91  "White-tailed eagle" is either cowardly or rapacious; for a white-tailed eagle is a kind of eagle. "White-tailed eagle" is a kind of eagle. Sophocles takes "white-tailed eagle" for the cowardly, saying "white-tailed" from the white tail, speaking as if in contrast, black-tailed for the strong from the black tail. A white-tailed eagle is a cowardly, ugly or rapacious; for there are black-tailed, white-tailed kinds of eagles according to Archilochus, from whom the rapacious eagle is white-tailed. "The ugly and promiscuous white-tailed eagle is said" by antiphrasis, not having a slow tail, but moving it in copulation. The cowardly is again called white-tailed as having a white tail from the opposite of the proverb "you have not yet achieved black-tailed". For if the black-tailed are brave like Hercules, the white-tailed are certainly weak and cowardly "and unmanly". Theia, the daughter of Oceanus, said this to her own children about Hercules; you have not yet achieved black-tailed. For the ancients called the cowards white-tailed, and the brave black-tailed. 5 "Father's dung" means stables, pens.

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§ 92  "Rough patches of cattle trampling" means rough cattle trampling.

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§ 93  "The money changer" refers to the banker, the silver assayer, the judge of Hera, Aphrodite, and Athena. For Alexander judged them when they held the apple. The table is properly called the altar because it receives the sacrifices, now metaphorically spoken of the court, when he judged the goddesses. For Alexander judged them for the sake of the apple. For at the wedding of Thetis, Eris threw a golden apple in the midst of the gods inscribed 'to the fairest', Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite quarreled with each other to receive it. Zeus, giving them to Hermes, sends them to Alexander to judge them, who decided that Aphrodite should receive the apple. By her command, Harmonides built a ship for him, and according to some, he went to Sparta, where he saw Helen and, struck by her beauty, he seized her. Or the altar is the table because it receives the sacrifices and incense, which is to guard.

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§ 94  "But Ostrimon"; the mountains of Troy are suitable for summer pastures; for Alexander made his summer stays and pastures in them. He says, therefore, instead of the pastures in Troy, you will cross these parts, the Laconian crossings. You will cross the jaw of the donkey, which he calls "Gamphelas of the donkey", "holding in — "(99): it is a place in Laconia so called as Homer also says "a small stone stops a great wave" (γ 296). But instead of Ostrimon, which are the mountains of Troy, "Gamphelas of the donkey" means the jaws of a donkey. He refers to Malea, which is a cape of the Peloponnese, because it resembles the jaws of a donkey as Homer also says "a small stone stops a great wave" (γ 296).

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§ 95  "Las" is a city in Laconia. You will also cross Las, that is, Malea. And Homer says "a small — stops". And the city of Las in Sparta, which Homer calls Laa (B 585) "of the well-lipped / well-lipped manger" of a well-fed manger or of the one having beautiful lips as being better than the pastoral life than the predatory and warlike.

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§ 96  "Sleeping place of sheep" signifies the place of sleep among the sheep, that is, the pen. "Sleeping places of sheep" of the sleep of the sheep. It is etymologized from the word mela for sheep and iao for sleep and iauthmos (Al. 606) for sleep. He refers to the pens. "Of the dry back" of the reed or of the spit. "Sleeping places of sheep" pens of the sheep. "Of the dry back" of the spit or reed. The reed is a pastoral rod slightly bent at both ends which they let go on the back of the flock that jumps away. But the back properly is the broad part of the oar.

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§ 97  "Trampis" is a barbarian ship. "Ochesei" means he will carry or transport. "Ferekleioi podes" is a periphrasis for Phereclus or the ships that Phereklus made; for he built the ships for Alexander for the descent into Hellas. "Dissas" means two; there are two extremes in Laconian called Thyrides, which metaphorically they call salambas or windows.

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§ 98  "Dissas" means two; there are two extremes in Laconian called Thyrides, which metaphorically he called salambas from the word selas, in which it is possible to ascend and see the distance. "Salambas" are the Thyrides that are always in turmoil. Or from the fact that the light enters through them. Some call the windows salambas from the light entering when they are opened or through which the light enters. Salambas are also called the doors from the fact that they are in turmoil or from the fact that they shake and take those who enter. Salambas are also the lanterns or the lamps, colloquially from the fact that the light enters through them. "Gytheion" is a city in Laconia. "Plakas" are places now "in which", he says, in the Laconian cities "pros kynoura" towards the rough rocks "schasas" having thrown down, having released.

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§ 100  "Peukes odontas" he calls the anchors; for these are the restrainers and keepers of the sea's turmoil and the flood. The following thus: "in which" cities "pros" the waves the "kampylous" of the ship "odontas" and the "hectors of the flood" "schasas" will rest the movements, the "einaphosswna stolon". The following thus: "in which" cities "pros" the waves the "kampylous" of the ship "odontas" and the "hectors of the flood" "schasas" the "odontas" of the ship or the irons and of the "flood" the "hectors" or those who restrain the ship's turmoil will rest the voyage, the "einaphosswna stolon. Hectors of the flood" are the restrainers of the waves. "Skarthmon iauseis" are the cessations of the movements otherwise. The following is hyperbaton "pros thina"; for "pros" below is missing, if "thina phosswna stolon" is written; if we write "einaphosswna", it will be, as Pherecydes says that Alexander sailed with nine ships. "Skarthmon iauseis" are the cessations of the movements "einaphosswna stolon" the one fitted with nine or the one fitted with one (27 3) "or thina phosswna stolon" that is from the movements "iauseis" and cessations to the shore "stolon" and your journey the "phosswna" or the one through the oars.

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§ 102  He calls Helen 'much-wedded'. 'And the unwedded maiden' and the 'much-married' heifer 'you, the wolf, seized', either the ravisher 'of two doves', orphaned and deserted by the 'parents' of the two doves, either Iphigeneia, whom he had from Theseus, as Duris the Samian says, and Hermione, whom he begot from Menelaus; for Theseus first seized her when she was seven years old, after he had begotten Iphigeneia from her, he took her away 'and a second time into a net', into a second net; but a net is properly a net for hunting bears; 'of the young broods' of foreign prey; these expressions are metaphorical, net as I said is said, and brooch from the brooches, with which they hunt partridges and other birds 'falling into the trap' having become a captive 'with the wing of the hunter' either with the speed of Alexander (47 17) or with the ship (47 29) or with the 'wing' of 'love' 'you will sacrifice' to the Bacchae, from the verb to rush, said to be rushing? 'quickly' quickly, from the chariot quickly. And Aeschylus in the Prometheus (614) 'I have stopped my lamentations of toil quickly'. 'first-fruits of sheep' first-fruits and sacrifices of sheep; the sheep is the sheep in Aeolic from the verb to intend to care, said; for the ancients lived a pastoral and agricultural life.

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§ 104  But Alexander, meeting her a second time on the beach, sacrificing freshly to the Bacchae and to Ino, seized her and went to Egypt and there he became her consort. The following: to the Bacchae and to Ino freshly on the beach of sheep first-fruits int. lin. , 5 seizing you will feed 5 ? 'Net' signifies the brooches the nets Eg (EM 144 7) that Helen was twice seized, first by Theseus, second by Alexander.

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§ 107  'With crocuses' with crocuses, with beaches. But the beach is called crocus from the verb to cut the verb to cut kerok and crocus, against which the waves are broken and shattered. 'Byne' from the verb to enter; for the 'b' instead of the 'd' is taken by the Dorians. 'Byne' is Leucothea, Ino as in 'Byne's bedfellow of the loud-voiced' (Mein. AA 123) — from the verb to enter Dune the one who dived into the sea and Byne metaphorically. Others say sea or pine as in 〈Euphorion "many-nourished tears of byne" AA l.l.〉. Lycophron. EM 217 5 (EG 117 8) 'Byne' to Dune Leucothea to Ino from the verb to swim as others say I however from the verb to hide, whence also depth and Byne. But the story of Ino is this: falling with her son Palaemon into the sea because she was pursued by Athamas she was drowned, she was carried out by a dolphin near Schoenous under Corinth. Amphimachos and Donakinos, taking up the bodies, bring them to Corinth. Sisyphus, brother of Athamas and king of Corinth, ordered an annual contest and sacrifice to be held for them, hence they have called them gods and Leucothea from the foam of the sea Ino. Eurykleia was the daughter of Ino.

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§ 108  "You will curdle"; to curdle primarily means to thicken milk for cheese-making, but now it means you will jump or lead. Skandeia is a city of Cythera int. lin. "Aigilou's peak" is a cape of Peloponnese.

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§ 109  "Aithon epakter" is a fiery, sharp hunter "laughing at the prey" rejoicing in the hunt. He calls the prey Helen.

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§ 110  "Of the dragon"; he calls Cecrops, the dragon, bifurcated because they say that he has the upper parts of a man and the lower parts of a snake. Others say that he was named bifurcated because of the size of his body. He calls the island of the dragon Salamis, for Salamis was formerly held by a dragon or a beast or a king named Asopos, according to some, who came from Thebes. Cychreus, the son of Poseidon and Salamis, as Euphorion says, killed the dragon and held the kingdom of Salamis. Thus, he now calls Salamis the island of the dragon. Syntax: in the island of Attica, of the bifurcated giant Cecrops' kingdom, you will "pour out" the "longing" and having emptied yesterday's and old mixture of Helen, you will "not see".

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§ 110  "The second time"; he says that he will not see yesterday's Aphrodite; for once he was with her in Attica and sailing to Egypt, she was taken away by Proteus, who made an idol... and took it to Troy. In which, he says, you will "pour out" the "longing" either mingling with Helen the "dawn" and yesterday's "Cypris" and the union "you will not see a second time". For once he was with her in Attica and having seized her, he did not immediately sail to Troy, but thinking he was being pursued by the Lacedaemonians, he sailed to Egypt, where she was taken away by Proteus. But Alexander, having taken her idol, entered Troy. Look at the syntax in the diagram.

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§ 111  The Attic peninsula was formerly called Akte. Hence, the Athenians were also called Aktaioi. "Aktes" of Attica, Athens. Athens is referred to as Akte because Akteus once ruled there, or because it is a promontory, that is, it juts out and lies mostly towards the sea. The island of Salamis is part of Attica. He said "born of the earth" because the Athenians are said to have descended from Erechtheus, whom the earth bore, as Homer says, "the bountiful earth bore him." "Of the two-formed, born of the earth, scepter-bearing;" for Attica was the kingdom of Cecrops. Coming from the city of Sais in Egypt, he founded Athens. According to the Egyptians, Athena is called Sais, as Charax says. They say that Cecrops was two-formed and two-natured, and the Giants were born of the earth; for they say that they sprang from the teeth of the dragon. They lived in Thrace. They say that Cecrops was two-formed and two-natured because he came from the teeth of the dragon sown by Cadmos in Thebes. This man was king of Athens, either because he had the stature and nature of two men, or because he knew two languages, Egyptian and Greek, or, as they jest, because his upper part was human and his lower part was a dragon. Demosthenes, speaking allegorically, says that he likened his strength to a dragon and his wisdom to a man. But I allegorize thus: having become a good king, he so subdued the beastliness of the nations that they all had one mind towards him and considered him a good leader and autocrat. For these reasons, they call him two-natured. Or as I found in John of Antioch, that formerly the women in Greece mated like beasts, not in pairs. The children then were of one nature; for they knew only their mother, they did not recognize their father. But when Cecrops became king of Attica, he put an end to the beastly mating and made it lawful for women to join with men. For from then on, the children recognized both their father and mother as the causes of their birth, being of two natures, and Cecrops was called two-natured as the one who did this himself.

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§ 112  "Born of the earth" because Erichthonius was, as they say, sprung from the earth. For when Athena went to Hephaestus for the sake of making weapons, Hephaestus, being in love, pursued her, and when he caught her, as Athena resisted him, he ejaculated around her thighs, and she, being disgusted, threw the semen with wool onto the earth, and Erichthonius was born from the wool and the earth, hence they say that all Athenians are born of the earth from him. Others say that Attica is a sorrowful land and the people in it were never driven out by other nations because of the unenviable nature of their land, hence they said they were autochthonous and born of the earth. And the story about Athena and Hephaestus is this: Hephaestus mated with a certain queen Athena, also called Balenike, the daughter of Bronteus, and begot Erichthonius, who ruled Attica; for there were many Athenas and Aphrodites and not one was mythical as most of the names were. He says the Athenians are born of the earth, since they are of the Erechtheids; for they say that Cadmos sowed the teeth of a dragon in the earth and the Erechtheids sprang up.

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§ 113  "A cold embrace"; through a cold entanglement and dreamlike, in vain with his arms "embracing" and feeling the bed. They say that as Alexander was passing through Egypt, Proteus, having taken Helen away, gave him a statue of Helen and so he sailed to Troy, as Stesichorus says. For the Trojans, who were then, had the statue of Helen.

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§ 115  "Torone" is a city of Thrace, from Torone, the wife of Proteus and daughter of Poseidon and Phoenice. Steph. "For you; for the husband of Phlegraean Torone — for so was called the wife of Proteus — will deprive you of the "marriages" of Helen. The rendering of the syntax is hyperbaton to "deprives of marriages" (130). He is gloomy because of the death of his children; for he neither rejoiced because of nature nor was he grieved because of their murder. “Phlegraean” of Thrace, because there the Giants were burned. "The grim husband of Torone" is a gloomy and unsmiling man of Torone, and Torone is the wife of Proteus. The syntax is hyperbaton from "for you of the bedfellow" to "leaving the bed". It will be arranged according to the diagram. "Phlegraean husband"; Phlegraean was formerly called Thrace because the Giants were burned there, and Torone is the wife of Proteus, Phlegraean by race from whom children were born, I mean of Proteus and Torone, Tmolus and Telegonus; for it is said that he married her having come from Egypt. Therefore, not bearing to see his children because of their murder, he returned to Egypt, Poseidon having given him the way through sea caves. Proteus, says Lycophron who wrote the Alexandra, (S 1226 62 10), was originally Pallenian, but later moved to Egypt because of the bad hospitality of his children. seq. Al. 124 Being Egyptian he went to Thrace. He also had two sons who killed guests. These Hercules killed. Having called upon Poseidon through the sanctuaries of the earth, he came and founded the island of Pharos — and as a demon he neither laughs because of the children nor cries. sch. DP 259.

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§ 116  "To whom laughter" to whom Proteus and "laughter" is hated and the "tear, the ship" is also endless and "worn out" and deprived of "both" either laughter and tear "the Thracian from once" the one from Thrace who once passed to the "coastal" and growing dry land. He refers to Egypt; for it grows because of the dragged silt of the Nile. "Triton's outlets" the outlets and the ascents of the Nile. Otherwise. Triton is the Nile because it was renamed three times; at first it was called Oceanus, secondly Aetos, because it flowed quickly, thirdly Egypt. But Nile is new, etymologically derived from bringing new silt and drying up the sea. "Cultivated" some said irrigated, but I said earthed and dried up by the dragged silt. For Egypt, as Diodorus (III 3) and Herodotus (II 4) and all say, was a sea, but it was dried up and is dried up by the outlets of the silt. Thus I say the "cultivated". For a furrow is the furrow or the earth.

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§ 121  "Untraveled" unfooled "Not by a ship-faring expedition" not by a journey with ships "but an untraveled path" but one who has passed and traveled paths and roads "below" of the "sea" either underneath, then a wonder "untraveled path, in the tunnel of darkness" in the place of the hidden and lowest place "tunnel" and hollow place piercing pillars "like a mole" like a mole which is an animal similar to a mouse, it digs and hollows the earth. "Below the sea" it should be written without the 'n' according to the rule, which I taught before (27 13). It is a common syllable and accepts a long. "Mole" signifies, as I think, the mole.

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§ 124  "Having escaped" and having fled the "murderous" wrestling of his own children. The story is this. "Having escaped from his children": the children of Proteus were killing the strangers coming to Egypt by wrestling them. Therefore, not bearing their injustice, Proteus migrated to the city of Pallenia in Thrace. When his children were killed by Hercules, he prayed to his father Poseidon, so that he would restore him back to his homeland. A chasm, they say, was formed and carried him to Egypt; this is what he calls the "untraveled path". Proteus, son of Poseidon by birth, an Egyptian, coming to Phlegra of Pallenia and Thrace from Egypt, marries Torone, from whom he had children Tmolus and Telegonus who, wrestling the strangers, killed them. Not bearing their murder of strangers, their father, that is Proteus, prayed to his father Poseidon to restore him back to Egypt. He, obeying him, made caves from the chasm of Pallenia below the sea and thus led him without getting wet until Egypt. Hercules, passing through Thrace and wrestling, killed Tmolus and Telegonus, which, learning, their father does not laugh, because they were his children, but because they were murderers of strangers, he does not even cry. The truth is this: not bearing their murder of strangers, Proteus threw himself down some chasm of Pallenia and being killed, he neither cries nor laughs. The rest were sketched into a myth.

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§ 125  "Mount Epytus" a mountain of Thrace, because Proteus, grieving for the murder of his children, climbing this mountain, implored the gods to restore him to Egypt (61 20). And "sending" the prayers to his "father" Poseidon, which he heard, to "establish" him "returning" and retreating "to" the "homeland" that is Egypt "from where" from Egypt formerly "wandering" and wandering he entered into "Pallenia" and Pellene the "nurse" of the Giants, as we said.

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§ 126  Pallene is a city of Thrace from which Proteus comes, as Lycophron, the author of Alexandra, says. The Giants are called "earth-born" because they sprouted from the earth.

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§ 128  "That Guneus will deprive you": the following is thus: "That Proteus, like Guneus, the worker of Justice, will deprive you of the marriage to your co-wife Helen. This Guneus was of Arab descent and very just, who once, due to his justice, reconciled the Phoenicians and Babylonians who were in conflict, having been sent by Semiramis. Indeed, he compares Proteus to this Guneus, as justly taking Helen away from Alexander.

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§ 129  Ichnaia is Themis; for she was pursued by Zeus and caught in the places of the Ichnaeans. Or she was named from being pursued "in tracks". Steph. Ichnae, the daughter of the Sun, is Themis, because she too oversees everything and hears everything. Hence also Ichnaia, because she follows the tracks of men, like the sun. Or because she illuminates those who have acquired her. Ichnaia is Themis and the daughter of the Sun, because she too oversees everything and hears everything.

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§ 131  "Desiring" the prostitute or the young and the procreation, separating you from the dove; he is talking about Helen. "I desire" is the meaning of "lipto". "Cassa" is the prostitute, the inferior one.

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§ 132  "He who is of Lycus" - having said above that Proteus justly took Helen from Alexander, he now speaks of Alexander's injustice and says that you, not respecting the Spartans who honored the tombs of our relatives Lycus and Chimaireos according to the oracle, nor the loves of Antheus, whom you killed and were saved by Menelaus, nor the salt that is shared with strangers - for they used to have salt on their tables as a symbol of hospitality - you persisted in sinning against the justice of the gods and chose to take Helen. He refers to the justice of the fabled gods Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite because of the apple. The story about Lycus and Chimaireos is as follows: once a plague struck the Spartans and they needed help, God commanded them to honor the tombs of Lycus and Chimaireos; these were the sons of Prometheus and Celaeno, the daughter of Atlas. The Spartans sent Menelaus to fulfill the oracle. When he came to Troy, he was hosted by Alexander. There was a son of Antenor called Antheus, who was very handsome, and both Deiphobus and Alexander were in love with him. It happened that the boy was accidentally killed by Alexander. Fearing for the city, he left with Menelaus and went to Sparta, where he became infatuated with Helen, whom he also abducted. The story is as follows: these were the sons of Prometheus and Celaeno the daughter of Atlas, and they were buried in Troy. When a plague struck the Spartans and they consulted the oracle, God said that the plague would not stop unless a noble Spartan went to Troy and sacrificed at their tombs. So they sent Menelaus to fulfill the oracle. When Menelaus left and was making the sacrifice, he was hosted by Alexander. Alexander accidentally struck and killed Antheus, the handsome son of Antenor, whom both Alexander and Deiphobus loved, and fearing, he took him away with Menelaus to Sparta and after sharing the customary salt at the guest table, he abducted Helen along with three talents of money and five chambermaidens, one of whom was Aethra, the mother of Theseus, and after making the voyage through Sidon and Egypt, he returned to Troy after a whole year. He reproaches Alexander for doing harm to Menelaus instead of showing gratitude. The ancients used to put salt on the tables of their guests at the beginning symbolically, praying that, just as salt comes from two elements, watery and earthy, into one nature, that of salt, so these guests may come into one accord.

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§ 135  "Aigaionos" of Poseidon from the city in Aigai of Achaia and honored in the Aegean Sea. The Aegean Sea was named because its waves are like goats. "Hagniten" means "frozen", that is, the salt; for Poseidon is the overseer of the sea, from which the salts are formed, hence the "frozen". "Hagniten" because it purifies and cleanses, hence the proverb "the sea washes away all human evils" (Eur. J.. 1193) 5 "A meal for strangers" because according to custom, when they were dining with strangers, they served salt. "Hagniten frozen" the salt because it is placed at the beginning of the guest-friendships and purifies and cleanses those who are loved, or because the salty and sea water is naturally more purifying than the sweet, as it seems to others and not to me, or because it disappears. And the proverb: the sea washes away all human evils. "Frozen" because it has solidified from water; for Poseidon is the overseer of the sea, from which the salts are formed, hence the "frozen".

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§ 136  "Aloitos" is the sinner EM 69 48 I say so "etles theon"; whoever you are, not respecting those who honored the tombs of Lycus and Chimaireos - he speaks of Menelaus and the Laconians with him - neither the love of Antheus and this and this "etles" and you endured "the aloitos" and sinner "to step out" and trample the "justice" of the "gods" that is, you wronged Menelaus who cleansed you of murder and entertained you by taking his wife. The rest write "dike" without the 'n' saying so (63 12); "Who" this and this doing "etles and aloitos" and sinner to appear that is, to become biased in the "justice" of the "gods" of Hera, Aphrodite and Athena. But this is full of folly; for after eating in the houses of Menelaus, Alexander did not judge, but before.

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§ 137  "Laxas trapezan"; he speaks of the table of Menelaus. "Laxas trapezan" kicked like a donkey the table of Menelaus that is, despising the existing laws and the customs that indicate not to harm the table companions and co-diners; for you, being entertained and having eaten with him, took away his wife. This comes from the verb lactizo, lactiso, the aorist elactisa and the participle lactisas and in syncope laxas and by the change of 'ks' to 'x' laxas. "And having upset Themis" and having overturned the just. According to the myth, Themis is the goddess overseeing justice.

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§ 138  They say that Alexander, when he was exposed, was nursed by a bear in the mountains. "Nursed by a bear"; adopting the ways of a nursing bear, either by taking them on, for when animals nurse, they become more savage in the protection of their offspring. Or thus: having taken on the ways of the nursing bear, that is, appearing beastly and unjust towards Menelaus. For they say that after the dream appeared to Hecabe about Alexander, Priam gave Alexander to his servant Archelaus to expose on Mount Ida. A bear nursed him for five days while he was exposed, then Archelaus took him back and raised him as his own, naming him Paris. Later, having defended his flocks from robbers, he was called Alexander.

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§ 139  "For you will strum"; therefore, because you have become unjust, "you will strum in vain" and you will move "for you will strum" from a proverb (Paroem. II 752 47) you will strike the strings in vain and you will touch not for food and gifts while playing the lyre. He hints at the fate of a man. "You will strum", you will strike, you will touch and play the lyre without food. Eg (×EM 817 14) "For you will strum"; therefore, because you have become unjust, "you will strum in vain" and you will move "the stroke of the strings" that is, the fate. The figure is solemn. It is said from a proverb of lyre players playing the lyre without food and without gifts, which is this: you strike the strings in vain. The ancients had a custom, as Callimachus (fr. 373) also reports, to go around the seas with lyres and sing praises.

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§ 141  "And weeping for his country"; but you will come and arrive in your homeland, Troy, which was previously burned by Heracles because of the promise and the deception of Laomedon's horses.

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§ 142  "An image in his hands"; holding the image of Helen in your hands, which Proteus gave you to keep Helen.

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§ 143  "Of the five-bedded" Helen; for five men married her: Theseus, Menelaus, Paris, Deiphobus, and Achilles in a dream. He calls Helen a five-bedded bacchant or thyad; for five men married her, first Theseus who abducted her when she was seven years old, as Duris of Samos says. But when he was defeated by Polydeuces and Castor, her own brothers, in Aphidnae, a town of Athens, she gave birth to Iphigeneia, whom Clytemnestra claims as her adopted daughter. So, Theseus was Helen's first bridegroom, as we said, second was Menelaus who legally took her by lot, third was Alexander who abducted her, fourth after Alexander's death was Deiphobus, Alexander's brother, who distinguished himself in war and took her as a prize according to some, or by force according to Euripides. Fifth was Achilles who, before Deiphobus, coupled with her in a dream, as they jest. "Thyad" is derived from the verb "to rush", and the bacchants were women who were sacred to Dionysus, his attendants, who roamed the mountains with him, hunted lions and other beasts with their own hands, ate raw meat, and when they were thirsty, they struck the earth and rocks with their thyrsi, causing milk, honey, and wine to gush forth. They wore serpents coiled around their hair. "Pleuronian" is a local term for "of Argos". For Pleuron is a city of Peloponnese, and Therapne likewise, hence Orpheus and Tryphiodorus call Helen "Therapnaean", but this Lycophron calls her "Pleuronian", and Homer calls her "Argive".

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§ 144  "For the lame": the following thus: the lame "amnamoi" of Tethys, he means the Fates, for the lame are "amnamoi" or in my opinion, the lame-making and harmful Fates are "amnamoi" and descendants of Tethys or the sea, who spun and apportioned the "eunasteras" of Helen's "marriages", the "five-bridegroom bridal chambers" to share, "or the lame" are naturally lame or those who make lame, from the verb "to harm". They are said to be lame because they do not quickly come to men. "Amnamoi" are the descendants in the Cyrenaic dialect, but properly "amnamoi" are the descendants of lambs. "Amnamoi are the descendants": properly, in the Cyrenaic dialect, the lambs of lambs are called "amnamoi", that is, the lambs of rams; for before they grow horns they are called "amnamoi". He calls the Fates daughters of the sea because of their wild and unchangeable nature. For these are daughters of Night according to Hesiod, and this too is similar because the fated things come invisibly. There are three Fates, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. And these names are formed from the notion of being spun, the lot to be drawn from what is fated for someone, and from being unturning and unchangeable.

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§ 145  With the 'spindles' I am referring to the threads next to the distaff that I am working on. The 'pine' represents the living creature next to the pine tree, which signifies filth. The term 'long-lasting' and from it 'enduring' and 'endurance'. He refers to the sea as 'long-lasting' and 'ancient' because it was the first element according to Pherecydes and Thales.

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§ 147  "Two indeed saw the snatchers and saw "wolves"; the "devoured" is a common phrase; he refers to Theseus and Alexander as snatchers and "wolves" and winged eagles as "triorches" and "ophthalmias" and the sharpest-eyed he refers to the same. He mixes the unmixed, calling the eagles winged wolves in imitation of the mad Cassandra.

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§ 148  "Winged" because after seizing her with ships they fled, and the wings of the ships are the oars. Triorchos (Ar. Av. 1206) and triorches (ib. 1181) and morphnos (Omega 316) and melanostes and melas (sch. Phi 252) and haliaetos and perknos (Omega 316) are species of eagles. "Winged triorches" either he called the eagles clear-eyed — a species of hawks †ophthalmobolous — or Helen being clear-eyed and deceiving men through her eyes. Or a species of hawk sharp-sighted and ophthalmobolous. "Ophthalmias" either eagles "ophthalmias" and sharp-eyed — for they alone of other birds look against the rays of the sun — or snatchers of the "ophthalmias" either of clear-eyed Helen. But he first mentioned the lawful snatchers not preferring them, but according to the method of rhetorical skill as about to pass by their things, and to slow down with the hypothesis of the lawful bridegrooms just as also Ephoros (Diod. I 9) the historian and Diodorus do starting first from the barbaric in passing and writing, but in the Greek later broadening the history. Otherwise: if the "ophthalmias" were said of the eagles, it indicates their sharp-sightedness; they say (Aristot. 1. 1.) for they test their young in this way: if indeed they look towards the sun sharp-sighted, judging these as their own they love them, if not sharp-sighted, they quickly throw these away as strangers; but if it were said of Helen, he says the sharp-sighted and looking towards lust.

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§ 149  "And from Plyne"; Plyne is a Libyan place. 〈"And from Carican rivers"〉 from Lacedaemon. For the Carians once inhabited Lacedaemon. Or Plyne is a place in Libya, from where Atlas was, from Atlas they say Menelaus descended. For Sterope was the daughter of Atlas, and of Sterope and Hyperochus was Oenomaus, of whom was Hippodameia, and of her and Pelops was Atreus, of whom Menelaus and Agamemnon were from mother Aerope of Crete. "And from Plyne" Menelaus who was born from the root of those men, who were from the city of Plyne of Libya and who were from the Carican rivers that is from Lacedaemon; for Caricus is also a river and a place of Laconia †T. For Menelaus was also Libyan and Laconian thus; Plyne is a city of Libya, from where was Atlas; Pleione and Atlas had seven daughters, one of whom was also Sterope Sterope and Hyperochus or Harpine the daughter of Asopus and Ares was Oenomaus, Oenomaus had Hippodameia, of whom and Pelops was Atreus who settled in Laconia Atreus and Aerope had Agamemnon and Menelaus; but Aerope was the daughter of Catreus of Crete hence he called Menelaus "half-Cretan".

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§ 150  "Half-Cretan barbarian": for Menelaus' mother, Aerope, was from Crete, and Pelops was Lydian, and the Lydians are barbarians. Therefore, "half-Cretan barbarian". The "not Argive" (151) is from the common "not", neither "Epeian" nor "Argive". "Epeian, not Argive": some say that he was born in Elis because Oenomaus reigned there. So he says that he is neither Epeian nor Argive in the strict sense. But now Argive stands for Lacedaemonian, as Homer says "Argive Helen" (B 161). "Barbarian", because Pelops was Lydian according to some, and Paphlagonian according to others, and both the Lydians and the Paphlagonians are barbarians. "Epeian, not Argive" I say thus: the "Epeian" is either the Elean, the "not pure" and clear "Argive"; for the Eleans are from a certain ancient Epeius. Others say thus: the not "Epeian" is either Elean the "not pure Argive" in the "lineage", and they also say this figure is from the common, but it is not from the common, but synecdoche; for the figure from the common has the rendering in the first speech, but in the second it is taken from the common, like "I love you, since you also me", the "you love" is understood from the common; but synecdoche is opposite to the common; for in the second it has the rendering, in the first not having it rather as the "Epeian, not pure Argive". Behold the "not pure Argive" being second to the "Epeian" has the rendering, and we understand this also in the "Epeian" saying "Epeian, not pure Argive", just as it also has the said statement; for in the second it has the rendering; in the first not having it rather in the second it has it attached to the speech, but still we understand it also in the first. But the pure is from the clear-sighted someone is.

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§ 152  "His grandfather": Tantalus, having invited the gods to a feast, sacrificed his son Pelops, so that they might eat, showing his hospitality. But they, knowing, refrained, only Demeter did not know because she was mad due to the abduction of Kore, hence taking the shoulder blade she ate it. But the gods, pitying him, threw him into a cauldron and restored him healthy and whole, and instead of the eaten shoulder blade they put an ivory bone, which happened to be a sign for the descendants of Pelops, just as the spear was for the Spartans. But this is the mythical part of the story, the truth we solve thus: Tantalus was pious and god-fearing and a priest and by his philanthropy he later told the mysteries of the gods to the uninitiated and was expelled from the priestly catalogue. His son Pelops, having fallen ill all over his body, was cut with incisions and cauterizations and various surgical operations and having barely become healthy, they said that he still had a remnant of the cauterizations and the incisions, the shoulder blade half-cut and gray and whitening due to the weakness of the flesh, as if the father, when the gods were entertained, had cut him, or such a fated disease had come to him - for fate is also a god - the father had cut him with the incisions of the doctors, then also with the cauterizations, by which he was also healed. But since some part of the shoulder blade had become rotten earth and was buried, hence it was gray and whitening, they mythologized that Demeter had eaten this. "With jaws" means with jaw teeth. Ennaia and Herkyna and Erinys.

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§ 153  "Erinnys' Fence" is a name for Demeter. And Callimachus calls Demeter Erinnys, saying "To Erinnys of Tilphusa" (fr. 207). And Erinnys is said to either derive from the act of fulfilling curses or from dwelling in love and in the earth, as also the term Ennaia, or because Erinnys, having been likened to, mingles with Poseidon and gives birth to the horse Areion. Or thus: for they say that when Poseidon fell in love with her, she herself transformed into a horse and, having entered among a herd of horses, disturbed the horses because a strange horse suddenly appeared. So the horse-keeper said: where does this Erinnys come from? Hence, Erinnys. But also the Arcadians honor her in this way. Hercyna, the daughter of Trophonius, established the goddess in Lebadea of Boeotia and named her after herself, Herkyna. The impulsive and enthusiastic Thurian, they mock, because of the abduction of Kore. But the truth is, she wages war against all people and, like a sword-wielder, kills us; and if they call her "sword-bearing" it is because in Boeotia Demeter is established holding a sword, hence they called her sword-bearing. The impulsive and enthusiastic Thurian, they mock, because of the abduction of Kore.

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§ 154  "Without flesh" means full of flesh. "Cutting into small pieces" means cutting into small pieces, from the less, as they say (EG 395 39) and from the verb 'till' meaning 'cut' and by the change of the diphthong into a monophthong. "Pharynx" — and "pharos" — instead of the throat. Eg (×EM 788 30 EO 116 20) "He buried her in a tomb": he buried her in the "tomb" symbolically instead of saying he ate. But now he calls her stomach a tomb. The "he buried" is long without the 'n' as ending in a part of speech; for it is a common syllable.

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§ 155  "The shoulder bone" is the bone of the shoulder blade. Cartilage is softer than bone, but harder than a tendon. "Dining on" means eating.

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§ 156  "Who indeed twice came of age": the following: "Zeus sent" Pelops to compete in the "rock of Molpis" and to kill Oenomaus who was killing his sons-in-law in the "murderous councils" of the "innocent" Myrtilus. "Murderous" because Pelops killed Oenomaus, his father-in-law, with the councils of Myrtilus. "Twice came of age" means revived. Eg (EM) says then that after the butchery of Pelops, the gods revived him. Eg (EM 279 15).

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§ 157  "Of Laomedon" of Poseidon; for he loved him and wanted to seize him. "Or of Naumedon" of the king of ships "or of Lamedon" of the sea, according to the interpretation. Zeus sent Pelops from Lydia. Some heard "Erechtheus" of Poseidon, others of Zeus. "Whom" Pelops "twice" in his prime and "fleeing" the rapacious "desire" of "Naumedon" or of Poseidon, the ruler of ships — even if some have a transcription error of "Laomedon" — "Erechtheus" Zeus or Poseidon sent, from the verb erechtho, meaning to stir, saying "he sent" where? To the "Laetrinaeans" or the Laitrinaean "lands" or the places and fields so as to wage war and win and destroy the "son-in-law killer" Oenomaus. He says that Pelops came of age twice, since he first reached his natural age, and secondly, having been cut up and cooked, as they say, he was served to the gods and came of age again. After this serving, Poseidon fell in love with him, from whom Pelops, having received winged horses along with the chariot, went to Elis, defeated the suitor-killing Oenomaus, and killed the twelve suitors who had been killed before. This is how he kills him: Hippodameia, the daughter of Oenomaus and Eurythoe, daughter of Danaus, who was also loved by her own father and for this reason was not given in marriage as the more accurate historians write, was loved and by Myrtilus, who was her father's charioteer, and happened to be the son of Hermes and Cleobule, daughter of Aeolus or Aipolus. This woman, seeing the handsome Pelops after the killing of the twelve suitors, was seized by love for him and tells Myrtilus to cooperate with the young man for the victory over her father. He, not inserting the nails into the hubs of the wheels, caused Oenomaus to be defeated and killed by Pelops in the race when the wheels fell off, or, as some say, instead of iron nails, he inserted wax ones into the axle of the chariot and thus Pelops defeated Oenomaus. For Oenomaus gave to the suitors Hippodameia to have on their own chariots, setting the end of the race and the prize of the marriage the Corinthian isthmus, if they could reach it, while he himself, driving behind them with a spear, caught up with them and killed them. Then, being defeated in this way by deceit and being killed, he cursed Myrtilus, knowing the plot, so that he would be killed by Pelops, which later happened. For Pelops, having taken Hippodameia and passing through a certain place, departed when she was thirsty, in order to fetch her water. But while Pelops was away, Myrtilus attempted to force himself upon Hippodameia. When Pelops returned and heard this from her, as many say, he threw Myrtilus off the cape of Geraistos. As he was dying, Myrtilus cursed the descendants of Pelops with terrible curses, which were later fulfilled, especially after the birth of the golden lamb of Hermes in the flocks of Atreus, due to the schemes of Myrtilus' father, from which the terrible events of the tragedy arose. The place Geraistos was named the Myrtoan Sea after the death of Myrtilus there. Pelops, having gone to the Ocean and been purified by Hephaestus, took over the kingdom of Pisa from Oenomaus and named the Pelasgian Apia, as it was called, Peloponnesus.

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§ 157.59  Regarding the myth that Poseidon fell in love with Pelops after his purification, Pindar also says in a mythical way, "the earth-holder fell in love with him" and again he says from Pelops' perspective, "me, the daughter". Pindar says these things about Poseidon's love for Pelops in a mythical way. Apollonius of Rhodes also speaks about the manner of the chariot race, writing "in it - to split". The idea that Poseidon fell in love with Pelops after his purification is either a suspicion or an allegory. For Pelops was previously, as we said, very sick and weak; but after he was purified, that is, he recovered and was healed, as we said, Poseidon, that is, he became spirited and brave; for they call the spirited and brave sons and lovers of Poseidon.

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§ 157.80  The chariot given to him by Poseidon was a ship with winged blades, with which he departed and, having his own chariot in it, he went out and defeated Oenomaus. But, my friend, do not stir up Tzetzes' mind by saying to write everything more broadly; for instead of clarity, he will create obscurity with the multitude, detailing every story and applying allegory in myths not allegorized by Lycophron. "A rapturous desire", since, as he says in a mythical way, Poseidon, having fallen in love, seized him.

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§ 158  Poseidon or Zeus sent "Erechtheus", from the verb erechtho meaning to stir, to Laetrina, which is a place in Elis. Zeus sent him, either fate or the sea, also Poseidon, to wage war against Oenomaus. He sent him from Lydia or from Paphlagonia according to some. "Limbs": the word limb, even if it has an added i, is still short due to the comparison of the vowels and the gaping; for all such syllables are common.

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§ 159  Run on the smooth, wide and broad side of the 'Molpis Rock', Elis.

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§ 160  "When Zeus was feasting"; during a drought in Elis, they were instructed to sacrifice a noble child to end the drought. They willingly sacrificed a certain Molpis, and immediately rain fell. The Eleans made a sanctuary to Zeus the Rain-bringer, in which stands a statue of Molpis. For a certain noble Elean named Molpis, during a drought in Elin, having heard from an oracle that the drought would end with the sacrifice of a noble youth to Zeus, offered himself for sacrifice, and immediately after the sacrifice, rain poured. The Eleans made a sanctuary to Zeus Ombrios (Rain-bringer), in which stands also a statue of Molpis. Therefore, he calls Elis the "Rock of Molpis", where Oenomaus competed with the suitors of his daughter Hippodameia and, defeating them, killed them. So, Pelops came and competed, defeated Oenomaus, and won Hippodameia. Therefore, he calls Elis the "Molpidos Rock", where Oenomaus competed with the suitors of his daughter Hippodameia and, defeating them, was about to build a temple from their skulls, just as Antaeus, Euenos, Phorbas, Diomedes the Thracian, and Cycnus, who was killed by Herakles, did.

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§ 161  "Son-in-law killer"; for Pelops defeated Oenomaus by the treachery of Hippodameia and Myrtilos, who made the wheels of his chariot fall off in the race by removing the iron linchpins that were outside and holding the wheels from coming off in the race. "Son-in-law killer who destroyed" Oenomaus. But he calls Oenomaus "son-in-law killer" because he killed the suitors of his daughter. And a son-in-law killer is one who kills his sons-in-law, but a son-in-law killed is one who is killed by a son-in-law. And similarly for father-in-law killer and father-in-law killed and the rest. For all such words can take two accents, the active ones the acute accent like the son-in-law killer who kills his sons-in-law, and the passive ones the circumflex accent like the son-in-law killed who is killed by a son-in-law.

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§ 162  Hermes is called Cadmilos by the Tyrsenians. Cram. AP IV 21 24 †EG 290 23

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§ 162  "He prepared. But the last"; Lycophron jests at the last cup. So he says the last "cup" of "Nereus" instead of the last drink of the sea, having drunk "or the last cup of Nereus" he dived into the so-called Myrtoan sea. The following can be read in two ways, both "Nereus' graves" and "cup". "Cadmilos"; Hermes is called Cadmilos in Boeotian, whose son was also Myrtilos, the charioteer of Oenomaus. "He prepared" means he made. I have told the story in detail earlier. "But the last cup of Nereus he drank and dived" and he swam into the "graves" of "Nereus" the "famous" or into the Myrtoan sea, as I said. The figure of speech is a jest and a witticism. Nereus is mythically a sea deity, the father of the Nereids, daughters of Doris and Oceanus, but allegorically Nereus is the sea, from the verb necho (to swim).

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§ 165  "Stain" means pollution, filth. The phrase "all-destroying stain" refers to the curse that Myrtilos cast on the lineage of Hippodameia because he was thrown into the sea for being in love with her, as Euripides says in the Orestes (990). Myrtilos was the charioteer of Oenomaus, and Psylla was the name of a horse. "All-destroying stain" was said because, being thrown into the sea, he cursed the lineage of Hippodameia and of Pelops. "Thouxas" primarily means "he who played the syrinx", but now it means "he who cursed". Psylla and Harpinna (167) were the horses of Oenomaus, of which Myrtilos was the charioteer. "Equal to harpies with their claws" is a bad use of the part for the whole; he should have said "equal to harpies with their feet". Harpies are mythically some kind of demons, Aello, Ocypete, and Celaeno, sisters of Iris and daughters of Thaumas and Electra, the daughter of Oceanus. Harpies are also said to be certain predatory birds, hence they mythologized the daughters of Phineus, Eraseia and Harpyreia, to be birds snatching food from the old man's mouth. Allegorically, harpies are the winds, as they are now, from the act of flying in the air. "Equal" has a long "i" elsewhere, but here it is short. But if it is accepted as long, the verse is not flawed, but has the so-called lame iambic meter. For the iambic meter, like the heroic, has various afflictions.

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§ 168  "And the fourth one": After the death of Alexander, Helen married Deiphobus. So he says that Deiphobus took the second place in the war. For Hector had the first place, and this one was the best of Priam's sons after him. "Of the war-causer" refers to Helen; that's why he said "of the wrestling", since the war was caused because of her; and he is the second to marry Helen after Alexander. "And the fourth one" will see the "blood-related" groom and the brother of the "falcon" and the hawk of the "waterfall" and the killer of Hector; he is talking about Deiphobus: "whom" they will "proclaim" and praise "having taken the second place of the war-causer" in wrestling. And some say that "war-causer" wrestling means Helen, instead of: because of whom many fell into mistakes and misfortunes. But I say that the stumbling and falling wrestling moves of the war are like instead of: whom they will proclaim Deiphobus to have the second place in the war wrestling moves after Hector. And this is a lie of the poet; for after Hector, Troilus, Hector's brother, and not Deiphobus, was second in the war. Or so, that he himself is the second to marry Helen after Alexander. Or perhaps it is also appropriate to call Helen the "war-causer" wrestling, and Alexander the "falcon", the "waterfall" and the "snatcher"; for after Philoctetes was brought from Lemnos and shot and killed Alexander, Deiphobus married Helen, or Priam himself set her as a prize for the one who excelled in war and he himself took her as having excelled, as others say, or he alone took her away, as Euripides says in the Troades (seqq. 959. 960).

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§ 171  "And on the fifth day, he will send him to the idol-maker," and with his body "from dreams he will be spun" - that is, he will make him move and suffer in dreams, seeing a phantom of herself, as if he were having intercourse with her. He is referring to Achilles.

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§ 172  "From dreams, the fifth one spun," he says of Achilles; for he mingled with her in a dream. 5 "Spun" instead of "disturbed."

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§ 173  "With his speech" now with his whole body, but specifically with his face, because it is easier for the character of the soul to appear through it.

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§ 174  "The bridegroom to be"; for they tell a tale that after death, Achilles took Medeia, the daughter of Aietes, in the islands of the blessed. "The bridegroom to be" Achilles, who is about to marry Medeia in Hades. For they tell a tale that he married her in the islands of the blessed, she being the daughter of Aietes and Eidyia, the daughter of Oceanus. Medeia is from Kytai; for Kytai is a city in Colchis. Kytai is a city in Colchis, hence he called her Kytaike. The Colchians are Indian Scythians, also called Lazoi, living near the Abasgoi, who were formerly Massagetai, whose drugs the Colchians use daily. Aietes came to the Colchians, not being pleased with the kingdom of Corinth. For Aietes and Aloeus are sons of Helios and Perse, the daughter of Oceanus. Helios divided the kingdom among his sons, giving Arcadia to Aloeus, Corinth to Aietes. Aietes, not being pleased with Corinth, entrusted it to Bounos, the son of Hermes and a nymph, and he himself went to the Colchians, instructing Bounos to guard the kingdom of Corinth, until either he himself or one of his descendants should arrive. In Colchis, Aietes married Eidyia, the daughter of Oceanus, in the city of Kytai, and fathered Medeia and Apsyrtos. The sisters of Aietes and Aloeus, or daughters of Helios, are Circe and Pasiphae, and according to others (Mal. p. 153) also Calypso. Regarding the division of the kingdom of Helios to his sons Aietes and Aloeus, Theopompos of Chios makes mention of the historian and poet Eumelus of Corinth, saying: "But when — the earth". Note that most historians (κ 139 c. sch.) say that Aietes and Aloeus are the sons of Perse and Helios, but this Eumelos says they are the sons of Antiope and Helios. Otherwise: this is told in two ways. For some say that Achilles, having mingled with Helen in a dream, desired to see her, having erotic feelings from the dream, and asked her to come to the wall, so that he could see her; so the Trojans, being persuaded, brought her to the wall, and he, seeing her, felt even more love for her. Others say that, seeing her for the first time on the wall, he was seized with love and asked his mother to help him to have intercourse with her. She made it seem in a dream that he was having intercourse with her and so he was comforted. "But the one who creates images" will be consumed by her beauty and his love for her in dreams.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 175  Xenobakche was driven to Bacchic madness and killed her own brother Apsyrtos. "Xenobakche" means of Medea, because she fell in love with the stranger Jason; driven to madness, she cut her brother Apsyrtos into pieces. The story is found in Apollonius of Rhodes, and Pindar also mentions it, saying in P. IV 125 "the oracle" - 127 "unbending". The breadth of the story according to Pherecydes and others (sch. Pind. P. IV 133) is as follows: Tyro, the daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, was raised by Cretheus, the brother of Salmoneus. Poseidon, having mingled with her, begets the twins Pelias and Neleus, whom the mother exposes to horse-keepers. Having been raised, they recognized their mother and killed their stepmother Sidero, even though she had fled to the sanctuary of Hera. Neleus, having quarreled with Pelias, went to Messenia and founded Pylos. Pelias, living in Thessaly, had children with Anaxibia the daughter of Bias, or Philomache, the daughter of Amphion: Acastus, Peisidice, Pelopia, Hippothoe, Alcestis. Cretheus, having founded Iolcus, begets from Tyro, his niece, Aeson, Amythaon, Pheres. After Cretheus, Pelias reigned over Iolcus, to whom the oracle was that he would die by one of the descendants of Aeolus, one of whom was Jason, the son of Aeson and Polymede, the daughter of Autolycus. Therefore, Pelias was about to kill all the descendants of Aeolus, and he was also about to kill Jason, who was still an infant, as a descendant of Aeolus, but his relatives, having kept watch over him during a deep night, put him in a coffin with tears and led him out as if he were dead. Having brought him to the cave of Chiron, they gave him to be raised and educated, as Pindar also says (196). Having grown in age, he came down from the cave and, according to Apollonius and the others (sch. Pind. 133), he was plowing around the Anaurus river. Pelias, having received another oracle, heard to beware of a man with one sandal, as Pindar also says "keep the one-sandaled man in great custody" (133). Having learned this oracle, he sacrificed to Poseidon, called everyone to the sacrifice, and saw Jason with one sandal; for crossing the Anaurus river "one sandal was washed away in the mud, and he left the other there, stuck in the streams", as Apollonius says. Seeing him with one sandal, Pelias asked him: "What would you do if there was an oracle that you should be killed by someone?" Guided by the advice of Hera, he replied: "I would send him to fetch the Golden Fleece." This Golden Fleece was from a ram, which had carried Phrixus to Colchis. There, as they say, he sacrificed it to Phyxian Zeus and hung it on a tree in the grove of Ares. A dragon, as large as a fifty-oared ship in length and thickness, as Pindar says, guarded it (436). So, according to his own judgment, Pelias ordered Jason to go and fetch the fleece. Jason, boarding the Argo, which had the most articulate beam made from the Dodonaean oak, and taking with him other men, fifty in total, sailed to Colchis and asked Aeetes to give them the fleece. Aeetes said he would give it, if they could yoke the fire-breathing bulls of Hephaestus and sow the dragon's teeth, which Aeetes himself had, given to him by Athena from those sown by Cadmus in Thebes. Medea, the daughter of Aeetes, fell in love with Jason. She anointed him with potions and protected him from the fire of the bulls. She led him by night to the fleece, enchanted the dragon, took it, and sailed with the Argonauts, taking her brother Apsyrtus with her. As Aeetes pursued them, she cut Apsyrtus into pieces and threw him into the sea. Aeetes, collecting his son's pieces, fell behind in the pursuit, then sent the Colchians after them. They passed the Eridanus, the Syrtis islands, and the Sirens while Orpheus played his lyre; only Butes went out to them. After the Sirens, they passed Charybdis, the blue cliffs of Scylla, and Thetis guided them through at the request of Hera. They passed Thrinacia, which had the cattle of Helios, and came to Phaeacia, to King Alcinous. Of the Colchians who pursued them, some settled in the Keraunian mountains, others in Illyria and the Apsyrtides islands, and some in Phaeacia. Arete married Jason and Medea and gave them twelve maidservants. They passed Crete, Aegina, Euboea, and Locris and reached Iolcus, completing the entire voyage in four months. Pelias, having learned of the arrival of the Argonauts, wanted to kill Aeson, who drank the blood of a bull while sacrificing and died. Jason's mother hanged herself, leaving behind her infant son Promachus. Pelias also killed him. And Jason, having given the fleece to Isthmus, sailed and dedicated the Argo to Poseidon. He urged Medea to go to Pelias because of the murder of his relatives. She boiled a ram and made it a lamb, and the daughters of Pelias, wanting to do the same, killed Pelias. Akastos pursued Medea and Jason, and they spent a year in Corinth. Jason, taking Glauce, the daughter of Creon, greatly upset Medea, who killed Glauce with potions, as well as Creon and her own children, Mermeros and Pheres, with a sword. She then left for Athens on a chariot drawn by winged dragons, married Aegeus, the son of Pandion, and gave birth to Medus. Later, after plotting against Theseus, she was expelled from her homeland with her son, who, having conquered the barbarians, named the land after himself, Media, and died while campaigning in India. Medea, unknown, came to the Colchians and gave the kingdom back to her father, having killed Perses, her brother, who had expelled him from the kingdom. Thus, many historians say that the voyage of the Argonauts to Colchis happened because Jason told Pelias that, if he knew I was going to kill him, I would have sent him to bring me the golden fleece, and Pelias, according to his own judgment, ordered him to bring it. Pindar (P IV) says that Jason, having descended from the cave of Chiron and having been recognized by his father and relatives, feasted and dined with them, then quickly went to Pelias and asked for the kingdom of his ancestors in the midst of a large crowd. Pelias promised to give it to him, first telling him to go to Colchis and recall the soul of Phrixus three times according to the law; for he said he was disturbed by nightly fears because of Phrixus. If you go, he says, and do this and bring the fleece - for you are young, and I am old - I give you the kingdom. He said this, hoping that he would be killed by the dragon when he left. The words of Pindar are as follows: 150 "He stood" - 152 "crowd" and a little later he says 261 "not - to cut down. The fugitive of Oenone"; Zeus had Aegina, the daughter of Asopus, in his bed in a place called Phlious. When Sisyphus told Asopus about Zeus's affair, Asopus hurried to learn the truth. Zeus, knowing this, changed her into an eponymous island, and gave Sisyphus a punishment in Hades to carry a large stone. When Aegina gave birth to Aeacus and because he was alone on the island and was unhappy, he prayed to Zeus to change the ants there into men, which happened.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 175bis  "Whom Oenone once..." Oenone was the name of Aigina, from which Peleus fled after murdering his own brother Phocus. Once, when Aeacus prayed, ants turned into men, hence they are called Myrmidons. Others say about the ants that Peleus, after killing his own brother, fled and arrived in Thessaly, where he lacked an army. After praying to Zeus, the ants were transformed into men, hence they are called Myrmidons. "Exile" refers to Peleus; for Aeacus and Endeis had sons Telamon and Peleus, and their brother Phocus was born from Psamathe, one of the Nereids. Peleus struck Phocus with a discus in the gymnasium, and Telamon struck him with a sword in the back, killing him. Hence, they were driven from Aigina by Aeacus. Telamon then inhabited the island of Salamis; for Cychreus, the son of Poseidon and Salamis, the daughter of Asopos, after killing a snake that was ravaging the island, became its king. Dying childless, he left the kingdom to Telamon, who had fled to him. Peleus, according to Pherekydes, was purified by Eurytus, the son of Actor, whose daughter Antigone he took. After she was hanged, he went to Phthia and, taking Thetis, lived in Pharsalos and Thetideion, a city named after Thetis, according to Phylarchos, because she, having armed herself, fled Hephaistos and, not fulfilling his love, was struck on the foot by his hammer. Coming to Thessaly, she healed herself in the place named after her, Thetideion. According to Euripides, Thetis, pursued by Peleus, transformed herself, like Proteus, into various forms. There, he caught her in the form of a cuttlefish and mated with her, hence the place in Magnesia of Thessaly is called Sepias. Thus, he calls Peleus an exile of Oenone, or Aigina; for Aigina was first called Oenone, from Oenone, the daughter of Boudion, as Pythainetos says in the first book of the Aiginetans. Aigina was renamed, as everyone says, from Aigina, the daughter of Asopus. Because of the murder of Phocus, his mother Psamathe made a great wolf to destroy the cattle of Peleus, which she again turned to stone at the request of Thetis. Others say that Thetis turned this wolf to stone as it was eating the cattle, which Peleus was sending as compensation to Acastus for Actor, his son, whom he had unintentionally killed in a hunt. Others say that Peleus had Polymele, the daughter of Actor, as a wife before Thetis. Her brother was Irus, whose son Eurytion, one of the Argonauts, Peleus unintentionally killed in a hunt.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 176  "Ants"; they jest that Aeacus, born to Zeus from Aigina, was left alone on the island of Aigina that came from him. He asked Zeus, who made the ants into men, as Hesiod says in his heroic genealogy. These jests and myths are reported by Theogenes, the historian, in his work about Aigina. He says that when the island was underpopulated, the people lived in caves, unadorned, and stored their harvested crops in the caves, carrying the dug-up soil to their farms as the island was lacking in soil, especially in the plains. Aeacus came with some people from Peloponnesus, settled the island, and civilized it, teaching everything about war and, in general, all the things that people use. Hence, they invented the story that Zeus, to do a favor to Aeacus, turned the ants of the island of Aigina into men. That is, the fate and the mind of Aeacus - for Zeus is also called fate and mind - transformed them and adjusted them to act like humans in all their deeds. This Aigina is one of the Sporades islands, located opposite Attica, a colony, as I said, originally belonging to the Argives. Aeacus came with the Lacedaemonians and settled there, and after Aeacus' death, Triakon of Argos came with a multitude and settled in Aigina. The Argives are of the Dorian race. "Hexapezon" means "hexapoun". So, it does not say that Peleus made men out of ants, but that those who were made men by his father, he made them brave in power; for "androzas" means "made brave" (cf. 943). "Androzas" refers to Aeacus in the mythical sense of "made men", but now refers to Peleus as "made soldiers and brave".

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 177  "Typhon"; he refers to Achilles as Typhon because of the hero's bravery. "Pelasgian": Inachos, son of Oceanus and Tethys, Phoroneus and Aegialeus, childless sons of Inachos and Melia daughter of Oceanus, from whom the land is called Aegialeia. Phoroneus, ruling over Peloponnesus, from his wife Teledice, gives birth to Apis and Niobe. Apis, living tyrannically, is killed by Thelxion and Telchis; from him the land of Peloponnesus is also called Apia. Argos, son of Niobe, sister of Apis, and Zeus, from whom the land is named, and according to Acusilaus, Pelasgos along with Argos, from whom the land from Peloponnesus, also called Apia, was named Pelasgia up to Pharsalia and Larissa. Achilles was called "Pelasgian" as being from Pharsalia. Typhon, a hundred-headed demon, fought and was struck by Zeus's lightning, as they say in myth. Pindar says "of hundred-headed Typhon, the violent" (O IV 12), Aeschylus again says about him "with dreadful — flash". It is allegorically interpreted: Typhon is the delusion and vanity having a hundred heads, that is, many ways of arrogance. It is struck by lightning, inflamed, and thrown down by Zeus, that is, by the prudent reasoning. Or Typhon is elementally the violent movement of spirits and combustion after the dissolution of Chaos and Erebus, which was restrained and ceased by Zeus, that is, by the powerful air and sky; for after the sky was strengthened and established in order, the typhonic and fiery spirits were restrained. Since in hollow and fissured places, especially in Sicily, smoke appears during the day, and at the time of night, fire breaking and rolling the rocks of the mountain into the sea — if the water is coming out from the fissured and porous places of the earth, making its exit with force and being squeezed out, it makes the hot baths, if it is air or spirit, being drier and more porous of such places, it cuts and crushes them in the process of coming out and thus makes the fire and the smoke coming out from there fiery — they mythologized that in Sicily Zeus tartarized Typhon, others in Lydia, others in Cilicia and others in Phrygia; and others say that he was tartarized in Boeotia. Artemon the historian says, as I do, that every mountain having an emission is burned by Typhon, to which all the stories converge of those who mythically say in different places that Typhon was tartarized. The Pelasgian calls Achilles "Typhon" or a demon or a fiery-breathing monster because of his terrifying and brave nature and his unstoppable strength. But, my friend, you are moving the horse onto the field of history, begging Tzetzes to expand, but instead of clarity, I will rather create obscurity with the breadth of the histories; for with God's help, we have become more historical than the much-studied Alexander, Apollodorus, the very learned Rheginus, Artemon of Pergamon, Cassander of Salamis, and the rest of the historians, and we know how to allegorize and surpass Cornutus, Palaephatus, Domninus, Cephalion, Heraclitus, and the others, who either borrowed from elsewhere or wrote allegories themselves. For they either allegorized unsuccessfully or very little, like Phicules of Corinth, but we have learned from ourselves both to allegorize broadly and appropriately and to elaborate on the breadth of history. But let us be, man, and do not bother us to write more broadly, lest we become more confused, nor to allegorize in myths that are not allegorized by Lycophron. "Is born" is Attic for "gives birth", the passive instead of the active.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 178  "From seven children"; this Lycophron either does not know where he found or is fabricating this, for "from seven children" is said because Thetis had seven male children from Peleus and she threw six of them into the fire and killed them as unworthy of herself, but she was watched and prevented when it came to Achilles. "From seven children"; this Lycophron either does not know where he found or is fabricating this, he says that Thetis bore seven male children from Peleus and she threw six of them into the fire and killed them as unworthy of herself, but she was watched and prevented when it came to Achilles. Pindar (J VIII 60) says that Poseidon and Apollo quarreled over the marriage of Thetis, but they were prevented by Themis according to some historians, and by Prometheus according to Aeschylus; for he says "or — father's" (Prom. 766). Apollodorus (III 168) says that only Zeus and Poseidon quarreled over the marriage of Thetis, and that Thetis, having been raised by Hera, did not want to be with Zeus, which angered Zeus and he married her to a mortal. By the advice of Chiron, Peleus managed to hold her while she transformed herself into various forms and he mated with her in the form of a cuttlefish (85 5) and the wedding of Peleus took place in Pelion and the gods gave gifts, Poseidon gave the horses Xanthus and Balius, Hephaestus a sword, and the others different things. Thetis, having given birth to the one previously called Liguron according to Apollodorus, later renamed Achilles because he was given to Chiron and raised separately from common food, she would throw him into the fire in the evening, and in the day she would anoint him with ambrosia wanting to make him immortal. But when Peleus saw her throwing him into the fire and cried out, she retreated to the Nereids, and Peleus gave the child to Chiron to be raised. And this is what Apollodorus says. Agamestor of Pharsalus says that Achilles was first called Pyrisous in the Epithalamium of Thetis, then he was named Achilles in such a way, as his words will show: "She named the child Pyrisous, but Peleus called him Achilles, because he took him lying in the dust, in the fire, he wiped off the burning lip without a word from another". Euripides (Andr. 1265) says once that Peleus mated with Thetis in Sepia and others (sch.r ib.) agree with him. "Fepsalo" means fire, which one avoids touching and approaching "spodoumenon" elsewhere means being beaten, now it means being burned "Mounon" instead of "monon" ionically "exalyxanta" means escaped "spodon" elsewhere means the dripping, now it means fire and burning.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 180  "And so," Alexander, having seized Helen, returned again to Troy like a child who has stirred up a nest of deadly wasps with smoke and provoked them. "And so," is an Attic contraction of 'and he'; the 'a' and the 'o' are combined into a large 'ω', and the 'i' was expelled and placed above.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 181  "Deadly wasps" means excessively murderous. And "black." "Deadly wasps" means murderous; he is referring to the Greeks. For wasps are disturbed by smoke. The burrows of snakes, wasps, bees, and any other such animal like a mole and the like are called burrows. A burrow is made from the word 'χῶ' (I make room) and from it comes the word burrow, the den and the burrow of snakes, wasps, bees, and any other such animal like a mole and the like. "Burrow" means a dive.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 182  "House" now means the den. "And they, in turn, will sacrifice the first-born;" the "raw-eaters," Greeks, will "sacrifice" Iphigenia, the "first-born," either the mother who gave birth to Neoptolemus before her sacrifice, or the ancestor of "woe-named" - that is, Alexander; for 'οὐλὰς' means barley. And Alexander, they say, was raised in a pouch, hence they say he is called 'pouch-named' / 'barley-named'. But this is nonsense; he should have said 'pouch-named' or 'sack-named', not 'barley-named'.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 183  "And they, in turn, the first-born mother" refers to the one who first gave birth to Neoptolemus, the eponym of the war. "Of the ill-fated" refers to Neoptolemus. He calls Iphigenia the "first-born mother" because, according to some, Pyrrhus was born from her and Achilles. After her sacrifice, Achilles entrusted his son to Deidamia in Scyros. Therefore, Iphigenia is the first-born mother of Pyrrhus. Others, however, say that it is written "of the ill-fated" to indicate Paris. The word "oulas" means a pouch; therefore, Paris, also known as Alexander, was named so because the shepherds found him abandoned in a pouch. As mentioned, "oulas" means a pouch. "First-born mother": according to some (supr. 14), Neoptolemus was born from Iphigenia and Achilles, but after the sacrifice of Iphigenia on the Euripus, as Pindar says "Iphigenia sacrificed on the Euripus" (P XI 36), Achilles, as some say, entrusted his son to Deidamia on the island of Scyros. Tryphiodorus and all the others know Neoptolemus as the son of Deidamia, the daughter of Lycomedes, and Achilles; for Tryphiodorus says thus "son — of Deidamia" (52). According to the precise historians, Achilles did not have Iphigenia as a wife, but when the winds were detained as the Greeks were sailing in Aulis, the Greeks sent to Mycenae to fetch Iphigenia for a sacrifice. When Clytemnestra asked why they needed her, they said: they are going to marry her to Achilles. Those who tell the truth say that she was brought to Aulis because of Achilles; because of the incident with the winds, they were going to sacrifice her. But Artemis, taking pity on her, according to the historian Phanodemus, transformed her into a bear, according to Nicander into a bull, according to others into an old woman (Al. 196), according to others into a deer. All these are mythical nonsense, but the truth is as follows: when Iphigenia was presented for the sacrifice and was about to be sacrificed, a bear or a bull or an old woman or a deer ran through the middle of the Greek army and was killed according to the seer's instructions. Iphigenia, having been saved, fled to the Scythians and became a temple servant of Artemis and killed all the Greeks who came there. Some, like Duris, say that this Iphigenia, not the daughter of Agamemnon, but born from Helen by Theseus, was adopted as a daughter by Clytemnestra, as I said earlier (54 13). Others do not say that Iphigenia is the daughter of either Helen or Clytemnestra, but they claim that she is the child of Chryseis and Agamemnon, born along with Chryses. After the destruction of Troy, during the return of the Greeks, Chryses was in the so-called Chrysopolis because the Taurian Scythians had captured his sister Iphigenia and made her a priestess of Artemis or the moon. Iphigenia is the ancestor of Paris instead of the progenitor, as if someone would say that Chrysothemis, who was born to Clytemnestra from her previous husband, is the ancestor of Aegisthus. According to some, Iphigenia is the daughter of Helen, as Lycophron himself says "orphaned from two doves". It is not unlikely that Iphigenia, while being sacrificed, ran away as a deer and the Greeks killed her, but let the daughter go; for the Roman Lupercalia saved Julia in the same way: while she was being sacrificed, an eagle swooped down from the priest of the people, snatched the sword and threw it at a cow grazing near the temple, which they then sacrificed instead of her. You are not unaware of the ram tied in the bush instead of Isaac.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 184  "Byktais" refers to strong and echoing winds, from the verb "to dive" and "to hide" the boats. "Byktaisi" primarily refers to the strong winds that dive, hide, and sink the boats, but now it simply means winds. The following: The Greeks, having sacrificed Iphigenia, "prepare" a solid prayer. "Chernipsousi" means they will sacrifice; from the metaphor of the hand-washing, he called the sacrifice a hand-washing as if it purifies. "Porin" means a cow; he is referring to Iphigenia. But "porrin" should be written with two 'rr'; for "portis" was a word and by changing 't' to 'r' it became "porris". This Lycophron does not do such things out of poetic license, but out of a myriad of such things. And yet, even with a short syllable, the verse was flawless; for it is part of the iambic and the so-called limping iambic, which is what this is with the two 'rr'.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 185  "Skyrian dragon" refers to Neoptolemus because of his murderous and bloodthirsty nature; for according to some, Neoptolemus was raised only in Skyros (90 13), but according to me, he was also born there from Deidamia, the daughter of Lycomedes. Skyros is one of the Cyclades islands.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 186  "The one he slept with," they say that after Iphigeneia was snatched by Artemis, Achilles heard that she was in Scythia and set out to find her. Not finding her, he settled near the White Island, which is in the Black Sea. The White Island in the Pontus is so named because of the multitude of white birds that live there. Otherwise, this is the meaning: Achilles, her lover, seeking her, will live for a long time on the so-called White Island, also known as Spilos — this island is near the mouths of the rivers of the Celtic lake — longing for his bride, whom once a deer saved from the swords. "Salmydessias" is a river in Thrace that flows into the Black Sea, from which it got its name [according to Lycophron]. "Salmydessias" is a river in Thrace that flows into the Black Sea, hence the Salmydessian sea from Damalis to the whole of the Black Sea.

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§ 187  "Searching" means groping, feeling, in Aeolic compression of the 's'. "Slayer of Hellas" I have said before (76 13b) that such words can have two accents, the active ones have the acute accent, the passive ones have the circumflex accent or the active ones have the acute accent, the passive ones have the circumflex accent, for example, tomós (the cutter), tómos (the cut). But "Slayer of Hellas" means the one who was beheaded in Aulis from Hellas, or actively the one who beheads the Greeks, "the beheaded of Hellas" the one who is about to be beheaded by the Greeks, or "the beheaded of Hellas" the one who kills the Greeks in Scythia because of her xenocide in Tauris. For such words can have two accents, or the passive ones have the circumflex accent, the active ones have the proparoxytone accent, for example, boupléges (those hit by oxen), boupleges (those who hit oxen).

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§ 188  "Long" but "will inhabit Spilos, whitening" for a long time the so-called White Island 'will inhabit' (93 9). Spilos is said to be an island. "Whitening" the White Island of the Black Sea or the one whitened by the foam of the waves or according to Dionysius the Periegete (544), because many white animals inhabit it, seagulls, swans, and storks. "Spilos" a speckled island. But Keltron is the name of a lake that flows into the Black Sea. In some books "Lektron"; it is the name of a river that flows into the Black Sea. (un. a int. lin.).

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 192  "Deep within the chasm": In Scythia, there is a beach extending to a length of 500 stadia, which is called Achilles' racecourse because Achilles alone ran there and crossed it. It has been common for a long time. "Deep" will be called "deserted racecourse" of the "bridegroom", or of Achilles in that place, which he crossed running. "Deserted" is said because he ran in vain. The Achilles' racecourse was named for such a reason: When Iphigenia was about to be sacrificed in Aulis to Artemis, Artemis snatched her away and sent her to Scythia. Then Achilles fell in love with her and pursued her to a certain place. And from there it was called Achilles' racecourse.

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§ 194  The common phrase "groaning under misfortune and empty ship-owning" and "the unseen form" "changed". Some say that "unseen form" is a bear, others say that a deer was substituted for her, these things were said about what Iphigenia was changed into; some into a bear, others into a deer, but now he says she was changed into an old woman. "Old woman" means the aged one in the sacrifices or the one transformed into an old woman so as not to be recognized by the Greeks and to be snatched away by Artemis. The word "near" is common, but it is a hyperbaton and "near" of the "bowl" of "Hades" of the "flaming from the depths" with fire. "Hades" he calls the bowl, the cauldron, because the slaughtered strangers are thrown into it. Others say it is a chasm in Tauris, from which they say flame is brought, into which Iphigenia threw the ones being killed. "Feasting" refers to cooking and the killing of strangers in Tauris. This and this "near" of the slaughterhouses and of the "basins" and of the altars "near" also of the "bowl" of "Hades" of the "flaming from the depths with fire" which bowl "the Black One" either Persephone or Iphigenia "will puff up" and will inflate "stewing" and cooking the "flesh" of the "perished" either of the humans in "feasting" and culinary art. They were going to sacrifice Iphigenia for such a reason: For Agamemnon went out hunting and, having wounded a deer, boasted and exclaimed: Thus, not even Artemis. But the goddess, angered at this, held back the winds. An oracle was given that, unless Iphigenia was sacrificed, the Greeks heading for Troy would not otherwise encounter winds.

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§ 200  "He will tread the ground"; so Achilles says, he will spend four years in Scythia, mourning, "longing" for the "bed" of Iphigenia; "around the altar" the Greeks, he says, in Aulis of Boeotia, having seen the dragon with its mother eating the sparrows, giving oaths to each other, they will sail to Troy. Some read "Kronos" instead of Kronides, so it refers to Zeus, others instead of Kronos himself and they say that the oracle at Delphi was previously of Kronos, where the Greeks received the prophecy that in the tenth year they will sack Ilium. The following should be understood thus: "of the prophetic Kronos" of the dragon; for the dragon prophesied, as Homer also says (B 308) but later than Kronos. So, Kronos is the prophet "before" the "seer" that is, the dragon prophesying, and the dragon is the later prophet.

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§ 204  "The second of the oaths" from the second or the second since they also gave the first oaths about Helen as Hesiod says (E 165?) but now about the campaign, which is "second". "The second": for they swear for the second time in Aulis, in order to submit to Agamemnon. The Greeks "around" the "altar of prophetic Kronos" or Kronides from the "meat distributor" of the "infants with" their "mother" that is, from the dragon that ate the sparrows and their mother "lifting" and fitting and making the second "yoke" of the "oaths" that is, making second oaths about staying until the end of the war they will arm their strong oar "in their hands". He spoke in reverse instead of they will arm their hands with sturdy oars. He spoke of second oaths in contrast to the first ones given by all the suitors, those who were courting Helen, that if the one who won her by lot as a wife was wronged by someone, they would all help him.

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§ 206  "Savior" but "Bacchus" Dionysus he says they are praising, who saved them previously in Mysia from being destroyed by Telephus, producing spontaneously a vine and tripping Telephus with grapevines, hence he was also called Sphaltes. The production of the vine is a myth, but the allegorical meaning is as follows: either according to some Telephus was drunk or he was tripped by branches of a vine and was wounded by Achilles in the river Caicus of Mysia, as Pindar says (J V41) "For who wounded noble Telephus with his spear by the banks of Caicus? Of those previously", since the Greeks first sailed and having set out to Mysia were chased by Telephus and returned again to Greece. Telephus was the son of Heracles and Auge, the daughter of Aleus the Tegean and Neaira; she placed the baby in the sanctuary of Athena. When a famine occurred, Aleus knowing about the baby, threw it onto the Parthenion mountain; it was suckled by a doe, shepherds finding it named it Telephus. Auge was sold by Nauplius at the command of Aleus to Teuthras, the then ruler of Mysia, who took her as his wife.

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§ 207  "To whomsoever" to whichever "bull" or to the bull-shaped Dionysus "he will begin" and will sacrifice "secret" and mystical "libations in the recesses" of the Delphinian place, that is in Phocis around the "caves" and recesses of the "god of profit" i.e. Apollo; but who will sacrifice the sacrifices? Agamemnon "the commander of a thousand" of the "very destructive army" that is, the leader of a thousand ships destroying cities. "The commander of a thousand" the commander of a thousand ships; he used the perfect number. (cf. Eust. Il. I 274.34) He left out 176 ships to use the round number; for the ships of the Greeks totalled 1,176. Delphinium of Phocis or of Apollo. But by the cave of the Delphinium they say that Agamemnon according to the oracle went to Delphi and sacrificed to Dionysus in the sanctuary of Apollo. Apollo is Delphinius and Profitable because in Pytho he shot and killed the dragon Delphine, who was violating Leto, as Helios says "when under the rocky neck of Parnassus he shot the monstrous Delphine with arrows" (Ap. B 705) or because Apollo either riding on a dolphin or in the likeness of a dolphin showed the way to Castalius the Cretan, being sent to colonize, as far as the Crissaean gulf and Phocis where Castalius settled ... whose son Delphus prevailed over the places and from him the inhabitants called the place Delphi and established a sanctuary of Delphinian Apollo. Some say that as a dolphin he came aboard the ship and from this place he jumped into the sea; hence the place was called Delphi and Apollo Delphinius. Profitable, because through oracles he shows the profitable things. “By the cave”, near the innermost places of the temple. And Dionysus was also honored in Delphi with Apollo in this way: the Titans tore the limbs off Dionysus and gave them to Apollo his brother ? putting them in a cauldron, and he put it next to the tripod as Callimachus says (fr. 374) and Euphorion saying “they threw divine Bacchus over the fire in a bowl” (Mein. AA 49) . Others say that Delphi was named after Delphus son of Poseidon and Melanthus daughter of Deucalion (sch.r Aesch. Eum. 2).

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§ 209  Dionysus is the bull, because they depict him as horned, as Euripides also in Bacchae ( 920) “and he seems to lead us as a bull in front”. But Stesimbrotus also calls him Dionyxon, because he came out horned and scratched the thigh of Zeus. ? “Secret libations” because the mysteries were performed for Dionysus in a side-chamber.

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§ 211  "To whom I offer sacrifices," to whom Dionysus, in return for the sacrifices, will grant Agamemnon a fresh favor by preventing Telephus from capturing the Greeks, by entwining his feet with a vine shoot and hindering him. But he used a bad metaphor: for having called Telephus a lion, he should have called the Greeks oxen or lambs, but he called them ears of grain. This is inappropriate; for a lion does not eat ears of grain. The Greeks, having gone off course from Troy, attacked Mysia as if it were Troy. Telephus, one of the Mysians, came out and killed many of the Greeks. Dionysus, wanting to show gratitude to Agamemnon for the sacrifices made to him, prepared a vine shoot to spring from the earth, tnagling in which Telephus was wounded by Achilles.

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§ 212  Dionysus is called Enorches because his mysteries are performed with dancing. The same is also honored in Arcadia as Phigaleus. And he is called Phausterios because his mysteries are performed with light and torch. The demon Enorches is Dionysus among the Lesbians; they say that two siblings, Thyestes and Daito, had intercourse... from whom a first child Enorches was born, from whom Dionysus is also called Enorches; for his son founded .... from his own name. He is said to be born from an egg. "Demon Enorches" is Dionysus among the Lesbians. For they say that two siblings, Thyestes and Daiso, from an egg, gave birth to a child called Enorches, who, having founded a temple for Dionysus, named him from his own name. Or Enorches is said, because the mysteries were performed with dancing. Or because he spent his time in orchards and plants. But they tell some shameful story; they say Dionysus was groping about for his mother after she was struck by lightning. A certain young man Polyumnos said he would show the way to her, if he would have intercourse with him; and he promised to do this, if he first found his mother. And indeed, by the advice of Polyumnos, having descended into Hades from the spring of Lerna, he brought her up. But when Polyumnos died, Dionysus, wanting to fulfill his promise, attached fig-wood genitals to him and deer skin phalluses, hence, they say, he is also called Enorches. But these people are talking nonsense about the story and they do not know the allegory. The story goes like this: Osiris, who is also Dionysus, being king of Egypt, was cut into pieces by his brother Typhon and his conspirators and was scattered everywhere. Isis, who is also Demeter, wife of Dionysus, with her son Horus, kills Typhon and all his murderers. She collected the parts and limbs of Dionysus and built a temple and sacred place for each one. In the city of Philae in Egypt was the greatest of the temples, which was also a great oath to the Egyptians, they say "by the Osiris in Philae". Anyway, having found all the parts and fearing all the temples, she invented the deer skin phalluses to hang each one for herself and to dance with them, not finding the reproductive parts. And this is the historical part, but the more symbolic part indicates that wine intensifies the senses, hence they depict Dionysus both young and old, in relation to the consumption of wine, both moderate and excessive, and they depict him as an old man who is bald, following this, because those who are drunk reveal the secrets of their thoughts. Hence Alcaeus says (Fr. 53) "For wine is a mirror to men". And there are countless other things about Dionysus or wine symbolically represented, leopards and bacchae and satyrs and androgynous attire and the other things, which it is more laborious to allegorize in a mythical treatise. "Phegaleus" seems to me to be written with an eta, from the fact that he leaps in oak groves and mountains, others (99 8) however, writing it with an iota, say that Dionysus is honored in Arcadia at Phigalea. "Phausterios" is so called, because his mysteries were performed with torches and lamps, the same is also called "Enorches", because his sacrifices are performed with dancing. I say, more allegorically, this Phausterios is from the warmth of the wine.

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§ 213  "Feast lion" Telephus of the "feast" and the banquet "will make" into "not to burn rootless" the "reaping ear" in "tooth and lavishness" and biting jaws. "Will make" but how? The "track entwining" with the "twigs". But now he said twigs of the vine the branches "ear" but the Greeks maliciously attaching to the lion food ears. "To burn ear" he says the Greeks; but it lacks the as so that it may be as "reaping ear" to the "tooth and" the wasteful "jaws".

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§ 216  "I will see long ago indeed" instead of I foresee these things; but he speaks of the voyage to Troy of the Greeks. "Cohort" elsewhere military order now but gathering and collection (infr. 13) of evils from the ships and vessels happening. "I see long ago indeed a cohort"; the metaphor from the dragons that are sown and gathered and hissing. For a cohort is the gathering of snakes. "Of the ships" but from the ship and the gathering of the ships "cohort of evils" he says.

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§ 217  "Dragging"; the following thus: I see long ago indeed a gathering of ships being dragged in the sea "and hissing" and shouting and threatening the homeland or Troy "terrible threats" and burning.

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§ 219  "So that Cadmus does not..." Cadmus is Hermes, by syncope from Cadmilos, like gamphelas to gamphas. Cadmilos is Hermes. He also had a child named Prylis with a certain nymph named Issa, from whom Lesbos was also called Issa. This Prylis, being a seer, was presented to Agamemnon in Lesbos (un. a) otherwise. "So that Cadmus does not..." He turned the speech towards Prylis, who was a seer in Issa or Lesbos, son of Cadmilos and Cadmus Hermes and a certain nymph Issa, from whom Lesbos, also called Mytilene, was named Issa. Prylis, having been presented to the Greeks, proposed the method of the capture of Ilium through prophecy; for he spoke of the construction of the wooden horse, having been persuaded by gifts from Palamedes. Issa is the island of Lesbos, also called Mytilene, surrounded by water, because it is an island. 4 (un. a) Regarding whom she says, Oh Prylis, would that Cadmus did not plant you Prylis and give birth to you, "Cadmus" or Hermes so called by the Boeotians (76 25) in "Issa" and Mytilene the "surrounded" by sea "to plant" but "guide" and interpreter and guide of the Greeks "of the authomaimon" but also relatives of the Trojans "co-digger, fourth" being you from the root of Atlas; for Pleione, the daughter of Oceanus and Atlas, the son of Iapetus and Asia, had seven daughters, as Aratus also says (Ph 257) "six of them are visible to the eyes, but those seven are called in order Alcyone, Merope, Celaeno, Electra, and Sterope and Taygete and the revered Maia". And the children of Celaeno and Prometheus were Lycus and Chimaireus, of Electra and Zeus Dardanos and Eetion, of Sterope and Hyperochus Oenomaus, of Taygete and Zeus Lacedaemon, and of Maia and Zeus Hermes, as Orpheus says in the beginning of the Lithics "gift of the evil-averting Zeus to mortals, called by Maia, the woolly one, came bearing a son, so that we might have him as a grievous aid of valor" and Hipponax in the first iambic against Bupalus shouted (fr. 1) "the son of Maia, the circular" king "palm" and Simonides "of the mountainous Maia with the spiral eyelashes" catalog; for she "in the mountains of Cyllene bore Hermes, the herald of the gods". Hermes, from the aforementioned Issa, begets Prylis, hence he called him the fourth from Atlas. For from Atlas, Maia, as we said, from whom Hermes, from whom Prylis.

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§ 221  "From Atlas"; Atlas, whose daughter was Maia, from whom Hermes was born to Zeus, whose son was Prylis, and again Atlas, whose daughter was Electra, from whom Dardanos was born to Zeus, from whom the Trojans descended; hence, Prylis is related to the Trojans. He refers to Atlas as wretched because Prylis, being his relative, betrayed his own kin.

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§ 222  "A slayer of his own kin" of the Trojan relatives.

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§ 223  "Tomoure" means seer "towards the lost" and the best, clearly the Greek, "most truthful" or most truthful. Tomoure is the seer who sees what is not yet or sees what has not yet happened. Lost is from the word "I want". Truthful is from the negative particle and the verb "I miss", meaning not missing the truth, by syncope.

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§ 224  For since Troy was about to be destroyed by fire because of Alexander, it was fitting that both the one who was born and the one who gave birth should be burned. "Night-walking terrors" because Hecabe seemed to give birth to a fiery torch in a dream. "Nor of Aesacus"; my "father should have repelled the night-walking terrors" or the dreams of Hecabe "and put aside" the "oracles" and commands of Aesacus, he should have hidden for the sake of his homeland in "one fate" or one death "the double" Hecabe and Alexander "the limbs" and the members of these "having covered with ashes" and burning in the first in Lemnos according to Hellanicus found in fire (104 7). Aesacus was the best seer of Priam and Arisbe, daughter of Merops, who later became a hermit mourning his dead wife Merop† daughter of Cebren. Priam gave Arisbe to Hyrtacus and married Hecabe as it happened she was pregnant "not of Aesacus mine"; Aesacus son of Priam, being a seer, advised Priam to kill the newborn Alexander along with the mother, but he was not persuaded. "Night-walking" but "terrors" he calls the dream of Hecabe, when she saw a torch coming out of her womb and clearly setting all Troy on fire. "But hide in one"; the following; "in one fate" or one death "double" but Hecabe and Alexander. Seeing the dream about the torch, the aforementioned Aesacus judged, when Alexander was born, that the two should be killed, both the one born and the one who gave birth, saying that today's born and the one who gave birth should be killed. But Priam instead killed Cilla from Thymoetus in a secret marriage then giving birth to Munippus. "He should have"; the 'le' is simple and all such are common syllables, hence they are long apart from the 'n'.

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§ 227  "Limbs" primarily refers to the hands, from the verb "I touch and receive", but metaphorically, the rest of the body parts are also called limbs. "Tephrosas" means "burning", "reducing to ashes". "Lemnaio pyri" refers to the fire in Lemnos, where the forges of Hephaestus are said to be. "Lemnaio pyri" was first found in Lemnos, from a lightning-struck tree in Greek lands, along with weapon-making, as Hellenicus narrates in his account of the founding of Chios, so we don't have to elaborate on the story.

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§ 228  "Not so many" is elliptically said; he should have said: if this had happened, not so many waves of disasters would have flooded over us, and a deluge of justice would have poured out and flooded us and drowned us.

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§ 229  "Palaemon" refers to Melicertes, the son of Ino. He was greatly honored in Tenedos, where they even sacrificed infants to him. The story goes as follows: Athamas, raising Dionysus, went mad with Hera's wrath and killed his son Learchus, then Ino also went mad and threw this child into a boiling cauldron. Regaining her sanity, she was pursued by Athamas and she herself, with her other son Melicertes, was about to be killed. Fleeing through the mountains of Geraneia in Megaris, she threw herself and her son Melicertes, also known as Palaemon, from the rock of Molouris into the sea. The Nereids, appearing while dancing, told Sisyphus to hold the Isthmian games in honor of the child. Others say that Athamas was about to throw Palaemon into a cauldron as well, and his mother Ino stole him and fled. Those who brought his body to Corinth were called Amphimachos and Donakinos. Sisyphus, the brother of Athamas, Palaemon's father, was the king of Corinth, hence he established the Isthmian festival. Palaemon was also honored in Tenedos, as we said. Instead of saying "and the sea of Tenedos will boil and be narrowed by the multitude of Greek ships", he said "and Palaemon, the infant killer, watches" and sees the "old" consort of "Ogenus" and Oceanus, that is, Tethys, meaning the sea, the "Titanid", one of the Titans, the children of Uranus and Earth, watching what she suffers? "Boiling" and frothing in the ships adorned with woven cords or ropes. He now symbolically calls the ships "aithyias"; for "aithyias" are primarily sea birds.

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§ 231  "Consort"; he refers to Tethys as the consort of Oceanus; she is the same as the sea.

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§ 232  "And indeed, double"; and indeed, the two "children", Tennes and Hemithea, "are destroyed" and perish instead of will perish "with" their father Cycnus in the "solid mill" and stone of the well-ruling Achilles, "struck" and wounded in the "keys" and the shoulders. And in this Lycophron lies; for not on the shoulders, but the head being struck, Cycnus was killed. For they say that the rest of the body was invulnerable except for the head. But this is a myth; for being a right-handed soldier, Cycnus, and best protected in wars so as never to be wounded, fell under the myths that he is invulnerable. But since he was struck by Achilles and killed in the head, they said he was invulnerable except for the head alone. "And indeed, double"; Cycnus, the son of Scamandrodice and Poseidon, was secretly born and thrown near the sea. Some fishermen seeing a swan falling around him, took him up and named him Cycnus. When he grew up, he married Procleia, the daughter of Laomedon, and begot "and indeed, double"; Cycnus, being a Trojan, the son of Poseidon, had two children from Procleia, Tennes and Hemithea. But when Procleia died, Cycnus married Philonome, the daughter of Tragasus, who, being in love with Tennes and not getting her hope, accused him to his father as being raped by him, agreeing with her and a certain flute player called Molpus. But he, being angry, threw both Tennes and Hemithea into a chest and let them be carried in the sea. The chest was moored to Tenedos, then called Leucophrys, which Tennes named Tenedos after himself. But hearing this, he, being angry, threw Tennes and Hemithea into a chest and let them go into the sea. The chest being brought to the island then called Leucophrys, now called Tenedos from Tennes, the people of the island, seeing what happened and learning the drama, made their king Tennes and named the island Tenedos after him. But Cycnus, knowing this, killed Philonome, and he himself went and lived with his children in Tenedos. So when Achilles came, he killed both him and Tennes. Achilles, having made a campaign against Troy, killed Cycnus and Tennes, the son of Cycnus, in word, but in deed Apollo's. But Hemithea, being pursued by him and fleeing the intercourse, was swallowed up by the earth. cf. Cram. A. P I 192 10 After Achilles killed Cycnus and Tennes, he also killed Mnemon, whom Thetis had given to Achilles as a companion to remind him not to kill Apollo's son; for it was destined for Achilles to die, whenever he killed Apollo's son. But Tennes, as I said, was the son of Apollo. ? "Tenedos" — from Tennes and Amphithea or Hemithea, the children of Cycnus. It was called Leucophrys. Steph.

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§ 232  "Well-started"; this is what Cycnus was called because he successfully renewed the spear of Achilles; for the auctioneers, praising the first buyers, call them well-started. They also say that a certain river near Sinope was named Euarcho by the Argonauts, from which they first drank, as Euphorion says "which brought him fame around the Euarchoi river" (Mein. AA 120). Eust. Od. II 193 38 refers to the first words, "well-started" is a royal term in Lycophron in the "well-started" or royal mace.

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§ 234  "The things before the piper" should be arranged this way: "The things that have escaped the coffin-bearing throws" that are in "cool" and in false "rumors" of the "piper" or of Molpos; but the word "happened" is missing. "Coffin-destroying throws" are those about to destroy them in the coffin, "coffin-bearing" are those carried through the sea in a coffin. For even if he said "coffin-bearing", the verse is not mistaken, but is correct and so it stands, even if perhaps Lycophron ignored this; for the rough consonant can extend as in "The Trojans shivered, when they saw the gleaming snake" (M 208). But if you also say this is less, like the rest (sch. D), listen to Hipponax "if a snake bites him in the shin" (fr. 49 9). Behold, the snake, the long 'o' was accepted. And the learned and metric will find countless other such things.

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§ 236  But "gloomy" Lycophron usually takes for "fearful"; perhaps from "and another also hates" (A 186). "To whom indeed he obeyed" to which Molpos, Cygnus "the gloomy" and hateful "butcher" and murderer of children "the swan-nurtured"; he said species instead of species, instead of the swan-nurtured; "the linen-hunter" and the one hunted in linens and nets of the "porkers" and fishermen "the friend" and the one loved by the "barley" and oysters "the flat" and oblique "nerites" and snails in "the claw" and ark "he nailed down" and secured the "double offspring" or his two sons Tenea and Hemithaea.

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§ 237  The "swan-nurtured" they say because Cygnus, born from a secret union and exposed out of fear, was found by some fishermen with swans around him, which they chased away and picked up the child, calling him Cygnus from the incident. He took species instead of species; for he should have said swan-nurtured. "Porkers" of the fishermen; for porkos is the humpback; "linen-hunter" is Cygnus who was hunted by the fishermen as if in linens "nerites" but "friend" as long as he spent time with the fishermen.

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§ 238  "Nerites" signifies the sea snail.

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§ 239  "Dryfakta" primarily refers to enclosures made of oak. The rest of the history was discussed in the previous history, including the matters of Mnemon.

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§ 240  "The suffering one" because Tene was by nature a son of Apollo, but by nickname, Cygnus. Therefore, Achilles killed Mnemon because he did not prevent the murder through his reminder.

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§ 241  "Mnemon's commands"; Mnemon is a proper name, whom Thetis sent with Achilles to remind him not to kill any of Apollo's children; for it was destined for him to die when he kills someone from Apollo's lineage. Therefore, having gone to Tenedos and having killed those around Cygnus and Tene, who were from Apollo, and later having come to his senses, he also killed Mnemon because he did not remind and prevent him. Tene was by nature a son of Apollo, but by appointment, Cygnus. "With them" with Cygnus and his children, and the "suffering one" and the enduring "Mnemon will die, his chest forward" and the chest "stabbed with the sword of his mother" Achilles of the "goddess not understanding" and saying the commands but in "lethargy" and in oblivion "falling".

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§ 243  "And indeed Myrinna groans"; the meaning is as follows: having said earlier that I see a gathering of ships being drawn in the sea and shouting to my homeland Troy this and that, now he says and indeed Myrinna, a town of Troy, and the shores groan having heard the neighing of the horses, when Achilles, last of all the Greeks, jumping from the ship onto the land will splash water from the force of the jump and a signal of war will be made with the trumpets of the conch shells sounding. I foresee with my eyes the destruction of all Trojan land and with my ears, I liken and imagine the groans of the Trojan women due to the successive calamities coming upon them. But this is the meaning, we do not need syntax here because of the clarity, but the histories must be written. Myrinna is a town of Troy, where the Trojans lined up having heard the arrival of the Greek ships from Politus, the son of Priam, who was a scout of the Trojans, trusting in the speed of his feet, as Homer says sqq. B 811–814. But "Myrinna groans" one of the Amazons was Myrinna, from whom there is a place in Troy. And Homer "the sign of the immortal and much-traveled Myrinna" (B 814). The town was called Myrinna, because one of the Amazons called Myrinna died there when they campaigned against Troy. The rest of the Amazons erected a city in her honor. The following "coastal shores". "Coastal shores"; I have not seen the shores of Troy; for if they are cliffy and rocky, he rightly said the shores and beaches are "coastal" or rocky; if they are not cliffy, simply, rather foolishly he said the "shores" and beaches are "coastal" or beachside.

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§ 244  "Phrimagmus" is the sound. "Frimagon" is a sound. This, I think, refers to the sound; but frimagmos is not the sound, but the sound emitted through the nostrils of the horses when they snort. "Aiones" and "Eiones" write as you wish, either placing it trisyllabically below the 'η' written or tetrasyllabically not underwriting, but pronouncing "Eiones"; for the iambic and anapaestic foot accepts this, and the dactyl and the choriamb except in their own places.

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§ 245  "Pelasgon" refers to Thessalian. "Pelasgon Halma" is the Thessalian leap; for Pelasgos and Thessalian is Achilles. But I have said why it was called Pelasgia (86 27); and the story about Achilles' leap is this: an oracle was given to the Greeks that the first of the Greeks to leap against the Trojans from the ships would be the first to die.

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§ 246  But when Protesilaus had leapt first and "set foot on the last shore"; for Achilles was the last to leave the ship because of the oracle, hence Protesilaus, who was the first to leap from the ship, died. "Krenaion"; for they say that when Achilles leapt from the ship, a spring gushed forth as Antimachos also says "swiftly from the dark mainland being lifted high, Peleides leapt light as a hawk, and in front of his feet a spring became ever-flowing" (fr. 59 K.). When Protesilaus leaped forth and was slain either by Hector or by some other man, Achilles, having been taught by this event, leaped more forcefully than everyone else from his own ship later on, and he struck the ground so hard that water sprung forth from it, as Antimachus says, "Suddenly, from the dark mainland, Peleus' son was lifted high and he rushed lightly just like a hawk, and before his feet a spring appeared that flowed endlessly" (fr. 59). And Euripides says through Neoptolemus, "the Trojan — two-foot."

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§ 247  "Ammoi" of the sand. Amos is written with one 'm'; for it is said from being immeasurable and unmeasured and in syncope Amos. Ammos, however, is written Aeolically with two 'mm'; for they double all the consonants (46 11). "Rhoibdesei" will give back with sound. "Ganos" now is water, elsewhere it is milk and joy.

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§ 249  "Kataithe" now instead of it shines with the gleam of the weapons. "Orchestes Ares" is the nimble one. And Homer "perhaps even you being a dancer" (P 617) instead of nimble because of the frequent movements in wars. "Orchestes Ares" is the nimble war or the one with pyrrhic and armed dance, as it was done by the Spartans in a certain established rhythm and noble and moving towards war. "Orchestes Ares" since they used to practice certain limbs to provoke and move to bravery those who listen. And Callimachus "he sang the law of Ares" (fr. 526).

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§ 250  They used the 'conch shell' before the trumpet was found; for before it was discovered, the ancients used this in war. 'Blowing the bloody conch shell' and initiating the attack of war. For before the discovery of the trumpet, they used torch-bearers in wars, who, entering from both sides of the warring armies, threw torches instead of blowing a trumpet, and thus the war was initiated. Then they found out how to blow the conch shell and practiced certain tunes to provoke and stir up courage in the listeners, and the use of torches ceased. But when the trumpets were found among the Tyrrhenians, the use of the conch shell also ceased. And this is a bad fabrication of Lycophron, to make himself ignorant of the trumpet as something that came later, but a conch shell, even if he introduces the character of Cassandra speaking about these things. For Homer, who lived before him by 400 years, knew of the Greeks using the trumpet, saying 'like the unmistakable voice, when the trumpet screams' (Iliad 12.219).

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§ 251  "Fighting like the dawn" (244) is either written and unpronounced or pronounced without being written. "They have been terrified" instead of "they have become terrified" and "they have thickened". And "they have been terrified" instead of "they have become terrified" and all such things are of the Chaldean or Attic dialect like "the splitting" and "they said" and the like.

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§ 252  "They have been terrified" instead of "they have become terrified". And Homer says "the deadly battle terrified" (Iliad 13.339) and elsewhere "terrified by shields and spears" (Iliad 4.282). But the expression is of the Chalkideans and Eretrians, who also use "the splitting" (21) and "they came". And some other ancient poets have used these. Thus, I think, "it was" instead of "you were" contrary to the rule; for the rule of participles ending in 's' after acute stress makes the third plurals isosyllabic with their own first plurals, but not so makes the third plurals with the first singulars. I said the first singular, I said the third plural. But "they said" is the opposite. Similarly also "they split"; but "the splitting" is contrary and of the Chaldean dialect. And the syntax is thus: syntax: "they have been terrified" and "they have become terrified" and "they have thickened" the "limbs" and the plains like "smooth" or as "they have thickened" the "limbs" of the "smooth" and field, "the limbs" are "flashing" in "spears". "Limbs" the 'limb' whether it takes a long or a short, the verse is unimpeachable, as you were taught.

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§ 254  "From the tops of the towers" from the high towers. The term "indalletai" is not only used for sight, but also for hearing. "Indalletai" is figuratively used to mean "resembles" or "is likened to"; we usually use the term "indalletai" specifically for the eyes.

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§ 255  "Towards the ether" refers to the Homeric phrase "the voice of both reached the ether and the light of Zeus" (N 837). "Nenemous" means calm, because according to some, the ether is motionless, as Pindar also says "through the desolate ether" (O I 10). He metaphorically refers to the ether as "seats of the windless ether", as Pindar also says "through the desolate ether" (O I 10). For the air consists of clouds, storms, and winds, according to Aristotle (mund. I 392b 5) and all wise men, but the ether is devoid of all these, hence he called it windless. The term "kyrousa" is used instead of "katalambanousa".

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§ 257  "One upon another" as if to say now hearing the misfortune and death of Pandaros from the Trojan women, then of Sarpedon, then of Hector and therefore mourning and tearing their clothes.

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§ 258  The phrase "that, oh wretched" she says these things to herself, lamenting and mourning the future events that will befall Hector. Cassandra says these things to herself, mourning Hector's death and saying "oh wretched heart, that will hurt you more than the other harms when Achilles, having killed Hector, drags him on a chariot, defiling the earth with his blood. That, oh wretched heart, evil, that will burn the greatest of harms, when the swift and sharp eagle, drawing lines through the ether with its wings, defiling the earth with the blood of your dearest of the noble ones, having seized the food of Ptou's father with its talons, staining his body with blood and defiling the land with murder through the furrow. The syntax is as follows: "That, oh wretched heart, will burn" and hurt "evil, that" the "greatest" of "harms" and harms "when" the swift and hunting eagle "the sharp" that is, Achilles "defiles" and stains the "local" and native "groves" and "the land" and the earth in the "murder" and the blood "having seized the food of your dearest" and brother from "the noble ones" and fellow nobles of "Ptou" and Apollo being the "father". And doing something else? "Staining" his "body" in the "jaws" and mouth "roaring" and echoing in the "wings crying" and shouting "unmixed most dreadful" and terrifying "shout" in the "mouth". What is he doing? "Plowing" and plowing "the ox-driver through the furrow" and the "plain" and wide "earth" and dry "ridge" and furrow "drawing a marked" and engraved in "trembling" and trembling and crooked and "curved base" instead of turning the chariot here and there as if plowing.

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§ 259  "He will burn" he will bite he will grieve.

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§ 260  And "raging" carried with anger and fury, "dark" is the fearful or the black "raging" echoing with wings "dark" hunting (supr. 7) eagle excessively renewing and cutting.

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§ 261  "With wings on the ground" metaphorically with the wheels of the chariot. Having likened Achilles to an eagle, he appropriately called the wheels of his chariot wings, as if carried and flying through them. He therefore speaks of Hector's chariot-driving in Homer, because Achilles killed him. (marg. a) "With wings" with the wheels of the chariot

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§ 262  "With a curved base, the engraving mark; the mark" itself the engraving from the wheel "with a curved" but with the curved base but he speaks of the eagle's base but "clashing unmixed" either that the eagle has its own voice and is distinguished from the other birds or that Achilles alone fought separated from the Greeks, as Homer also says † but the aim, this . "With a curved crooked base" the "dry" dia"writing an engraving mark" will make and restore that is as plowed land ... he said disjointedly as also the "dry". But "with a curved" instead of the curved femininely; but it is Attic. Or thus he said "writing an engraving" and engraved in "curved" plow elliptically.

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§ 263  "Clashing" roaring.

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§ 264  "Of the brothers", of the brothers, of the brothers. ×Eg (EM 6 20) 〈"nourishment"〉 but it means the nourished one. Eg (EM l. l.) "brother's nourishment" brother's brother ( 114 12) either the one brought up together "Father of Ptoios" the son of Ptoios' father either of Apollo.

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§ 265  "And of Ptoios"; Ptoios is Apollo, since they mythologize that when Leto gave birth to him he suddenly appeared large, and seeing him she was terrified. And she herself was called Ptoia and Apollo was called Ptoios. Stesichorus and Euphorion say that Hector was the son of Apollo and Alexander the Aetolian. Stesichorus and Euphorion and Alexander the Aetolian say that Hector was the son of Apollo. Ptoios is Apollo thus it is said; Leto in Delos giving birth to Artemis and Apollo a large wild boar appeared, seeing this she was terrified and was called Ptoia, as Artemis and Apollo were called Ptoios.

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§ 268  "Very wide" very wide ( 75 19). But even if you write the words from the top of the verses.

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§ 269  "Having taken the bull," they say that Achilles, having fallen in love with Polyxene, the daughter of Priam, indicated to Priam that he would ally with him if he could have his daughter. Priam agreed to give her to him, and when Achilles arrived at the temple of Apollo Thymbraeus, Alexander secretly shot Achilles with an arrow, and thus the hero died. The Trojans, having taken his body, secured it, promising not to give it back until they received the gifts given for Hector, which also happened. Therefore, having received the gifts, they gave back the corpse. It is said that Achilles, having given back an equal weight in gold, will be buried by the Greeks. "Having taken the ransom," the ransom is also the gift and the price for the "proclaimed" bull and the slain, that is, Hector. He said "bull" as being spirited and brave. "Having taken" in "the exact balance" of the "hanging scale" and again to the back "pouring out an equal Pactolian stream" in the "weights will sink" and will enter the "mixing bowl" of "Bacchus" or Dionysus "having wept" and mourned in the "nymphs" and in the Muses, "who loved" and loved the "brightness" and the water of the "Bephyrus" river of Macedonia the "watch" and the prominence the "Leibethrian" that is, of Leibethra that is "above Pimpleia. Proclaimed" the slain and killed.

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§ 270  "With an exact balance," Homer simply says that gifts were given to Achilles for Hector (Ω 579), but Lycophron and some others say that an equal weight of gold was given to him. "With an exact balance" that is, with an exact weighing "of the yoke" "hanging" hung weighed. "Balance"; now the balance is the wide and petal-like part of the yoke, in which the weighed items are placed, the trytane is also called the stachane and the whole rod of the yoke, on either side of which are the balances, also called plastings. But strictly speaking, the trytane is the tongue of the rod of the yoke. "Again" to the back (116 21) "the ransom" given for not being punished for Hector. "Equal" and long and short taking the 'ι' you will not find the verse stumbled, as I taught (77 30).

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§ 272  "Pactolian" Pactolus is a river of Lydia which they say has gold nuggets (S 1352) and mines, from which they make gold. Mudros, however, is strictly the fired iron from the verb to burn Eg (EM) and to flow. Mudros is also called gold. ×Eg (EM 593 31) 272

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§ 272bis  He refers to the mixing bowl as 'krater', the amphora as 'Bacchus' of Dionysus, the 'krater' of Dionysus, which Homer also says that Thetis received from Dionysus, a golden amphora, where the bones of Achilles and Patroclus lie. And he says 'mydron' primarily means the iron that has been fired, from the verb 'myresthai' and 'diarein'. Now it signifies gold from the phrase 'Pactolian'. For the Pactolus, a river of Sardis, used to have golden sand flowing into it from the adjacent mountain of Tmolus, including pebbles and ores, from which they make gold, even if it now brings down glass. 'Bacchus' krater' refers to the golden amphora of Dionysus, which he gave to Thetis when he fled to her and was saved, when he was pursued by Lycurgus with the Bacchants, in which the bones of Patroclus, Achilles, and Antilochus lie. 'They say it was a gift of Dionysus, and the work of famous Hephaestus' (line 74). The story is as follows: Dionysus, the son of Zeus and Semele, having received purification in Phrygia from Rhea and having received all preparation from the goddess, was carried throughout the earth. But when he also came to Thrace, Lycurgus, the son of Dryas, drove him from the land and seized him and his nurses. He, out of fear, dived into the sea and was received by Thetis. He gave Thetis a golden amphora in which the bones of Achilles, Antilochus, and Patroclus were placed, which Homer also mentions in line 74 'DionysusHephaestus'.

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§ 274  "Nymphs" now refers to the Muses. Homer also knew this, that they were present at his funeral (line 60). Baphyros is a river in Macedonia. 'Mourned by the nymphs' means lamented by the Muses 'who loved' which means those who loved 'the garden of Baphyros'; Baphyros is a river in Macedonia.

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§ 275  "Leibethria"; Leibethra is a mountain in Helicon. The prominence of the Leibethrian mountain of Macedonia. "Pimpleian lookout" is above the existing Pimpleia. Pimpleia is also a city, a mountain, and a spring in Macedonia, which Callimachus also mentions in Hymns (IV 7) "as the Muses hate the singer who does not sing of Pimpleia" and Orpheus "now tell me, daughter of Pimpleia, Muse" (fr. 17 Ab.). And the words are thus, about which I no longer write, you write these in the middle of the verses. The meaning is such that Achilles, having taken the ransom for Hector and again giving an equivalent, will be buried in the mound given to Thetis by Dionysus, mourned by the nymphs or the Muses, who live around Pimpleia and Leibethria and the Bephyrus, which are around Helicon and Macedonia. But Lycophron and others say that Hector was weighed with an equal weight of gold and thus given by Achilles to Priam, thinking that it is more to have him weighed than what Homer says of the money. But this is not the case; for they exceed the ten talents, which Homer says, apart from the rest, the weight of Hector's weight. They also say that Achilles, having died, was mourned by the Muses, as Homer says, and by the Nereids. But he writes everything wisely and more allegorically, that Achilles' funeral was with musical instruments. He says the Nereids mourned him, because it happened at the time of his death that the sea first moaned as if mourning, then until the Rhoiteion for a considerable distance, coming out, greatly frightened the Greeks, then turned back again. And such things, says Homer; but the newer ones introduce the Muses crying and they know their dwellings where they are and from what rivers the waters of Pimpleia and Leibethria flow, saying also a river to me the Bephyrus. And this will also be allegorized; since Orpheus, being the beginning and father of the poets, lived around Helicon and Leibethrion, it was mythologized that the Muses live around those places.

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§ 276  "The corpse-seller" is Achilles who sells the dead, because he sold Hector who was dead. From the verb "pernemi" the participle is "pernas". Whoever Achilles, fearing death, will dress in women's clothes and will weave as a woman and later than all the Greeks will jump from the ship to the land of the Trojans fearing your spear.

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§ 277  "He says 'female' about the body": for it is reported to the younger ones that Achilles, hearing that Hector was brave and fearing him, pretended to be a girl and went to live in Skyros with the children of Lycomedes, where he also slept with Deidameia. Odysseus, sent by Agamemnon, brought spindles and distaffs and such women's tools, and also swords and bows and arrows, and threw them in front of the women's quarters of Lycomedes' women, recognized him and brought him to the Greeks; for the women chose the women's things, but Achilles, taking a sword, tried to move it skillfully and so was exposed. But these things have been fabricated and mythologized, the truth is this: Achilles, having just taken Deidameia, Lycomedes' daughter, to wife, was living with her in the bridal chamber and in the longing of a newlywed, hence they fabricated that he had assumed women's clothing. When Odysseus announced the expedition, he eagerly obeyed and rushed to war, even though he learned from an oracle that he would have a short life if he sailed to Troy. This announcement and the fear from the oracle they represented with swords and spindles; for Achilles did not show cowardice, but eagerly rushed to war, and Homer testifies in the L (767) rhapsody, introducing Nestor speaking to Patroclus: "I came, and divine Odysseus, gathering the people, to fair-womaned Achaea" and a little later (781) he says "I led - they were willing". All these things are allegorized, but this barbarian-tongued Lycophron accepts them more mythically. Therefore, it seems burdensome to me to allegorize in things not being allegorized, as I have often said. "And last to land": I have told the story and will tell it again: it was destined for the first to disembark from the ship 4 to die, which Protesilaus also suffered, hence Achilles came out later.

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§ 279  "And last to land" since it was destined for the first to disembark from the ship 4 to die, which Protesilaus also suffered, hence Achilles was cautious to go out first.

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§ 281  "Oh fate" oh fortune, oh destiny, what a pillar of the houses you will destroy, the "support" and foundation of the "unfortunate" homeland, throwing it down; "not without" harm and punishment, nor without bitter pains and labors, will the "thief" Greek army laugh, rejoicing at the death of the fallen Hector. He calls Hector a pillar, as Pindar also says "for who overthrew Hector, the unassailable, radiant pillar of Troy" (O II 145)? "Oh fate, what a pillar of the houses you will destroy"; he calls Hector a pillar, "of the houses" of the houses, since he was the one who held up and carried not only the house, but all of Troy with his own strength. He calls Hector a "pillar" as not only holding and carrying Priam's house with his own strength, but all of Troy. "Oh fate"; this verse has an anapestic foot in the fourth place and is called tragic iambic (cf. 339).

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§ 286  "With the sterns of the pines" refers to the ships made from the creator. The stern is the last and rear part of the ship, from the end and final part remains. The prow is the front, from the first of the flowing or the water to touch. "But around the sterns"; the following of the speech is thus: Hector will not die for free and the Greeks will announce his death without penalty and punishment "but around the sterns of the pines" running the last "course of life" clearly the Greek army will "be set on fire". The following is thus: Hector will not die for free and the Greeks will announce his death without penalty and punishment but fleeing around their ships they will be set on fire by the ships. He paraphrases the naval battle from Homer, in which Hector appears chasing the Greeks and burning the ship of Protesilaus. He calls the Greek army Doric from Dorus the son of Hellen, as Hesiod also does (fr. 7 R) in the heroic genealogy "From Hellen were born the war-loving king Dorus and Xuthus and Aeolus the horse-charmer" "Aeolids — Perieres". "From Hellen were born the war-loving king Dorus and Xuthus and Aeolus the horse-charmer" "Aeolids — Perieres".

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§ 288  "Phyxius(of Fugitives) Zeus", so that they may flee or so that he may cause them to flee. "Calling upon Phyxius Zeus most in their prayers" the one who caused them to flee, Zeus being besieged by them to drive away death from them by the Trojans. Or calling Zeus Phyxius, the one who can make danger flee. Phyxius is Zeus and also Philios and Hetaireios and Ephestios and Homognios and countless others are called according to what happens and is done and is renamed; for someone fleeing calls upon Phyxius Zeus, but again making marriages calls upon Gamelius Zeus, †T when taking counsel calls upon Boulaios (Al. 435) and the rest likewise.

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§ 290  "Then neither the trench"; then neither "the trench" and the ditch nor the bulwarks of the ships and the "wing" in "crosses" and bars fixed there of the trench and the curtain that holds like a fringe in the trench or the like of a cross and ladder that is, the ladder-like fixed nor the "geisa" and the crowns or the decorators, but not even the battlements or the positions of the towers in which the warriors stand of which above are the battlements or the front lines and the spaced parts of the wall and so to speak the teeth; all these then will not benefit the Greeks being chased around the ships by Hector. But that the Greeks built this wall, which Lycophron now says will not benefit them, Homer teaches in the Th rhapsody its construction, and in the M now says the naval battle and its dissolution.

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§ 291  "Problem" "and with crosses, the wing is suspended" s: He said the wing of the wall is the circumstance of the building .... such as the high one, from the verb to heap up and to raise; but "I was pulling the crosses of the towers" (M 258) does not know or say that they were throwing down the ladders, but there were some wooden wheeled ladders having above shields on which the enemies standing fought with those on the wall. So it is: they "pulled" the "crosses" on the wall and threw down the "battlements"; "with crosses" but the construction of the wall on each side divided by straight timbers, which he has called crosses because of their position, or the wall itself because of its width. "Suspended" but the ladder-like "wing" the wall "tops" but the crowns.

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§ 293  "The bees"; like bees darkened with smoke and with the flight of bees, so also these, terrified by Hector, leaping into the foreign land from the seats and sterns and prows of the ships and polluting the Trojan land with their blood in the leaping, resembling dancers.

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§ 294  "Smoky" of the emission of smoke, but specifically the smoke from oil and wax. "Smoky" the emission of fire, the smoke.

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§ 295  "Unbreakable" and "clusters"; "unbreakable" is called the ends of the ship euphemistically the flexible and "clusters" but it indicates the same and it is from parallel. The same: or they differ in that the unbreakable are stern, but the clusters are prow. "Key" but "thrones" periphrastically the oars, in which the rowers sit. The same but also seats, hence also Homer said the ships were well-seated.

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§ 298  "Many of the best" many, he says, of the best Greeks carrying the first of the spoils from Greece with the spear and courage and the seeds and nobility raised "your" hands "cut down" and destroy. He says those around Patroclus (P 820) and Peneleos (P 597 Paus. IX 5 15) and Ascalaphus (N 518) and Arcesilaus (O 329) and the like. "Many" but "best" noble Greeks those taking the "first spoils" the first of the spoils and first captivity and first fruits carrying from Greece in their spear and courage and the "seeds" and nobility raised "your" hands either you "cut down" and kill. He says Hector because of killing Patroclus and Peneleos and Ascalaphus and Arcesilaus and the rest. "First spoils" but are called the first of the spoils and of the war booty excellent and first which the best are accustomed to take, such as Chryseis was given to Agamemnon, but Briseis to Achilles Eg (EM 693 11 cf. EG 484 29) but Tecmessa to Ajax and the rest to the other Greeks.

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§ 302  "I will not bear less," but on the contrary, much, great. Or in comparison to the grief of the Greeks, that I will not bear less grief than the Greeks. "But I will grieve"; I will be greatly and eternally saddened by your burial and death, groaning; for I will see that day of your end as miserable and surpassing all tribulations, of which tribulations "the ruler" and the perfecter "will be proclaimed" — now instead of the word is said — "the time that rolls" and twists and fills its cycle through the lunar motion and rotation. They called time ruler because the ancients counted the months by the moon and through the months time is divided. The following "the ruler will be proclaimed" is like a performer from the verb "to rule", which comes from the head, I rule and in syncope I rule and ruler.

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§ 307  "Alas, alas, I groan, alas, alas, I groan" and your fresh and well-nurtured age, my brother Troilus, "O cub" and most royal offspring, delightful entanglement of the brothers who, having wounded Achilles with the erotic arrow of your beauty, that is, having attracted him so as to fall in love with you, you not having fallen in love with him "beheaded" and your head cut off in the tomb and temple of Apollo by Achilles who fell in love with you and in the beheading "you will stain" the temple with blood. For they say that "alas, alas, I groan" Achilles, having fallen in love with Troilus, the son of Priam, and pursuing him was about to catch him, but he took refuge in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo. But Achilles, forcing him to come out since he did not obey, approached and killed him on the altar. Whom, they say, Apollo also avenged there and prepared for Achilles to be killed. Troilus was said to be by nature the son of Apollo, but by law of Priam. And "wild dragon" Achilles. And these indeed so babble about Troilus but I know this Troilus and having a deep voice and dark-skinned. I do not know, however, if the Thessalian Achilles was so erotic as to even fall in love with those of deeper voice and much older than this; for Troilus was young and beautiful but dark-skinned and deep-voiced and unworthy of Achilles' love. But after the killing of Memnon, having left Troy, he encounters Achilles and is killed by him and there was great mourning in Troy for him like for Hector. "Fire-bearing" but erotic because such passion is hot by nature. The mind; whoever wounded Achilles with your love "the one who was struck" that is, Achilles. But "O cub" "delightful" or dearest of the brothers: for they say that Troilus and Cassandra were twins.

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§ 310  Love is also called "Iynx" and a certain bird called "seisopygis", which the witches use for love potions. Similarly, "caught in inescapable snares"; for lovers are drawn to their beloveds as if by a bond. Therefore, with love, "wounded by the one who conquered", with the love of Achilles, "you will stain" the altar of your "father" Apollo with blood. "For a short time" and "unloving", since Achilles was his lover for a short time. The "unloving" is in no way thin or unstable. "With the fire-bearing Iynx of arrows" now instead of the fire-bearing arrow; he speaks of love. The Iynx is primarily a bird that always shakes its tail, a guide of loves. It is varied in its hair, long-necked, having a tongue extended far, frequently twisting and spinning its neck, useful to witches for love spells; for they take it and bind it from a certain wheel, which they spin around while chanting. Others say that they melt it on a charcoal wheel. Others say that they extract its intestines and wrap them around the wheel. So, they say, this Iynx was first given by Aphrodite to Jason, teaching him how to charm Medea. They say that this Iynx was a woman before, the daughter of Peitho or Echo and Pan, and having bewitched Zeus for the love of Io, she was pursued by Hera and turned into a bird. Others say that the Iynx is a very melodious lyre, hence everything desirable is called Iynx.

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§ 314  The "alas" is unfortunate, "puppy" and "double nightingales" he says are Laodice and Polyxena, and the puppy is Hecuba, since she was transformed into a dog. "Alas, unfortunate, alas" to me, "the unfortunate" and unfortunate and your death, "oh wretched puppy" Hecuba, I mourn and the two "nightingales", the eloquent and my sisters Laodice and Polyxena, from whom the earth will receive Laodice when it splits open around the "leap" and the grove and the paradise of my grandfather Tros, next to the place where plants grow and where Cilla lies dead with her son Munippus. The earth will split open and receive Laodice, either she will fall into a gorge and die, or when will Laodice die? When Troy is sacked. And now indeed, the barbarian and unapproachable Lycophron says that she was killed when Troy was sacked, but going a little further (499) he will say that after the sack of Troy, while her son Munitus was hunting in Thrace with Acamas his father and was killed by a snake, she also dies from grief. Others say that Laodice, pursued by the Greeks, fell into a gorge and died. But the "alas" is not two parts of speech, but one, as Homer also shows, saying "alas, I".

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§ 315  "Puppy"; He refers to Hecuba as a puppy, because she became a dog, as Euripides mythically says "you will become a dog, having fiery eyes" (Hec. 1265) and Asclepiades about the place where she was killed, "which they also call the unfortunate Sign of the Dog (Kynosema)". And these are the myths, but the truth is as follows: After the death of Polyxena, she insulted and cursed the Greeks, and they, being angry, killed her with stones like a dog.

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§ 316  "The mother of dust"; He refers to the Trojan land. Every chasm of the earth is called a gorge. And it is simply called a slaughter. "Seeing disaster" refers to the destruction and desolation of her homeland, which she sees near her feet.

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§ 319  "Alma" is the grove. It is also called a branch by the Aeolians. It comes from the word "grow". "Where the grove of the grandfather"; Grove now is the grove from the word "jump" and "grow" in it the plants; "grandfather" is Tros; There Laodice, pursued by the Greeks, was swallowed up. About Cilla we will say in the "nor of Aisakion" (224) and again I will say; "Deaths of the earth-born" since, they say, Hecabe had a sister called Cilla, who was married to Thymoites. She, they say, secretly had sex with Priam and gave birth to Munippus. When Priam was consulting the oracle in Zeleia about the kingdom, he was advised to kill the new-born and the one who gave birth. It happened that Hecabe gave birth to Alexander, and Cilla to Munippus. So, to spare Hecabe, he killed Cilla and her son Munippus. So, they say, Laodice was swallowed up in the earth. "Secretly married" because [Cilla] secretly mingled with Priam from whom she had Munippus.

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§ 322  "To wash" to wash, to rinse; for a jar is an oil container, on which the ancients had the oil, which they used after washing.

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§ 323  "You, raw": You, Polyxene, for the harsh or untimely loaves and "bridal" sacrifices - again from the common the inhuman and harsh or untimely - "will bring the grim" and dejected or worthy of grimness "lion of Iphis" and Iphigeneia - he means Neoptolemos - of his mother Iphigeneia according to Lycophron (183) "imitating" the sacrifices in Tauris, "which" Iphida and Iphigeneia the "crown-bearing bull will strike" and destroy with the "tripaternal sword" of "Candaon" and Orion "the terrible dragon" either Diomedes or some priest to the "wolves" and the Greeks "having divided" and thrown down and sacrificed "the first-slaughtered oath". Or all towards the "you indeed" must be composed; "which" some "you into the deep" - the trench is missing - as "Poimandria" and Boeotia "crown-bearing bull will strike" and destroy in the "tripaternal" and tridespotic "sword" of "Candaon" and of Ares whom we said "the lion of Iphidos, the terrible ready dragon". Now "first-slaughtered" not the first slaughtered but the noble. And the things of the thought are these, but the things of the history are thus: "You, raw": Achilles having fallen in love with Polyxene and for her having been killed in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo after the sack of Ilion asked in dreams the best of the Greeks for Polyxene, as loving her even after death, to be sacrificed to him. And they having taken her Pyrrhos himself sacrificed her on the tomb of the hero, has become the hand, whom he calls "Iphis'" lion instead of the son of Iphigeneia. These things Euripides tells in the Troades (39) and in the Hecuba (523). Whom the heroes at his tomb through Neoptolemos his son sacrifice, as Euripides in the Hecuba says. But Flavius Philostratus says Polyxene came from Troy not yet sacked and she killed herself at his tomb, being held by longing for the hero and rightly reasoning that she will not have the good fortune of such a bridegroom (Her. p. 323).

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§ 324  "Iphis" meaning Iphigeneia and cutting off three syllables from one name how would it be narrowed for the poems?

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§ 325  Pyrrhos imitating the lustrations of his mother Iphigeneia. He means her xenoktonia in Tauris.

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§ 326  The "but which into the deep" the trench is missing; for they also sacrificed to those going down in hollow places. Poemandria is a city of Boeotia which is also called Tanagra, where the best cows are born from Tanagra; for Poemandros was its king. i. l. "Tanagra" - it was formerly called Poemandria. ×Steph. "Crown-bearing" but "bull" he says Polyxene, since the Greeks adorned her as a bride. "Crown-bearing" he said, because they crowned and beat with flowers those being sacrificed. "Dragon" a kind of snake since first as a bride having adorned they thus buried.

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§ 328  "He will strike with the sword of the three fathers." The meaning must be understood in two ways: if the speech is about Iphigenia, the following would be the case: Iphigenia, whom he will throw into a deep trench like a Boeotian "cow" — the word 'like' is missing — "the terrible" murderer "dragon" — he is referring to Diomedes — having cut her throat, "he will strike with the sword of the three fathers of Candaon." For both Candaon and Orion are from Boeotia, and Diomedes killed Iphigenia with his own sword, "of the three fathers" because Orion was the son of Zeus, Poseidon, and Apollo. But if the speech is also about Polyxena, it will be like this: "Whom" Pyrrhus, like a "Boeotian cow," will throw Polyxena into a deep trench, having "slaughtered" her, and he will write "of the three fathers" in the dative case; for he killed her with his father's sword, which Hephaestus had given as a gift to Peleus; and that sword was a three-father sword to Pyrrhus, if it was indeed passed down from Hephaestus, Peleus, and Achilles. But "first-slaughtered" to the Greek "wolves," if it were said about Iphigenia, it will be as much as the Greeks, having made their first oaths in Aulis, killed her; but if it were also said about Polyxena as "first-slaughtered," it will be as much as Achilles was sacrificed for her, having come into oaths. But the first is better and should be taken from "whom into a deep" down about Iphigenia; however, it is also possible for Polyxena. "Of the three fathers" for Orion, whom the Boeotians also call Candaon, is like this: Hyrieus, having a wife from Clonia, happened to be childless. Once, Zeus, Poseidon, and Apollo visited this Hyrieus and he, having sacrificed a cow, received them; they said to ask him what he wanted. But when he asked for a child, the three urinated in the hide of the slaughtered cow and from it Orion was born, called Orion as if born from the urine, hence he also calls him three-father. But Diomedes had the sword of Orion. But for Neoptolemus, he says "with the three-father sword" to the three-master. For Hephaestus first gave this to Peleus, Peleus to Achilles, and from Achilles, Neoptolemus received this. "Of Candaon" is now of Ares. "First-slaughtered" for Iphigenia, because in Aulis near the Euripus, the Greeks, making their first oaths, killed her. And this is false: for the first oaths were made for Helen in Sparta, as this Lycophron said, and these second ones in Aulis, when they also saw the things about the dragon, "having lifted the second yoke of oaths, they armed their sturdy" back with "woolen" (203). But for Polyxena, "first-slaughtered" is said according to the rest (130 16), because Achilles was sacrificed before her, having come into an oath with the Trojans. And these are the rest, but I say "first-slaughtered oath" for both, the victim slaughtered from the first and noble root for the sake of the oaths.

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§ 330  "About you and the hollow"; the following: "you" and "around" the "hollow plain of Dolonci, a captive ambassador, destroyed by the people, will someone hide the cups of handfuls in the rain"... not hearing the 'i' of "plain". "You" and the "elder" Hecabe "or you", oh elder Hecabe, cursing and cursing the Greeks "captive" and captured in the "destruction" of the people, stoned "someone will hide the cups" and a garment in the "rain" of the "handfuls" that is, she will be stoned, "when you change the structure" and the body "dark you will shear" and a dog around the "hollow plain" of the "Dolonci" and the Thracians. I have spoken about the stoning of Hecabe. "Plain" and "morning" as you wish to write; for the verse is flawless.

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§ 332  "With attacks" she cursed the Greeks a lot, but they, not bearing her tongue, stoned her.

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§ 334  "Shear"; they say that a castrated dog is now called a shear, but it has now taken it simply for the master; for Hecabe was also transformed into a dog. A shear is now a dog from one of the dogs of Orion called Maira: but properly † a shear is a white-black goat.

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§ 335  "At the tomb of Agamemnon"; Agamemnon is Zeus in Laconia. But Priam, having taken refuge at the altar of Zeus, was killed by Pyrrhus. The "wretched" that is, Priam "who came to buy" to the "sooty" and burned "fatherland" by Hercules bought from the "veil" of his sister Hesione "burning" and disappearing in "darkness the previously dim" name - for he was previously called Podarces but bought with the veil he was renamed Priam - this "around the tomb" and the temple of "Agamemnon": Zeus or Zeus Herceius, having tamed the "sole" and the base of the temple in a "spring" and white "lock beautifies" and will adorn. For Priam, having taken refuge in the temple of Zeus Herceius, was killed by Neoptolemus because Achilles was also killed by Alexander in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo. But Zeus Agamemnon was honored in Laconia but not in Troy

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§ 336  "Spring" the black and well-fed elsewhere now but the white .

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§ 337  "He towards the veil"; Hesione, as I said before, when Troy was destroyed by Hercules, was led captive along with her brother Priam, then called Podarces.

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§ 337  "He towards the veil"; when Troy was destroyed by Hercules, Priam, then called Podarces, was led captive; but his sister Hesione, giving her golden veil, bought him, hence he was called Priam and left him in his homeland hoping that it would be restored by him, which also happened. She was given to Telamon, from whom Teucer was born.

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§ 338  "Sooty" instead of "sooty homeland". You know exactly how Troy, having been sacked by Heracles, was burned (29 21).

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§ 339  "Before that"; this line is a tragic iambic, having an anapaest in the fourth place. cf. 281

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§ 340  "When the turtle" - they mean Antenor - betrayed Troy to the Greeks for the reward of the subsequent kingship, hence they constructed the wooden horse and, inserting their best men, pretended to flee and came to Tenedos. Some of the Trojans, suspecting it to be a trick, others thinking it was sent by the gods, command it to be shot with arrows and, having shot it, they bring it inside Troy. Antenor lights a beacon for the Greeks and opens the belly of the horse and the best men who are in the horse, in the night, opening the gates of Troy, bring in the Greeks and in this way Troy is captured. The meaning is this: when Antenor, the destroyer of his homeland, having lit a heavy torch as a signal to the Greeks and having loosened the fearful ambush, the groaning horse, from its belly, dragging the yoke; and the horse gave birth to the best of the Greeks. The following is thus: Priam will be killed, "when the turtle" and the following. The turtle is a type of snake. s, i. l. He compares Antenor to this. A water turtle. i. l. Either the old (340) Antenor will do this and that. A turtle is a sea turtle. He calls Antenor a turtle because of his rough skin due to old age. He was Priam's brother-in-law, having Theano, Hecabe's sister, as his wife. For Antenor, desiring the kingship, betrayed Troy to the Greeks, promising to make him king, if they take control of the city.

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§ 344  "Of Sisyphus"; according to some, Odysseus is the son of Sisyphus; for they say that Anticleia was first seduced by Sisyphus and became pregnant with Odysseus, and then she lived with Laertes. "Of Sisyphus"; Odysseus is said to be the son of Sisyphus; for Autolycus, from Amphithea, begot Aesimus and Anticleia, who was deflowered by Sisyphus. "Autaneusios" is Sinon of Odysseus; for he was the son of Aesimus, and Aesimus and Anticleia were siblings, children of Autolycus, Odysseus was of Anticleia, and Sinon of Aesimus. This Autolycus surpassed everyone in thievery; for stealing all horses and oxen and flocks, he changed their brands and eluded their masters, as Hesiod also says "for all that he took he made unrecognizable". But Sisyphus, by engraving his name with a single letter on the hooves and claws of his animals, recognized them, and Autolycus, having stolen some of these animals, changed their brands. But when he could not thus deceive Sisyphus, he made him his friend. And he, secretly mingling with his daughter Anticleia, made her pregnant with Odysseus. Later, Laertes married her. Aesimus, the brother of Anticleia, begot Sinon who, having disgraced himself, sat near the wooden horse. And the Greeks, as Tryphiodorus says, "having thrown their own fire into the woven huts" (134) sailed towards Tenedos and the Calydnian islands around Troy. (From these islands two serpents swam across, Porkis and Chariboea, and killed the son of Laocoon in front of all the people, because he dared to strike the wooden horse with a spear. And this happened a little later.) Then, when the Trojans had descended and were deceived by the tricks of Sinon and had dragged this around the city and were overcome with drunkenness and joy and sleep, Sinon himself, as had been arranged with him, showing a beacon to the Greeks as Lesches says "when it was midnight, and the bright moon was rising", he calls them through the beacon into Troy and thus they captured it.

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§ 344  "Lampouris" is a type of fox with a white tail; so he calls Odysseus cunning for Sinon was his cousin or rather his nephew; for Sinon was the son of Aesimus, who was the brother of Anticleia, children of Autolycus. "Leukophryn" is Tenedos, as has been said (106 10b).

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§ 346  He calls Tenedos 'narrow Leukophryne'; for it was so called before. 'Narrow' because it lies in the narrow parts of the Hellespont. The Greeks, pretending to return home, burned their own tents and sent Sinon to signal them when the time was right to return, and they withdrew to Tenedos and the Calydnian islands around Troy. Sinon signaled them at the right time by lighting a fire, and they returned.

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§ 347  "And of child-devouring Porkeus"; Porkeus and Chariboea are the names of dragons who sailed from the Calydnian islands to Troy and destroyed the children of Laocoon in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo. Laocoon was the son of Antenor. This was a sign of the fall of Ilium. Child-devouring Porkeus' islands refers to the Calydnian islands, from which the dragon Porkeus and Chariboea sailed and killed the child of Laocoon in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo. Laocoon was a priest of Poseidon and the son of Antenor. This was a sign of the fall of Ilium.

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§ 348  "I, the wretched one," refused Apollo's union as she desired to keep her virginity intact out of jealousy of Athena. She hid her body in the dark prison. Then "violently the pheasant I, the wine" and the vine "will be drawn" as the "pheasant towards the cheese" or the vulture's union, and as the "wine" and the vine "with curved beaks" and with sickles "with hooks" or sickles. Misled by others, I also said "wine" vine. But it is not so, but wine is a kind of bird, as Aelian says and as countless others, and "with curved hooks" or with curved claws.

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§ 349  "With iron tools" constructions; a tukos is an iron tool for carpentry, with which they hew and smooth stones. "Weak" is primarily one who is deprived of strength, but metaphorically also anyone who is deprived.

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§ 350  The "weak of beams" is deprived of wooden roofs: for beams are wooden roofs. For Priam made a stone house in the shape of a pyramid and threw her in as if she were peeping. The meaning is thus: she made her body disappear under the dark "prison". For Priam made a stone house in the shape of a pyramid and threw her in because she seemed to be mad or because she was his daughter and he did not want her to be useless as if she were peeping, hence she was deprived of "beams" and said "roofless roof" as if it were not a wooden roof, contrary to what Homer says: for he rather speaks of well-roofed and well-roofed chambers as stone-roofed, writing this Z 248. And everyone who thinks likewise says this with Homer.

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§ 351  Primarily, to be "halibdousai" means to be destroyed at sea, or to sink into the sea. And Callimachus says "the islands are sinking" (fr. 269). To "halybdesai" primarily means to sink into the sea or to be submerged in the sea, according to the change of the long "i" into a long "u", or to "halidí̱sai". And Callimachus says "the ships will sink", but metaphorically it also means to be crushed in any way. "Anorofon" does not mean the open air, but not having a wooden roof, but a stone one. "Lygaí̱s" means dark; for night is also called "lygí̱" and "í̱lygí̱". "Thoraíon" means the seed-bearing and generative; for it is the same as the sun, and the sun generates and nourishes and increases everything, as Sophocles also says "the all-nourishing flame of the sun" (OT 1425). "Ptoon" was said (115 27b), from the fear of the pig. "Horí̱tí̱n" the same, because spring, summer and the rest of the seasons are completed through him. This man speaks everything in a mythical way. But the three are epithets of Apollo. "Thoraíon" and "Horí̱tí̱n" are epithets of Apollo.

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§ 353  "Lí̱ptonta" means desiring. Some say "alektron demníon", understanding it as "unmixed". They say that Apollo fell in love with her, but she did not yield to him and he, being angry with her, made her so that when she prophesied, she would not be believed, as she also says below "for Lepsius has destroyed our trust" (1454). The story, that Apollo fell in love with her and wanted to have intercourse with her, is clear. But she did not yield, and he, being angry with her, made her so that when she prophesied, she would not be believed, as she also says below "for Lepsius has destroyed our trust" (1454). Apollo wanted to have intercourse with her.

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§ 354  "Pammata" means all possessions. And Homer says "Trojans, like the sheep of a rich man in his yard" (Δ 433). "Pepameni" from the verb "ktoomai" I acquire, I have acquired, I have been acquired, hence one 'm' should be written; but the copyists, I do not know why, write two 'mm' as if they do not know that even without this, the 'pa' is long.

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§ 355  "In the jealousy of Pallas" in the jealousy of Athena. Pallas is Athena, either from the shaking of the weapons - for she was warlike at birth, springing from the head of Zeus, shaking her weapons - or from lifting up the still-beating heart of Dionysus to Zeus - for Dionysus, also called Zagreus, the son of Zeus and Persephone, was torn apart by the Titans, and his still-beating heart was lifted up - or because in the battle between the Giants and the gods, she killed a Giant named Pallas. Or she killed Pallas, her own father, who was winged and was forcing himself upon her, wanting to have intercourse with her, she who honored her virginity, killed him and wrapped herself in his skin as a shield and fitted his wings to her feet. Hence the Greeks deified her, just as they did the most warlike Athena, who was the daughter of Itonius and the sister of Iodama, whom Athena killed in battle, as Simonides the genealogist says. Pherecydes says that the Palladia are the unmade forms and everything that is thrown from heaven to earth. And the Palladion of Athena was such, a three-cubit wooden statue that fell from heaven in Pessinous of Phrygia, whence Diodorus and Dio say the place was named. Another historian says that the place was named from the many who fell there in the battle of the war, when Tantalus, the lover of Ganymedes, and Ilus, the brother, fought over the abduction of Ganymedes. But John of Antioch says that the Palladion did not fall from heaven, but that a certain philosopher named Asius, a mathematician, made it by the most beautiful horoscope to be invincible, the city where it would remain guarded and inviolable, and gave such a Palladion to the Trojan. But we must leave the allegories and the further extension of the story; for this man, as I have said many times, writes mythically. Apollodorus writes that after Ilus built Ilium, he prayed to see a sign following a cow and then the Palladion fell, which was three cubits in size, standing on its feet, holding a spear in its right hand, and a distaff and spindle in its left. For they say that Athena was raised by Triton, whose daughter was Pallas, and both were trained in war and came to rivalry. But when Pallas was about to strike, Zeus, fearing, raised the aegis, and Pallas, looking up at the aegis, was wounded by Athena and fell. Athena, deeply grieved for her, made a statue similar to her and put it on her chest, which they call the aegis, and honored it, setting it up beside Zeus. Later, Electra, approaching this, threw it into Ilium.

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§ 356  "Of the one who hates brides"; this is clear that the one who honors virginity hates those who have been married. A virgin, also called a maiden and a young woman, differs from a bride, a woman, and an old woman; for a virgin is one who has not tasted the company of men, a bride is one who has recently been married, but has not yet given birth, a woman is one who is capable of bearing and giving birth, and an old woman is one who has lost the ability to give birth. "Laphrias"; Laphria is an epithet of Athena, either Laphyria who brings the spoils from war and in a battle is Laphria. It is similar to Ageleia who brings the spoils. "Pylaitidos"; this too is a symbolic epithet of Athena. For they depicted her at the gates of cities and houses, as they did Ares in the suburbs, symbolically suggesting that in cities and houses there should be counsel and wisdom, but outside these, one should defend against enemies.

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§ 357  "Then violently"; he very wittily juxtaposes a pheasant and a vulture and a vine and a sickle; he says then that as a "pheasant" under a vulture instead of Ajax and as a vine with sickles "I will be drawn" then clearly, when the city is sacked. "Then violently"; he very wittily juxtaposes a pheasant and a vulture and a vine and a sickle; he says then that as a "pheasant" under a vulture under Ajax for the purpose of being separated. But the "as" should be taken externally; for this Lycophron is accustomed to take.

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§ 359  Thus Budeia Athena is honored in Thessaly. "The one who often indeed Budeian; the one who often has spoken out" and having called upon "a helper" a protector and a helper of the "marriages" that is a repeller of my violent marriages from Ajax of Locris the "Kore" or virgin Athena the "Budeian" and "Aithyian". These epithets of Athena seem mythical to some. But wisdom Athena has acquired these epithets; for wisdom is Budeia, because it yokes oxen to the plow and cuts the furrows, and Aithyia, because wisdom also constructed ships and taught men to sail on them crossing the sea like aithyias. Aithyia is a foolish bird caught in the sea foam; for the children of the fishermen take the foam in their hand and throw it far towards the sea, then closer and closer, until they come upon their hands and catch them.

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§ 361  "And she turned to the palace": that Athena will turn her eyes to the palace, to the roofs, "looking up" she will be angry "with the army from heaven" at some point, "falling" on my "grandfather" Tros. This is said mythically that the image of Athena turned her eyes to the roofs and was angry with the army, Homer (γ 135) calls Athena angry then the air: for with the winds blowing in the opposite direction, the fleet of the Greeks was destroyed.

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§ 363  The "from heaven" because it was heaven-sent, they say, was the Palladion in Troy. Some say this mythically fell from heaven on Tros, but I say more allegorically, as I also said before: A certain Asian mathematician philosopher, having made a horoscope and having astrologized well, constructed this to be the impregnable city, the inviolable city, guarding this. Hence, because of the horoscope and the astrology, they mythologized that it had fallen from heaven (138 10).

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§ 364  "A very precious thing" a very valuable matter.

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§ 365  "Because of one man's outrage"; instead of Ajax's sin, Greece will mourn many empty tombs of the Greeks who have been shipwrecked. They are accustomed to making tombs in their name for those who die elsewhere, which Lycophron calls false tombs (1048. 1181) and empty tombs and "empty inscriptions" (370). 6 "Because of one man's outrage"; but instead of the sin of Ajax of Locris, all of Greece will mourn, lamenting the false tombs of the shipwrecked Greeks, that is, those Greeks who were shipwrecked not lying in tombs, but on the sea rocks not even guarding the ashes of their own remains burned in urns, as is the custom of the dead dying abroad, but guarding a pitiful name and inscriptions of false tombs, the inscriptions of the tombs being wet, that is, the tombs themselves with the hot tears of fathers and children and in the laments of the women of the dead. "Outrage"; what is the outrage? They say that Locrian Ajax, during the capture of Troy, dragged away Cassandra who had taken refuge in the temple and was holding onto the Palladium of Athena and there he had his way with her, and Athena, being angry, killed him at sea along with many other Greeks (Ap. ep. 5 22. 6 5). This is what many say, but the truth is this: he dragged her away from the temple where she had taken refuge and had her as a prize like the other commanders, whom each managed to snatch away. But Agamemnon, having fallen in love with her, shares this with Odysseus, who proclaims that Ajax had intercourse with her in the temple. So it happened that she was taken away in this way by Agamemnon, and the commander was hated by the irrational crowd and the rabble. But the man, remembering the earlier insult of Achilles, how Briseis was taken away from him, and also considering the unjust death of Palamedes and fearing that they might also kill him by deceit, embarks on his ship in an unfavorable and winter time and when contrary winds blow, he is shipwrecked around Tenos and Myconos or Andros and Tenos and when the ship is broken against the rocks, the man, having swum bravely for a while, is saved around the Gyraian rocks. But when larger waves come more continuously, along with a part of the rock being cut off towards the sea, he is again dragged down and drowned. But all of Locris, having learned what happened, mourned the man for a long time, wearing black, and every year filling a ship with magnificent sacrifices and throwing fire into the ship, and attaching a black sail without necks, she sent it to be burned at sea as a sacrifice to the hero.

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§ 367  "Not in ossuaries": not buried in tombs and ossuaries according to custom, but in the rocks... the empty ones... "of piglets": piglets are the low rocks. The same are also called ants (878) and frying pans (382) and backbones (143 11) and caves (1081). "Of piglets": piglets, spots, ants, frying pans, backbones are called low rocks. But a jar and a larynx and an amphora and a jug and a sextarius are the same. The "nor the last ones hiding" is such: since it was customary then to burn those who had died elsewhere in the homeland and to carry their ashes in jars and larynxes and amphorae to the homeland, which happened in the H (334) of the Iliad and for Patroclus and Achilles (ω 74). He says that neither will the Greeks die in their homeland nor will the bones of those who have died in a foreign land come to their homeland in jars, but they will perish shipwrecked on the sea rocks and these will become their tombs.

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§ 373  "Ophelta": he turned the speech towards the places and the promontories where the shipwrecks of the Greeks were to happen; "O Ophelta and Zarax, guardian" of the "piglets" that is, guardian of the hollows of the rocks instead of saying O Zarax having hollow rocks. Ophelta and Zarax are mountains of Euboea around which the shipwrecks of the Greeks have happened. Ophelta is from Opheltes who was also called Archemorus, who was the son of Lycurgus priest of Nemean Zeus Zarax was named after Zarax the son of Petraeus son of Carystus. The same Zarax according to Phalaris (ep. 92) and others is now called Caphereus but the Caphereus more colloquially is called Xylophagos.

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§ 374  "Trychai" is a city of Euboea. But Lycophron translating calls it "Trychanta". Steph. "Trychata" and Nedon and Dirphossus are mountains of Euboea. "Trychata" is a mountain of Euboea and "Nedon" similarly and Dirphossus and Diakria are mountains of Euboea. But Dirphossos Euphorion calls Dirphys "Dirphys dusted over the rough under Euboea" (fr. 83 Mein.). "Dirphys" is a mountain of Euboea as Euphorion. Steph. Diakria are mountains of Euboea, because there Hephaestus, Athena and Prometheus were distinguished, Hephaestus saying that the man is beautiful, Prometheus that the house is beautiful, Athena that the ox is beautiful. These are what the myths say. "Guardian of the recesses" is the one guarding the recesses of the hog-back rocks. "Zarax" is a promontory inside having as a gulf the rough rocks, around which the Greeks were shipwrecked. But spots and caves (1081) are called low and rough rocks.

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§ 376  "Goleia" and "Phorkynos' dwelling" are the descents to the sea. "Dwelling" of "Phorkynos" is the sea, named after the residing spirit. "Rhachias" are the rough rocks, named after the spine. "Anekbatos" is a place from which there is no escape or exit. "Dinai" are "palirroiisi", the currents that bend back on themselves.

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§ 381  "Of the tunas": he calls the Greeks tunas, and tigana (frying pans) are the broad rocks. "Elokismenon" means hollowed out, destroyed so as to seem to have furrows cut by the rocks. "Of as many tunas": he calls the Greeks who are in danger tunas. The following: "Of the tunas elokismenon" and cut the "rhaphas" of the "kratos" in the frying-pans and broad rocks. "Rhaphas" are the connections of the heads. The following thus: "Of the tunas pro" pans hollowed out "rhaphas kratos". The "d' ek methes" lacks the "as if" they are drunk. From the common "stenagmaton akousete".

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§ 382  "Of the kataibates": the Greeks, after the fall of Troy, sailing away, were destroyed by the dark air and winds and thunderbolts, as Euripides says in the Troades as from Athena, and again as from Poseidon. "Kataibates" is the scepter, the one carried down and striking and sudden thunderbolt. There are five types of thunderbolts: the prester, also called fiery, which is formed when the wind is brought down and ignited and thinned; the scepter, also kataibates, which is formed when the fiery wind thickens; and arges, which does not burn due to its extreme thinness, but darkens; psoloeis, which kills by touch; and helikias, which makes twists and spirals by being pushed against the thickness and moisture of the dense air.

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§ 384  "When they are heavy-headed: when the sinter" that is, Nauplios, the father of Palamedes, "shows" around Cape Caphereus, the cape of Euboea (373), a "lamp" and beacon "guide of darkness" keeping awake and leading the Greeks, who are heavy-headed "from drunkenness". The as is not missing, so that it is as if they are heavy-headed, but it is well so. For Homer also writes thus in the Odyssey (g 139). The story is as follows: Odysseus, not wanting to sail to Troy with the Greeks, pretended to be a fool. So he yoked a horse and an ox and plowed.

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§ 386  "The sleepless sinner": Palamedes, being the wisest of men in his time, sailed to Troy with the Greeks. Odysseus, jealous of him, accused him in the army of intending to betray them to Priam and, as often happens, the Greeks, being persuaded, stoned Palamedes. His father, Nauplius, in anger for his son, first arranged for their wives to be seduced, Clytemnestra by Aegisthus, Aegialeia by Sthenelus, and Idomeneus's wife by Leucus, and similarly for the rest. When he heard of the Greeks' return to their homeland, he lit fires around the Hollows of Euboea, where the Greeks, thinking it was a harbor, sailed towards and were destroyed there. This Palamedes, the son of Nauplius and Clymene, the daughter of Catreus, being the wisest of men in his time, is accused: for he places Telemachus, the son of Odysseus, in front of him plowing. But when he took hold of the chariot, so that his child would not be killed, he was convicted. Therefore, both Odysseus and Palamedes sailed to Troy with the Greeks. Palamedes, however, due to Odysseus's envy and his fabricated charges, is accused of betraying the Greeks to Priam. Therefore, the Greeks, being persuaded, stoned him and thus he was killed. Later, a shrine of the man was established on the mountain of Lepetymnos in Methymna. Then, learning of his death, his father Nauplius sailed to the Greeks and demanded punishment for his son's death, but returned unsuccessful, as everyone was favoring King Agamemnon, with whom Odysseus had killed Palamedes. Sailing past the Greek lands, he arranged for the Greek women to be seduced, Clytemnestra, Agamemnon's wife, to Aegisthus, Aegialeia, Diomedes's wife, to Sthenelus, and Meda, Idomeneus's wife, to Leucus, who also killed her and Cleisithera, her daughter, who had taken refuge in the temple, and similarly for the rest. He also seized twelve cities of Crete and ruled them, and after the Trojan War, he expelled Idomeneus, who was returning to Crete. All these things happened due to Nauplius's schemes. Later, hearing of the Greeks' return to their homeland, he lit a beacon around the Hollows of Euboea and the place we mentioned, Cape Caphereus, now called Xylophagou, where the Greeks, thinking it was a harbor, sailed towards and were destroyed. As for Palamedes, Euripides says in the drama Palamedes, "he made - a muse".

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§ 385  He refers to the beacon as the 'guide of darkness', which led them to Hades. This is a figure of speech known as paradoxology.

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§ 387  He calls Ajax of Locris 'diver', and the kingfisher is a small bird. They say the male kingfisher is called 'herald'. The term 'such as' is used generally, such as 'naked seabream', which is a type of sea fish. 'Such as the diver; the naked one' and the soldier 'seabream' — he is referring to Ajax of Locris — or the 'naked seabream' and the naked one will carry the 'wave through a narrow pipe' and the long sea like a 'herald' or rather a male kingfisher that is good at swimming 'between' the two 'hogback rocks' being tossed about. 'In' the Gyrae 'rocks' he will be saved and making his wings waterproof against the sea, he will fall back into the sea 'from' the 'banks' and rocks, struck by the trident and the triple wave of Poseidon and the sea, and he will sail with the whales and the other fish, whom Thetis will later bury, hidden by the waves, around the Tremous locality of Delos. The male kingfisher is pronounced with a sharp tonos through the 'η' and is Doric, while 'herald' is pronounced with a diphthong and is proparoxytone in the Attic way, as Euphronios says. But you should understand that we and the Attics and Dorians write 'herald' equally, while the Aeolians use a diphthong. For they write and say things like Peleus and Neleus and similar words with a diphthong, as the Dorians mostly write more and less with the 'η' and similar words. But we must talk about the kingfishers and what Antigonus says: when the male kingfishers grow old, the females carry them with their wings, and in their cohabitation, when they grow old, the males die. But I will leave the foolish and mythical story of the cuckoo and the kingfishers.

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§ 389  "Between the two" either Myconos and Tinos or Andros and Tinos (141 22) or between some rocks around the rocks called Gyrae. And Homer says, "First Poseidon drove him to Gyrae" (δ 500). "Tossed about" instead of being tossed about. Eg (EM 708 56)

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§ 391  "But he properly rendered 'drying his wings' allegorically to the 'herald'. But 'between the two' is between Tinos and Myconos, which are islands of the Cyclades. But Tinos and Myconos are islands of the Calydnians. And he called the narrow place a pipe. The Gyrae were primarily the rocks where Ajax perished. But the 'second brine' fleeing, he says, the first, then being driven by the trident, he will drink a second time from the pull of the sea. They say that when he was being tossed about, Poseidon saved him, but he, standing on a rock, exclaimed thus: I was not saved by my god, but by my own power. Hearing these words, Poseidon, striking him with his trident, choked him. 'With the three-clawed spear' means with the trident.

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§ 393  "Punisher" was Poseidon or the sea because he is the one who punishes and avenges and shakes the earth. Poseidon was a "servant", since he served Laomedon when he built Ilium with Apollo. Poseidon was a "servant", since he served Laomedon during the construction of Troy "on the day when Poseidon and Apollo made the high wall of the well-built city" mythically.

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§ 395  "Cuckoo"; it lacks the 'as' in 'as a cuckoo boasting of vain insults'. Alternatively; the cuckoo is a cowardly bird, similar to a hawk and talkative, hence it does not flock with the other birds due to its cowardice. It is also discordant, which the Romans call a cuckoo. Therefore, either because of its solitude, Ajax was compared to the cuckoo or because of its vain utterance; for the bird is noisy and babbling. "Insults" are the taunts and insults and Homer says "he said he could not escape the great surge of the sea" (d 504) "insults" of insults. But I say mouths, the insults and chatter through the mouth.

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§ 397  "Dolphin"; it lacks the 'as'. The dead body of Ajax is expressed on land; for the dolphin, knowing him to be dying, comes out onto land, as Oppian says (H. II 629) "ray of Sirius"; Sirius is properly called the star of the dog as also Aratus "sharp Sirius and people call it Sirius" (Ph. 331) but metaphorically also the sun. Therefore, it says that just as the "dolphin" body is expressed, the "ray of the sun dries it up", that is, it dries it. "Salted" as salted and rotten "Nesaea's" but "grief" is Thetis sister as Homer "Nesaea and Speio" (Σ 40), "Discus" but of Zeus; for the stone given to Cronus is a discus, hence also Zeus is Discus. The same is honored in Arcadia as Cynaethus; "helper" but Zeus's that is, Thetis the helper. And Homer says "but you, goddess, having come, released him from bonds" (A 401) "ray of Sirius" is the solar or sun metaphorically. Sirius is properly a star, one lying under the chin of the constellation dog, which the common people call the name of the whole dog, cynastron. But about this Sirius star, Aratus says in the Phenomena "sharp - they call - Sirius. Dries up" and "dries up" means dries or instead of shines. For I dry up is pronounced without the aspirate, I shine is pronounced with the aspirate, hence we also say I shine. But "dries up" instead of shines is said to be a charm and a witticism; for to say it shines the dead is graceful. The thought is this; the sun dries up Ajax thrown out through the sea as a dolphin's body. It lacks the 'as', as salted and rotten she will hide it, having pitied. The "Nesaea's grief" that is, Thetis the helper of the greatest Discus or Zeus. Thetis is the helper of Zeus as also Homer "but - bonds".

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§ 398  "And with moss and seaweed"; moss is what sticks to sea rocks, either woolly or plant-like, and seaweed is what is cut off and floats in the water. "Decayed" now means worn out, but originally decayed meant weak, having worn out joints.

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§ 399  "Nesaea's helmet"; Nesaea is one of the Nereids, daughter of Nereus and Doris, the daughter of Oceanus. "Helmet" of "Nesaea" now is Thetis. From what is implied, it is understood: for he says "the great disc's helper". No other of the Nereids was a helper of the Disc, or clearly of Zeus, but only Thetis. He calls Zeus the Disc because of the stone that was swaddled in place of Zeus by Rhea and swallowed by Cronus, as Hesiod says in the Theogony (485) "stealing and corrupting Orpheus' Theogony" (fr. 108 Ab.). These things, both the stone and the swallowing, are allegories of noble birth and the help of Zeus from Thetis "whenever the other Olympians wanted to bind him, Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athena" (A 399): but Lycophron writes all things mythically.

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§ 400  Zeus Kynaios is honored in Arcadia; for the Arcadians are farmers (Al. 479) and hunters and they honored him in dog hunts and sacrifices of dogs.

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§ 401  "And the neighboring tomb"; Leto's sister Asteria, fleeing Zeus's union, transformed herself into a quail and flew into the sea and became an island, which was called after her Ortygia and Asteria and later was named Delos by Leto who gave birth to Apollo there. Leto had a sister Asteria, whom Zeus loved and gave her to mate with. She persuaded her sister and transformed into a quail and went to the island of Myconos. It was called Ortygia from her, because Zeus mated with Leto and made her pregnant with Artemis and Apollo, and because of Hera's jealousy, neither on land nor at sea would receive Leto for childbirth, Zeus commands Poseidon and gives up this island Ortygia, previously called Asteria, hiding in the waters and still trembling (402) and from her appearance they named her Delos. So Leto went there and first touching a laurel and a palm tree that appeared there, she gives birth to Artemis, and she assists her, and gives birth to Apollo. And Artemis held Delos, and Apollo went to Lycia. Therefore, he calls Delos a flying quail. And Myconos is a neighbor of Delos, where Ajax is buried. "Trembling" is a place name; so a place is called near Delos where Ajax is buried. It is appropriately called so because of the shaking of Delos and trembling in the past. The meaning is this; but "Trembling" is a place name, "the tomb" clearly of Ajax, the "neighbor" of the "flying quail", that is, of Delos, "will guard" the "roar" and sound of the "Aegean sea", that is, Ajax having died will no longer be disturbed by the waves. And this figure of speech is a charm; for in a place called Trembling near Delos lies Ajax the Locrian near Tinos and Myconos, which are islands around the Aegean sea. The Aegean is said to be so, because like a goat it is wavy with brine (64 16).

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§ 403  "Melina" is a city of Argos, from which Aphrodite Melinaia is honored. Melinaia Aphrodite, perhaps because of the sweet and pleasant nature of the union. "Kastnian" Aphrodite the adulterous. Kastnian is the one who makes strangers brothers and friends through love. For lovers caught say: he is my brother or relative. "Melinaian" the same because of the pleasantness of the company.

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§ 404  "Painful" is the sorrowful one by Hades "he will denounce" and insult. And this is a charming figure of speech.

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§ 405  "She will wrestle him" she will hunt him with the ropes of Eros. He speaks of the action, which she was forced to do in the temple of Athena and to ruin the girl. "She will wrestle him" Aphrodite or Eros himself "will hunt him" in "ropes" and nets of "madness" or lack of self-control, under which, as they babble, he mingled with Cassandra in the temple of Athena. Oistros is a tiny insect, which, occurring in the jaws of oxen or in the ears, drives them mad and leads them over cliffs and into the sea and fire. If it happens to fish, madness drives them out of the water onto the land.

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§ 406  "Erinnyes": Erinnyes are mythically three punitive demons, whose names are Tisiphone, Megaera, and Alecto. According to Hesiod and others, they were born from the drops of blood from the genitals of Uranus, but according to Aeschylus, Erinnyes are "children of eternal Night". Epimenides also says that they were born from Cronus like Hesiod, saying "from him the golden Aphrodite with beautiful hair was born, the immortal Fates and the Erinnyes with varied gifts". Allegorically, Erinnyes are the punitive forces from living in love and on earth or from fulfilling curses. Tisiphone from punishing murderers, Megaera from grudging and envying the wicked, Alecto from not ceasing to punish such people, and children of Cronus and Night because these punitive forces come invisibly and unseen.

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§ 407  "But having removed the wax-drawing" having moved the drawing to wax, from which it is deadly. "Wax-drawing" is the drawing to wax, that is to death, from which it is deadly.

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§ 408  "All pain": he says summarily that all of Greece will groan because of my violence in marriage; for a large number of Greeks will be shipwrecked and eaten by sea monsters, and those who are driven by the winds to a foreign land will die there.

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§ 409  "As much as Araithos"; Araithos is a river of Epirus, which Callimachus also mentions; for he says "and the cows by the winding track of Araithos" (fr. 203). Leibethra is a city of Macedonia from where Orpheus came from, as he says "now come, tell me, Muse, of the girl from Leibethra" (fr. 17).

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§ 410  Dotium is a cape of Olympus; therefore, Dotium connects with Leibethra and he says that as much land as Araithos and Dotium have between them, they have all of Greece, as Dotium is in Macedonia, and Araithos is in Epirus; these places are almost the extremes of Greece, as if someone were to say the extremes of Thrace are Byzantium and Aenus. He called the "gates of Dotium", as Dotium ends in a narrow place and closes like gates. These places will mourn because of my marriage.

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§ 411  "To whom my own" to which men and even to Acherusia there will be mourning because of my marriage. Acherusia is a lake of Heraclea of Pontus and the river Acheron, which is now called Soonautes. Mythically, Acherusia and Acheron are a lake and river of Hades, from the grief and afflictions that flow from the relatives of the dead.

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§ 411  "For many"; the following of the speech thus. "For many" sea monsters with "many-rowed jaws, I will be devoured in" their "entrails" and "will be buried" instead of being swallowed by the sea beasts; and the sea monsters are curved. "For many in the entrails of curved" and sea monsters "I will be buried countless" and immeasurable "I, being devoured" in "many-rowed jaws" instead of being swallowed by the sea beasts; and the sea monsters are curved. The teeth lying in the jaws in a row? But "deserted by all" the younger ones commonly take also instead of friends, but Homer only for those related by marriage.

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§ 417  "For the child-nurturing wanderer" — he means Phoenix — "most hated by the father" and hated by the "mortals, who" the father "made him a hostage" and blind whenever "he lay in" the "illegitimate bed" of the "three-rowed" that is, when he mingled with the father's concubine either Clytia or Phthia, this "will hide him, the Dawn" city of Strymon, the "Bisaltia" and Thracian "the anchor" and neighbor of the "Apsynthians" and Bistones, who are Thracian tribes near the Edonians and Macedonians, will hide him before the "dawn" and see the "Tymphestian rock" and cape "the" city of Dawn in Thrace, where Neoptolemus buried Phoenix when he died when he sailed to his homeland. About this Dawn, the Athenians defeated the Medes and the remaining Athenians set up three stone Hermeses for the victors and inscribed seq. "Was — helplessness". Of these inscriptions, the orator Aeschines remembers (Ctes. 83). Strymon is a river of Thrace, Bisaltai is a tribe of Thrace and Apsynthians and Bistones likewise. ?"Bisaltia" city and region of Macedonia from Bisaltos child of the Sun and Earth.

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§ 418  The Bistones are from Biston, the son of Ares. "Bistonia" is from Biston, the son of Ares and Callirhoe, the daughter of Nestor. He was the brother of Odomas and Edonus. Some say he was the son of Paion, the son of Ares. The Apsynthians and Bistones are Thracian tribes, hence Apollonius speaks of Orpheus. The Bistones are from the son of Ares, Biston, or the son of Terpsichore. Similarly, the Edonians are a Thracian tribe. However, the Edonians and Edones are different; the Edones are those who live by the sea, the Edonians are those who live in Thrace. He calls Phoenix "nurturer of youth" because he was the nurturer of Achilles, and "old man" because of his old age; for "old man" is a type of crab. Just as crabs have a hard surface, so do old men. The Edonians and Edones are Thracian tribes, but the Edones live by the sea, the Edonians live in the inland. He calls Phoenix "old man" because he is old and hard-skinned, and "nurturer of youth" because he raised Achilles when he was a child. He said "nurturer of youth" and "old man" to distinguish him from the wine-nurturing old man. There is a small crab that feeds on sea mussels, as Oppian says.

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§ 420  "Typhrestos" is both a city and a mountain in Trachis, named after Typhrestos, the son of the river god Spercheios. Or it could be named after the ashes of Heracles. The mountain is referred to in the masculine, the city in the feminine, as Euphorion says "of the cowherds, Trachinian, of the steep Typhrestos". Typhrestos is a city in Trachis named after the ashes of Heracles or from Typhrestos, the son of Spercheios. The mountain is also referred to in the masculine as Typhrestos. "Typhrestos" is a city at the edge of Menalia named after Typhrestos, the king, or because it was covered in the ashes of Heracles.

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§ 421  "Most like his father": Phoenix, the son of Amyntor, slept with his father's concubine Clytia or Phthia according to some, at the request of his mother Cleobule. He was then blinded by his father. Phoenix fled and came to Peleus who took him to Chiron and persuaded him to heal him. These are the myths, but the truth is as follows: when his father found out that he had slept with the concubine, he cursed him never to have children, which he also refers to as eyes. Phoenix fled and came to Peleus who took him to Chiron's cave, showed him Achilles being educated there, and handed him over to him saying: "Here is your son, raise him from now on and educate him, as a father should raise a beloved son." And for this reason, they made up the story that Peleus took him to Chiron who made him see again. Oppian also says "children dearer than light and life". But the blinding of Phoenix should be understood symbolically, because he became childless, and not literally as most people say. Homer agrees with me: he says from Phoenix to Achilles and something like this he says "but you" - "defend".

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§ 422  "Having pierced" the "tetrenas" and having thrown out the lamps or the eyes.

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§ 423  "Into the illegitimate"; for he mingled with Clytia, his concubine. "Homeros" refers to the blind, hence the poet is better called Homer than Melesigenes because he was born to a certain Meles.

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§ 424  "And the three" are the "kauekas" and seagulls, namely Calchas, Idomeneus, and Sthenelos, "will embalm" and bury "in the glades" and the tree-filled places of "Cerkaphos"; Cerkaphos is a mountain of Colophon, not far from, not distant but clearly near the "drinking places" and the waters of the Ales river of Colophon.

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§ 425  But again, "kauekas not far away"; Demetrios says that the Aineians call the seagull kauekas. Ales is a river of Colophon, which he poetically called "Alenta". Molossos, Cupeus, and Coetos are epithets of Apollo. "Swan" perhaps refers to Calchas because of his prophetic ability; for the bird is both musical and sacred to the god. He said "Alenta" and not Alentos in the Doric dialect. He named them "kauekas" because they are white from old age like seagulls. Kaue is the seagull according to the Aineians, as Hipponax also says "Cicon" is the "pandaleetos ammoros kaue" (fr. 2). "From afar" write the small 'po'; these, however, ignorant of the meter, write this large. But you should know that the rough can be extended, when he wants, the verse writer perhaps to the double, as I also previously told you (107 19) bringing this as an example "Trojanssnake". But if you think this is less, listen also to the lines of Hipponax against Mneme the limping painter: "Mneme has been defeated, no longer paint a trireme snake fleeing from the ram towards the helmsman"; "for this is a disaster and a sign to Nicyrti and Saboni the helmsman, if a snake bites his shin" (fr. 49). Behold, the snake, the 'o' is long, extended by the 'ph' being rough, as you will also find many other things looking. So also the "from afar" being small is considered long by the extension of the 'th'. But those ignorant of the meters write this large and they do not even know why it is large; but if you write this large, even say that I write large by Attic extension as the dotes / dotes potes / potes and the like. "The Molossos"; having said three above now he says each one and first Calchas. ? "Molossos" and "Cupeos" and "Coetos" are epithets of Apollo "Molossos", because he is honored in Molossia, "Cupeos" of the one who puts on a cloak like a garment — he is the same as the sun; for kupas (333) is said to be the garment — , "Coetos", because the sun is sperm-producing and the cause of intercourse as life-giving. "Swan" Calchas because of the old and prophetic; for the swans foresee their own end and then sing a melody more melodiously as Aeschylus also remembers "like a swan — lament" (Ag.r 1399).

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§ 427  "The sow's strays"; a prophecy was given to Calchas that he would die when he met a seer greater than himself. But when he was brought before Mopsus the seer and a rivalry of prophecy arose, Mopsus, seeing a pregnant sow, asked him how many piglets it carried in its womb, to which Calchas did not respond. Then Mopsus, seeing a jar filled with figs, asked him about their quantity and measure. When Calchas could not answer, it is said that Mopsus stated both the number of piglets in the sow and the measure of the figs. Defeated, Calchas, understanding the prophecy, killed himself. Therefore, he calls Mopsus "a rival", competing and arguing with him about prophecy. Thestor the son of Aglaia and Apollo's had Calchas for whom he prophesied that he would die when he met a seer greater than himself. After the destruction of Troy, Calchas himself and others, Amphilochus, Leonteus, Podalirius, Polypoetes, leaving their ships in Troy, travel on foot to Colophon and there they bury Calchas; for they were received by Mopsus, son of Apollo, a seer, and son of Manto, and Calchas, who competed with him through the prophecy of a wild fig tree, asked Mopsus how many figs the tree bore. Mopsus said ten thousand and a medimnus and one fig more. And it was found to be so. Mopsus then asked Calchas about a pregnant sow, how many it carried in its womb and when it would give birth. But he said nothing, he himself said: it carries ten piglets, one of which is male, it will give birth tomorrow. When these things happened and Calchas understood the prophecy, he despaired and died. Others say that he killed himself.

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§ 428  A phelex, olynthos, fig tree and a dried fig differ; for a phelex is called a wild fig, a fig is a domestic one, a fig tree is an unripe one, a fig is a ripe one, and a dried fig is a dried one.

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§ 431  "The fourth one", he refers to Idomeneus. For Zeus is called Erechtheus in Athens and in Arcadia, either because he presented Rhea to Cronus a stone instead of Zeus or from the word erechtho which means to move; for through him the earthquakes occur. So he says "fourth" from Zeus, that is, Idomeneus; for Minos and Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon are from Zeus, and Deucalion is from Minos, and Idomeneus is from Deucalion. Having to say second, why did he say "fourth"? The writing is correct. And consider; for earlier he said: the three will be buried by the glades of Cercaphus, first Calchas for the reasons we mentioned; now he says "again" that is, the second, the "fourth" generation from Zeus, that is, Idomeneus; for Minos is from Zeus and Europa, Rhadamanthus and Phoenix, Deucalion is from Minos and Pasiphae, the daughter of the Sun, and Idomeneus is from Deucalion and Cleopatra. But he lies about Idomeneus, saying that he was lost with the rest; for Homer in the Odyssey says seqq. g 191. 192 that he was expelled in Crete under the curse of Leucus or Amyktus of Talos, who rebelled and destroyed ten cities of Crete.

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§ 432  "They call Idomeneus the 'brother of Aithon', and 'Aithon' they say of Odysseus; but this is not so, rather he says it of the Aithon in the stories. And the 'in writings' is also nonsense; for Odysseus did not write, but having gone to Ithaca unknown, he was inventing, saying that I am called Aithon, and I am from Crete, brother of Idomeneus (t 181).

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§ 433  "And the third of the 'wooden walls' he calls Sthenelos. 'Wooden walls' properly are wooden walls; but now he speaks of the wall of the Thebans. And they say that the third of those who went away in Colophon is Sthenelos, the son of Capaneus who undermined the walls of the Boeotian Thebes, whom Zeus struck with lightning for his arrogance, as Euripides says in the Phoenissae (1181). 6 'Wooden walls'; having mentioned above the first and second, whom he said were going to die in Colophon, now he also mentions the third, who is Sthenelos. And this again is a lie; for Diomedes himself also came to Argos unharmed with those with him, one of whom was also Sthenelos; for he was his charioteer. And about their departure to Argos, Homer speaks in the Odyssey (γ 180). But later Diomedes, about to be killed by his wife Aigialeia, flees to Daunia and to be more precise, Calabria (Al. 595). 'Wooden walls' properly are wooden walls, but now he uses it metaphorically to speak of the walls of the Ectenes and Thebans. ?"Ectenes"; the Boeotians were so called just as also the Hyantes because they were beastly and pig-like. Eg (EM 311 36 EG 158 40) But I do not know why he calls the Thebans Ectenes, unless somehow he says those from "once beasts". For the Thebans were slandered as being beastly and ignorant, so as Pindar said to the choreographer Aineas, come on then do this and this, so we escape the ancient reproach of the pig of Boeotia. (Ol. VI 148). But another historian says: The Hyantes, a barbarian nation, settled in Thebes. But the common people in their common speech made a corruption of the name instead of saying Hyas Boeotian pig Boeotia saying. And Phrynichos the tragic poet also mentions this nation in the drama Pleuronians saying "an army once on the land the foot of Hyantes turned, who inhabited the land ancient people; and all the plain and the coastal slab where the flame was kindled with the jaws of the wolves". And Sthenelos was a descendant of Capaneus who undermined or was about to undermine the walls of the Boeotian Thebes. Whom "Gongylates" whom Capaneus took and Zeus killed the "Gongylates", through whom the gongs and clenched hands are moved, "the Boulaios", through whom also the deliberation is for men, "the Mylaios", through whom men move the mills and the teeth, or the bread-giver, from the mill.

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§ 436  But the phrase "with a herdsman's / driver's whip" if taken densely, refers to the one who drives the impious, but if taken simply, to the one who is driven excessively. He speaks of the thunderbolt. "With a herdsman's / driver's whip" refers to the thunderbolt or to the one who is driven excessively, hence it should be taken simply, or to the one who drives the herds and the polluted, hence it should be taken densely. But a herd is a filthy thing, from which is also said the holy is filthy, Hipponax says "thus they cursed Boupalos with a herd" (fr. 11). About the boldness of Capaneus and his thunderbolt strike, Euripides says in the Phoenissae. The walls of Thebes were built by Amphion and Zethos, sons of Antiope of Asopus, whom Zeus, having intercourse with her, fathered them.

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§ 437  "When blood relatives" (of the "ploughing" Thebes or the thunderstruck Capaneus) when? When the daughters of Night, the Furies, "armed" the brothers of their father - he speaks of Eteocles and Polyneices - against what "armed"? "Against excess" and desire for self-killing fate. Clearly, the scheme is interpretive. "Self-killing" those who are about to kill each other. The story is as follows "when blood relatives": this speaks of Eteocles and Polyneices, he says they are brothers of their own father since Oedipus, the son of Laius, having killed his father unknowingly and marrying his mother Jocasta also unknowingly, as Homer says in Odyssey "he who having killed his father married" his mother (l 273), had from her Eteocles and Polyneices and Ismene and Antigone, hence those were brothers of Oedipus and sons. Recognizing his mother, he blinded himself. Jocasta hanged herself. The mother herself died by hanging, as also Homer says seq. l 278. His children, fighting over his kingdom, killed each other, Eteocles holding Thebes and its people, Polyneices the Argives. His children, fighting over his kingdom, killed each other, Eteocles fighting on behalf of Thebans, Polyneices with the Argives destroying them. For Adrastos the Argive gave his daughter to him, among whom was Capaneus, who intending to destroy Thebes was struck by thunderbolt by Zeus. Homer mentions him in Books Delta and Zeta.

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§ 440  "Suicides"; a place called Derainos in Abdera, where there is a temple of Apollo Derainos, which Pindar mentions in his Paeans (fr. 41 Bgk.). "Dogs of Derainos" then, are like the offspring of Apollo, that is, the seers. "Two" are the two seers, Mopsus the son of Apollo and Manto the daughter of Teiresias, and Amphilochus the son of Alcmaeon, the son of Eriphyle, the sister of Adrastos the king and Amphiaraos the seer's child, the "dogs", the genuine seers, who were accustomed to the Apollo honored in the place of Derainos in Abdera, which Pindar also mentions in his Paeans as "suicides" and those "slaughtered by each other" and dead "will fight with spears" and will wage the "last battle". The figure of speech is a joke; for no one fights after dying. It is also badly formed, ill-tempered and envious; for he should have said, they will wage war, not a battle. At the same time, Amphilochos the son of Amphiaraos and Mopsus the seers came to Cilicia .... After this, Amphilochos, wanting to separate to Argos, entrusted his kingdom to Mopsus, ordering him to guard it for one year. But when the year was fulfilled, Amphilochos came and Mopsus did not yield, so they disputed with each other about this and were killed by each other; those who lived there buried them and built a tower between their graves, so that they would not even share with each other after death, as Euphorion also says "Echoing Pyramos", "Mopsos and Amphilochos set a dispute over the city of Mallon, and having set a dispute, they went alone to the gates of Hades" (fr. 50). And so many say that Amphilochos went to Cilicia with Mopsus. Others say, as Apollodoros also does (ep. 6 19): Amphilochos, after Alcmaion, campaigned to Troy in winter and was thrown to Mopsus and they slaughtered each other fighting for the kingdom. As some say (III 95), Amphilochos inhabited the so-called Argos Amphilochikon near the Acarnanians. But "having been cut down" is said in reverse; for they do not fight after dying, but they die fighting. Otherwise. They will be killed fighting the last battle.

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§ 444  "Magarsos" is the greatest hill in Cilicia near Mallos. And the Magarsian Athena is established there. Steph. "Magarsos" is a city of Cilicia between the tomb of Mopsus and Antilochus and the sanctuary of Magarsian Athena. Demetrius in his first book about Pamphylia says that it was named after the daughter of Pamphylos (FHG IV 382). But where will they wage war? Under the "heels" and the lower places of the "towers" of Margasos. "Margasos", according to Demetrius who wrote about Pamphylian matters, was the daughter of Pamphylos, after whom the city of Magarsos was named. He metaphorically and vividly called the city after the heroine, the daughter of Pamphylos, just as Hesiod called the bird, the swallow, Pandionida (E 568). The city of Magarsos lies near the outflows of the Pyramos river (Al. 439). He called the seers the "dogs" of Apollo (440) from the metaphor of the dogs that love their master or because among all other irrational animals, only the dog looks back at the statues. "Halibros" is the one who is fed by the sea, hence this seems to me to be written greatly. "Ochmos" now means tower. "Hagnon": how did he say "pure" of the lambs that killed each other? He did not say this looking at the murderous aspect, but because both were seers. "Hagnon" of "lambs" because they were killed after waging war. Eratosthenes also mentions this.

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§ 447  He says that Teucer, Agapenor, Acamas, Praxandros, and Cepheus were carried off to Cyprus. "The five," says Teucer, Agapenor, Acamas, and with them Cepheus and Praxandros, "having been led astray to Cyprus, will settle there. Teucer, my relative, was driven away by his father Telamon for not having helped and defended Ajax in his death. Agapenor, having come to Cyprus, will 'mine copper', whose father the Calydonian boar killed. The third, Acamas, the son of Theseus who took the arms of Aegeus from the rock, whose Acamas, once having gone as an ambassador to Troy with Diomedes, was loved by Laodice, the daughter of Priam, and she bore him a son, Munitus, whom Aethra, the mother of Acamas, will place in his hands after the destruction of Troy, saying to him: 'Behold your son, whom Munitus, hunting in Thrace with his father Acamas, a snake struck and killed, and his mother Laodice, mourning him, will die, whom this chatterbox Lycophron previously said was swallowed by a chasm of the earth when Troy was being destroyed. In the midst of these, he makes a roundabout comparison, saying: 'When Aethra will give him to his father Acamas, whom alone of all the Attic women Castor and Polydeuces enslaved, those such and such, whom Castor and Polydeuces, oh savior Zeus, do not send as helpers to Helen who was seized a second time, nor send Protesilaus, nor let these men come out from the same ships onto the land of the Trojans, nor Idas and Lynceus; for they will not be able to endure this war against the Trojan walls for one day, even if they have Hector as a bulwark. Then Cassandra comforts herself and says: 'But we have Zeus as a helper, who will throw a love of strife into them, when they receive Alexander, who will also be killed by each other, fighting over the marriages of the same cousins or ex-nephews of Phoebe and Hilaeira, except for Polydeuces alone. Then the filthy one uses other comparisons and says: 'And of these men, the god will sharpen our spear for us, another great multitude of Greeks will stir up and lead, whom not even Anius will be able to satisfy with grain, wine, and oil. Then she says also about the other two. But Cepheus and Praxandros, the fifth, that is, the fourth of the generals whom I mentioned, will arrive in Cyprus; for first is Teucer, second Agapenor, third Acamas, these two are the fourth. "Sphaceia"; Cyprus was formerly called Sphaceia, as Philostephanus says in his work On Cyprus, from the men who settled there, who were called Sphaces. And it is also called Cerastis, as Androcles says in his work On Cyprus, because men who had horns settled there, but as Xenagoras says in his work On Islands, because it has many prominences which they call horns, it was named Cerastis. "Sphaceia" thus — Cyprus was called — Sphaceia and Cerastis, Cyprus. ×Steph. "Cyprus" — it was also called Cerastis from having many peaks — and Sphaceia. Steph.

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§ 448  They say that "Satrachon" is a city and a river of Cyprus. Some write "Setrachon" with an 'e'. Hyle is a Cypriot city, in which Apollo is honored as Hylates. But "Hylates" is an epithet of Apollo; for Hyle is a place around the Kourion area of Cyprus, a sanctuary of Apollo, from which they call the god Hylates..

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§ 449  They say that "Morpho" is a wooden statue made for Aphrodite by the Spartan lawgiver, symbolizing the prohibition of maiden's lewdness or persuading them to be like the goddess. Others say it was because of Helen's transgression. Aphrodite of Cyprus, from the verb "morpho" i.e., to shape. "Zerynthia" is Aphrodite in Thrace. For there is a cave called Zerynthos in Thrace, where Aphrodite is honored. For not only are there sanctuaries of Ares in Thrace, but also of Aphrodite. "Zerynthian" is also written as "Troizenian". Or "Troizenian" because there is a sanctuary of Aphrodite in Troezen, established by Phaedra when she fell in love with Hippolytus, the son of Theseus and Hippolyta, the Amazon's child.

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§ 450  Because Teucer will be banished from Salamis by his father. Teucer will be banished, he says, from Salamis by his father Telamon because of Ajax. For they say that Teucer, sailing to Salamis and being driven away by his father Telamon for not defending Ajax, went to Cyprus, founded Salamis, settled there, and marrying Eune, the daughter of Cypros, had a child Asteria.

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§ 451  "Cychreos"; Cychreus son of Salamis and Poseidon. This man reigned over the Salaminians, as Euphorion says in the Hippomedon, "for such was Cychreus in the ballot of Salamis" (fr. 17). Some say this was the double-natured Cecrops. Others say that once a snake was ravaging Salamis and made it uninhabitable, until Cychreus killed it, and for this reason he was called Anaxiphos. But "Cychreus" is genitive according to dialect. And Cychreus was also called Anaxiphos. This Cychreus was also called Cecrops, the so-called double-natured. From Cychreus of Salamis and Poseidon; he was called Ophis (snake) because of his rough manners. Cychreus Pagos hill. But I also write 'η' in 'chre', even if everyone does not know why they write this diphthong. For I say: as Peleus is of Peleus, so also Cychreus is of Cychreus.

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§ 452  But "of the same blood" means relative, because he was from Hesione, who was the sister of Priam, given to Telamon as a prize when he sacked Troy with Hercules. But he wrongly called Teucer the womb-brother of Ajax; for Ajax was from Eriboea, and Teucer from Hesione. "Of the father" means of the womb, of the womb-brother, they write and say wrongly to say the poet; for Ajax and Teucer were not womb-brothers, but Ajax was the son of Eriboea, the daughter of Porthaon, and Teucer was the son of Hesione. But now I do not blame the poet, but the copyists; for finding "of the father" written faintly, they wrote "of the womb" instead. But I blame the poet more for saying "as a murderer" of Ajax; for Teucer was not driven out as a murderer, but as not defending.

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§ 453  "The illegitimate offspring of the colt" refers either to Ajax, due to his impetuousness and strength in battle, or to Telamon, which is better. "Colt": some arrange it this way "as a murderer" of the "gastric colt" either of Ajax, which I write as "paternal", others, however, mark up to the "murderer", they start from another beginning thus the "illegitimate offspring" of the "colt" either of Telamon. "Offspring" is like a child. "Relatives' harm" because Teucer, who was related to them, waged war against the Trojans. Of the Trojans, due to the Homeric seqq. Θ 297–299.

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§ 456  "The raging" of Ajax, because in his madness he destroyed the flocks of the Greeks. As "murderer" of the "paternal" Ajax who went mad because of Achilles' weapons and destroyed the Greek flocks. The story is as follows: Ajax, in his madness because the armor of Achilles was given to Odysseus, destroyed the flocks of the Greeks. The Greeks later reproached him and he himself was killed with a sword, which Hector gave him when they fought each other. And Homer seqq. H 303 "gave" - 305.

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§ 455  "Pouring": Hercules wrapped Ajax in the skin of the lion, so that he would be invulnerable. Pindar also testifies to this (Isthm. VI 67). The following: the skin of the savage lion made Ajax invulnerable, leaving only one deadly way on his side, which the quiver hid. Otherwise. He says there is only one way to Hades, in as much as one place on Ajax's body was vulnerable, hidden under the quiver; the rest of the body was invulnerable. Some say this was around the collarbone, others around the ribs, as Aeschylus says in Thracians (fr. 78 N). "Charonos": Charon is a lion among the Macedonians. The story is as follows: In the Nemean region of Argos, there was a lion invulnerable to iron and all kinds of missiles, which Hercules crushed with his own hands and used its skin as a cover. Being a friend of Telamon, who was childless and once sacrificing to Zeus, he was invited by him to enter his house and sacrifice to his own father Zeus in this way, standing with the lioness, and pray to become: a male child for him. Hercules, taking a golden wine-carrying phiale, sacrificed and prayed for him. And after the prayer, an eagle flew and he says to Telamon: you will have a son, whom you will call Aetos according to the sign. And having given birth to Ajax, he called him Aetos, then Ajax. When he grew up, Hercules covered him with the lioness and gave it to him (Al. 455) under which, as they babble (supr. 3), he was invulnerable except for the place alone according to some of the covered formerly by the quiver, when Hercules wore it, when Ajax, under the shield. Others, however, say that Ajax was vulnerable under the key (supr. 9); these are nonsense, so the truth is as follows. Ajax, being a right-handed soldier and having fought many wars, was never wounded by keeping himself best and covering himself with the shield. But when he himself killed himself by pushing the sword against his side or neck, it was mythologized that he only had these places vulnerable.

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§ 458  "Quiver" is the case for arrows. "Scythian quiver" is that of Teutaros, whom he previously (41 5) said Herakles taught archery. But I said that others claim Eurytos or Rhadamanthys taught him, being his paternal relatives.

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§ 459  "Comyros" is for Zeus; for Zeus is honored as Comyros in Halikarnassos.

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§ 461  And "Aitas" instead of Herakles, as he was called by the Lacedaemonians; for he loved Ajax, therefore, embracing him in his arms and praying for him to Zeus to remain unharmed. "Aeita" generally means friend in Doric. But the commentators who write it with an 'i' are babbling.

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§ 462  And "for he will not be persuaded" he says, Teukros speaking to his father Telamon that the "Lemnian" and the warlike Ajax killed himself. For the Lemnians, as Hellanicus says, found armory (227). "Lemnian" is Ajax, hot in battle or harsh and fiery. And Homer says "great Telamonian Ajax would not yield to a man" (N 321). Therefore, he is also the "heavy-hearted bull", "most hostile" of Hector's guests. But that he killed himself with Hector's sword, Sophokles also testifies (Ai. 658).

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§ 463  "The burning" and the fierce wind of Enyo and war — Enyo is an epithet of Hera — "never turning to flight, the heavy-hearted bull" as Homer also says seq. N 321. He calls Ajax a burning because he is fiery and hot in battles. "Most hostile of guests" of Hector. For having fought a duel with Hector and the battle being evenly matched, they became friends and gave each other gifts "Ajax gave a shining purple belt" (H 305) after which Hector, having been killed by Achilles, was dragged from his chariot in fear. Ajax then took Hector's sword and with it killed himself, as Sophokles says.

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§ 466  He calls Ajax self-made, since he killed himself. Antikleides, however, says that he was shot by Paris and died.

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§ 467  "Trambelos' helmet" he refers to Teucer. For after the fall of Ilium by Herakles, Telamon received an exceptional prize, Theaneira also known as Hesione as Istros says in Symmiktois (FHG I 421). But she, having become pregnant by Telamon, fled from the ship and came to Miletus, having crossed the sea between it and Lesbos †T I say she was bought from Priam (337). At that time, Arion was king of Miletus, who found her hidden in the forest, saved her and raised her son named Trambelos as his own son. But when the campaign against Ilium took place, Achilles came to Miletus, then killed Trambelos who resisted him. But admiring his bravery and learning that he was son of Telamon, he buried him and mourned him for a while as a relative. Therefore, Theaneira is the "wife" of the father. Otherwise. The brother of the son of Telamon or of Ajax, Teucer.

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§ 469  "Given": He refers to Telamon, the one who sacked Troy. For Hellanicus (FHG I 64) reports that even before Herakles, Telamon entered Troy and, having demolished part of the wall, then observed and learned, and for this reason, he established the altar of Herakles Alexikakos (Herakles the Averter of Evil) and appeased his anger for what he had done. Hellanicus (FHG I 64) also reports that before Herakles, Telamon entered Troy and, having demolished part of the wall, he entered. But when Herakles drew his sword against him, Telamon, observing this, piled stones around him for this reason, to annoy Herakles. And when he asked, "What is this?" Telamon said: "I am about to raise an altar to Herakles Alexikakos." And so, the anger of Herakles was appeased, and he gave him Hesione, also known as Theaneira, as a prize.

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§ 470  "With speeches" means with public speeches.

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§ 472  "To send threefold": They say that Phoenodamas, having three daughters, was forced by Laomedon to expose them to the monster. He gathered an assembly and argued that Laomedon, being the cause of the evil, should expose his daughter Hesione, and he persuaded the Trojans. Therefore, she was given to the monster in the north. Herakles, having found her, saved her by killing the monster. Otherwise: He says Phoenodamas, who persuaded Priam to give Hesione to the monster. For this reason, Laomedon, being angry with Phoenodamas, gave his three daughters to some men who came to the desert of Libya to let them become prey for wild beasts. One of them, having intercourse with the river Cremissos in the form of a dog, gives birth to Aigestes, who there built three cities: Aegesta, Atalla, and Eryx.

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§ 471  "grey dog" means sea-monster. "Babax" means the orator, from "bazo" which means "I speak".

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§ 476  "But instead of a small bird": The beast, that is, the monster, "a small bird" is a small, beautiful sea bird. "Pipo" is a beautiful sea bird, but now he calls Hesione this. "Scorpion" refers to Herakles because of his murderous nature. "Bad pain" refers to Herakles, who was the monster that swallowed her. "Grey" refers to the eye, "white" to the whole body.

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§ 478  "The second one": The syntax is as follows: "The land farmer" Agapenor "the self-feeder" who got his birth from "the wolf-shaped meat-eaters of Nyctimus" — he says that Nyctimus was born from an oak — what meat-eaters of Nyctimus? Those born before the "moon" and those who "endured at the top" winter in the "fireplace of oak logs, coming second" after Teukros to the "island" of Cyprus to "dig for copper".

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§ 479  "The second" is about Agenor's story of the Arcadian, "island" he says is Cyprus. "Hunter" is the hunter, as much as Arcas was the race, but the mainlanders are hunters. Or wild, as much as the Arcadians used wild food before, that is, the acorn as well as the proverbial oracle "many acorn-eating men are in Arcadia.

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§ 480  "Inland" because Arcadia is in the middle of the Peloponnese. Homer also shows this by saying they don't have ships because they live far from the sea, so he says sqq. B 612-614. "Inland" is the one living in the middle of the Peloponnese, Arcadia, as Homer also shows they don't have ships because they live far from the sea, so he says sqq. B 612-614. They were acorn-eaters. 6 "Before" but "moon" because the Arcadians are before the moon "of beech" but "oak food" the food from the oaks; food is the sustenance. "Descendants" but "of the oak" since Arcas while hunting encountered one of the Hamadryad nymphs in danger of being destroyed by the oak, in which the nymph had been born, by a torrential river being destroyed. "Descendants of the oak"; Arcas the son of Zeus or Apollo and Callisto the daughter of Lycaon as Charon the Lampsacenian says while hunting encountered one of the Hamadryad nymphs in danger when the oak in which the nymph had been born was being destroyed by a torrential river. He raised her and fortified the land with earth. The nymph Chrysopelia by name according to Eumelus cohabited with him and bore Elatus and Amphidamas, from whom are the Arcadians as Apollonius says "but he was paying his father's recompense" (B 475) seqq. vv. 476-478 — "myth". Or since Agapenor was from the line of Dryops, and Dryops was the son of Apollo and Dia the daughter of Lycaon. Apollo cohabited with her and made her pregnant who having given birth to the baby was raising it at the trunk of an oak, hence he was named Dryops and from him the Dryopes around Parnassus, as Helios says "Zeus — killed" (Ap. A 1213).

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§ 481  "In the form of she-wolves": It is said that Zeus, having been offended by Lycaon, the latter sacrificed his youngest child to him and presented a certain child named Nyctimus. However, Zeus, being angry, not only struck the perpetrator with a thunderbolt, but also many others, only sparing Lycaon and a few others who begged for mercy. He then overturned the entire table, from which he named a city in Arcadia, Trapezousa. He also transformed many others into wolves and for this reason a mountain in Arcadia was named Lycaion. The goat was wrong to say: for he should have said "in the form of wolves". For not she-wolves, but wolves have become the sons of Lycaon according to this. The story is as follows: Pelasgus was the son of Zeus and Niobe, to whom Lycaon was born from Meliboea or, as others say, from Cyllene. This man, having become king of the Arcadians, was shown to have fifty sons from many marriages. But an impious offspring of children was born, among whom were Menaros, Thesprotos along with Nyctimus, Caucon, Lycus, Phthios, Teleboas, Haimon, Mantinos, Stymphalos, Cleitor, Orchomenos and others who all, as I said, excelled in impiety and arrogance. Zeus, disguised as a humble man, came to them, and they, inviting him to hospitality, slaughtered one of the local children, whose entrails they mixed and presented at the table. Zeus, disgusted, overturned the table, hence the place is now called Trapezeus in Arcadia, and he struck Lycaon and his sons with a thunderbolt, except for the youngest, Nyctimus. When Nyctimus took over the kingdom, the flood in the time of Deucalion occurred because of the impiety of Lycaon's sons. Another version: Zeus dined as a guest with the Arcadian Lycaon. His sons, making an attempt to see if he was a god, butchered Nyctimus and mixed his flesh with the other meats and presented it to Zeus. He, being angry, overturned the table, hence Trapezousa is a city in Arcadia, and he killed the sons of Lycaon with a thunderbolt and continuously struck Arcadia with thunderbolts, until the earth, begging Zeus, extended her hand, hence they say that the first truce was made among the Arcadians. He also transformed some of Lycaon's sons into wolves. I don't know how Lycophron said they took on she-wolf shape, unless he had to say one species instead of another, instead of "in the form of bears". For Callisto, as they mock (Ap. bibl. III 100), the daughter of Lycaon, was a companion of Artemis, with whom Zeus, disguised as Artemis, mingled, and he made her a bear to deceive Hera, from whom Arcas was born. From this line Agapenor is descended. "Butchers of Nyctimus": this is nonsense; for they did not butcher Nyctimus, but another local child, as Apollodorus (III 98) and others say.

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§ 482  "Of those before the moon"; first consider this, that even adverbs have the movable 'n' when a vowel follows, but no longer when a consonant does, as I write and for this reason I am often criticized by many of the ignorant who attach their own weakness to me. "Of those before" but "moon" - since the Arcadians were pre-lunar. They were nourished earlier by acorns. The Arcadians used to roast acorns over fire. For they were nourished before the gathering of the moon by roasting acorns over fire. And the oracle says "many acorn-eating men are in Arcadia" (Her. I 66). The following is thus... or because the insolent are said to be pre-lunar; for to insult is to moon. But others slander them as fools, saying they are ancient and older than the moon. The more allegorical interpretation is this. For astronomy, the year, months, equinoxes and such things were discovered by Pan, the king of the Arcadians, or Atlas of Libya (879), who calculated the months from the moon, and later by Thales. Others say that the Arcadians first showed sacrifices to the gods, first a sheep, second a white horse, third oak leaves, hence the Pythia says "many acorn-eating men are in Arcadia".

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§ 483  "With ash"; ash in the language is called ash. The Arcadians used to roast acorns over fire.

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§ 484  And "he will mine copper" since there are many copper mines in Cyprus. He says therefore that Agapenor, coming from Arcadia, will work copper in Cyprus. 4. But I say that he will arrive in Cyprus, where there are copper miners; for it is unseemly for such a general to become a copper miner. But I say the figure is by implication or for charm.

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§ 485  "Gnuthos" instead of "bothros". And every hollow is so called.

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§ 486  "Where he was born" - the father. For Agapenor was the son of Ancaeus. This man, having gone out against the Calydonian boar, was killed by it. 4 The breadth of the story Homer (I 529) says: and Soterichus says in the Kalydoniaka... but the Calydonian pig, first living around Oeta (486), came to Aetolia because of Artemis' anger, because Oeneus did not sacrifice to her seq. "Others" - I 535. Therefore, that one is called Oetaean from Oeta.

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§ 487  "In the torments" of the "bubon"; torment is the bend, from which he has indicated the bend of the thigh, "thrillixas" instead of breaking; for around the top, he says, of the bubon Ancaeus was struck. "In the torments of the bubon" crushing the body in the circumference of the bubon. Bubon is the place of the hip; what this wisest man Lycophron calls bubon, I do not know whether it is the barbarism and chatter of the man or my ignorance. For now he says that Ancaeus was struck in the bubon, then shortly after he says "striking the ankle irresistibly" (493): but I again recognize the ankle as the parts around the ankle. Therefore, not knowing a bubon-ankle according to this wisest man who also tells countless false stories and often contradicts himself and not only others, as it seems, I am ignorant.

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§ 488  "The wretched man knew"; Lycophron is mistaken about the homonym. For "much lies between the cup and the edge of the lip" was said about the Samian Ancaeus, who was the son of Poseidon and Astypalaea, ruling over Samos. Aristotle in his Constitution of the Samians (fr. 530) says that when Ancaeus planted a vineyard, one of his household said that he would not taste the wine from it. This is nonsense too; for a prophecy came to Ancaeus of Samos, who was a wreath-bearer, not to drink from the vineyard. For this Ancaeus, being the son of Poseidon and Astypalaea of Phoenicia, planted a vineyard according to Aristotle, the compiler of the Peplos. A seer then said to him: you will not drink wine from this. Having squeezed the fruit of the vineyard at the wine-press, he took it into a cup to drink and called the one who had said it, proving him to be a liar. But the one, inspired by God, said that "much lies between the cup and the edge of the lip". Then a boar was ravaging the land and a cry went up, Ancaeus threw away the cup, and going out first, was killed by it. But Lycophron accepted this about Agapenor son of Ancaeus, son of Actor †T and Eurythemis †T, daughter of Acastus, and about the Calydonian boar.

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§ 491  "The same man"; he says that the teeth of the dead boar killed Ancaeus. They say that Atalanta was the first to throw a javelin at it. 4

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§ 492  "Storthynx" primarily refers to anything ending in a sharp point, but here it refers to the pig's tooth. "Dedoupos": if it means "killer", as I write, it should be interpreted as such: as "dedoupos" and being carried by the sound "the killer" and about to kill him, Ancaeus "defended himself" and punished him by "striking him relentlessly" on his groin. But to write "killer" is foolish in the case of Ancaeus, for Atalanta shot him, and Meleager killed him by striking him on the forehead with his boar-killing spear. Ancaeus did nothing noble against him, except that, raising his axe to strike him, he was killed by a blow from him. So it should be interpreted in the case of Ancaeus, but in the case of Meleager thus, which is the deepest and my own thought. "The same storthynx" and either the boar "dedoupos" killed "the killer" either Meleager "defended himself by striking relentlessly the top of his ankle" either his ankle and foot of the "dancer" and fastest warrior. Not that the boar struck him around his feet, he said this, but he says this charmingly and wittily, that he defended himself by binding his foot and making him unable to walk because he was killed in such a way. For having taken the boar's head with Atalanta and the skin as a prize, he gives it as a first-fruit offering. But because of this, his mother's brothers became very upset and became his enemies and he killed them. Althaea, his mother, being upset because of what happened to her brothers, burned the brand from the Fates, which she kept as a guarantee of Meleager's life, being kept intact. Some say it was an olive leaf, not a brand, which she ate during her pregnancy and gave birth to with Meleager and kept carefully, having learned this from the seers that as long as the leaf was kept safe, Meleager would be safe, but if it was destroyed, Meleager would also be destroyed. So, because of her brothers' grief, she burned it, went into the bedroom, and finding her son dead, she killed herself as well. This is how I say to interpret "the killer".

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§ 494  Third is Aegeus, the son of Pandion or Scyrius according to some or according to Lycophron (1324) Phemius and adopted by Pandion, reigning in Athens, he first marries Meda, the daughter of Hoples, second Chalkiope, the daughter of Rhexenor. As I found elsewhere, he had one wife, Autochthe, the daughter of Perseus. But as he had no child, fearing Pallas, Nisos, and Lycus, his brothers, he goes to Pytho to consult the oracle about having a child, and this oracle was given to him: "the foot of the protruding wineskin, the best of peoples, do not untie, until you reach the height of Athens."

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§ 474bis  "And thirdly," Aegeus, the son of Pandion, king of the Athenians, having been with Aithra, the daughter of Pittheus, in Troezen, had Theseus from her. He left his sword and sandals with Aithra, saying: when the sandals and the sword fit the child and he is able to carry them, then let him take them and go to Athens. And he did so. Therefore, having grown up and taken the arms, he went to Athens to recognize his father. He refers to a hollow rock in Troezen. And Callimachus says it is called Collouraia (fr. 66). Being perplexed by the oracle, he comes to Troezen to Pittheus the interpreter of oracles, who, having made him drunk, made him lie with his daughter Aithra. And when Aithra became pregnant, Aegeus placed a sword and sandals under a hollow rock, as Plutarch and Callimachus say, stating "he placed his works under a rock in Troezen Collouraia with the sandals" (fr. 66). And he himself goes away to Athens, and he instructs Aithra, if a son is born from her, to show him the rock and, taking the sword and putting on the sandals, when they fit him, to sail to Athens, which he also did, having grown up, for the recognition of his father.

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§ 495  "The phrase 'giant's offspring' is ambiguous, whether it refers to the one 'who snatched from' the 'rock' the 'weapons' of the 'giant', so that the story is about Aegeus, or the son of the 'giant' who took the 'weapons' from the 'rock', so that the story is about Theseus, which is better. He calls Theseus a 'giant' because he is Athenian and earth-born from Erechtheus. 'Offspring' of the 'giant' Theseus 'who snatched' the 'weapons' clearly refers to Aegeus from the 'hollow rock' or the 'giant' should be understood as referring to Aegeus, which is also better. For Aegeus is Athenian and earth-born and from Erechtheus. Some also say that he is one of those who sprang from the teeth of the dragon in Thebes (111), as Androtion also says. Thirdly, he says that Acamas, the son of Theseus, went to Cyprus, from whom a mountain is also called Acamas. Some say not only Acamas, but also his brother Demophon went to Cyprus. 6 'The one who once into bed' is an antithesis: 'who once will come into secret bed' clearly refers to Acamas 'the distant Idanian' and a heifer, that is, Laodice. 'The one who once into bed': Diomedes and Acamas, the son of Theseus, before the Greeks set sail, were ambassadors to the Trojans for Helen. And it happened that Laodice, the daughter of Priam, slept with Acamas and bore a son called Munitus. 'The one who once into bed': Diomedes and Acamas, the son of Theseus, before the Greeks set sail, were ambassadors to the Trojans for Helen. But Laodice, the daughter of Priam, fell in love with Acamas, slept with him and bore a son called Munitus. Fearing, she gave the baby to Aethra, the mother of Theseus, that is, the grandmother of Acamas, to raise him. For Aethra, the daughter of Pittheus, was with Helen in Troy, having been abducted from Athens by the Dioscuri, for which reason he is about to speak. But when Helen was again abducted by Alexander, she willingly went with her, and even this Aethra persuaded Helen to follow Alexander. So Laodice gave Munitus to this Aethra to raise, and she, knowing that the child was her grandson, took him and raised him. But when Troy was captured and she was recognized by Acamas, she took him with her, bringing also Munitus. But when they arrived in Thrace and went out hunting, a snake wounded Munitus and so he died, as Euphorion says, 'She bore him a son Munitus in a sailing season, but in Sithonia and in the foothills of Olynthus a monstrous hydra killed him while hunting with his father' (fr. 55). "She who lives in Hades"; Laodike, during the siege of Troy, prayed and sank into the earth so as not to become a slave. "Idaian" then "far off" allegorically refers to Laodike. 4 And so it is, but the intention is this: of the five, whom he said were going to depart to Cyprus, the third to leave will be Acamas, the son of Theseus, who took the arms of Aegeus from the rock. Acamas, with a few ships, approaches the Thracian Bisaltians and Phyllis, the daughter of the king there, falls in love with him, and her father betroths her to him with the kingdom as a dowry. Acamas, wishing to return to his homeland, begs Phyllis and her people a lot, swearing to return, and leaves. Phyllis escorts him as far as the Nine Ways and gives him a small box, saying it is sacred to Mother Rhea and not to open it, unless he despairs of his return to her. He, having gone to Cyprus, settles there. And when the appointed time has passed, Phyllis, having made curses against Acamas, kills herself. Acamas, having opened the box and been seized by a phantom, mounts his horse and, driving it recklessly, dies; for the horse having stumbled, he is thrown from its back and impales himself on his own sword. Those who lived under him settled in Cyprus. "Porris" and "portis" the heifer through two 'rr'; for "portis" was and by the expulsion of the 't' and the redundancy of the 'r' "porris". The verse is a choliamb, which is a variant of the iambic meter. The copyists or even the poet Lycophron themselves, having written with one 'r', appear ignorant of the art of grammar and also of meter, as they seem not to know that the choliamb is classified under the iambic meter. It is better to limp and stumble in the foot than to be completely ignorant in the discourse.

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§ 497  "She who lives in Hades"; alas, how, Lycophron, do you write things that are inconsistent, contrary to everything and more so to yourself? For having said above in your measured writings seqq. Al. 316-318 that is, she will fall into a ravine and die, when the Greek army with strong power would destroy the beautiful-buttocked plain of Ilium, having said these things beforehand, now you speak contrarily; for you raise again the one who died before falling into a ravine and you make her die again among the dead, as you say, due to the misfortunes of the bite of the Thracian snake of Munitus.

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§ 499  But the "Creston's snake" is a Thracian snake from a place ... as Euphorion says "she who bore to him Munitus in the sailing season" (fr. 55 M). "Creston" of Thrace; for it was so named after Crestone, the daughter of Ares and Cyrene.

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§ 502  "Darkness" instead of "gloom", in Doric; for the Dorians put 'd' instead of 'g'.

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§ 503  "To her alone the yoke"; Peirithous and Theseus, one being of Zeus, the other of Poseidon, having made a friendship, agreed to seize a daughter of Zeus. Having therefore seized Helen, they entrust her in Aphidna of Attica to Aithra, the daughter of Pittheus, but the mother of Theseus. But Castor and Polydeuces, the Dioscuri, the brothers of Helen, having ravaged Attica because of the abduction of Helen, take Aithra captive to his shame, who, when Helen was again abducted by Alexander, was carried off with her to Troy.

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§ 501  "When the son of Akamas was born" but Aithra was a captive. For the Dioscuri, because of the abduction of Helen by Theseus, took Athens and took nothing from the city except Aithra, the mother of Theseus, to his shame, who went with Helen to Troy. And Homer says "Aithra, daughter of Pittheus" (Iliad 3.143) 4 "And ox-eyed Clymene". Hence he called her a captive as having been taken captive by the Dioscuri. As a ransom for the abduction of Helen by Theseus.

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§ 505  "Ransom" but "of the abducted" instead of "of the abducted Helen" "to Aithra alone" "having imposed a servile yoke" the ravagers of the Athenians. The sense is this: when after the destruction of Ilium Aithra will give Munitus to his father Akamas, and 4 Munitus will die in Thrace. 4

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§ 504  "Actaion's wolves"; The Dioscuri, having campaigned against Theseus on the Coast — The Coast (Akte) was what Attica was called of old (111) — spared everyone in the city except Aithra. Therefore, the Athenians, admiring them, called them Anaktes, that is, gods and saviors. He speaks of the ravagers and plunderers of the Athenians, meaning the Dioscuri. The Coast was called Attica either from King Actaion or because most of Attica is a coast or is by the sea.

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§ 505bis  The reason is missing. i. l.

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§ 506  "Shell" of the egg, from which they were born. Each of them used half of this egg as a helmet. It was said long ago (88) that Zeus, having taken the form of a swan, begets them from an egg, as they jest, each of whom used half of the shell of the egg as a helmet.

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§ 506  He called the revolving, divided part of the egg a "whorl".

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§ 507  "Korse"; Korse is primarily referred to as the meninx, but now he refers to the head, as Empedocles does in his work "On Strife": "As many heads sprouted up without necks". cf. 30 18

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§ 508  "The rest are worm-eaten"; Thrips is the worm that occurs in wood, since the ancients used such wood as being safer because no one could counterfeit the wood that had become like a seal due to the worm. Otherwise, before hidden seals were found, the ancients sealed with wood eaten by thrips because they were full of holes. "Worm-eaten seal"; the following... the mind; they compared the rest of Attica to a sealed cheek, having taken nothing except Aithra alone, and her through the dishonor of Theseus, who went to Ilion with Helen.

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§ 508  The following is thus: "Which indeed towards the course of the stars" which are their deeds, the protective and beneficial ones towards humans, "worm-eaten seal"; the following... the mind; having enslaved and captured Aithra alone as a ransom for Helen, they will leave the rest of Attica as if sealed and unshaken. "Which indeed towards the stars"; which benefits, which indeed they showed to the Athenians, they will deify them and count them among the stars.

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§ 510  The following is thus: "Which indeed towards the course of the stars" which are their deeds, the protective and beneficial ones towards humans, will be the "ladder" of the way to heaven, that is, they will go to heaven. For the Twins were made stars in honor of the Dioscuri, as Euripides says in the Orestes through Helen seqq. 1631 she — 1635 "need" and a little later seqq. 1683 "I" — 1690 "of the sea".

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§ 511  "To the half-dead"; and Homer [says] "sometimes indeed living"; for they were alternate-day [beings]. "Lapersioi" but to the Dioscuri. For Las is a city in Laconia. Or the warriors from the destruction of the people. Lapersioi from the destruction of the city of Las in Laconia. Or from the destruction of peoples (laous), that is, to the warriors.

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§ 511bis  "Regarding the 'half-dead': 'half-dead' and 'half-mortal' differ; 'half-dead' is said of someone who is heartbroken and already half dead, while 'half-mortal' is someone who is half mortal and half immortal, either half-gods or someone who spends a day among the living and a day among the dead, like the Dioscuri. The story goes like this: Hyacinthus' brother was Cynortes, Cynortes' son was Perieres, with whom Gorgophone the daughter of Perseus, according to Stesichorus, of Tyndareus, Icarius, Aphareus and Leucippus. Aphareus and Arene's sons were Lynceus and Idas, Leucippus and Philodice's daughters were Phoebe and Hilaeira; Icarius and Periboea had five sons and Odysseus' wife Penelope. Tyndareus and Leda's sons were Castor and Polydeuces, and from Zeus was Helen. Castor and Polydeuces, having abducted Phoebe and Hilaeira, married them. Polydeuces and Phoebe's son was Mnesileos or Mnesinous, and Castor and Hilaeira's children were Anogon or Anaxis and Aulotoe. These women were abducted by the Dioscuri from Messene and married. After driving cattle with Idas and Lynceus, they allowed Idas to divide the Arcadian cattle. He, having cut a cow into four parts, first said that whoever ate his portion first would own half of the cattle and the second would own the rest of the herd. So Idas ate his portion and his brother's and drove the cattle to Messene. The Dioscuri, having gone to war, drove that herd of cattle and many others, and they also captured Idas and Lynceus. Lynceus, seeing Castor, informed Idas, who killed him. Polydeuces, pursuing them, killed Lynceus with a spear, but was struck by a stone pillar from Aphareus' tomb by Idas, and fell, his head darkened. Zeus struck Idas with a thunderbolt, and was about to make Polydeuces immortal; but he chose to die one day and live the next, just like his brother, rather than be completely immortal. And Zeus granted them this, as Homer also says, 'sometimes they are dead' and what follows (Iliad 303). The story of the Dioscuri is also written by Stasinus, who wrote the Cypria, as follows: 'quickly they seized Phoebe and Polydeuces.' Regarding 'diptychs': I said earlier that according to some, Helen, Castor, and Polydeuces were born triplets from the egg, according to others not from the egg, but from Leda herself; according to others, only Castor was born from Leda, and Polydeuces was conceived in the form of a star when Zeus mated with her, hence they are called 'diptychs', and later they said that only Helen was born from the egg (49 8)."

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§ 513  "Send help"; it should be noted that in saying "send help" he indicated that Helen was taken unwillingly and that the Dioscuri did not come to her aid. The crex is a sea bird, similar to an ibis, as Herodotus (II 76) says. The ibis is a bird around Egypt that eats filth. Callimachus in his On Birds says it is most ominous for those getting married (fr. 100c 9). And Euphorion in Apollodorus "variegated" "nor did the orchil dye the chamber" "Cyziocus" "whom she hated, she entered into a bad marriage with the crex" (fr. 4). "Crex" to Helen means the ill-named bride. "Crex" compares Helen because she became ill-married and ill-named. He called her twice-ravished, since she was taken by Theseus and Alexander. Hellanicus says that Helen was seven years old when she was taken by Theseus (FHG I 55), but Duris says she was given back after giving birth to Iphigeneia (ib. II 470). "Twice-ravished"; for she was taken a second time, first by Theseus when she was seven years old, as Hellanicus says. Duris, however, says she was given back after giving birth to Iphigeneia, as I said more broadly earlier (103. 143. 183). And first Theseus took her, second Alexander.

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§ 514  "Nor the winged"; he called the ships winged because of the oars or the sails.

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§ 516  But "to the Bebrycians" lacks the "as" so that it would be 4 nor did they go to the ships 6 as before 4 to Bebrycia sailing with the rest of the Argonauts when they also attacked Amyclae. The Bebrycians once inhabited Troy, hence 4 because of the nation they also call it Bebrycia 4 as well as the following seq. 1476. Dion or Cocceianus, writing about the Narbonese, call them Bebrycians and say thus: "the Pyrenean mountain is of the Bebrycians of old, but now of the Narbonese. This mountain separates Iberia and the Gauls" (DC I p. 189 Bo.). "Landing place" means the shore, the exit.

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§ 517  "Nor the lions"; he refers to the sons of Aphareus, Idas and Lynceus. "Lions" refers to the Dioscuri. 4 The meaning was said more broadly earlier.

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§ 519  "Enyo" is an epithet of Hera, derived from the words "to accomplish" and "to kill", as she is a warlike Enyo and Anyo. In a mythical sense, this is true, but allegorically, she is the one who accomplishes everything, nourishes and completes; she is the same as the mingling and powerful air. "Thrice-born goddess" is Athena, because she is the same as the moon, and the moon appears on the third day from the conjunction, or because she is Tritogeneia as Homer (D 515) says, or because the Boeotians call the head "trito", and she was born from the head of Zeus, or because she is the same as the soul, which is threefold: it has the rational, the desirous, and the spirited. "Thrice-born" is Athena mythically because she was born in the Triton river of Libya as Homer says, and even if not mythically, "Daughter of Zeus, most glorious, Tritogeneia" and Aeschylus mythically says "then about the pouring of the birth seed in the place of Triton" in Libya (Eum. 289. 288) or because according to Callisthenes she was born on the third day of the month, hence in Athens the third is sacred to Athena. Or because she was born from the third and the head; for the head is called "trito" in Boeotian. Or because she is the same as the moon, and the moon appears on the third day from the conjunction. Or because she is the same as the soul, and the soul is threefold: it has the rational, the spirited, and the desirous. Or because she is the same as the air; the air is born third and changes in spring, summer, winter; for in the old days, time was threefold. Or because she is the same as wisdom, born from the third and the head. Or because she provides three things to the opposites. Or because according to Democritus, she grants these three things, to counsel well, to judge correctly, to act justly.

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§ 520  "Boarmia" and "Longatis" are called and honored among the Boeotians. "Homolois" among the Thebans. And Zeus among them is Homoloios and the gates are Homoloides. "Bia" is strong. "Boarmia" is derived from the words "to fit" and "to yoke" an ox to a yoke and a plow; she is the same, as I said (187 33), as wisdom. Thus, she is honored among the Boeotians. And "Longatis" similarly? For Longas is a region of Boeotia. "Homolois" is honored among the Thebans. For the gates of Thebes are Homoloides, from Homoloides, the daughter of Niobe. "Bia" is the powerful one. Or because "thrice-born goddess" is Athena. For Callisthenes says she was born on the third day of the month, hence also among the Athenians the third is called her sacred day. Or because she is said to have been born by the Triton river, hence also Tritogeneia, as Homer also says "Daughter of Zeus, most glorious, Tritogeneia" (D 515).

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§ 521  "Hand-workers" are those who worked with their hands and built the wall of Ilium, mythically; for he refers to Poseidon and Apollo. The history is clear, but the allegories, as many and useless, should be left here. It must be drawn twice, and double is primarily and from itself doubly acute.

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§ 522  "Drymas"; Cromna is a place in Corinth. Otherwise, Cromna is a city in Paphlagonia, where there is a temple of Poseidon. There is also a place in Corinth, as Callimachus says in Sosibius' victory "at Cromnite" (p. 219 69 Schn.). "Drymas" is Apollo honored by the Milesians, and "Prophantos" is Poseidon honored by the Thurians. Herodotus, however, does not say in truth that they built the city, but that Laomedon spent their wealth on their possessions, either on the construction of the walls.

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§ 523  "Liar" refers to Laomedon because he swore to give Heracles the immortal horses, or the best and most active, and did not give them to him after he saved Hesione from the monster of the North (29 10). He wrongly said "ruler" when he should have said tyrant or king. For a ruler is called a dictator, a tyrant is a violent monarch, and a king is one who rules lawfully and justly. Orpheus also shows the difference between them, saying in the Dodekaeteris "there is a man, either a ruler or a tyrant or a king, who will reach the steep heaven" (fr. 23).

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§ 524  "One day will suffice"; if they were to wage war next, he says, those around Ida will not withstand their hands, the walls, not even for one day.

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§ 526  "Canastron" is the border peak of Thrace and Macedonia. "Canastraion"; Canastron is a border cape of Macedonia and Thrace, near which the Giants lived. He now refers to Hector because of his bravery, which is why he also called him "native". He said "lever of enemies" instead of "security against enemies", having Hector as a defense against enemies. The fortress and lock against enemies.

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§ 528  "And the first one", Protesilaus; for he was the first to jump off the ship towards the Trojan shore and was killed by Hector (110 18).

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§ 529  "Bloodthirsty" and thirsty for blood and with the addition of 'm' bloodthirsty (1171). "Destroyer of flocks" the destroyer of the Greeks, and he said "flocks" because the poet also calls the king a shepherd, and the people are his flocks. It is also written as "avenger" of those who came to demand retribution from the Trojans for Helen. Rather, we should hear this about Hector. Some, however, hear "destroyer of flocks" about Protesilaus, the one who devastates the flocks of the Trojans. They also write "avenger" instead of those who came to pay the penalty to the Trojans for the abduction of Helen by Alexander. Some take "destroyer of flocks" to mean Protesilaus, that is, the one who devastates the flocks of the Trojans. But this should rather be taken to mean Hector.

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§ 530  "Once upon a time," he calls the fiery Protesilaus, so that we may hear about the giant Hector. Sophocles recounts in his "Shepherds" that Protesilaus was killed by Hector (fr. 455 N), and similarly Demetrios of Skepsis and in Homer it is written (FHG IV 382 n.) "Hector, the shining one, killed him as he was leaving the ship" (B 701). This is a hyperbaton: "Once upon a time, the bold hawk will first stir the spear, a swift leap, aiming" instead of stepping out of the ship first onto land and leaping, Protesilaus the hawk. For an oracle was given to the Greeks to first slaughter the one who would also first step out of the ship onto the Trojan shore. Hector killed Protesilaus who had first stepped out (241).

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§ 532  "The best of the Graeci" is Protesilaus; for the Greeks were formerly called Graikoi, but later they were called Hellenes after Hellen. To whom the "graves" are prepared by the "shore of the Dolonki" in Thrace and the promontory "Mazousia" projecting from the Chersonese; but Mazousia is a cape of Eleous. To whom from an old destiny will prepare the "graves, the beautiful" and well-placed "shore" and the rocky and cliffy shore of the "Dolonki". "Horn of the mainland" of the Chersonese. For there he was buried at the so-called Mazousian promontory.

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§ 533  "Shore of the Dolonki"; Dolonki is a Thracian tribe named after Doloncus, son of Kronos and Thrace. It is the Chersonese of Thrace, where the tomb of Protesilaus is. They say he is also honored as a god by the locals. "Mazousia"; others say that Mazousia is with the article and they say it is a cape (supr. 9) either the Chersonese, but I say mazousia is the breast-like or the one likened to the position of a breast. "Horn of the mainland" of the promontory; he refers to the Chersonese.

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§ 536  "Drymnios" is Zeus or "daimon" thus among the Pamphylians, "Promantheus" among the Thourians, "Aithiops" and "Gurapsios"? among the Chians.

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§ 538  "He who sets the wanderer straight"; the following "he" is Zeus "will set a heavy burden" then to those around Ida, "when they receive the straight wanderer, a bitter downpour, in their homes." Straight" is the foreigner in the language. He refers to Alexander. So, Menelaus says, when he receives Alexander, then the beginning of the hostility will arise for Idas and Lynceus and the Dioscuri. "The terrible and the rejected" is a hyperbaton; "whoever" is Zeus "whenever" (538) ... 〈and "whenever〉 they appease" and they propitiate in the sacrifices those around Idas and the Dioscuri "will set" much toil and strife for them. He gave back a lot. ...., those who will compete with each other in the feast of Zeus, later they will also come to battle over the daughters of daughters of Leucippus, Phoebe and Hilaera, whom those around Idas, having pledged them to the Dioscuri, set up for battle. "He who sets the wanderer straight"; the following "he" is Zeus "will set a heavy burden" 4 and a commotion in the middle of the "conversations" and their encounters with each other "whenever" in the "homes they receive" the "wanderer" and wandering "straight" and foreign — he refers to Alexander — the "sinner" and harmful "katarrakter" and eagle — because of the predatory — and "bitter" the Dioscuri and the sons of Aphareus "the terrible and" the rejected "about to" suffer when? "Whenever they receive", as I said, Alexander "and they appease" and they soothe the "unloving Cragus" Zeus "in both feast and festive libations". But the whole, as he says, this is when Menelaus receives Alexander, then the beginning of the hostility will arise for Idas and Lynceus and the Dioscuri because of the daughters of daughters of Leucippus, Phoebe and Hilaera, whom, having pledged them to the Dioscuri, those around Idas will seize and set up for battle when the Dioscuri entertain Alexander, and he seizes — v. infra 33 it is the saying about Zeus; "whenever the wanderer" "and the sinner" foreign under "they receive will set" "a heavy burden" "much" commotion and "unloving" outcry in the middle of" the "conversations", when feasting they will spend "those about to suffer terrible things" the Dioscuri and the sons of Aphareus; for Zeus seems to throw the Tyndarids and Apharetids into a competition, when Alexander was being entertained by the Dioscuri, who "terrible" and "rejected", when they entertained Alexander, they stirred up against the Apharetids. But he will seize Helen, and the Dioscuri will not be able to go to Ilion because of the impending war. So here indeed Idas will kill Castor, and Polydeuces Idas and Zeus will strike Lynceus with lightning. "Katarrakter" (539) a predatory bird. "The terrible and the rejected" the sons of Aphareus and the Dioscuri. For when the Dioscuri were entertaining Alexander, a faction arose for them according to Lycophron indeed because of the daughters of daughters of Leucippus, but according to me and the rest, as I said more broadly (185 6), because of cows. So while they were in faction, Alexander, seizing Helen, as this Lycophron says, went to Troy. Otherwise. Demetrius says about the Dioscuri and Idas and Lynceus fighting each other ... and he also calls Alexander the "wanderer" "straight" but the foreigner in the language s. "Straight" the foreigner according to the Attic dialect 6. And there is also Orthages, a Priapic demon around Aphrodite. But straight Alexander either the rapist. Or the downcast from the straightening. 6

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§ 542  He calls Zeus 'unloving' and 'Cragon' because he did not love their sacrifice. They are said to have forgotten Zeus while sacrificing to the other gods, hence he instilled rivalry in them. Zeus is honored as Cragon in Lycia.

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§ 544  Odax primarily refers to the teeth, but here it refers to the mouth.

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§ 545  "Kekasmois" refers to insults and mockeries, as Callimachus says "kekadi te glossi" (fr. 253). "Okriomenoi" means crushed. "Kekasmos" is an insult. In other words, they are crushed by insults and mockeries.

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§ 546  "Autanepsioi" are those who are from the brothers. Now he calls those around Idas and the Dioscuri autanepsious; for the Dioscuri were sons of Tyndareus, and the others of Aphareus, both were brothers, sons of Oebalos. "Autanepsioi" and nephews are the sons of brothers, who are also called exadelphoi. The Dioscuri were exadelphoi to Idas and Lynceus in this way.

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§ 547  With the 'nephew birds', he refers to the daughters of daughters of Leucippus; for the sons of brothers are called nephews. Tyndareus, Aphareus, Leucippus, and Icarus were brothers, sons of Oebalos, and these are their children: Dioscuri, by law of Tyndareus, by nature of Zeus, that is, Castor and Polydeuces, of Leucippus, Phoebe and Hilaeira, of Aphareus, Idas and Lynceus. The syntax is: 'Again' and 'backwards' or 'again' and 'again' after the insults, the 'autanepsioi', that is, the sons of Aphareus, 'will attack' and will fight the 'violent thieves', the 'robbers' of the 'relatives', that is, the Dioscuri. But why will they fight them? 'Needing to help' and assist the 'nephew birds' into the 'marriages' for the 'justice' of the 'alpha' and the touching without dowries and prenuptial gifts. For Lycophron says that the war happened to them in this way: the Dioscuri were insulted by the sons of Aphareus for not giving a dowry for the daughters of daughters of Leucippus, they drove the cows of Aphareus, giving them to Leucippus, about which the war from the sons of Aphareus. They drove the cows of Aphareus and gave them to Leucippus, hence the war for them. The story is nonsense, as I said before; for then the Dioscuri had children from the Leucippides, whom I mentioned; and it is envious to insult them after so much time about dowries, but he definitely says this as if they recently abducted the girls without dowries. And the speech is clearly and ridiculously ridiculous. For I showed that then the Dioscuri had children from them. 'To help' means to assist the violent and thieving and rapacious relatives asking for the justice of the abduction without dowries. This is how it should be arranged.

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§ 550  "Knekeion" is a river of Laconia. It was later called Oenous. The Dioscuri and the sons of Aphareus, whom they call eagles, fought over it (551).

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§ 552  "Untrustworthy"; he said this because they were not believed to engage in battles as they were cousins. "Pheraians" refers to the Messenians; for Pherai is a city of Messenia from which those around Idas and Lynceus came. Pheraians refers to the Laconians. For Pherai was a city of Messenia or Arcadia, and Arcadia was of the Laconians.

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§ 553  "The one with the cranial"; Idas "with the cranial" spear, the "hollow" stem of the oak "striking" the "diptychs" or the Dioscuri - for they were twins - "destroys one" and kills him. He refers to Castor, whom he also calls "lion", and Lynceus as a bull because of his sharp sight. For they say that he could also see under the ground. This was said about the Egyptian child of Lynceus, that he could see under the ground, because he discovered many metals. Otherwise. Polydeuces and Castor hid in the hollow of an oak. Idas, throwing, killed Castor, but later Polydeuces killed Lynceus, and Zeus struck Idas with lightning before Idas threw a pillar from his father's tomb at Polydeuces. Idas, throwing, killed Castor, but later Polydeuces killed Lynceus, and Zeus struck Idas with lightning before Idas threw a pillar or stone from his own father Aphareus's tomb at Polydeuces's head, blinding him. Amyklos was the king of the Pheraians. He built a very large tomb for him. From this, Idas took a stone and killed Polydeuces, and Zeus struck Idas with lightning. Otherwise. The following is thus: Idas, with a spear from a cranial, strikes and destroys Castor, who was sitting under the hollow stem of the oak.

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§ 555  "Lion to the bull"; to the bull Lynceus because of his sharp sight.

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§ 556  "With a javelin"; Polydeuces "tearing" the "sides" with a spear will throw. Polydeuces "with a javelin" and an all-iron spear, tearing the "sides" of the "ox" or Lynceus, "leans towards" the "ground" or kills him. L. says the javelin is an all-iron spear. Eust. II. I 309 13

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§ 558  "Wound"; that is, Idas will hold and send a second wound to Polydeuces. "The ram will butt"; we must take the as externally, that is, as "the ram will butt". He refers to Idas. But "will butt" is from the metaphor of rams; for rams are accustomed to strike with their horns in battle and this is properly to butt as also Theocritus says "beware lest he butt you" (III 5).

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§ 562  "Skiastes" (shadow-caster) and "Orchieus" (Dancer) is Apollo among the Laconians, but among the Boeotians he is Telphousian. 4 "In the charms"; Apollo, having seized Marpessa, the daughter of Evenus, who was betrothed to Idas, stood against him in battle. It is said, therefore, that Apollo did not even blame Idas for his bravery. The bow "quivering" instead of the circling, bending, from which the fighting. "Quivering" bending. They say that both of them, having quarreled in archery, became equal (Al. 562). But Zeus, sending Hermes, ordered that whoever Marpessa chose should take her. And she, being asked whom she would choose, preferred Idas to Apollo, fearing that Apollo would leave her when she grew old. It is said, therefore, that Apollo did not even blame the bravery of Idas in battle, stretching his bow and making it circular, that is, fighting as Homer also says. The "horn" is the bow. The things about Idas and Apollo are well known; for Homer also tells the story in the Iliad.

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§ 565  "By day" is equivalent to the Homeric "sometimes deprived of living creatures" (λ 303). But among the Laconians, the Dioscuri are strangers.

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§ 567  "And of those" the fates will stop the spear of the Apharetidae and the Dioscuri, that is, they will not come to Troy when they die, as Homer also says "those already held by life-nourishing earth" "in Lacedaemon" 4 (Γ 243).

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§ 570  "Of whom not even the Rhoean"; Rhoeo was the daughter of Staphylus, the son of Dionysus. Apollo mingled with her. But Staphylus, realizing this, put her in a chest and let her go to sea. She washed up on Euboea and there, near a cave, she gave birth to a child, whom she called Anius because she was grieved because of him. Apollo took this child to Delos, who, marrying Dorippe, begot the Oenotropae [Wine-turners] Oeno, Spermo, Elais, to whom Dionysus granted, whenever they wished, to take grain. Pherecydes (FHG I 94) says that Anius persuaded the Greeks who came to him to stay with him for nine years; and that the gods gave them in the tenth year to sack Troy. He promised them to be fed by his daughters. This is also mentioned by the author of the Cypria (fr. 17 K) and Callimachus also remembers the daughters of Anius in the Aetia. "Of whom" some "the strength not even" the "Rhoean will hold the" nine-year "time lying in bed" and softening "urging" and ordering "to stay in" the "island" Delos "persuaded" and persuaded them to the "oracles" and signs "knowing" and saying the "threefold" and his three "daughters will provide blameless food for all" the Greeks, "who staying" and enduring "are tilling" and spending time around the "Cynthian lookout" and prominence, "near" and close to the "Inopos" river if you want, say "drawing" and drinking "drink" and Egyptian water or of the "Inopos" the "drawing drink" and Egyptian water, that is, of the Nile, which he calls "Triton".

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§ 574  Homer uses "iskon" to mean "resembling", while Lycophron uses it to mean "saying". Cynthus is a mountain on Delos, hence Apollo is also called Cynthios. Inopos is a river on Delos, which fills up when the Nile irrigates Egypt, hence they say that it also fills up from the waters of the Nile through some unknown channels.

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§ 576  "Egyptian Triton": Triton was an old name for the Nile, and the Inopos is a river on Delos. They say that when the Nile floods, the Inopos also rises at the same time, hence they say that the Inopos is filled from its waters through some unknown channels, as Callimachus also says in his Hymns "Egyptian Inopos" (III 171).

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§ 576  "Triton" of the Nile, from the fact that it was renamed for the third time: it was first called Oceanus, then Egypt, then Nile, hence it is called Triton.

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§ 577  Otherwise. "Problastos" is Dionysus ... "or Proklastos", because when they are about to prune the vines, they sacrifice to him. Problastos is Dionysus, because when the vines are budding they sacrifice to him or when they are about to prune and trim them. "Problastos" is Dionysus because when they are about to cut the shoots or the branches they sacrifice to him while pruning. "Brave" because those who have drunk wine are shameless.

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§ 578  "Mylephatos" of the Demetrian fruit.

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§ 579  "Herpin" is what the Egyptians call wine, as does Hipponax "where the dung beetle sells the wine" (fr. 51 2 Bk). Wine is both chalis and herpis, chalis from the verb chalan meaning to loosen the vine, herpis from the verb herpo meaning to make those who drink excessively crawl, hence the Egyptians also call wine herpin. The expressions are Hipponactean; for he says "those who have drunk chalin have little sense" (fr. 73), and elsewhere again "he who came immediately with three witnesses, where the darkness sells the herpin, finding a man raising the roof" (fr. 51).

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§ 580  "Descendants of Zarex": Zarex is from Carystos, the son of Cheiron. He married Rhoeo, the daughter of Staphylus, after she had been with Apollo (197 27) and from her he had five children. Just as they say Theseus is the son of Aegeus and Heracles is the son of Amphitryon and Castor and Polydeuces are the sons of Tyndareus, even though they agree elsewhere that they are the sons of Zeus, so he said Anius is the son of Zarex, not by nature, but by adoption; for by nature he is the son of Apollo. Similarly, he calls the daughters of Anius "descendants" of Zarex, being the daughters of Apollo, because Zarex married Rhoeo. The rest write the word for grandson with a 'k', and the word for son with a 'g'; but I write the word for grandson as ekgonon with a 'k', as being a descendant from the knee, and the word for son as enggonon with a 'g', as being born within. Phaps is a kind of bird. Now he speaks of the Oenotropoi; the Oenotropoi were called Oeno, Spermo, Elais. These received a gift from Dionysus, that whenever they wished, they could harvest fruit and Oeno made the wine, Spermo the seeds, and Elais the oil. These women, coming to Troy, saved the Greeks who were starving. Callimachus also testifies to this.

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§ 581  "And they also of the army" for Agamemnon, when the Greeks were suffering from famine, sent for them through Palamedes, and having come to Rhoeteum, they nourished them. "Of the orphan dogs" of the foreign Greeks, because they sailed from Argos to Troy. "Or orphan" he said and added "dogs" because of the shamelessness, because they happened to be shameless being foreigners; or because they were not all from one land.

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§ 583  "Sithonos"; Antigonus says in his Argonautica that Sithon was the son of Ares and Anchinoe, the daughter of the Nile or Proteus according to some, and from her the place in Troy was named Rhoeteum. Anius, he says, promised the Greeks in the tenth year to send his daughters to Rhoeteum. This is a cape around Troy.

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§ 585  "Spindles" he speaks of the distaffs from the word "to spin", "bronze" of the strong ones. And these things the Fates have been spinning for a long time with their bronze and strong distaffs. "Buzzing" instead of "habitual", "old" but "maidens" the Fates.

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§ 586  "And Cepheus"; moving on to those around Cepheus and Praxandros who came to Cyprus, he says that they were not kings, but some anonymous ones, so their names are not mentioned by the poet. Cepheus was from Achaea, and Praxandros from Lacedaemon, and these came to Cyprus, as Philostephanos says. Some ask, why did he indicate some as wolves, others as lions or dragons, but these he clearly specified. And it should be said that because of the obscurity of the characters, he was forced to mention their names. For they are not mentioned in Homer's Catalogue. Having previously said that five were going to leave for Cyprus and having spoken about the three, he now moved on to the two and says that Cepheus and Praxandros were not kings, but anonymous, the fifth, that is, the ones to complete the number of the five men I mentioned, will come fourth to Cyprus. For first was Teucer, second Agapenor, third Acamas, then these two together will come fourth, completing, as I said, the number of the five. But why doesn't he symbolically call these also wolves and leopards and lions or dragons or another such name? For he indicated the name of all of them indirectly, but these he clearly specified. And it should be said that because they were anonymous and obscure, he was forced to mention their names. For they are not mentioned in Homer's Catalogue. Cepheus was from Achaea, and Praxandros from Lacedaemon. And these came to Cyprus, as Philostephanos says.

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§ 589  Golgoi is a place and a nation of Cyprus. "Of the goddess" refers to Aphrodite. "Of whom the one" refers to Praxandros who was leading the Laconian and Lacedaemonian "crowd" from Therapne. Therapne is a city in Laconia. "The other" refers to the other leader, Cepheus, from Olenos of Dyme, the leader of the cities of Achaia, commanding the army.

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§ 590  Therapna is a city in Laconia. Olenos is a city in Achaia. Dyme is a city or region in Achaia. "Bouraiois" refers to Boura, a city in Achaia. Eratosthenes says these cities were swallowed up by an earthquake (fr. 85 Bernh.). Instead of Bouraiois, he talks about these cities and earlier a great cloud formed and there was the flood in the time of Deucalion and later they were submerged by an earthquake, as Eratosthenes says. Callimachus also mentions "Boura of Dexamenos" "cow" "arrangement of Oikiadas" (IV 102) and Antimachos in Thebaid "as it was threatened like Caukonida Dyme was sold to the children of Epeians ruling" (fr. 24 K). The word "thateros" comes from "hateron". If it was from "heteros", it would be "houteron". "Thateros" is not masculine. The following: "Cepheus and Praxandros were not rulers of the people, but anonymous" "seeds of ship-owning are fifth" and "fourth they will reach the land of the goddess".

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§ 592  After the destruction of Troy, Diomedes sailed back to his homeland Argos and found his wife Aegialeia being unfaithful with Cometes, the son of Sthenelus, because he had wounded Aphrodite in Troy. Fearing that he would be killed by the same Aegialeia, he first sought refuge at the altar of Hera of Argos and was saved. This means that Diomedes, having been expelled, went to Italy to the Daunian tribe among the barbarians, where Daunus reigned. Daunus, being besieged, asked Diomedes to help him, promising to give him a part of his land. Diomedes founded a city for the Daunians, which he called Hippion Argos. Later, Daunus offered him a choice between all the spoils of war or all the land, and Alaenus, the illegitimate brother of Diomedes, who was in love with Daunus's daughter Euippe, became their judge. He decided that Daunus should keep the land and Diomedes should take the spoils of war. Angered by this, Diomedes cursed the land, saying that no one would be able to sow the land or reap its fruits unless they were of his lineage and could move his steles. Later, Diomedes was killed by Daunus, and his friends, mourning the hero, were transformed into swan-like birds. They avoid barbarians and wander among the Greeks, even taking food from their hands and nestling in their laps. Or thus: Diomedes, having been expelled from Argos by Sthenelus who was in love with Aegialeia, came to Daunia in Italy. There, after distinguishing himself in a war against the neighbors, he was deemed worthy of the land, which he named Argyrippa, as Argos Hippion. Later, he was plotted against by Daunus, the ruler of the region, and was killed. His friends inhabited this place and named it Diomedeia Island, after him. This is located on the island called Diomedeia after Diomedes. "Argyrippa" — This was called Arpoi. After the fall of Ilium, Diomedes fortified and renamed it Argos Hippion. Steph. For it was formerly called Argos Hippion, but now it is called Argyrippa. The "Argyrippa"; Diomedes, having been expelled from Aetolia, will establish and build the city of "Argyrippa", interpreted as Argos Hippion, and will create a "complete" settlement of the "Daunians" or Calabrians near the "Ausonian" and Italian or near the "Ausonian Phylamus" and seeing the "bitter fate" of his "companions" "mixed with birds", that is, seeing his friends transformed into heron birds. The scheme is badly formed; for when Diomedes died, they became herons or gulls. So how does he say "seeing"? This scheme is called animated and idol-made.

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§ 594  "Bitter companions"; for Diomedes' companions, lamenting the hero's misfortunes, were transformed into birds called cataracts; they are similar to swans, which live on the island of Diomedea. This lies in the Adriatic. These birds live like a city; for at dawn they wet the place with their wings and sprinkle it again, then they go hunting and having placed what they have caught "together" they share it among themselves. Argyrippa is a city in Italy which Diomedes and his crowd (589) built.

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§ 595  "Who sea"; those friends of Diomedes, becoming herons or gulls, "will praise" the life at sea and the "justice" of the "porkers" and fishermen, "having been dazzled" and transformed into the "structure" and body by transformation "to graceful swans" and good-eyed.

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§ 598  "Beaks"; the curved lip of birds is called a beak, as Callimachus also says "with a beak he cut the dead body" (fr. 204) 4s 6. In the "beaks" and bird noses "hunting" and catching the "quick" and the seeds of the fish, that is, the fish, "they will rule" and will inhabit the "famous island" of their promontory and champion, that is, the island of Diomedea, "near the slope", that is, near the slope and the prominence of the hill and high, similar to a theater, "having built streets" and built in the "solid" and firm cracks and cuts "dense huts". "Offspring of eels" are the offspring of fish. For thoros is the spawning.

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§ 600  "Theatromorpho" either because the place where they spend their time is like a theater, or because the island is circular; for the shape of a theater is circular according to geometers. "Klitei" then ... "theatromorpho" is semicircular; for the island is circular. "Geolopho" refers to the high place.

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§ 601  "Agyioplastesantes" making roads and markets.

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§ 602  "Zethus" since Zethus and Amphion fortified Thebes in Boeotia. In imitation of that, just as Zethus with his brother Amphion, who became lyre-players, founded Thebes. The island of Diomedes lies around the Ionian Gulf (631) and the Adriatic. For the Iapyges and Apulians live around the Ionian Gulf. The Apulian tribes according to Dio (I 219 Bo.) are the Peucetians, Pediculi, Daunians, Tarentines, and Canae. The plain of Diomedes is around Apulia of the Daunians. But Messapia and Iapygia were later called Salentia, then Calabria was called. The city of Argyrippa of Diomedes was called Apulis Arpus. What Lycophron says earlier (203 17) that the Daunians, because of the curses of Diomedes, when the land of the Daunians became barren, sent for the fellow citizens of Diomedes and put them into the ground while still alive, made the land bear fruit, is nonsense. For during the time of Fabius Maximus Verrucosus i.e. Acrochordonodes [warty], not the Daunians but the Romans did this, hiding a Greek and Galatian hermaphrodite in the middle of the forum out of fear of some oracle saying that a Greek and a Gaul would seize the city.

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§ 603  "Homou de es agran": one must divide "homou" then "es agran" the following, not as Philogenes "homou de es agran" and says Lycophron mentions the hunt in Locri.

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§ 605  "Karbanon ochlon" the barbarian. Diogenes says in his Galatika that the Phoenicians were long ago called Karbanoi. "Karbanoi" are the barbarians who have the cry of Karos.

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§ 607  "Krimna": Krimnon is indeed a kind of barley, but now it is the distillate of the kykeon as Callimachus also says "and they squeezed the distillate of the kykeon" (fr. 205). 6. Instead of "triphos" a fragment into the earth. And Homer "diatrifhen ekpese cheiros" (Γ 363).

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§ 608  "Knuzomenoi" speaking inarticulately 6. The term is properly applied to animals that make inarticulate sounds. Or releasing an inarticulate voice.

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§ 610  "Troezenias": Troezenia, Aphrodite established it, and Phaedra, who was called Troezenian, when she fell in love with Hippolytus. In Troezen, Phaedra established a temple to Aphrodite because of her love for Hippolytus, as Euripides also says "for Hippolytus" (Hipp. 32). Aphrodite, as Mimnermus says (fr. 22), wounded by Diomedes, caused Aegialeia to sleep with many adulterers and to fall in love with Hippolytus, son of Cometes son of Sthenelus. When Diomedes came to Argos, he plotted against him; but he fled to the altar of Hera at night, escaped with his companions, and went to Italy to King Daunus, who killed him by treachery. The syntax and meaning is this: the "wound" of Aphrodite, which was inflicted by Diomedes, "will be" the "cause" of his "wandering journey" and "evil sufferings", when the "bold, impulsive bitch", that is, Diomedes' wife Aegialeia, "is in heat" and rushes madly "to the bed" and the sexual unions. The "tomb" and the temple of "Hoplosmia ", that is, Hera, "well-prepared" and ready for the sacrifices, "will save him" from "death".

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§ 612  "Impulsive": the impulsive prostitute is called the downward one from the verb to rush. 3

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§ 614  "Hoplosmia": The tomb of Athena in Elis of the Peloponnese, so honored. He calls the altar a tomb and elsewhere "around the tomb of Agamemnon, the conquered" (335). Doris says in his On Contests that altars are called tombs (FHG II 486).

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§ 615  "In the folds" refers to places that have prominences. "Colossus-striding": After the capture of Ilium, Diomedes threw stones from the Trojan wall into his ship instead of the usual ballast. Arriving in Argos and being overlooked by his wife Aegialeia, he went to Italy. There, he found a dragon in Scythia ravaging Phaiakia and killed it, holding the golden shield of Glaucus, the dragon mistaking the golden fleece for that of a ram. Honored greatly for this, he erected a statue made from the stones of Ilium. This is reported by Timaeus (FHG I 195) and Lycus in the third (ib. II 371). Later, Daunus killed him, threw him and the statues into the sea. These, resisting the waves, came back to their bases. This is the story, and the syntax is as follows: "Colossus-striding and standing" means a colossal statue, for a statue is a colossus, "standing" where? "In" the "folds" and enclosures and cities of the "Ausonians he will establish" and stabilize his "limbs" and bones, meaning he will be carved as a statue "on" the "handfuls" and large stones of the "earth's surfaces" and foundations of Poseidon, whom he calls Amoebeus; for he, with Apollo, fortified Troy (29 1); but how will Diomedes be carved as a statue? "Throwing out" from the ship — clearly his own — the "stone" and the ballast of the ship; for in empty ships, sailors put stones, so that they may sail properly and not sideways due to lightness. Otherwise: Standing on a colossus and on a high place in the slabs of the Italians, "standing" he will stabilize his legs on stones of the "wall-builder" of the grounds of the "Amoebeus" or Poseidon, throwing out the ballast of the ship "stone". Thus, the syntax is said to be. But this Lycophron wrongly called the Phaiakians and Daunians Ausonians. For the Ausonians, as I also said at the beginning, are properly called Aurunci, lying between the Campanians and Volsci; but some considered Ausonia to be as far as Latium, so that from this some even say all of Italy. But this wise Lycophron, I do not know with what audacity, calls the Phaiakians and Daunians or the Calabrians Ausonians. I know that the very recent ones, out of ignorance and insensitivity, audaciously call us, who are of the Greek race, Ausonians (34 8).

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§ 617  "We call Poseidon 'the builder of walls' because he built Troy with Apollo (34 1). It is unnecessary for me to expand the story further, either through verses or through the spoken catalogues, even though I know countless things to say. Amoebeus: Poseidon is honored thus in Delphi because he and Apollo exchanged places: Apollo got Delphi, and Poseidon got Calauria. Callimachus (fr. 221) also attests to this.

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§ 619  Alainos: Alaenus, the illegitimate brother of Diomedes, was in love with Eunippe, the daughter of Daunos. He was chosen as a judge and, favoring her, decided that Diomedes should receive the spoils and not the land. This is why the hero cursed that the land would never bear fruit unless it was sown by an Aetolian.

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§ 621  "To open the earth": Deo is another name for Demeter, from the word 'daio' which means 'to divide', because she is divided among all. 'To open' is used instead of 'to give', 'to increase'. And the 'fruitful ear' is the breath that gives beneficial or useful wind to humans, or it is blown by the winds and grows for their benefit. 'Fruitful' is primarily used for honey-soaked grains, but now it simply refers to Demeter's grain.

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§ 622  'Gyias' refers to the plowed fields. 'Tithaibosson' means 'requiring care'. The term is primarily used for bees, from 'tithenai' meaning 'to put' and 'bosin' meaning 'food'. Homer also says, "where then the bees will make honey" (ν 106).

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§ 625  'Stelai': When Diomedes died, he made steles around the entire plain. Daunos wanted to sink these into the sea, but they were thrown back up from the water and found standing in the same place, which is why they were raised again. He called the steles immovable, which Diomedes made and set up all over that plain, because when Diomedes died, they were thrown into the depths by Daunos to be sunk, but they came out again and were found in the place where they stand.

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§ 626  The following is thus: "No one will boast of having moved them even a little by force" because when they were moved, they returned to their place.

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§ 627  'Without wings' means 'with the same wings, quickly'. 'Andira' primarily refers to the lips of the river, but now he is talking about the waves. 'Cutting through' either means cutting through the waves and running 'with footless tracks' or with those who do not have feet, that is, legs; for the steles were made of marble. This comes from the word 'footless'. 'Cutting through' instead of 'cutting'; and passing through the waves.

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§ 630  "But he is a god," the Phaeacians worship Diomedes, who are around the Ionian Sea; for he killed the dragon that came there from Colchis in search of the golden fleece. Some, however, heard that the dragon was a robber. Phaeacia is around the Ionian Gulf, and the Ionian Gulf, according to Lycophron and Aeschylus, was named after Io. For Aeschylus says in Prometheus 837-839, it was first called the Gulf of Cronus and Rhea, then it was named Ionian thus: for from Dodona she crossed over there, and in Canopus she became sane, where from the touch of Zeus she gives birth to Epaphus, whose mother is Libya, whose son is Belus, whose sons are Danaus and Aegyptus. And these are the ones who say that the Ionian was named thus.

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§ 631  "As many as are by Io," as many as live around the Ionian Sea. And Lycophron named it after Io, and many others named it after Ionius, the son of Adrias, who founded a city around this sea called Adria, which others say was founded by Dionysius, the former tyrant of Sicily. But the sea, as I said, was named after Ionius. "Gronon" means hollow and deep.

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§ 633  "Gymnesiae" are two islands around Tyrrhenia, not seven as some say. They were also called Balearides. "Those who are surrounded by the sea" are islands around Tyrrhenia. Artemidorus also mentions them. Timaeus says that some of the Boeotians came to these islands, which he called "piglets". Phileas in the third book of his Naxiaka says they were later named Balearides. The inhabitants are excellent slingers; for their mothers place the bread on a piece of wood at a height and do not give it to them to eat until they knock down the bread. These are the things said about the Gymnesian islands. Dio Cocceianus says these are near the river Iberus, near the European Pillars of Hercules, which the Greeks and Romans commonly call Gymnesiae, the Iberians call them Valerias or healthy, others say they were called Gymnasias because the Greeks who were saved there were brought naked and cohabited with women and so named the islands and the children. Others, namely the Boeotians, whom he also calls crabs, sailing to the "piglets" and the rocks "Gymnesiae" will lead a naked life, barefoot, holding three slings, one around the neck, another girded around the waist, and a third in the hand, where the mothers teach the infant children the art of the sling. For none of the children there taste bread unless they knock it down with accurate slinging, placed above a board as a target.

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§ 634  They called a thick cloak or a leather garment a "sisyrna". This is the so-called "gounna" which Simonides jokingly referred to as "thick sisys". "Sisyrnodutai" is different from sisys, sisura, and sisyrna. Sisys is generally referred to as a cheap garment, sisura is a garment made from hairy skin, which they also call gounna, or a garment simply made from wool. Sisyrna, however, is a hairless leather garment. Sisyrna is a thick garment; the inhabitants of this island used such garments. "Crabs" because their flesh hardened by the sea, he called them so, or because they covered themselves with shipwrecked skins. "Crabs with cloaks" because they covered themselves with hairless skins after a shipwreck. "Crabs" instead of "like crabs" having sailed the sea, wandering around... without hair.

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§ 635  "Darkness" ... "They will suffer". Callimachus used the term specifically for dragging, like "men, oil merchants, dragging from Decelia" (fr. 234). For "ampron" is specifically called the rope that pulls the oxen, like something that is "amperon", tied across the yokes, or the wood that is placed on the necks of the yoked animals. But Lycophron used the term for suffering. The "unshod" are those without shoes.

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§ 636  "Triple" having their slings twisted from three ropes; for they had three slings, one around the head, one around the shoulder, and another around the belly. The ends of the sling are called "kola". "Dikoloi" are those with two natural growths, where the stones are also placed.

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§ 640  "Naston" is specifically a cake baked with raisins, but now he has metaphorically used it for bread. Nastos is specifically bread leavened with honey and raisins and other kinds, but now he simply called it bread.

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§ 641  "Traphex" is the base under the shoulder blade, rather the underplate. It is also called the lip of the ship, on which the oars are placed. Now it is the wood where they put the bread. Traphex is the one carrying the food. Traphex is specifically the underplate board, on which they carry the bread to the ovens, but now he simply called it wood. Traphex is also called the lip of the ship, on which the oars are placed.

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§ 642  "Eaten by the salty sea."

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§ 643  "Iberian shepherds"; for the Gymnesian Islands are not far from the Iberians. Tartessos is an island near the Pillars of Hercules. Iberia is now called Spain. Iberia is also called Hispania by the Latins. Tartessos is an island and a city, which Arganthonios ruled for 120 years, of which he reigned for 80, as Herodotus says (I 163). This Tartessos lies near the Pillars of Hercules. He has said "gate" because the mouth between the Pillars of Hercules is narrow, through which there is a passage out to the Ocean.

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§ 644  "Arne" was a nymph, the nurse of Poseidon... Arne the nymph was previously called Sinoessa, because she took Poseidon from Rhea to raise him, denying him to Cronus. And from there she was named Arne. So Theseus says in the third book of the Corinthians. Eg (EM 145 48) Arne is a city in Boeotia named after Arne, the nurse of Poseidon, because when Cronus was looking for Poseidon, she denied having him, hence the city was called Arne, previously called Sinoessa, as Theseus says in the third book of the Corinthians. Craton says it's because they have many lambs. And the same man says that Cos was so named by the Carian inhabitants; for the Carians call a sheep "cos". "Temmix" was the first tribe to settle in Boeotia. ×Steph. "Temmikes" of the Boeotians from Mount Temmicus †T †"Graia" is now called Tanagra, a city in Boeotia. Leontarne is a city in Boeotia. It was so named because when Adrastus was king there and about to sacrifice a lamb, a lion came and snatched the lamb from the sacrifice. "Peaks" means the prominences.

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§ 646  "Skolon and Tegyra are likewise cities in Boeotia." Onchestos is a city in Boeotia. Onchestos is a sacred grove of Poseidon, as Homer says "Onchestos, the glorious sacred grove of Poseidon" (B 506). There is another river Thermodon in Paphlagonia near Sinope, where the Amazons were. The present Thermodon and Hypsarnos are rivers in Boeotia. And Callimachus says "again they traveled to Thermodon" (fr. 270).

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§ 648  "Those around Syrtis"; he is talking about those around Odysseus for they were wandering around after falling into Libya. There are two Syrtises in Libya, the larger and the smaller. It is also written "Ligustic" "slabs". The Ligustines live with the Tyrrhenians. "Libyan — Ligustic slabs"; which some write with a 'g', wrongly. ×Steph.

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§ 649  He refers to the "narrow strait" as the "meeting point of the strait", since the strait lies in the middle of both the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian Sea, ending the former and beginning the latter. Or because the Tyrrhenian Sea lies between Rhegium and Messene. Next, "those around Syrtis" and Messene and Libya and the strait in Tyrrhenia, "all who were shipwrecked", the innkeeper "Hades" will arm his hands. Libystic and Ligystic are the same. Libystic is named after Libya, the daughter of Epaphus, and Ligystic after Ligys, the brother of Alebion, who was killed for preventing Heracles from leaving for the cattle of Geryon. The strait at the ends of Europe and Libya is six stadia, where the pillars of Libya and Heracles stand, called Alybe and Abyna. There are also Gadeira, which was formerly called the island of Cotinousa. The river of Gadeira is Baitis, where the days fall all at once, like lightning. Gadeira lies at the end of Europe, and the islands of the blessed are bounded by the Libyan end, facing the uninhabited cape. Clearchus says that the pillars in Gadeira are of Briareus Heracles, after whom the second Heracles, the Tyrian, came to Gadeira, and the third was a Greek.

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§ 648bis  Syrtis, also known as Charybdis, is the name of a place in the sea around Messene and Libya, where the Tyrrhenian meets the Adriatic, creating the terrible Charybdis. Adrias and Senon are the names of rivers flowing into the Ionian Gulf.

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§ 650  "Ship-destroyer": They say that Scylla has six heads of beasts, one of a sea monster, one of a lion, another of a dog, another of a gorgon, another of a whale, and a sixth of a human. "Lookouts" refers to the rocks. And Homer says, "There she fished around the rock" "maiming".

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§ 650bis  "Mix-beast" of Scylla, who, according to me, was the daughter of Nisus of Megara. Having cut off his golden hair and rendered him powerless — for in that hair was all his strength, just like Samson — he was killed by Minos, to whom she also betrayed her father. She was hung from the prow of his ship and dragged through the sea, hence, I think, the place in the sea was named. Others say that this woman was beautiful, and when Amphitrite found out that she was sleeping with Poseidon, she put a potion in the spring where Scylla used to bathe, and turned her into a beast with six heads, of a sea monster, a dog, a lion, a gorgon, a whale, and a human, and twelve feet. These are nonsense and mythical, but I have allegorized it in the back.

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§ 651  Heracles, sailing past the region where Scylla lived, when he was leading the cattle of Geryon, killed her. But her father Phorcys came back and, burning her, resurrected her again (34 25).

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§ 652  "Robe of lion skin": all these as epithets of Heracles. For Mecisteus is honored among the Eleans. And Scapaneus, because he dug the dung of the cattle of Augeas, Boagidas, because he led the cattle of Geryon, and "robe of lion skin" because of the lion's skin, which is called sterphos; for he used it as a cloak. 6 "Of Mecisteus": Mecisteus, Heracles, is honored among the Eleans. "Robe of lion skin" of the lion-clad. For sterphos is the skin of the lion. "Of Scapaneus", because he dug the enclosure of the cattle-yard of the cattle of Augeas, the king of the Eleans, and turning there towards the cattle-yard two rivers, Alpheus and Peneus, he cleanses that immeasurable dung of the cattle with a slight tilt, commanded by Eurystheus to do this as well as the other labors. "Robe of lion skin": Heracles is also called this because of the lion's skin; he used it as a cloak. He is also called Scapaneus, because he dug the dung of the cattle of Augeas, and Boagidas because of the cattle of Geryon. Eg (×EM 726 25) "Boagidas" Heracles, who led the cattle of Geryon to Zeus. Eg (EM 203 24) "Of Scapaneus" who dug the dung of Augeas and led the cattle of Geryon. "Boagida" because he led the cattle of Geryon from Erytheia, the island around the Ocean, as Oppian says in his Cynegetics "he himself contended with Geryon on the Ocean" (II 111) and Hesiod, I think, in Theogony "Ortho — Eurytion" (293). He also killed Geryon himself, who was about to fight for the cattle, shooting him around the river Anthemounta. Geryon was the son of Chrysaor and the daughter of Ocean, Callirhoe. Two trees standing around his tomb are said to bleed. Geryon was also three-headed and three-bodied.

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§ 653  "Harpy-legged" is derived from the term "bird-legged" because the lower parts of the birds were harpies, a type of bird. He speaks of the sirens; for they were winged. The Muses, having defeated them, were crowned with their wings, hence the Muses are depicted in art as having wings on their heads. Only Terpsichore does not have wings on her head because she was their mother. "Harpy-legged" of the sirens, "nightingales" for their melodious voice, "raw-eaters" for their fish-eating and for the cattle of Helios. "Harpy-legged"; he speaks of the sirens who were daughters of the Muse Terpsichore and the river Achelous, flowing between Aetolia and Acarnania, and Ambracia, now called Nicopolis after Octavian Caesar's victory over Antony there. Harpy is a type of bird and harpies likewise; and the winds are called harpies and names of winged female demons. He calls the sirens "harpy-legged" as if "bird-legged"; for they were winged, having the lower parts of birds and the upper parts of humans. The Muses, having defeated them in melody, were crowned with their wings, except for Terpsichore, because she was the mother of the sirens. These things happened in Crete, hence the city Aptera of Crete, named after the sirens who were defeated there and lost their wings. The sirens, as we said, had the lower parts of birds and the upper parts of humans, and they lived around Tyrrhenia, as Scylla had six heads, as we said (216 9), and the upper parts of a human around Rhegium, opposite Sicily, near which also Charybdis is around Messene (35 15) just like the gorgons in Tartessus of Iberia †T and some say they were in Tarsus (Mal. 43): but these were also winged and had serpentine hair like the harpies in Thrace, bear ears, bodies of vultures, faces of crows, and Echidna in Lydia had the chest and head of a girl, but the lower part was a snake, as was Orthrus, Geryon's dog in Erytheia, having two dog heads and seven dragon heads, and Asterius, also known as Minotaur in Crete, had the face of a bull, but the rest of the body was human. We have digressed to speak of monstrous animals, since the sirens were also mythical and, as we assumed, monstrous. But more allegorically, the sirens are pleasures. The younger Plutarch says these were courtesans who detained passers-by with their charming conversation. There are also sirens that are small animals, similar to bees. "Ladders" are rough places, promontories, "nightingales" of the sirens, for their alluring quality (222 6).

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§ 654  "Eating raw, roughly prepared food," he says, referring to when they were on the island of Helios, they caught fish with hooks and lived this way, but they did not eat them raw. "Or roughly prepared," as being eaten raw by the Cyclops or even by the Laestrygonians.

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§ 657  "One of those who perished," he refers to Odysseus; for he alone was saved. And Homer says, "having lost all his companions" (Iliad 534).

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§ 658  "Marked with a dolphin," Stesichorus says that Odysseus carried the image of a dolphin on his shield (FLG III 992 Bk) and Euphorion (AA 142) agrees with him. Athena, who is honored in Corinth, is called Phoenician. Therefore, he calls Odysseus, who stole the Palladium in Troy with Diomedes, a thief of Athena. "A thief," he says of Odysseus, because he stole the Palladium of Athena when he entered Troy with Diomedes, given to them by Antenor; for Theano, the wife of Antenor, was the priestess of Athena there. For there was an oracle given to the Greeks that they would not otherwise conquer Troy, unless the Palladium in Troy was stolen.

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§ 659  "Who will see," Odysseus, wandering on the land of the Cyclopes, entered the cave of Polyphemus, the son of Poseidon, who had one eye, and blinded him with such a trick. For after the Cyclops had eaten six of his companions, Odysseus gave him wine, saying (Iliad 347, 348). When he was drunk, Odysseus blinded him with a heated stake. Later, they saved themselves by tying themselves under the bellies of the sheep. "Of the one-eyed," of the Cyclops.

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§ 662  "And he will see," he refers to the Laestrygonians; for Heracles shot them down when he was driving the cattle of Geryon, when they waged war against him. "A remnant," then, he calls the survivors of those who were killed. They say that the Leontines in Sicily now inhabit the Laestrygonia that Homer mentions (Odyssey 9.82).

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§ 663  Ceramuntes is Heracles who drives away evils; for he is a warder off of evils. The same is called Palaemon because he wrestled with Zeus. The same is honored in Abdera as Peuceus. Palaemon is Heracles because he wrestled with Antaeus or Achelous in Aetolia for the marriage of Deianira, the daughter of Oeneus. Pherecydes, at any rate, says that after he wrestled with and killed Antaeus, he lay with his wife Iphinoe and begot Palaemon. He brought down Libya, the sixty-cubit son of Poseidon, and his bones were brought to Olympia, so that it would not be disbelieved. Heracles was four cubits and one foot tall, as Herodotus of Pontus reports. Menecrates, who wrote about Nicaea, says that Heracles was formerly called Alcaeus, when he killed his eight sons who were born to him from Megara, and not four, as Pindar also says, "the bronze-armed sons of Creon" (J III 108). But from then on he was called Heracles because of an oracle. The oracle goes something like this: "No longer will you be called Palaemon, 'Phoebus' Apollo calls you 'Heracles,' for you will bring glory to men, bearing an imperishable fame." This oracle, which I do not even know, another historian (Ael. VH II 32) reports.

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§ 664  "Those who shattered everything"; he refers to the harbor of the ancient Laestrygonians, which is circular. In the circular "vessel" or harbor of the Laestrygonians which is circular like a vessel. "Shattering" means crushing. "In the well-rounded" in the circular round "vessel" or harbor of the Laestrygonians, "with a rope"; a rope is a type of plant with which they weave baskets. He took this from Homer "as they fish, they suffer a joyless meal" (k 124) those Laestrygonians who "shattered" all the "vessels" of Odysseus and crushed them in the "well-rounded" and circular — missing harbor — or according to the copyists who "shattered" all the ships, clearly of Odysseus, and crushed in the “well-rounded” and circular “vessel” and harbor in “rope they will pierce” and they will pierce the “bad trap” of the “kestrels” and of the gudgeons. With gudgeons, he compares the friends of Odysseus who were killed and eaten by the Laestrygonians, in the way that fishermen pierce the kestrels or the gudgeons with a rope and sell and buy and eat those who wish. A rope is a type of plant or the brambles with which they weave the baskets. He translates the Homeric "as they sow fish — they suffered".

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§ 666  "Another upon"; the disaster coming upon him is much more destructive than the past one.

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§ 668  "Charybdis" is the surge of water, "the mixed maiden dog" is Scylla about whom we have often spoken.

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§ 670  "Sterile"; because they are virgins they are sterile for this reason. He calls the sirens nightingales because of their chatter. And we have spoken about these (218 8). He calls the sirens sterile because they are virgins and I also, because those who heard them became sterile and childless; for they died. Otherwise. He calls the sirens nightingales because of their allure (219 6), sterile either because they are virgins or because the one standing there died without giving birth. "Centaur killers" because the Centaurs fleeing from Thessaly from Heracles came to the island of the sirens, being charmed by them they perished. For Heracles in Pholoe was angry with Pholus the Centaur and Pholus mixed for him the most beautiful wine, opening the common jar of the Centaurs. But the Centaurs came and knowing what happened from the smell of the wine they were angry. And Heracles taking the bow killed some of them like Chiron unintentionally hitting, I think, around the knee, the rest he chased who fleeing, as I said (supr. 9), around the island of the sirens perished.

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§ 671  "Kouretis": Some say that the sirens are the daughters of Achelous and Terpsichore, the muse. Achelous flows through the middle of Aetolia and Acarnania. We said that the sirens are the daughters of Terpsichore, the muse, and Achelous, the river (218 9). Achelous, the sweetest of all rivers, flows between Aetolia and Kouretis, and Acarnania and Ambracia, but now it flows from Nicopolis. Hence, he spoke ambiguously, whether Achelous belongs to Aetolia, or rather to Acarnania. Some say that the Acarnanians were first called Kouretes. Achelous is named after someone named Achelous who drowned in it. Or because its water is beneficial for wounds and pains. Therefore, Achelous, the one who relieves and treats pain, is aptly named.

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§ 673  "What kind of" Circe does he mean, since she turned men into beasts through her sorcery.

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§ 675  Beasts are gnats. And Nicander says, "where gnats feed on tender foliage" in "the forest" (Th 499).

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§ 676  "In the pigsties" the word 'as' is missing, so it should be "as in pigsties". Pigsties are said to be where pigs sleep. For she had a terrible drug, sweet to eat and drink, but destructive to the mind. First, she gave them the drug to eat, then, striking them thus, she turned them into pigs.

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§ 677  "With barley", the grain of Demeter. The next part is "cheese of the grape". The new wine is called trux, and gigarta are the seeds inside grapes and pomegranates.

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§ 678  "They will gnaw" - they will eat the theme from Callimachus, bruxo.

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§ 673  "Beast-maker" refers to Circe, who turned Odysseus's companions into pigs according to the myth. But allegorically, Philalios of Corinth, we, and others know the truth. But do not unravel the sack of Lycophron's foolish mythical allegories; it is enough to tell the multitude of mythical stories. For if we allegorize this mythical story, someone will certainly want to hear the rest. From now on, my digression will become greater than my work, so as to allegorize the entire Odyssey in a small part of Lycophron and the other stories, hence we must leave many things to be said allegorically, but some, which have a short truth, we will tell. "Beast-maker" refers to the one who makes beasts and creates beasts, the passive instead of the active. "Dragon" refers to Circe because of her wildness, or because of her sharp sight and activity.

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§ 674  Flour is primarily made from wheat, while barley flour is now called bread and food. "Stirring" instead of "disturbing"; for in the meal of Odysseus's companions "barley flour, cheese, honey, wine mixed together and giving them to drink and striking them with a rod, she transformed them into pigs. "Drugs" are magical "and fate" and fate. "Stirring" is common. "Knob-shaped" instead of "beast-shaped". ? Moving animals and knob-shaped animals and knobs the beasts moving in the pet and field or the land animals just like the sea knobs are said, from the movement of them through the sea or in the sea. Land knobs are also said to be the mountain-fed from the movement or from the knob and sleep in the thick and wooded places.

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§ 677bis  "Gigarta of fig" and grape and stems "will grind" and eat "mixed" with "chyle" and food. Stems are the skins outside the grapes. But now Lycophron speaks badly against the Homeric writing: "Circe" says to throw them "in a circle" towards the food (k 242), but this one looking at the more general food of the pigs said.

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§ 679  "Moly will save; but" Odysseus from the "harm" that is to become a pig "will save" and will save the "moly" interpretively, which is a "root", and who else will save? "And Ctaros" and Hermes "appearing. Moly" is made from the mo the seek or the pollute, which is to make the drugs disappear. They say that when the moly is uprooted from the root, it brings death to the one who uproots it. "Ctaros" is a surname of Hermes "bright" is metaphorically instead of bright or white; for among the Boeotians, White Hermes is honored; for the Tanagraeans, being warred upon by the Eretrians, sacrificed a boy and a girl according to an oracle and from there they established White Hermes 6. “Nonacriates” is the Arcadian; for Nonacris is a city of Arcadia where Hermes is honored. Nonacriates is Hermes. ×Steph. "Three-headed" is the same either because he is heavenly and marine and chthonic or because of the natural and logical and ethical. 4 or having entered Hecate he had three daughters from her. 6 Hermes, meeting Odysseus who was about to go up to Circe, gave him the moly so that he would not be harmed by her drugs. Moly is according to the doctors (Gal. XII p. 82 K) the wild oregano. But I said more allegorically that it should not be said. Moly, laurel, mint, buckthorn, willow, sea star, jasper stone and many other plants and animals and stones are antipathetic to all magical ways.

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§ 681  "Halipedon" refers to the smooth and flat field or the area near the sea. "Halipedon" is the coastal plain because it is surrounded and washed by the Ocean.

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§ 682  Pempelos is the old man. He referred to Teiresias as an elder because they say he lived for seven generations; he was present during the time of Cadmos and many years later during the time of Polyneikes. Pempelos refers to the very old man, from the phrase "already being sent to Hades". Now he refers to Teiresias, because they say he lived for seven generations, others say nine; for he was from the time of Cadmos and even later than Eteokles and Polyneikes, as the poet of Melampodia says; for he introduces Teiresias saying "Zeus father, I wish you had given me a shorter life and equal understanding to mortal men. Now you have not honored me at all, who made me live a long life, to live seven generations of mortal men" (fr. 178 K).

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§ 683  "Men women"; they say that Teiresias, having found snakes mating on Cithairon, killed the female and became a woman, then the male and became a man again (schol. κ 494). Others say that having seen Athena naked, he became a woman (Ap. III 70). It is said that Zeus argued with Hera, claiming that females enjoy sexual intercourse more than males, and used Teiresias as a judge because of his two forms. He said that of all pleasures, men have one, women have the remaining nine. Once, when Zeus was arguing with Hera and saying that women have more desire in intercourse than men, they say he appointed Teiresias as a judge. Having become a judge, as he had been both a man and a woman, and saying that a woman desires ten times more than a man, Hera, being angry, blinded him, but Zeus granted him prophecy and a long life as (cf. 225 20) .... as the poet of Melampodia says "nine parts are for me, the tenth part is enjoyed by a man, the woman fills the ten parts enjoying the understanding" (fr. 179). And Persephone in Hades grants this man alone to understand among all the other dead. About Zeus and Hera, because of the judgment of lust by Teiresias? And the poet of Melampodia says as from Teiresias "let understanding come".

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§ 684  "Warm to their souls"; for Odysseus poured blood into a trench and, holding his sword for the intimidation of the souls, asked each one who they were. The story goes like this: Odysseus was sent to Hades by Circe "to consult the soul of Theban Teiresias" (k 492) about his return home. Circe commanded him, when he went there, seqq. vv. k 517-520 535-537.

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§ 686  "Dispatched" of the souls from the verb to send; for the souls are easily moved as they are thin and airy.

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§ 687  "Of a dim mastax"; of a faint and weak mouth's speech.

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§ 688  "From where the island of the giants"; Procopius of Caesarea says that Damascus is Zeus's trophy against the giants; †T others say Sicily, where also Typhon is thunderstruck (Pind. P I 34) as Hesiod also seqq. Θ 859. 860. "From where the giants"; he calls the Pithecusae the island of the giants, which are islands around Italy. Others heard the Pithecusae as the islands of the giants, which are islands around Italy. Aischrion in the 7th book of the Ephesides (FLG II p. 803 Bgk). These were first inhabited by giants, but later Zeus, having defeated them when they rebelled against him, imposed the islands on them and there he settled monkeys or mimics and satyrs and arkoizianos for the dishonor and shame of the giants. "The sea crushed or the island" the "back" and the spine "and" the "body" of the "wild Typhon" is Sicily (supr. 5), even if the many mock (sch. Pind. l. l. 31), which "with flame" boils or sends flames from Etna towards Catane.

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§ 690  "Will receive the single-masted"; this island will receive Odysseus having one ship in which; in which of the "monkeys" the "race" the father of the gods "settled". "Will receive the single-masted"; this island will receive Odysseus having one ship in which "monkeys" "race" the "palm" and king of the "immortals" that is of the gods "settled". The word "the palm" is <Ionic and Hipponax uses it saying "Oh Zeus father, palm of the Olympian gods, why did you not give me gold, silver palm?" (fr. 30) "Settled" the 'se' long as a common syllable.

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§ 693  War is toil (μῶλος), from not being whole and complete; for many are killed in war. "To the descendants" to the children of Cronus to Zeus and the others. I have spoken elsewhere about descendant and offspring (200 8).

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§ 694  "Baios"; a proper name. Baios, the helmsman of Odysseus, having died, was buried around Sicily, from whom they say the islands and cities along the Aornus in Italy were named Baiae.

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§ 695  "Epaula" or "epauleis". The form is a metaplasm. The Cimmerians, according to Homer, lie around the western Ocean, but according to the Periegete, "Cimmerians - Taurus" (168). Otherwise, the Cimmerians, a nation, have their dwellings around the western Ocean, as Homer also says. "Covered"; "and Acherusian"; mythically, the Acheron is a river of Hades, historically and periegetically, the Acheron is a river of Heraclea near Sinope, now called Soonautes. I do not know where this Lycophron says the Acheron is.

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§ 697  "Ossa and the lion"; Ossa is the largest mountain in Italy, as Metrodorus says. Cyme and Ossa are the largest mountains in Italy, as Metrodorus says. And Homer speaks of the sons of Aloeus, Otus and Ephialtes. He refers to Heracles as the lion; for he, driving the cattle of Geryon, blocked the place adjacent to Ossa and Cyme and passed through it driving the cattle. "Lion" of Heracles, either because of the lion's skin or because of his strength. For Heracles, while driving the cattle of Geryon, as it happened around Ossa and Cyme, found the Orontes river flowing towards Meliboea, the source, as it was not possible for him to cross, he dug the tops of the mountains, threw them into the river, blocked it and thus passed with the cattle.

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§ 698  "Obriomous"; Obriomo is Persephone, from the word "obrimos" meaning strong and heavy. Obriomo and Obriomo is Persephone because she was angry with Hermes when he tried to force her in a hunt and so he stopped his attempt. Some write "obrimous" from the word "obrimos" meaning strong and heavy. "Pyriphlegethon" is the Pyriphlegethon river. Otherwise, Pyriphlegethon is a river in Hades as Homer also says. I do not know where he says the Pyriphlegethon is, unless it is where the city of Dreams and Plato's Republic are. "There is a difficult path" where they say there is a difficult hill, which if anyone approaches, immediately disappears. For there they say are the souls of men, which the dog of Hades, who has three heads, guards. Some say that he welcomes those who enter with flattery, wagging his tail and ears, but does not let those who want to leave. If anyone dares to do this, he quickly seizes and devours him... saying this story.

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§ 700  "He calls the sky or the air 'aithran' from the word 'aitho' meaning to shine or burn and the word 'rheo', the one flowing light upon the earth. 'Polydegmon' is a high mountain in Italy, from which they say all the rivers in Italy flow, since, as Trophion says, this mountain is the navel of Hades. 'The hill' and the high place, that is, the mountain, which is called Polydegmon. Lycophron refers to Pyriphlegethon and Cocytus as Italian rivers emerging from Polydegmon, the highest mountain there. Eust. Od. I 392 25

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§ 702  "Ausonite": I have often said that properly speaking the Ausones are the Aurunci, lying between the Campanians and Volsci near the sea, but they improperly call all Italians Ausones, and even more improperly they use the term for us, even though we are of Greek origin. The Ausones are said by some to be from Auson, the son of Odysseus and Circe, according to others from Auson, the son of Italus and Leutaria, others say from another Auson.

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§ 703  "He calls 'kletas' the slope, the peak, and Letheon, a high mountain in Italy, from a certain Lethos, whose son Hippothoon Homer mentions in the Iliad (P 289), who was a king in Iberia. This man was previously called Olonthos, but because he was formidable and unwoundable in battles, those who fought with him named him Lethos.

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§ 704  "Lake": Aornos is a lake around Cumae, encircled like a prison, and it has, as some say, cyan water, and it was called Aornos, because not even one bird can fly over it because it is dark and large. Lycophron calls it the Aornis lake and others say it is a hot, smelly lake around the Eridanus, of which no animal tastes without dying. They say that the events concerning Phaethon happened there, there also stand poplars that produce amber (Ar. p. th. ak. 81). Those who wrote about Alexander's deeds say that Aornis is a rock 15 stades high. Aornis is said to be so, because due to the cold, no bird can fly over it. Alexander sacked this (Phil. v. Ap. II 10). Others, Sotion (fr. 28 W.) and Agathosthenes and Dio and the rest of the historians, do not say that Aornis is a lake or a rock, but an opening around Adiabene, over which a bird cannot fly; because of the vapors rising from there, every irrational animal dies. Adiabene is a region of Mesopotamia and Syria around Nineveh; in Adiabene is this Aornon and the city of Ctesiphon and the Asphaltitis lake. Asphalt is naphtha, or rather like pitch. About the Asphaltitis lake, Josephus says it is around Jordan and Jericho, bitter and barren due to its lightness. In this Asphaltitis, he says that everything thrown in it floats and that Vespasian tied people back to back and threw them in this lake and even the ones who could not swim floated (b. Iud. IV 8 4). Xenophon (An. II 4 12 Cyr. VII 5 22) and many others have written about both the Aornos mouth and Asphaltitis lake.

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§ 706  The Homeric Cocytus is a branch of the black Styx (k 514) that Zeus made a terrible oath among the gods to send their sons to Zeus to help him (Hes. Θ 389). Styx herself also helped Zeus when the other gods wanted to throw him out of heaven, and Zeus gave her the privilege of swearing the gods to her. And Homer seqq. Ο 36–38. Cocytus is a river in Hades mythically, but more allegorically Cocytus is mourning and Acheron is the flow and pouring of sorrows and afflictions for the dead. And Aeacus the gatekeeper from saying 'ai ai' at funerals and as if the propylaea of Hades. And Minos and Rhadamanthus from waiting for those descending there and easily to be diminished and destroyed. Similarly, all the rest, so as not to be long-winded. And the Styx lake of Hades from loathing those there. There is also another Styx in Arcadia that breaks all vessels with its coldness except those made of horn. Termieus is Zeus said to be the beginning and end of all things. 'oath-takers'; for Zeus mythically made Styx the oath of the gods. 'Pouring libations' the water of Styx. Pelle is a shepherd's cup or skyphos. And 'pouring libations' either sacrificing with golden cups from her water, when he was about to cross to the war of Giants and Titans. Hesiod in Theogony says for this reason that Zeus made Styx the oath of the gods, because she was the first of the other gods with her own children to go to the battle against the Titans, a collaborator with Zeus.

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§ 710  Persephone is Daera among the Athenians from the torch because her mysteries are performed with torches or because she carries a torch; for the goddess is a torchbearer. The syntax is this: 'Leaving the high glories of Lethaion Odysseus did this and this where Zeus did this, 'he will set' Odysseus himself 'a gift' or a gift and a dedication to whom? To 'Daera' and the cutter and the destroyer, that is, to Persephone and to her bedmate Hades. What gift will he set? A pillar and a headband for the 'maiden' and the head of the 'column, adjusting' and placing the 'pillar.' Persephone is also Isis, the Earth, Rhea, Hestia, Pandora, and many other such things.

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§ 711  "Korse" is also the term for the head, as Empedokles says, "as many heads sprouted up".

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§ 712  "And he kills the maidens"; he refers to the Sirens, who are the daughters of Achelous. Achelous is the son of Oceanos and Tethys. The Sirens, unable to bear their defeat, drowned themselves. Their mother is Terpsichore.

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§ 715  "Tyrsenikon"; the Sirens lived, according to some, in Peloris, and according to others, in the Sirenousai, which are three headlands of Italy. The names of these Sirens are Parthenope, Leukosia, and Ligeia; for some say there are three of them. "Dyptousas" means "flying with wings", since they had the bodies of maidens and birds. That's why they are called Sirens. They were birds with wings.

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§ 716  "Where the linen worker"; the linen of the Moirai, that is, fate. Where the bitter thread of the Moirai commanded them to die.

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§ 717  Phaleron — a city in Opikoi, where the siren was cast ashore. Phaleros founded Neapolis in Italy. So, he says that Parthenope fell in Neapolis. This Phaleros was a tyrant in Sicily, severely punishing and killing those who opposed him. Callimachus also mentions him in the second Aetia, saying "he imitated that action of Phaleros" (fr. 194). Diodorus the Sicilian (fr. 27) and Oppian (K II 149) say that this Neapolis was founded by Herakles. And Oppian in his Cynegetics calls it "the new land of Herakles". "Tyrsis" means wall, because the Tyrsenoi were the first to conceive of a wall.

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§ 718  Glanis is a river in Italy and Kyme, where, they say, a fish of the same name is found, whose bile is very beneficial, but only the one in that river. There is also another river in Italy called Glanis, which flows into the Tiber, and another in Iberia.

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§ 719  "Having built" - Tzetzes writes the "do" with omicron putting a long mark above it and says that it is lengthened by the "m" and is a common syllable. The immutable ones are lengthened, whenever the metrician requires it. But if someone says to write this omega, let him know that this happened with the Attic extension and let him not write it bestially and without cause.

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§ 721  "Bird goddess"; he calls the Sirens birds because they are bird-mixed, and goddesses because they have such a charming power that they can hold and kill those who hear their song.

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§ 722  And the shore; Enipeus is Poseidon honored by the Milesians; the protruding shore, the one extending into the sea. He refers to the Poseideion headland.

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§ 723  "Leucosia" is the name of the Siren from which the island is also named Leucosia.

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§ 724  The rock, the island. Leucosia the Siren, having been hidden, is buried in the Poseideion sanctuary. Parthenope was the first among them. It is said so because she has the voice of a small virgin or because she resembles a small virgin. Leucosia, being a certain white one, has white ears or is the daughter of a certain Leucus or has the ears of Leucus. Ligeia, because of the sweetness of her tragedy.

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§ 724  "Is" and "Laris" are rivers of Italy.

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§ 725  "Drink" is the drink. Now the form is a transformation from masculine to neuter.

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§ 726  "Terina" - some - is the island where the siren Ligeia was cast ashore. "Terina" is a city in Italy from where Heracleides of Terina comes. Eknausthlosetai is primarily to sail out with a ship, but now it is to be hidden by the waves.

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§ 727  Chellussousa is sailing, swimming; for even those who swim push the water with their lips. But he writes "sailing" with one 'l', Tzetzes says that the verse is not mistaken; for he says that this is a common syllable, and that the 'e' is extended by the 'l' being unchangeable, as I said before (234 6). And the rough ones likewise lengthen the short ones, if they are found in front of them. But all the rest write two 'll', saying that one 'l' is redundant.

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§ 730  "Bull-horned Ares"; There is no river Ares around Terina, hence some accepted it as an epithet for the Okinaros to indicate the strong and active in power. Some, however, write "Eres" and "Eris"; for both are rivers around Terina. "Bull-horned" because they introduce the rivers as horn-bearing and ox-headed, perhaps because of the violent, echoing, and roaring of the stream. "Okinaros" is a river around Terina, "Ares" is either said to be strong and "bull-horned" because of the echoing.

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§ 731  "Ornithopaidos" means "bird-born". The term "ornithopais" and similar terms like "kallipais" and "andropais" can be understood in two ways, but the intended meaning reveals the truth. "Ornithopais" can mean both "child of a bird", as it is understood now, and "bird-like child". "Kallipais" can mean both "child of a beautiful mother" (Aesch. Ag. 732) and "beautiful child" (Eur. Or. 964). "Andropais" can mean both "child of a brave man" (Aesch. Sept. 516) and "brave child" (sch. Pind. P II 121). The intended meaning clarifies how these terms should be understood. "Isma" is used instead of "idruma", meaning "tomb", derived from the verb "izo". EM 477 3 is similar to "badizo" meaning "step". "Isma", which is also roughened, signifies "idruma" according to L., derived from "izo". Eust. Jl. II 71 21 "Phoibazon" means "washing, purifying with water", hence Phoebe is water and everything pure. "Phoibazon" also means "brightening with streams". Phoebos is the sun, not misty, but entirely bright and flawless.

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§ 732  "Firstly" - Timaeus of Sicily says that Diotimus, the Athenian naval commander, came to Neapolis to sacrifice to Parthenope and to hold a torch race, which is why a torch race is still held by the Neapolitans to this day.

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§ 733  Mopsopia: The Attic territory and