§ a1 Abaris: A proper name. When a plague, they say, had arisen throughout the whole inhabited world, Apollo responded to both Greeks and barbarians, when they asked, that the Athenian people was to make prayers on behalf of all. And when many nations were sending embassies to them, they say that Abaris also came, an ambassador from the Hyperboreans. The time in which he was present is disputed. For Hippostratos says that he was present in the 53rd Olympiad, while Pindar (says that it was) in the time of Kroisos, king of the Lydians, and others (that it was) in the 21st Olympiad.
§ a6 Agasikles: Hyperides speaks about Agasikles. A speech against him has been written by Deinarchos also, in which it has been shown that he bribed the demesmen of Halimous collectively and that, owing to this, though he was an alien, he was enrolled in the politeia (as a citizen).
§ a7 Agoi: This denotes many things. Isaios took it for 'to bear' and 'to lead in' and 'to drag,' in the so-titled "For Eumathes, removal to freedom" saying thus: "Xenokles injured me by removing Eumathes to freedom, when I was leading him into slavery for my own part." And many times in the speech he used the word for the same sense. But Antiphon, in On Truth, says, "may(?) he 'hold' the laws great," instead of 'may(?) he think.' There is much use of this (sense).
§ a8 Agelaion: (belonging to the common herd): Isokrates in Panathenaikos meant, as it were, the many itinerant sophists. The metaphor is from herd animals, which graze in whatever places they happen to come to, or from fish, which they say feed copiously in schools (herds).
§ a9 Agenes: For 'apais' (childless), in Isaios, in On the Estate of Menekles.
§ a10 Agesilaos: This man was, as Xenophon shows, a distinguished and noble king of the Lakedaimonians, and he overturned much of Asia, using the soldiers who joined Cyrus on the anabasis (expedition up country).
§ a12 Hagneuete ten polin (purify the city): Antiphon in his second speech, for 'hagnizete' (purify).
§ a13 Hagnias: Isaios in Against Eukleides concerning land. Androtion, in book five of the Atthis, says of him and his fellow ambassadors — Philochoros does too — that they were both caught and killed by Lakedaimonians.
§ a15 Agnomonos (senselessly): For 'alogistos' (foolishly) and 'aboulos' (thoughtlessly): Demosthenes in the Phillipics.
§ a16 Agoras (gatherings): Hyperides in Against Polyeuktos concerning the Diagramma: "They often hold gatherings." Perhaps for 'synodoi' (assemblies) (as we say) now. The word denotes also other things.
§ a17 Agoranomoi: The magistrates in the agora who administer sales: Demosthenes in Against Timokrates. And Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says that five were apportioned to Peiraieus and five to the city.
§ a18 Agorasai: For 'onesasthai' (to purchase): Hyperides in Deliakos.
§ a19 Agraphiou: A type of action, so called, against those who owe the public treasury and, on account of this, have been registered, but then have been erased before paying off (the debt). Demosthenes or Deinarchos show that this was so in Against Theokrines; also Lykourgos in Against Aristogeiton; and still further, Pytheas in his defense against the indictment.
§ a20 Agrious (wild): Aischines in Against Timarchos says that those who are exceedingly impassioned with pursuit of boys and are severe pederasts (are "wild"). And Menander says that one who is zealous about dicing is a wild dicer.
§ a22 Aguias (street): Demosthenes in Against Meidias: "to hold choruses according to ancestral custom and to fill the street with savor." Some accent with the acute, treating it as feminine, like τὰς ὁδούς (the roads). But it is better to use circumflex as if from ἀγυιεύς. An aguieus is a pillar ending in a point, which they set in front of their doors, as Aristophanes, in the Wasps, and Eupolis make clear. They say that these are particular to Apollo, but others say to Dionysos, and others say to both. The complete (i.e. uncontracted) form is ἀγυιέας and according to the Attic dialect ἀγυιᾶς, as they say 'Steirias' and 'Melias' and the like, with contraction. Aristophanes in the Birds: "slaughter sheep on sacrificial hearths; and fill the street with the savor." They say that this is particular to the Dorians, as Dieuchidas makes clear in the third book of the Megarika. But the altars in front of people's houses could be what are called among Attic speakers aguieis, as Kratinos and Menander say. Also Sophokles, in Laokoon, translating the Athenians' customs to Troy, says, "And the roadside altar shines with fire, wafting drops of myrrh, exotic fragrances." .
§ a24 Agonian (contest): To contend: Isokrates in Antidosis.
§ a25 Agoniontes (struggling): For 'contending' in the same author in Panegyrikos.
§ a26 Adeetos: For 'not in need of' in Antiphon On Truth book 1.
§ a28 Ademonouses (being troubled): Being at a loss.
§ a29 Adephagous trieres (hungry triremes): Lysias in the diamartyria For Eukritos, if the speech is genuine, and Philistos (writes), "hungry pentekonter." They could mean 'on full pay' and 'spending a lot.' It seems to be said by way of metaphor from full-grown racehorses, which are accustomed "to eat their fill," according to the poet. Alkaios in Tragecomedy called lamps that consume a lot 'hungry.' .
§ a30 Adiastaton (without break): Not yet divided or separated. Antiphon said it.
§ a31 Adikiou: I.e. wrongdoing (adikema). It is the name of an action. One pays this simply if it is rendered before the ninth prytany. Otherwise, one pays double.
§ a32 Adokimastos (not approved): To be approved is to be enrolled among men, and he who is not yet enrolled is 'not approved' in Lysias in Against Demosthenes concerning guardianship, if it is genuine.
§ a33 Adrasteia: Some say that she is the same as Nemesis, and that she took the name from Adrastos son of Talaos, since he suffered nemesis for what he boasted against the Thebans, and then in accordance with certain oracles established a sanctuary of Nemesis, which they say was called thereafter Adrasteia's, as Antimachos shows in these (lines): "There is a certain great goddess Nemesis, who was allotted all these things by the blessed. And Adrestos was the first to establish an altar for her beside the stream of the river Aisepos, where she has been honored and is called Adresteia." Some, however, say that she is different from Nemesis, as Menander and Nikostratos (do). And Demetrios of Skepsis says that Adrasteia is Artemis, established by a certain Adrastos.
§ a34 Adynatoi: Aischines in Against Timarchos. Those who possess under three minas, and have been incapacitated with respect to the body. These people used to receive — after they were approved by the council — two obols per day, or an obol, as Aristotle says in the Constitution of the Athenians, and as Philochoros says, nine drachmas monthly. There is also a speech — so it is is said — of Lysias Concerning the Invalid, in which he has mentioned one as receiving an obol.
§ a36 Aïdris: Ignorant.
§ a38 Aeiesto (ever-being): Antiphon (uses this to mean) eternity and to stand always in the same (conditions), just as good fortune is also called well-being.
§ a39 Aerkton (unfenced): For unfortified and visible from all directions: Lysias.
§ a40 Aetos: Of buildings, the part down along the roof, which some call a pediment. Aristophanes in the Birds: "For we shall roof your homes with a pediment." .
§ a43 Atheoretos (not to be seen): For unseen, in Antiphon in the speech On Concord.
§ a45 Athmoneus: Athmonia is a deme of the tribe of Kekropis, the demesman from which is an Athmoneus.
§ a50 Aidesasthai (to be reconciled): For 'to be persuaded to change:' Lysias in Against Demosthenes concerning guardianship, if it is genuine, and Demosthenes in Against Nausimachos and Xenopeithes. And in Against Aristokrates this is also for 'atone for' and 'prevail upon.' .
§ a52 Aithiopion: Name of a place in Euboia.
§ a53 Aikias (for battery): It is a kind of private action brought for blows, whose penalty is not delimited in the laws, but the accuser inscribes a penalty, for as much as he thinks the wrong is worth, and the jurors decide.
§ a54 Ainious: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Ainos is a city in Thrace. Homer: "who had come from Ainos." Ephoros in book 4, talking about Thracian towns, says, "Next to these is the city of Ainos, which Greeks settled, the Alopekonnesians first, but later they brought in additional settlers from Mytilene and Kyme." .
§ a55 Aixonesin (at Aixone): Isaios in Against Medon concerning a plot of land. The deme of Aixone belongs to the tribe Kekropis. (The demesmen) used to be ridiculed as blasphemers, whence also they used to say that to speak ill is to "talk like an Aixonian;" Menander in Kanephoros. Plato in On Courage says, "I shall say nothing in response to that, though I could, lest you say that I am from Aixone." .
§ a58 Akare: for 'a little bit' or 'not at all,' in Antiphon.
§ a60 Ake: this is a city in Phoinike; Demosthenes in Against Kallippos. Nikanor, who has written On Name Changes, and Kallimachos, in the Commentaries, say that what is now called Ptolemais is (Ake). But Demetrios says that, in a special sense, the acropolis of Ptolemais was previously named Ake.
§ a64 Akte: in a special sense a certain seaside part of Attica: Hypereides in On the Salt Fish. Whence also Aktite stone. Some also used to call Attica thus after a certain king Aktaion, others because the majority of the land is seaside.
§ a66 Alabastothekai: Chests of perfume vases (alabastoi), which in ordinary usage they call myrrh-chests: Demosthenes in On the False Embassy. Alabastoi are flasks which it is impossible to take hold of on account of their smoothness.
§ a67 Alaieus: Name of a deme.
§ a70 Alexandros: Demosthenes in the sixth of the Philippics says "when Alexander their ancestor came as herald regarding these things." This is the one nicknamed Philhellene, the son of Amyntas and father of Perdikkas, and he was campaigning under Mardonios, by whom he was also sent to the Athenians with a view to requesting earth and water; but not only did they pay no attention to him, but also having threatened him exceedingly they sent him away. There is another Alexander, himself also king of the Macedonians, the elder brother of Philip, about whom Demosthenes in On The False Embassy says, "and yet this Apollophanes was one of those who killed Alexander the brother of Philip." And another is Alexander the Thessalian, about whom again Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates [says] "what about that Alexander the Thessalian?" This one is a Pheraian, and the Athenians fought with him against the Thebans, when Pelopidas was his captive. And another [is] Alexander the Molossian, brother of Olympias the wife of Philip, whom again Demosthenes mentions in the seventh of the Philippics, if the speech is genuine.
§ a71 Halipedon: Some say the Peiraeus. It is also commonly known as a place which of old was sea, but has since become plain. Wherefore the first syllable is aspirated, since it is as it were "a plain of salt" (halos pedion). Or an even (homalon) plain, and worn smooth, that is to say, ground down (alelesmenon), as Aristophanes in The Banqueters, with smooth-breathing, "in Alipedum." Some claim that the plain beside the sea is so called. Some claim that it is so named according to the fact that horses can roll (alindeisthai) themselves in it, that is, cover themselves in dust.
§ a75 Alkibiades: The son of Kleinias. But there was also another, the great-grandfather of the aforementioned, whom Lysias says in Against Alkibiades for desertion, if it is genuine, that he and his father's maternal grandfather were twice ostracized. Another is Alkibiades whom Antiphon mentions in the Defense Speech Against the Charge of Demosthenes. Some of the other orators also mention him, and the comic playwrights. And there is (Alkibiades) of Phegous, a guest-friend of Alkibiades.
§ a76 Alkimachos: Demosthenes in Against Euergos and Mnesiboulos. This man is a general, from Anagyrous by deme, having served as general in the war against Philip. Another is Alkimachos, a Macedonian whom Hypereides mentions in Against Demades thus: "we made Alkimachos and Antipater Athenians and proxenoi." Anaximenes in the second book of On Alexander recorded his address to the people, against which he says that Demosthenes spoke." .
§ a79 Alogoi eranistai [unreckoned creditors]: Those who have never been scrutinized on their obligation in accordance with the rotating order of the names of those underwriting the eranos [loan]. Deinarchos in the eranic speech Against the Children of Patrokles.
§ a80 Halonnesos: A little island in the Aegean Sea: Aischines in Against Ktesiphon, as also Archemachos in book 4 of the Euboika. Also mentioning the dispute over Halonnesos is Theopompos, in book 4, and Anaximenes in book 4 of the Philippics.
§ a81 Alope: Lykourgos in On the Priestess. Kerkyon's daughter, from whom (came) also Poseidon's son Hippothon the namesake of the tribe Hippothontis, so Hellanikos in the second book of the Atthis and Euripides in the play of the same name [sc. the Alope] and Deinarchos in the diadikasia of the Phalereoi.
§ a83 Haloa: Demosthenes in Against Neaira. The Haloa is an Attic festival, which Philochoros says was named after the fact that men then spent time around the threshing floors. He says in On Festivals that it was held in the month of Poseideon.
§ a85 Alopekonnesos: One of the cities in Cherrhonesos.
§ a88 Hamaxanteia: A deme of the tribe of Hippothonitis. The demesman is an Hamaxanteus.
§ a89 Amblothridion: the aborted foetus.
§ a91 Hamippoi: Isaios in Temenikos. Those who campaign with horses. But some say that certain riding horses are yoked to each other, and that the one who drives them leads the one from the side and rides the other. These are called hamippoi. This is the thing (we find) in Homer: "Leaping from one to the other." But the hamippoi are infantry, as is clear from the histories of Thucydides, and from Xenophon in the seventh book of the Hellenika. And perhaps they are certain advance troops arranged along with the cavalry. Philochoros at any rate in the tenth book says that they are also advance troops.
§ a93 Amorges: He is a bastard son of Pissouthnes.
§ a94 Amorgos (mallow): It is rather similar to flax. Aischines in Against Timarchos. And the comic poets mention clothes made of mallow many times, for example Aristophanes, in Lysistrata, and Eupolis, in Cities.
§ a95 Amphignoein (to be doubtful/mistaken): For 'not perceiving' or 'being in doubt' concerning knowledge, as also Lysias (says) in Against Aision concerning the theft of the books, if the speech is genuine.
§ a96 Amphideai (bonds): They are certain leg-bands: Aristophanes in Thesmophoriazousai. And in a special sense, Lysias in Against Euthydikos says, "being unable to break out on account of the doors having been secured with iron rings." .
§ a97 Amphidromia: Lysias in On the Abortion, if the speech is genuine. A day used to be celebrated for newborn children, on which they used to carry the infant around the hearth, running, and from family and friends they used to receive poulps and cuttlefish.
§ a98 Amphiktyons: It is a Greek council, gathered at Thermopylai. It was named either after Amphiktyon son of Deukalion, because he gathered the races when he was king, as Theopompos says in book 8 (these were 12: Ionians, Dorians, Perrhaibians, Boiotians, Magnesians, Phthiotic Achaians, Melians, Dolopians, Ainianians, Delphians, Phokians), or from the fact that those who were gathered were inhabitants around Delphi, as Anaximenes says in book 1 of Hellenika.
§ a99 Amphipolis: Antiphon. On the Lindians' Tribute. This is a city in Thrace. It was previously called Nine Roads, as Androtion in book 12 of Atthis (says). Marsyas in Makedonika (says) that it was named Amphipolis owing to the fact that the place is inhabited all around, previously called Akra. Others: Areos Polis.
§ a100 Amphisbetein kai parakataballein: those who lay claim to inheritances are said to contest or lay claim with a deposit, the former denying that the inheritance was liable to decision on grounds that the deceased had a son, whether by birth or adoption, and the latter saying that, on grounds that he died childless, it was more just for them to have the inheritance than for him who received it, either because they were kin or because they were heirs in accordance with a will. So Demosthenes and Hypereides made clear concerning parakataballein (laying claim with a deposit) .
§ a101 Amphissa: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. A city in Lokris. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Opuntians says thus: "Andraimon was the founder, and they named it Amphissa owing to the fact that the place is ringed round with mountains." .
§ a103 Hamosgepos: for 'in one way at any rate,' Lysias in the endeixis Against Aristagoros, if it is genuine.
§ a104 Anaballei: Instead of "one makes a deferral" [eis anabolas kathistesi] and as if "one defers" [anaballetai]. Demosthenes' Philippics.
§ a110 Anadikasthai: to bring suit anew. So Isaios. Hence also the phrase 'retried disputes,' (i.e.) those that are brought anew, whenever the witnesses are convicted of giving false testimony.
§ a111 Anathesthai (to take back): Antiphon in On Concord: "to take back one's life as if a draught-piece is not possible," for 'to live life anew, having changed one's mind over one's former life.' Said by way of metaphor from those playing draughts. Plato in Hipparchos or Lover of Profit.
§ a113 Anainesthai: generally, to decline, and in a special sense it is said in matters concerning marriages and sex: Demosthenes in the counter-suit For Phormion, Plato in Phaon, Menander in the Sicyonian.
§ a115 Anakalypteria: gifts given to brides by the husband and members of the household and friends whenever they first unveil themselves so that they are seen by the husbands. The same things are also called 'epaulia.' These are our 'theoretra.' .
§ a117 Anakrisis (preliminary examination): examination by each magistrate, taking place before trials, concerning those who are intent on going to court. They examine also whether it is necessary to introduce the case at all. It appears many times in the orators, for example Lysias in Against Aristodemos.
§ a118 Anaktes kai anassai (lords and ladies): Isokrates in Euagoras. The orator seems to mention a certain custom in Cyprus. Aristotle at any rate says in the Constitution of the Cypriots, "The sons and brothers of the king are called 'lords' (anaktes) and the sisters and wives 'ladies' (anassai)." .
§ a119 Anaxagoras: A sophist, son of Hegesiboulos, from Klazomene, student of Anaximenes of Miletos. He used to be nicknamed 'Mind,' since he said that matter and mind are the guard of all things. This is the one who said that the sun is a fiery mass.
§ a121 Anapodizomena (being cross-examined): for 'being examined' or for 'the same things being said or done anew many times:' Antiphon, On Truth book 1.
§ a127 Andera (banks): Hypereides in Against Konon. They call the edges of rivers 'banks' on account of the fact that they are always wet and dank. But others call dikes 'banks' on account of the fact that they are above (ano) and atop the wet (diera) parts — Hypereides among them.
§ a128 Andokidou Hermes (Andokides' Herm): Aischines in Against Timarchos: "then, that the so-called 'Herm of Andokides' was not Andokides' but that it was a dedication of the tribe Aigeis." And Andokides himself in On The Mysteries has said that the dedication belonged to the tribe Aigeis, so that Douris is mistaken in saying that it was Andokides'.
§ a132 Androlepsia (seizure of men): To capture men from a city. They used to seize pledges from the city that held a murderer and did not hand him over for punishment. Demosthenes, Against Aristokrates. And he also says the neuter 'androlepsion' in this work.
§ a134 Anelousa gar ton nomom: For having overturned the law, it elected him for itself: Demosthenes in Against Androtion says (this); but since it is unclear and defective, different people interpret different ways. In the Attic (Mss?) the phrase appeared two ways, the one thus: "for having overturned this law, it elected her," meaning 'for having transgressed this law, it granted a vote concerning it(self), as to whether it should crown it(self);' and the other: "for having overturned this law, it elected that man, taking him for itself." .
§ a136 Anepopteutos: Hypereides in For Phryne. One who has not become an epoptes (viewer). What it is 'to have become an epoptes' Philochoros shows in book ten: "This man wrongs all of the sacred things, both the mystika and the epoptika," and again, "Thus, it was a peculiar thing for Demetrios, compared to the others, that he alone was both initiated and at the same time became an epoptes and that the ancestral times of the initiation were moved (for him).
§ a137 Aneskeuasanto (they dismantled themselves): what is called 'being wrecked in one's life,' that is, to come undone and as it were give up.
§ a138 Aneton (set free): for 'sacred' and 'devoted' to a god: Hyperides in Deliakos.
§ a140 Anekei (reaches): in Antiphon, On Truth book 1, for simple 'has come,' or else for example, 'went up' and 'has come forward.' .
§ a142 Anthemokritos: Isaios in Against Kalydon refers to "the bath that is near Anthemokritos' statue," that is to say near the Thriasian Gate. This man was a herald of the Athenians, but he was slain by the Megarians for forbidding them from working the sacred land of the two goddesses.
§ a149 Antepitithesin (gives in return): for 'writes in response'; Isaios in Against Kallippides.
§ a153 Antigrapheus: the one who is appointed in charge of those paying certain funds to the state, so that these are copied (or checked?): Demosthenes in Against Androtion and Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. There was a pair of copiests (checkers?), one for the financial administration as Philochoros says, and the other for the boule as Aristotle (says) in the Constitution of the Athenians.
§ a154 Antigraphe: in a special sense in settlements of inheritances it is called an 'antigraphe' whenever one claims, on grounds that the decedent is childless, that the estate belongs to oneself by family relation or gift. But in general, in public suits and private, the litigants' documents, which they submitted concerning the matter, both those of the prosecutor and those of the defendant, (are called) an antigraphe — and the witness testimonies. Demosthenes, Against Stephanos, and Hypereides. Plato in the Apology of Socrates calls the same thing 'antomosia' (affidavit) and 'antigraphe.' .
§ a155 Antithesis: Isokrates in Panathenaikos. Antithesis is a figure of speech in which opposites oppose one another, either by part or on the whole — by part, as Demosthenes (says) in For Ktesiphon: "You used to teach letters, but I went to school," and so forth; on the whole, everything relating to everything, as the same Demosthenes, in Against Meidias, (says) from "he anyway (was struck) by a friend" up to "(it was necessary) to enter because I was choregos." The same figure is also called "antitheton", as Aischines (says) in the defense On the Embassy.
§ a156 Antikyra: Lysias in Against Medon. Perhaps it is a nickname. Antiphanes in On Prostitutes says, "They called (her) Antikyra because she used to drink with men who were wild and crazy. Others (say it was) because Nikostratos the doctor left her much hellebore when he died.
§ a157 Antiochis: name of a tribe.
§ a162 Antomosia (affidavit): after writing certain documents, concerning whatever the suit is for, both accusers and accused bring them before the magistrate. So it is called when the prosecutors and defendants used to swear, the former that they would accuse truthfully and the latter that they would defend themselves truthfully.
§ a163 Anorthiazon (they were shouting aloud): Andokides. For 'they were speaking, shouting shrilly.' Homer: "Standing there, the goddess issued a great and terrible cry, shrilly, to the Achaeans, and into each man's heart she put great strength to wage war and to battle unceasingly." .
§ a166 Axoni (on the axle): the laws of Solon were written on wooden (tablets rotating on) axles. Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates: "as has been said on the axle." They were, as Polemon says in Against Eratosthenes, four-sided in shape and they are kept in the prytaneion, written on all their parts. Sometimes they create a three-sided appearance, whenever they incline to the narrow point of the angle.
§ a167 Aopta: for 'unseen' and 'not seen, but having seemed to be seen': Antiphon, On Truth book 1.
§ a168 Apage (arrest!): For 'use apagoge' (arrest). Apagoge is a type of action: Demosthenes in Against Konon. The word has derived from 'carrying off' and 'being carried off' as applied to wrong-doers. And they used to be carried off to the Eleven.
§ a169 Apagoreuein (to bid farewell to, give up doing): for 'to be distressed' or 'to be unable': Lysias in Erotikos.
§ a170 Apathe (without suffering, feeling, sense, emotion): for 'those experiences that did not truly happen': Antiphon, On Truth book 1.
§ a173 Apatouria: Demosthenes in Against Boiotos. It is a festival among Athenians, which they celebrate in Pyanepsion over four days, as say those who have written on festivals. Many have told whence it got its name, including Ephoros in book two: namely on account of the treachery (apate) concerning the boundaries (horia), because when Athenians were waging war against Boiotians over the region called Melania, Melanthos, the king of the Athenians, slew Xanthos, the king of the Thebans, fighting in single combat, having deceived him.
§ a176 Apeschoinismenos (having been roped off): Demosthenes in Against Aristogeiton 1 for 'having been closed off.' For whenever the council roped itself around, as he says, then everyone else was 'roped off.' .
§ a177 Apeloemenos (having been threshed): That which has been collected from the threshing floor after having been threshed, i.e. trod upon: Demosthenes in Against Phainippos.
§ a179 Apillein (to bar): Lysias in Against Theomnestos, if it is genuine, "it is considered (to mean) 'to exclude.'" .
§ a180 Apistein: for 'disobey:' Antiphon, Against Laispodios, Isokrates in the Letter to Philip. They also call disobedience 'apistia,' as (does) Demosthenes in the ninth of the Philippics, and many others.
§ a182 Apobates and apobainein and apobatic wheels: Deinarchos, Against Phormisios and in the Defense against Antiphanes, Lykourgos in the Defence Against Demades. The apobates is an equestrian competition, and apobainein is to compete in the apobates, and apobatic wheels are from this competition. What happened in it is explained by Theophrastos in the 20th book of the Laws. The only Greeks who practised it, he says, were the Athenians and Boiotians.
§ a183 Apographe (declaration): Whenever one says that someone has something that belongs to the city, the accuser makes a declaration, showing whence the person has the property and how much it is. Perhaps the apographe is also a type of action. For if one should deny that one has (the property), then a suit was brought for apographe on grounds that the apographe had not been done correctly. Demosthenes, Against Androtion. What the risk was for the one making the apographe, becomes clear in Demosthenes' Against Nikostratos on the slaves of Arethousios, if it is genuine.
§ a184 Apodektai: the receivers are an office among Athenians, which the orators and the comic poets mention many times. Aristotle, in the Constitution of the Athenians, has shown that there were ten, and that having received the records (of debt), they erase money paid in the presence of the council in the bouleuterion and return the records back to the public secretary. And he clarifies simply what they do. That the receivers were appointed by Kleisthenes in place of the kolakretai Androtion book 2 (shows).
§ a186 Apoikia (colony): in a special sense, the documents according to which people emigrate some named thus. Hypereides in Deliakos.
§ a190 Apolachein (to obtaining a portion of a thing by lot): for simply 'to obtain by lot:' Antiphon in Against Philinos, Lysias in Against Poseidippos. Aristophanes in Tagenistai: "of which your brother at any rate did not obtain a portion." .
§ a191 Apoleloipotes (having left behind): for 'having won.' The metaphor is from runners. For those who win leave behind those who are beaten. Isokrates in Panathenaikos and Panegyrikos.
§ a193 Apomatton (wiping off): Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. Some understand it plainly for 'wiping away' and 'cleaning oneself,' but others more elaborately, as 'plastering clay and bran on those being initiated,' as we say 'to wipe the statue with clay': for they used to anoint with clay and bran the initiates, imitating the stories told in myths according to some, that the Titans hurt Dionysus by plastering themselves with gypsum to avoid being recognized. (They say) that then this custom has ceased, but that later people smeared themselves with mud for tradition's sake. Sophocles in Aichmalotides: "purifier of the army and experienced in rites of cleaning" and again: "and most skilled wiper-off of great misfortunes." .
§ a194 Apollo patroios ho Pythios (Ancestral Apollo Pythios): is an appellation of the god, one of many others that also exist. Athenians commonly honor Apollo as Patroios after Ion. For when he settled Attica, as Aristotle says, the Athenians were called Ionians and Apollo was named 'patroios' by them.
§ a196 Apo misthomaton (from rents): Didymos the Grammarian says this for 'from the sanctuaries' income.' For to each god, they used to apportion measures of land, from which, when it was let, the expenditures for the sacrifices used to come. For they did not used to sacrifice the victims out of piety, but as contractors.
§ a197 Aponome (distribution): apportionment, as when the city takes a share of the returns from the mines, or as when people divide up contractors into many so that each receives a share: Deinarchos in Against the Children of Lykourgos, many times.
§ a198 Apopephasmenon (having been declared): for 'having been displayed' and 'having been made clear.' So Deinarchos and Lysias and Demosthenes, Against Neaira: "they sell themselves clearly" for 'openly.' .
§ a202 Aporotatos: for 'one to whom it is impossible to find access.' Isaios in his For Mnesaios' Daughter.
§ a204 Apostasiou (for departure): There is an action granted against freedmen to those who freed them, if they depart from them or register another as prostates (protector), and if they do not do what the laws bid; and those who are convicted must become slaves, while those who win (the case) shall be finally free thenceforth. It appears many times in the orators, in Lysias in Against Aristodemos and in Hyperides in Against Demetrias for Apostasiou. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians, concerning the polemarch writes this: "he introduces cases for apostasiou and aprostasiou and for inheritances and epikleroi." .
§ a206 Apostoleis (dispatchers): those appointed in charge of sending forth the triremes. Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon, and Philochoros in book 7. And dispatches (apostoloi) are the sending forth of the ships: the same orator in the first of the Philippics.
§ a207 Apostrophen: for 'refuge,' Demosthenes in the Philippics.
§ a209 Apotimetai kai apotimema kai apotiman kai ta ap' auton (evaluators and evaluated security and to evaluate and things derived therefrom): Those who lease the houses of orphans from the archon used to furnish securities for the lease, and it was necessary for the archon to send out individuals to evaluate the securities. Thus, the securities evaluated used to be called 'evaluated securities' (apotimemata), and those sent to evaluate (were called) 'evaluators' (apotimetai), and the action (was called) 'to evaluate' (apotiman). People then were also accustomed, if her relatives should give a dowry to a woman when she was getting married, to request from her husband some security, as it were, worth the sum of the dowry, such as a house or land. The one who gave the 'evaluated security' was said, in the active voice, 'to give an evaluated security' (apotiman), and the one who received it (was said) 'to have an evaluated security given to him.' The same principle applies also to other debts: Demosthenes in the second speech Against Onetor and Lysias in Against Diogenes on the lease of a house, if it is genuine.
§ a211 Apoteichisai: to cut off with a wall and shut out from exit. One who has been cut off and shut out by a wall is 'walled off.' Antiphon in the defense against the public charge of Demosthenes, and Thucydides.
§ a213 Apophasis: to declare in writing, part by part, how much property one has, which happens especially in antidosis proceedings. Demosthenes in Against Phainippos many times. Once only he called the same thing 'apographe' (declaration).
§ a214 Apophoran (removal): For 'take away and make a space between:' Isaios in Against the Orgeones, in which he says thus, "if in fact they determined with these removals of boundary stones that the land is another's." .
§ a215 Apopsephisontai: for 'they condemn him to not be a citizen': Deinarchos in Against Archestratos. And Demosthenes calls the act 'apopsephisis' (disfranchisement) in the appeal Against Euboulides.
§ a216 Aprobouleuton: a decree that is not first brought to the Council but is introduced directly to the people. In Against Androtion a law is mentioned that shows this.
§ a218 Aprostasiou (lack of prostates): a type of action against metics who do not have a prostates. For each used to select for himself someone from among the citizens to serve as prostates concerning all private and public matters. Hypereides in the second speech Against Aristagora for aprostasiou.
§ a219 Aproton: Deinarchos in Against Pytheas: "when the orators jumped like aprotoi into the port." Perhaps a scribal error, and one must write "like pirates." And in some (copies) it has been written "like parnopes." But parnopes are a type of locust.
§ a221 Argas: Aischines On Restitution. It is more plausible to say that Dorians, particularly Argives, used to call a snake "argas", as Achaios does in Adrastos. But Timachidas the Rhodian says that a snake was not called "argas" in their tongue, but that it was a kind of snake. It is likely, then, that Demosthenes was called a snake on account of his savagery since he sued his guardians over their guardianship. The same man also likens these sorts of people to snakes in Against Aristogeiton. In the Attic authors, however, it had been written as "harpax." But some say that "argas" used to be an epithet for a snake.
§ a223 Argyriotheke (money chest): Deinarchos in Against Proxenos for damages. There were two kinds of grammateidia which the Athenians used, some for writing something in them only, others also for depositing money, which they also used to call chests, and the others also (they used to call) diptychs.
§ a224 Arguritis ge kai chrysitis: land which yields gold and silver when worked.
§ a227 Argyroupous diphros (silver-footed stool): the one belonging to Xerxes, which was called 'prisoner,' upon which he sat and observed the naval battle. This was set up in the Parthenon of Athena.
§ a230 Ardettos: Lysias in Against Elpine. A place at Athens above the Panathenaic stadium, by the deme of Agryle Hypenerthen. In this (place), they say, all Athenians used to swear publicly the heliastic oath. It was named after the ancient hero Ardettos, who first administered the oath to the Athenians. Theophrastos in his books On Laws shows that this custom had been dissolved.
§ a232 Arthmios: Proper name, a slave of a certain king.
§ a233 Aristeus: This is also a proper name.
§ a234 Aristylla: She was a sister of Aristogeiton.
§ a235 Aristion: Hypereides, Against Demosthenes. This man is a Samian or a Plataian, as Diyllos says, and, from the age of a young man, a companion of Demosthenes, and he was sent by him to Hephaistion for sake of reconciliation, as Marsyas says in book five of On Alexander.
§ a236 Arkteusai (to be a bear): Lysias in For Phrynichos' Daughter, if it is genuine; the consecration of girls, before marriage, to Artemis Mounychia or Brauronia. Things that point toward the preceding have been said by others and by Krateros in the Psephismata (Decrees). That maidens who play bear are called 'arktoi' (bears), Euripides, in Hypsipyle, and Aristophanes, in the Lemnian Women and Lysistrata, (show).
§ a238 Arkyoros (netwatcher): Lykourgos in the impeachment against Menesaichmos. The one keeping watch on the nets, that is, the cords. All the cords related to hunting are 'nets' (arkys). Xenophon in On Hunting, Kratinos in Thracian Women.
§ a240 Arrephorein: Deinarchos, Against Pytheas. Four arrephoroi used to be elected, according to good birth, and two were selected who began weaving the peplos and the other things concerning it. And they used to wear white clothing. And if they put on gold things, these became sacred.
§ a241 Artemisia: Demosthenes on the Freedom of the Rhodians. There were two of these women, Carian by descent and both queens. The first was in the Persian Wars, and was the daughter of Lygdamis, whom Herodotus also mentions. The younger one, whom Demosthenes mentions, was the daughter of Hekatomnos and the wife and sister of Mausolos, whom Theopompos says died having been taken by a wasting sickness owing to grief for her dead brother and husband Mausolos.
§ a245 Archaios (archaically): Isokrates in the Panegyrikos: "to relate ancient matters in a newfangled way and to speak about recent events archaically." Some say that it means 'in an old-fashioned way,' that is, to use rather old-fashioned words. Ephoros in the first book of Histories explained in a way. He says that recent authors talk about ancient events in detail. "For where it concerns events that have happened in our time," he says, "we consider those who speak most accurately most trustworthy, but where it concerns ancient affairs we think those who discourse this way most unworthy of trust, because we suspect that it is likely that neither all of the events nor the majority of the speeches are remembered to so great an extent." Demosthenes in the Philippics says "they were so old-fashioned, or rather civic-minded" for 'simple'.
§ a246 Arche andra deiknusi (office reveals a man): Demosthenes in Rhetorical Preludes. Sophokles then, in the elegiacs, says that this is a saying of Solon, and Theophrastos, in On Proverbs, and Aristotle (say that it is a saying) of Bias.
§ a247 Archen iasthai poly loion e teleuten (much better to heal a beginning than an end): Another proverb. And it shows that it is necessary rather to attempt to prevent terrible things when they are starting then when they are at their peak or completed.
§ a248 Archidameios polemos (Archidamian war): Lysias in Against Androtion and Deinarchos, Against Pytheas for xenia. The first ten years of the Peloponnesian War were called the Archidameian War, as it seems, after Archidamos' invasion of Attika, as Thucydides and Ephoros and Anaximenes say.
§ a249 Asemanta (unmarked): What are called by us 'unsealed.' For they used to call seals 'marks' (semeia): Hyperides in Against Antias.
§ a250 Aspasia: Lysias in the speech against Aischines the Socratic, whose dialogue was titled Aspasia. And also mentioning her many times are the other Socratics as well, and Plato in the Menexenos says that Sokrates learned politics from her. She was by descent Milesian and skilled at speaking. They say that she was both teacher and, at the same time, a beloved of Perikles. She seems to have been the cause of two wars, the Samian and the Peloponnesian, as it is possible to learn from Douris of Samos and Theophrastos, from the fourth book of Politika, and from Aristophanes' Acharnians. Perikles seems also to have had from her his homonymous bastard son, Perikles, as Eupolis indicates in Demes. After she married the demagogue Lysikles, she had Poristes, as the Socratic Aischines says.
§ a251 Astathmetotaton: concerning which no one could conjecture or estimate what at some point one has in mind or what one will do: Demosthenes in On the False Embassy.
§ a252 Astikton chorion: that which was not hypothecated to a lender; for whenever it is hypothecated, the lender was accustomed to show this through documents that lay upon the site. The same thing also happens in the case of a dwelling. Lysias in the Against Aischines the Socratic.
§ a254 Astynomos: Demosthenes Against Timokrates. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says that the astynomoi were ten, five in Peiraieus, five in the city. He says that they took care concerning flute-girls and female harpists and dung collectors and such.
§ a255 Asynthetotaton (most unbound by covenant): Demosthenes in On the False Embassy applied the word to a mob, or for 'most untrustworthy' and 'most unreliable' and 'not making guarantees owing to unreliability', or 'not agreeing' and 'discordant.' For compacts are agreements. Or for 'most unintelligent,' that is 'most senseless. Or for one whom a person just could not comprehend what in the world he has in mind: Homer: "And you, take heed and listen to me." .
§ a257 Atechnos: pronounced with a circumflex on the last syllable for "clearly" or "certainly" or "surely" or "evidently", and with an acute accent on the second to last syllable for "carelessly" and "without skill." .
§ a258 Atimetos agon kai timetos (suit without assessed penalty and with assessed penalty): A suit with assessed penalty is one for which a penalty does not lie defined in accordance with the laws, but it was necessary for the jurors to assess what (a convicted defendant) must suffer or pay. The suit without assessed penalty, by contrast, is one to which a penalty defined in accordance with the laws attached, so that the jurors were not required to choose an assessment. Aischines, Against Kteiphon; Demosthenes, Against Meidias.
§ a259 Atimos (disfranchised/outlaw): Demosthenes applied this word in a special sense in the Philippics, that is to say, whomever one is not subject to penalty for having killed. For, talking about Arthmios, he says that the Athenians decreed that he was hostile and an enemy of the people of Athens and its allies, both himself and his kin, and that he be 'atimos.' Next, he adduces it, as if explaining: "But this is not what a person would so call 'atimia' (disfranchisement). For what was it to the man from Zeleia if he was to have no share in the common matters of the Athenians? But it has been written in the homicide laws, concerning whatever (the law/lawmaker) does not permit prosecution for homicide: 'and as an outlaw' (atimos), it says, 'let him be killed.' This in fact means that he who has killed any such man is to be free from pollution." .
§ a260 Atta: for 'as many' or 'whichever,' Antiphon in On the Lindians' Tribute; and for 'some' or 'some sort,' Demosthenes in the Philippics. But in some cases atta is redundant. ["Inquire when the swallow appears."] .
§ a262 Attikois grammasin (in Attic letters): Demosthenes, Against Neaira, for 'in ancient (letters).' For the alphabet of 24 letters was at some late date discovered among the Ionians. Theopompos in the 25th book of the Philippika says that the treaty with the barbarian was fabricated, which (he says) was inscribed on a stele not in Attic letters, but in those of the Ionians.
§ a263 Authentes ('perpetrator'): Lysias in For Erathosthenes. In Against Isodomos he applied it in a special sense to the Thirty, who effected their homicides through others. For 'perpetrator' always indicates the one who acts with his own hand.
§ a264 Auleios: the house-door that is first from the road, as Menander shows.
§ a266 Aulizomenoi: for 'going to bed,' Antiphon in On Concord.
§ a267 Autodikein: for 'determining what is just for oneselves,' Deinarchos in Against Kleomedon.
§ a270 Autolekythoi: Demosthenes in Against Konon. Either for 'certain men being girt up and ready to do and to endure whatever,' or for 'poor and possessing nothing besides lekythoi,' or 'laborers,' or for 'those ready for blows and as it were striking and whipping and doing violence.' Or it could mean those giving money readily and ready for intercourse. For they also used to keep money in their lekythoi. The word is also in Menander in Heniochos and Daktylios. That they used to keep money in lekythoi sometimes, Diphilos (shows) in Apobates. And that having broken the lekythos they used to use the thong for whipping, Menander (shows) in his Trophonios.
§ a271 Autolykos: There is a speech of Lykourgos Against Autolykos the Areopagite. He was convicted of having removed his family to safety during the Chaironea events, and the jurors convicted him, as the same orator shows in Against Leokrates.
§ a272 Automachein (to fight/plead for oneself): To go to court by oneself but not (assisted) by another, such as if one refers to a seller, one declares that the suit is against him; and if one furnishes a man who affirms by diamartyria that the suit is inadmissible, then he himself no longer contests, but the contest is with the one who affirmed by diamartyria. Lysias in Against Eukles for ejectment from property.
§ a273 Autochthones ('native'): The Athenians. Demosthenes in On the False Embassy: "You alone of all are autochthonous." Apollodoros in On Gods says that they were called autochthonous, since they were the first to work the land (chthon), that is, the earth, when it was idle. Others (say) that it was because they were not immigrants. Pindar and the author of the Danais say that Erichthonios and Hephaistos appeared out of the earth. The Arcadians were also autochthonous, as Hellanikos says, and the Aiginetans and Thebans.
§ a276 Aphanes ousia kai phanera (invisible and visible wealth): The invisible kind is in money and slaves and equipment, but the visible kind is in land: Lysias in Against Hippotherses.
§ a277 Apheis kai apallaxas (having released and discharged): "Released" whenever one lets another off from the charges which he was bringing against him, but "discharged" whenever one persuades the one making the charge to withdraw and charge him no longer: Demosthenes in the counter-suit For Phormio. It is also possible to put it this way: that one releases (a person) only from the things that one charges, while one discharges, whenever one reserves for oneself no further argument against the one charged. Demosthenes in the countersuit For Phormio: "in order that he may have from you a valid discharge." .
§ a278 Apheis ten hyperan ton poda diokei (letting go of the brace he chases the sheets): Hyperides in On the Salt Fish (I). A proverb applying to those who let go of the more important things and waste time on the trivial things. Braces are ships' ropes, with which the boom is shifted.
§ a279 Aph' Hestias myeisthai (to be initiated from the Hearth/Hestia): Isaios in Against Kalydon. A man 'initiated from the Hearth' was an Athenian in any case. And having obtained this by lot, he was initiated.
§ a280 Aphorme (beginning): Whenever one gives money on deposit, it is called 'starting capital,' in a special sense among the Attic orators.
§ a281 Aphosio (I dedicate): for 'I purify,' 'I consecrate:' Aischines, Against Ktesiphon. Isaios said, in Against Hermon, that to do something not perfectly but, as it were, for form's sake, was to 'do it perfunctorily.' .
§ a284 Axaristein: for 'not showing gratitude.' So Antiphon.
§ b1 Balbisin (at the starting lines): Antiphon, On Concord, for 'at the beginnings.' Said after (i.e. taken from) runners. For the line that is under the hysplex (starting gate) — on account of the fact that the runners set foot upon it — is called the balbis.
§ b2 Barathron (pit): A ditch into which they used to cast those who were condemned to death. Demosthenes in the Philippics says this not properly, but by way of metaphor, as if to say, 'in a state of ruin.' .
§ b3 Basanos (touchstone / torture): Antiphon. So called is the stone on which gold is tested by being rubbed against it. Hypereides in Against Antias called things that were said during torture by those being tortured, and copied down, basanoi (testimony under torture).
§ b5 Basileos stoa (Royal Stoa): Demosthenes in Against Aristogeiton I. There are two stoas beside each other, that of Zeus Eleutherios and the Royal. There is also a third, previously called Peisianax's Stoa, but renamed the Stoa Poikile.
§ b6 Baskainei (maligns): for 'accuses' and 'blames' and 'accuses maliciously:' Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. And in this passage, "no administrative measure of mine is slanderous and bitter and wicked;" for 'accusation-loving' and 'malicious.' .
§ b9 Baubo: a woman's name.
§ b10 Bebaioseos (for warranty): Is a name for an action that those who have purchased something bring against him who has sold it, if a third party has a dispute over the item sold, and the latter (i.e. the seller) does not warrant it. And sometimes, also when earnest money alone has been given and the one who has sold disputed (the transaction), then the one who gave the earnest money used to bring the action for warranty against the one who received it. Lysias in two speeches.
§ b12 Biaion (for violence): Name of an action against those who do something by force. The one who is convicted pays a fine to the treasury equal to the amount [that he pays] to the victor. Demosthenes, Against Meidias. There are also speeches for violence circulating in the Lysiac corpus. And it is clear that neither the word nor the action was used only in the case of the corruption of virgins, but also for other (wrongs).
§ b13 Blimazein (to squeeze): to press with the hands. Also to press honeycombs is called 'blisai' (to take honey).
§ b14 Boedromia: Demosthenes in the Philippics. A festival so called at Athens, which Philochoros in book two says was celebrated since Ion son of Xouthos, with great zeal, helped Athenians when war was waged against them by Eumolpos son of Poseidon, when Erechtheus was king. For to 'bring help' (boethein) was called 'boedromein' (hasten to help), that is, to rush into battle.
§ b16 Boleones (dung heaps): The place where dung is cast is called a boleon (dung heap). Nikandros in book 3 of Attic Dialect (applies) "'dung heaps' to the fields, into which the dung is carried." So Deinarchos and Philemon and others.
§ b20 Bouleuseos: The name of a charge applied to two circumstances. The one is whenever someone by plot arranges death for someone else, whether the person plotted against dies or not, and the other whenever someone, being registered as indebted to the public treasury, sues someone on the grounds that he has registered him unlawfully. For the former, then, Isaios is a witness, in the speech Against Eukleides, when he says that the trials occurred in the Palladion, but Deinarchos in Against Pistias (says that they trials occurred) on the Areopagos. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians agrees with Isaios. About the other charge: Demosthenes in the first speech Against Aristogeiton. But Hyperides in the first speech against Athenogenes, has used the word in a special sense applying to a trap and deception in regard to money.
§ b24 Boucheta: Demosthenes in the seventh of the Philippics. It is a city of Epeiros, said in the neuter plural, which Philostephanos in Epeirotika says was named on account of the fact that Themis came there riding on an ox, during the flood of Deukalion.
§ b25 Boones: Demosthenes in the Against Meidios says the Boones was distinguished and the greatest offices were conferred on him.
§ b27 Bomolocheuesthai: Those called 'bomolochoi' (altar-ambushers) are principally the ones who sit under the altar at sacrifices and beg with flattery, but also the flautists and seers employed at sacrifices. Pherekrates in Tyranny: "And then, in order that we, since we are always lurking next to the altars on all sides, not be called bomolochoi, Zeus made a very great smoke-hole." By way of metaphor from these, certain people, easily satisfied and lowly and submitting to anything whatsoever with a view to profit through jesting and mocking, used to be called 'bomolochoi.' Aristophanes in Gerytades: "You jest and you mock us and you altar-ambush." .
§ g1 Galepsos: Antiphon, Against Laispodios. A Thracian city, as the writers of itineraries say. It was named after Galepsos of Thasos and Telephe, as Marsyas the Younger says in the fifth book of the Makedonika.
§ g2 Gamelia: Demosthenes in the Appeal against Euboulides, and Isaios. Didymos the grammarian in his commentary on Isaios says that the gamelia was given to phratores at weddings, citing a speech of Panodemos in which nothing of the sort is written. In his Commentaries on Demosthenes, the same scholar says instead that gamelia is the introduction of women to the phratores, citing no evidence for this explanation.
§ g4 Geisipous kai geisipodisma kai geisipodizein: The projecting part of the beam on which the cornice (geison) is, is called a 'cornice foot' (geisipous) and 'cornice footing' (geisipodisma), and to make this is 'to make a cornice foot' (geisipodizein): Isaios in Against the Orgeones.
§ g5 Gennetai: Those who share the same clan. For when all the citizens were divided part by part, the first and greatest parts were called tribes, and each tribe was divided three ways, and each part of these was called a trittys and and a phratry. And in turn each of the phratries was divided into 30 clans, from which the priesthoods that belong to each were allotted. The word appears among many of the orators, for example Demosthenes in the Appeal Against Euboulides. Isaios in On the Estate of Apollodoros called clansmen 'kinsmen.' However, those who were kin simply and by blood were not called clansmen and from the same clan, but rather those who were originally distributed into the named clans. Philochoros in the fourth book says that those whom they now call gennetai were previously called homogalaktes (raised on the same milk).
§ g8 Gerra (screens): Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon: "they drove out those in the stalls throughout the agora and torched their gerra." Gerra are a kind of Persian military equipment, as Herodotos also says: but already, by misuse, also any covering, whether made of skin or from some other material, used to be called 'gerron.' Here at any rate Demosthenes says that the stalls' coverings and curtains were torched to prevent people gathering around the goods in the agora and holding discussions in the presence of any others. In Against Neaira, if it is genuine, he says thus: "And the law bids the prytaneis set up the voting urns and give the voting pebble to the people as they approach, before the aliens enter and they take down the gerra." So, either the same is in For Ktesiphon or some such must be understood, that the voting pebble was given by the prytaneis in the presence of the citizens in the assembly before the aliens entered and before the fences were taken down, that is before the assembly was opened up to any who wished to speak.
§ g10 Gepedon (plot of land): Deinarchos in Against Stephanos. The ground is 'gepedon,' just as also that which is composed of land and buildings is 'oikopedon' (house site). Plato anyway in book 5 of the Laws says, "house plots and land plots that he is allotted." .
§ g12 Glykera: a courtesan.
§ g15 Grammateus: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. How the grammateus was appointed and what he did, that he was in charge of the documents, looked after decrees that were passed, kept records of everything else and was based near the Boule, has been explained by Aristotle in the Athenian Constitution.
§ g17 Graphe: The word for a public suit. Not only whenever someone accuses a decree or law is he said to have a graphe paranomon (public suit for unlawful measure) rendered and filed, but also applying to many other wrongs, whenever one makes a charge either publicly or on grounds that it applies to the public itself. The word appears often in the orators. Demosthenes, Against Konon.
§ g18 Grypanion [wrinkled]: Antiphon, On Truth 2 "For it makes the ground burn and, as it melts together, grypanion [wrinkled]." and Melanthios in book 2 of the Attic history, talking about when an earthquake happened, says "and the ground egrypen [wrinkled]." Thus Dionysios son of Tryphon in On Names says "'grypainein' is 'to be made wrinkled', like the soft bark strips whenever we fold them and then release them." Perhaps then the authors indicate that some kind of foldedness happens to the ground during earthquakes.
§ g22 Gylon: a proper name.
§ g23 Goniasmos: Lysias in Against Lysitheos, "as one turns along the wall, council members, there is a corner on the left and quite a lot of wide open space." Also Aristophanes in the Frogs: "and introductions of fine rules and mitered edges of words." .
§ d1 Daidalos' creations.
§ d2 Daeira: a proper name.
§ d5 Dareikos (daric): Lysias in Against Eratosthenes, one of the Thirty. Darics are gold staters, and one was worth the same as what, among the Attic writers, is called the chrysous [gold coin]. They were called Darics not, as most think, after Dareios, the father of Xerxes, but after another more ancient king. Some say that the Daric is worth 20 silver drachmas, so that 5 Darics are worth a mina of silver.
§ d6 Dateisthai (to distribute): To apportion, and the distributors (datetai) are apportioners. "To a choice of distributors" is a kind of action. For whenever people shared with each other and some wished to divvy up the common goods but others did not, the willing used to sue the unwilling, summoning them "to a choice of distributors:" Lysias in Against Alexidemos, if it is genuine, and Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians.
§ d7 Datos: it is a city of Thrace, very fortunate. Thus, after this city a proverb is also said: "Datos of good things." About this city and the territory adjacent to it they have explained, sometimes saying neuter 'Daton' and sometimes feminine 'Datos,' as Ephoros always (does) in the fourth book. And once Theopompos (says) masculine 'Datos' in book 3 of the Philippika. The city of the Datenoi, however, had its name changed to Philippoi when Philip king of Macedon conquered it, as Ephoros says, and Philochoros in the fifth book.
§ d8 Deeseis [needs]: Instead of endeia [lack], Antiphon in Of Truth book one.
§ d9 Deigma (sample, display piece): Properly, the item that is displayed out of each of the things being sold. And furthermore a place in the emporion at Athens to which the samples used to be brought was so called. It was the Athenian habit to mark places themselves after the things in the place. Demosthenes in On the Expense of the Trierarchy and Lysias.
§ d10 Deipnophoros [dinner-bearer]: Hypereides in the Against Demeos. It is said that the deipnophoroi are recruited now, because the mothers of the confined children used to send food for them every day to the sanctuary of Athena, where they were staying, and they agreed [to be recruited] so that each could embrace her own.
§ d12 Deinoi [with skill]: instead of deinesei, Antiphon, Of Truth 2.
§ d13 Dekazon: Isokrates, On the Peace. What in the world this is, is clear to all. Eratosthenes in his books On Old Comedy shows whence the phenomenon came to be referred to, saying thus, "Lykos is a hero near the lawcourts in Athens, having the shape of an animal, in front of whom those who take bribes used to gather, arrayed in groups of ten, whence a 'company of Lykos' came to be referred to." Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says that Anytos introduced the bribing of the courts.
§ d14 Deka kai dekadouchos: Isokrates in the counter-suit Against Kallimachos: "for the Ten who were established after the Thirty were holding office." About the ten men who were elected at Athens after the dismantling of the Thirty and the events thereafter Androtion has spoken in the third book. Each of the officers, however, used to be called 'one of the ten' (dekadouchos), as Lysias makes clear in On the Estate of Diogenes.
§ d15 Dekadarchia [government of ten]: Isokrates. While the governments installed by the Lakedaimonians in the cities are constantly called dekadarchiai by historians, Isokrates is the one who more or less explained the name in his Panathenaicus; he says that Lakedaimonians made 10 men only masters of each city. But Philip never installed a dekadarchia for the Thessalians, as is written in the 6th Philippic of Demosthenes, but a tetrarchy.
§ d16 Dekateuein: Demosthenes, Against Androtion: "For not by tithing themselves" for 'exacting the tithe' and as it were 'plundering.' For things seized from their enemies they used to tithe to the gods. And since Demosthenes, in Against Medon, says about a young girl as follows, "not to tithe her nor initiate her," Didymos the grammatikos, having written a book about this, says that Lysias, in On the Daughter of Phrynichos, has said that to tithe is to serve as a bear. He says, however, that to dedicate was properly called 'to tithe,' since it was Greek custom to dedicate to the gods the tenths of the revenues. But perhaps the orator has said that serving as a bear is tithing since ten-year-old girls used to serve as bears.
§ d17 Dekateutas (tithe farmers): For 'tax-collectors who collect the tenth:' Antiphon in the defense against the public suit of Demosthenes. That the tenth was a custom duty Demosthenes has shown in On The Tax Immunities.
§ d19 Dekeleian: The Peloponnesian War, from the final part.
§ d20 Delphinion: a place in Chios, as Thucydides (shows) in the 8th book. There is another Delphinion at Athens, a sanctuary of Apollo, where there was also the 'lawcourt in Delphinion.' Demosthenes in Against Boiotos.
§ d22 Dermatikon: Lykourgos in the speech titled Defense of his Career in Politics. The orator would be calling the money generated from the skins that were sold 'dermatikon.' .
§ d23 Dermestes (hide-eating worm): Lysias in Against Eupeithes. Didymos explains that the worm is so called by Sophokles in Niobe, in book 7 of Words with Unclear Meaning, but Aristarchos, interpreting the Sophoclean passage interpreted it as "serpent." But perhaps a dermestes would rather be one that eats hides (dermata), as is indicated in the sixth book of Aristeides' Milesiaka.
§ d24 Deusopoios (dyed fast): Properly, the word is said applying to purple dye that keeps its brilliance permanent and indelible, but by metaphor 'dyed fast' is also said applying to all other things that keep their color permanent and long-lived, among the old writers, as also Plato makes clear in book 4 of the Republic. Diphilos in Foster Brothers: "There is a good dyer in the boy. For he has rendered for us completely fast-dyed swaddling clothes." .
§ d25 Demainetos: proper name.
§ d27 Demarchos: Lysias in Against Moschos. The demarch was a magistrate. They made registers of the properties in each deme. Furthermore, the lexiarchic register resided with them, and they gathered the demes (i.e. demesmen) whenever it was necessary, and they put proposals to a vote for them. Aristotle says in the Constitution of the Athenians that they were established by Kleisthenes, having the same charge as the naukraroi before them. Aristophanes in The Women Claiming Tent-Sites shows that the demarchs used to seize securities.
§ d28 Demokoinos: the public torturer. Isocrates more or less explained the word in his Trapezitikos.
§ d29 Demopoietos (citizen by adoption): One who is a foreigner by birth, but has been made a citizen by the demos. In what manner certain people become citizens by adoption Demosthenes has shown in Against Neaira, if genuine.
§ d33 Demophanes: proper name.
§ d34 Diagoreuon (stating explicitly): Isaios in Against Diokles in a special sense has used 'diagoreuon' for 'saying different things' and 'not the same things.' For among them, 'diagoreuein' is the opposite of 'synagoreuein' (to advocate / agree), just as 'sympheresthai' (to agree with) is of 'diapheresthai' (to differ from), and 'sympoliteuesthai' is of 'diapoliteuesthai' (to be a political rival), and 'symphonein' (to agree / be in harmony) is of 'diaphonein' (to be in discord).
§ d35 Diagramma (register): Hypereides in Against Epikles. That which is assessed in the symmories as to how much each man must contribute. The same was not assessed for all, but according to the valuation of his property. Concerning these things Hypereides has shown most clearly in Against Polyeuktos concerning a register. A diagrapheus moreover is the one appointed in the symmories to judge how much each man ought to contribute, as again the same makes obvious in Against Polyeuktos.
§ d36 Diagraphe (specification): The description of the mines for sale (lease), showing in writing from what beginning and up to what limit they are for sale (lease).
§ d37 Diagrapsasthai (to cross out): Lysias in Against Nikides, if it is genuine, for 'to remove the charge.' .
§ d38 Diadoseis (distributions): Grants that fall to one per equal division. Lysias.
§ d40 Diastasis (separation, ordering): Antiphon, On Truth book 2: "concerning the ordering that now prevails," for 'ordering of the universe.' .
§ d41 Diagrapsantos (crossing out/writing an order): Dinarchus in Against Lycurgus. Perhaps for 'depositing and paying.' But some use it for 'reckoning (i.e. paying) through a bank,' as we say in ordinary usage.
§ d42 Diathesis (disposition): For 'sale:' Isokrates in Bousiris. But for 'we have rendered' Antiphon said "we disposed" in Against the endeixis of Kallias, and for 'arrangement' the same author in On Concord (said), "but knowing the disposition they listen." Phrynichos in Tragoidoi says, "by the disposition of the words." For they say the word 'to dispose' for 'to arrange.' Antiphon in On Truth 1 (says), "stripped of a starting point, it would have disposed even many good things badly." 'Dispose' for 'compose:' Hypereides, Against Demosthenes.
§ d44 Dia mesou teichous (wall through the middle): Antiphon, Against Nikokles. Inasmuch as there are three walls in Attica, as also Aristophanes says in Triphales, the north and the south and the Phaleric, the south wall used to be called "through the middle" of those on each side, which Plato also mentions in the Gorgias.
§ d46 Diamemetremene hemera (measured out day): It is a certain measure of water flowing into an aperture measured at a day. It used to be measured in the month of Poseideon. By this (measure) indeed were held the greatest trials and those concerning the greatest matters. The water used to be measured in three parts, one for the prosecutor, one for the defendant, and the third for the jurors. The orators themselves have shown these things very clearly, for example Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians is instructive on these things. But one must also consider what appears in Isaios in Against Elpagoras and Demophanes, that in a measured out day, he says, sometimes the trials take place without water and sometimes (measured) against it.
§ d49 Diaseistous (shaken about): Aischines, Against Timarchos. They seem to have been named after being moved and shaken first, and then thrown, so that they may be rather uncorrupted. Menander, Poloumenoi.
§ d50 Diapsephisis (voting by ballot): It is said in a special sense, applying to the examinations in the demes, which are held concerning each of the men who are (or appear to be) demesmen, as to whether one in fact is a citizen and a demesman or has been illegally enrolled, being a foreigner: Aischines, Against Timarchos. Androtion in Atthis and Philochoros in book 6 of Atthis have discussed quite completely the diapsephiseis, how they occurred in the archonship of Archias.
§ d51 Diamartyria kai diamartyrein (testimony by affidavit and to affirm by affidavit): diamartyria was a manner of bringing a counter-suit. For before the case was brought to court, it was possible for anyone who wished to to affirm by diamartyria that the case was admissible or not admissible. It differs from the counter-suit in that the diamartyria is brought not only by the defendants but also by the prosecutors. And previously, at least, it used to be possible for the prosecutor to propose someone testifying that the case was admissible, and concerning this the judgment used to be made first toward him who testified, not toward him who first brought suit. But if the prosecutor should not propose a witness, then it was possible for the defendant to introduce someone testifying that the case was not admissible. And again the trial used to be held toward him who testified. They used to bring charges for false testimony by diamartyriai also, just as in testimonies: Lysias in the diamartyria Against Aristodemos, if the speech is genuine. Isaios in the (dike) apostasiou against Python says that it is not possible for aliens to testify by affidavit. Hypereides in the (graphe) aprostasiou Against Aristagora (II) says that the laws bid him who wishes to affirm by diamartyria in public actions for aprostasiou, just as against aliens and countrymen. Perhaps then aliens were barred from affirming by diamartyria in the private actions for apostasiou, but in the (public) actions for aprostasiou were not barred. Deinarchos, however, has applied 'diamartyresai' not to the man who offered the testimony himself, but to the man who furnished someone who gave the testimony in the diamartyria concerning Aristophon's daughter's not being subject to judicial decision. This orator in Against Hedyle also describes the custom of the diamartyria.
§ d52 Diaitetai (arbitrators): Demosthenes in Against Meidias. Arbitrators are different from jurors. For the latter used to sit in judgement in designated lawcourts and decide cases on appeal from the arbitrators. But the arbitrators — having been appointed by lot beforehand, or else after the disputants had entrusted (arbitration) to them — used to arbitrate the disputants. And if the opponents were satisfied, the action was done. If not, then after depositing in urns the plaints and the summonses and the testimonies and also still the laws and the other proofs of each party, and having sealed them, they would hand them over to the magistrates who introduce the suits. Aristotle in the Athenian Constitution speaks about them.
§ d53 Diastesai (to set apart, at variance): For 'throw into confusion' and in a way 'render powerless;' Antiphon in On The Revolution. Menander in The Widow: "Let him throw the city into confusion by shouting." .
§ d54 Didaskalos (teacher): In a special sense, they call the poets of dithyrambs or of comedies or of tragedies teachers. Antiphon in On the Choros Boy says, "I was assigned by lot Pantakles as didaskalos." For that Pantakles was a poet Aristotle has shown in the Didaskaliai. The word is common also in old comedy with this denotation.
§ d55 Diegguesin (giving security): for 'presentation of sureties:' Demosthenes, Against Timokrates. And in Against Neaira, if the speech is genuine, he says, "She, having been vouched for by Stephanos (as surety)." .
§ d56 Diekodonise (he sounded off): Demosthenes in On the Embassy, for 'he tried' and 'he tested.' The metaphor is either from those patrolling their posts at night, with trumpets, as Euripides (says) in Palamedes, or from those testing fighting quail with the sound of the trumpet, as Aristarchos (says).
§ d59 Dieskariphesametha (we sketched in outline): Isokrates in the Areopagitikos. To do something perfunctorily and not with the appropriate precision is to sketch in outline.
§ d61 Diellaxen (he [ex]changed): for 'he changed,' 'he died:' Lykourgos in On The Priestess.
§ d62 Dierxa (I held office to the end): for 'I held office through the end,' Lysias in the defense in the public suit against Mixidemos.
§ d64 Dikaiogenes: this man was a tragic poet. He also wrote dithyrambs.
§ d66 Dikaiosis (doing justice): Lysias in For the Soldier, if it is genuine, quite certainly says 'dikaioseis' for 'pleas of justification.' Thucydides, however, many times applies 'dikaiosis' to the punishment.
§ d68 Dioikiein (to cause to live apart): for 'to divide,' so that everyone does not live in the same place, but separately and part by part, Demosthenes in the fifth of the Philippics.
§ d69 Diopeuon (captaining): Demosthenes in Against Lakritos. The one who captains a ship and oversees the matters throughout the ship is called 'captain,' he who among us is called 'epiplous.' .
§ d71 Diophantus: proper name.
§ d74 Dokimastheis (having been examined): For 'enrolled among men,' Demosthenes in Against Onetor. 'To have been examined' is also said in the case of the magistrates, as the same orator shows in the appeal Against Euboulides. It also used to be said in the case of those exercising citizenship, even if they were not holding any magistracy at all. For their life used to be examined sometimes, as Aischines says in Against Timarchos. And Lykourgos says in On The Administration, "Three examinations occur according to the law, one under which the nine archons are examined, another under which the orators (are), and a third under which the generals (are)." Moreover, he mentions in the same speech also an examination of cavalry.
§ d76 Dosis (giving/gift): In the orators, a written contract is called (this) in a special sense, whenever someone gives his property to someone via the magistrates, as in Deinarchos.
§ d77 Drakontides: one of the Thirty: Hypereides.
§ d79 Droggilon: A Thracian place: Demosthenes, in the Philippics.
§ d80 Dromokerykes (runners): Aischines. The so-called 'hemerodromoi' (day-runners).
§ d84 Dysaules: Deinarchos in the priestess's diadikasia, if it is genuine. Asklepiades in book four of Tragoidoumena says that Dysaules is autochthonous, and that having married Baubo, he had children, Protonoe and Nisa. Palaiphatos in book nine of Troika says that with his wife he entertained Demeter.
§ d86 Dorieus: Name of a pankratiast.
§ d87 Doroxenia (bribery by a foreigner): Lysias in Against Nikidas. Hyperides explains the word in Against Aristagora, writing thus: "And yet the law concerning bribery by foreigners is fitting to be introduced in the current trial. For if it has stated that even against those who have been acquitted on charges of xenia, it shall be possible for him who wishes to bring a charge (graphe) again, if they think that the prior acquittal unjustly done, how is the right action against Aristagora not obvious?!" And Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians, in talking about the thesmothetai, writes this: "Also before them are public actions (graphai), for which there is a court fee, for xenia and doroxenia, if someone escapes charges of xenia [Keaney: ξενίαν, καὶ συκοφαντίας] by giving bribes." .
§ d88 Doron graphe (public action for bribes): Whenever some one of those who are politically active is accused of taking bribes, the charge against him was called in two different ways, both 'bribe taking' and 'public action for bribes.' Deinarchos therefore titled a certain speech Against Polyeuktes for Bribe Taking, but in Against Pythias for Xenia he often names the public action for bribes.
§ e1 Ean tis grapsamenos: If after having brought a public action one does not obtain the fifth part of the votes he owes 1000 drachmas and a deprivation of civic rights (atimia) applies. Lysias in For the Law Against the Orators. Theophrastos has also discussed these things in On the Laws.
§ e2 Hebdomeuomenou (receiving a name on the seventh day): Lysias in Against Eteokles concerning money, if it is genuine. They used to celebrate the seventh or tenth days for newborn children, and used to give them names at least, some on the seventh, as the orator also says, but others on the tenth. Arisotle in book nine of the On the History of Animals writes this: "most perish before the seventh day, wherefore they also give names then, on grounds that they trust in their safety thenceforth.
§ e3 Eggyetheke: A certain speech is held to be Lysias', entitled On the Eggyetheke. That would be an implement, convenient for setting mixing-bowls, or kettles, or something not unlike these, upon, as Kallixenos indicates in book four of On Alexandria, and Daimachos of Plataia in book two of On India.
§ e4 Hedoliasai (to furnish with seats/decking): Lykourgos in the work titled Defense of His Career in Politics, applying to sitting together. And the seats on ships are 'hedolia' (benches): Herodotos book one.
§ e5 Ethnos: Not only great and populous race, but also in a special sense, a part of the city. Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates: "If someone should ask you what you think is the most grievous of all ethne ('classes') in the city, you would not say it was the farmers, nor the merchants, nor those from the silver mines, nor any such." And in the ninth Philippic he says, "But how is Thessaly? Has he not taken their cities and constitutions, and established tetrarchies among them, so that they are slaves not only city by city but even tribe by tribe." .
§ e6 Heiloteuein (to be a helot): to be a slave, Isokrates in the Panegyrikos. For those who were slaves of the Lakedaimonians, not by birth, but because they were the first conquered among those living in the city Helos, were helots, as Hellanikos in book one and many others attest.
§ e7 Eisaggelia (impeachment): is a name of a public suit, and there are three types of impeachments. One is for public wrongs that are very great and do not admit delay, and for which no magistrate is established (as having jurisdiction) nor laws in effect for the magistrates according to which to introduce (the suit), but rather the initial presentation takes place before the council or the people, under who also great penalties are laid upon the defendant, if he is convicted, but the prosecutor, if he does not convict, is penalized nothing, except if he does not capture the fifth part of the votes; for then he pays 1000 drachmas. But long ago, these men too used to receive greater punishment. Another impeachment is mentioned applying to abuses. These are (brought) before the archon, and without risk of penalty against the prosecutor, even if he does not capture the fifth of the votes. And there is another impeachment against the arbitrators. For if someone should be wronged by an arbitrator, it was possible (for him) to impeach this man before the jurors, and if convicted he used to be disfranchised. Isaios, however, (in) On The Estate of Hagnias, called the same action 'eisaggelia' and 'graphe.' .
§ e8 Eis emphanon katastasin (for production of things in the open): It is a name of a suit for the purpose of disputed things being out in the open: Isaios in On the Estate of Philoktemon. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says that this suit is brought before the archon, and that on holding the preliminary examination he introduces it to the jury court.
§ e9 Eis hen elthen (he came to one): for 'he agreed.' .
§ e10 Eisepodizon (I/they entered by foot): for 'I/they entered the low parts of the place:' Isaios in Against the Orgeones.
§ e11 Eis eo (at dawn): for 'at the start of the day:' Isaios in On the Estate of Kiron.
§ e14 Hekates nesos (Hekate's island): Lykourgos, Against Meneaichmos. Before Delos lies a little island, which is called Psammetiche by some, as Phanodemos in the first book. Semos, in book one of Deliaka, says that it was called Psammetiche owing to the fact that the goddess was honored with psammeta. Psammeta are a kind of cake.
§ e16 Hekatomnos: proper name.
§ e17 Hekatompedon (hundred footer): Lykourgos in the speech entitled, 'Defense of his Career in Politics.' The Parthenon used to be called Hekatompedos by some, owing to its beauty and fine proportions, not owing to its size, as Menekles or Kallikrates (says) in On Athens.
§ e19 Ekdexamenos (having taken over): Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon: "having taken over and written." Having received something from another, to attempt the second part oneself is 'to take over.' One must consider how what is said by the orator in the fifth Phillippic stands: "and the notion that we are taking over (some) of the things done by them (fem.)." .
§ e21 Ekdosis (giving): The maritime loan, as if an 'outside' (exo) loan: Against Aphobos (I).
§ e22 Ekkleteuein (to summon a witness): To bring to a trial so that one may testify under compulsion: Aischines in the defense On the Embassy.
§ e23 Eklogeis (collectors): Those who collect and exact things owed to the treasury. Antiphon in On the Samothracians' Tribute: "For among us they were chosen as collectors who seemed to have the most money." Lysias in Against Aresandros: "But now we declare all of the tribute to the collectors." .
§ e24 Eklozete (you were hooting): Demosthenes, Against Meidias. They used to call the sound that is made in mouths, which they used to use at the ejection of performances which they were not pleased to hear, a 'klosmon' (hooting).
§ e25 Ekmartyria (testimony given out of court): Differs from testimony, because while testimony is from those who are present, ekmartyria is from those who are absent. Demosthenes in Against Stephanos and Deinarchos in For Aischines against Deinias instruct most clearly on these things.
§ e26 Ek periousias (from a position of abundant resources): Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon: "but he charges me from a position of abundant resources." Better to understand thus, namely that 'I run risk concerning the utmost matters, while he charges me from great advantage,' not about money, as some think.
§ e28 Ekpolemosai (to make hostile): Demosthenes in the Philippics, for 'bring to war,' as also many times in Thucydides. In the Attic authors, however, it is written with eta, as for example in Xenophon, in book six of the Hellenika.
§ e29 Ek proagoges (by compulsion): For 'under compulsion' and 'not by nature' and 'not simply.' The metaphor (is) from those who are not seated, but are compelled in advance by summonses in chains. Demosthenes, Against Aristokrates.
§ e30 To expel (by leaves): if any of the councillors seemed to do wrong, the Council used to take a vote regarding him as to whether he must no longer serve as a councillor. Instead of pebbles they used to use leaves, through which each individual indicated his opinion. Deinarchos in Against Polyeuktos after having been expelled.
§ e32 Elateia: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. It was a very great city among those in Phokis. From the same orator again in the seventh of the Philippics, if it is genuine, is the following: "(the) three cities in Kassopia: Pandosia, Boucheta, and Elateia." One must mention that among some it has been better written with the rho, Elatreia. Theopompos at any rate in book 43 says that four cities belong to the Kassiopaians, but not three, as Demosthenes (says): Elatreia and Pandosia and Bitia and Boucheta.
§ e33 Elaphrotatous (lightest): Also in praise the ancients say this word, for 'very mild,' the opposite of 'very heavy' and 'very burdensome.' Isokrates in Panathenaikos: "presenting themselves as as easygoing and moderate as possible toward those who are with them." .
§ e34 Eleokopon: Lysias in Against Demosthenes concerning guardianship: "living five months with the eleokopoi." The orator could be calling those who cut down the marshes 'eleokopoi,' the epsilon having been inserted, like "marsh-bred (heleothrepton) celery" in Homer. But perhaps the word has come from 'table' (eleon), which is a wooden object. Aristophanes in Knights: "If he should pull me down in addition the table." .
§ e35 Eleutherios Zeus: Hypereides: "for Zeus, gentlemen of the jury, has gotten the nickname of being called 'freer' on account of the fact that the exeleutheroi built the stoa that is near him." But Didymos says that the orator is wrong, for he was called 'eleutherios' on account of the fact that the Athenians escaped from the Medes. And that 'Soter' has been inscribed but that he is called also 'Eleutherios' Menander also shows.
§ e36 Eleusinia: Hypereides in For Kallippos. To the victors at the Eleusinia a prize used to be given. The city was named Eleusis after Eleusinos, son of Hermes. But others say that there were other reasons (for the name) and that the Eleusinia is just a festival.
§ e37 Elikteres: a type of earrings: Lysias.
§ e38 Elixos: one of the prominent men among the Megarians.
§ e39 Hellanodikai: Hypereides in For Kallippos Against the Eleans. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Eleans, says that first the Eleans appointed one Hellanodikes, but, after time had passed, two, and finally nine. But Aristodemos the Elean says that the Hellanodikai who finally held the games were ten, one from each tribe.
§ e40 Hellenotamiai: Andokides in On the Peace, if it is genuine. That the Hellenotamiai were an office who used to handle money, Aristotle also shows in the Constitution of the Athenians. And Thucydides also mentioned them in book 1.
§ e42 Embios (alive): Antiphon, On the Truth book one: "and the decay of the wood should become alive," for 'in a state of living,' that is, 'it should live and should not be withered and die.' .
§ e43 Embrachy: for 'simply' and 'in sum:' Antiphon.
§ e48 Endeixis: a type of public suit under which they used to accuse those who in accordance with the laws were barred from certain places or acts, if they did not keep themselves from them. There are many speeches of endeixis, and those Against Aristogeiton, by Demosthenes are most famous.
§ e49 Endekazontas [On-the-tenth-ers]: instead of "eneortazontas" [people celebrating a festival], when they hold the festival on the tenth of the month, Demosthenes in the Against Theokrines.
§ e51 Enepiskemma kai enepiskepsasthai (a claim lodged against seized property and to lodge a claim against seized property): Demosthenes in Against Timotheus. Whenever a person's property was confiscated, it was possible for him who claimed to have been a creditor of this man to come forward and say that a debt was owed to him against the property. And there is a speech titled 'by Demosthenes, Against Kritias concerning the claim lodged against seized property,' which Kallimachos records as genuine and Dionysios of Hallkarnassos as falsely attributed.
§ e53 Enetimato (was valued among): Demosthenes in Against Spoudias. 'Apetimato' (had valued / received as security) differs from 'enetimato.' For whenever one receives an evaluation, in an amount of money, in reference to something it is called 'apotimasthai' (to have something evaluated). But whenever one reckons some part of the money among certain types (of assets), it is said that "he has valued it among ('enetimesato')." .
§ e54 Hene kai nea (old and new): Hypereides in Against Hygiainon. What is called by us the 'thirtieth' (day) Athenians call 'old and new,' from the fact that it encompasses the last (day) of the previous month and the first of the subsequent one. Polemon says that at one point Athenians called it 'Demetrias' in honor of Demetrios the Macedonian. But they also call the (time) until the third (day), 'the day after tomorrow' and 'until the day after tomorrow.' And 'henon' simply, when it is aspirated, means that which is prior and has passed by.
§ e55 Enthrypta (crumbles): Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. Didymos the grammatikos in his commentary on the speech, when he says that 'crumbles' has a meaning that is transparent and intelligible from its very sound, posits a kind of overwrought explanation without parallel. The (crumbs) from pastries are 'crumbles,' or foods that are crumbled into liquids. But some associate them with initiates. And also Apollo, among Athenians, (is called) Enthryptos.
§ e59 En parabustoi (in a corner): for 'secretly' and 'not openly:' Hypereides in Against Archestratides.
§ e60 Ensemainomenos (signalling): for 'showing' and 'exhibiting,' Isokrates.
§ e61 En Phreatto: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates has gone over the lawcourt in Phreatto with precision, saying thus, "Note, then yet another fifth lawcourt, which he has passed over, the one 'in Phreatto.' For there, men of Athens, the law bids one undergo suits if one, after having gone into exile for involuntary homicide, and with those who cast him out not yet having been reconciled, is accused of another, willing homicide." And after a bit he says, "He led those hearing the case to a place to which it was possible for that man to approach, having appointed a place in the territory called 'in Phreatto,' by the sea. Next the one speaks, having sailed toward (shore) on a boat — not touching land — and the others listen and judge on land. And if he is convicted, he pays the rightful penalty for the willing homicides, but if he is acquitted he is released without penalty from that charge, but still endures the exile for the other homicide." The lawcourt appears to have been named after a certain hero Phreattos, as Theophrastos says in book ten of the Laws.
§ e63 Exaireseos dike (action for removal): Whenever one led away someone on grounds that he was a slave, and then someone removed him on grounds that he was free, it was possible for the one who laid claim to the person on grounds that he was a slave to bring an action for removal against the one who removed him to freedom. Isaios in the removal to freedom For Eumathes.
§ e64 Exarasasthai (to consecrate): Aischines, Against Ktesiphon: "because (Athens) dedicated golden shields at the new temple before consecrating it." To complete the vows, that is the prayers that they were accustomed to make at the foundation of temples, is 'to consecrate.' .
§ e66 Exenize (he was/spoke like a foreigner): Demosthenes in the appeal Against Euboulides: "For they have slandered my father, (saying) that he spoke like a foreigner." Perhaps for 'he was a foreigner,' and not, as Didymos says, for 'he did not speak Attic, but foreign.' .
§ e69 Exegetes (expounder): Isaios in On the Estate of Kiron. He who expounds the sacred matters. There are also rites performed over the departed, which they used to expound for those who needed it. Also Demosthenes, in Against Euergos and Mnesiboulos, is clear, naming the expounders in the plural many times.
§ e72 Exoules (for ejectment): Name of a lawsuit which those claiming that they are being barred from their own property bring against those who are barring them. The word then is said after 'exillein,' which is to thrust out and cast out. They also bring a suit for ejectment, in addition also to the fines, who do not receive back (their property) within the apropriate time limit, once the terms set by the judgment become overdue. Those convicted in a case for ejectment gave to the winner what they were depriving him of and paid the assessed (sum) to the treasury. Also bringing a suit for ejectment was the creditor, when he attempts to seize property from someone who is in debt to him and is prevented by someone. And if someone should be barred from cultivation, the law permits him to bring a suit for ejectment against the one who bars. And also concerning a slave and anything that one says he has a share in. Isaios illustrates this clearly, as does Lysias in Against Stratokles for ejectment. Deinarchos, however, in the diadikasia of the Krokonidai has used the word ejectment in a particular sense pertaining to the priestess who was unwilling to do her own duties. That the word is applied to anyone who is cast out of his own things, and not, as Kaikilios thinks, only to those who owe as a result of a judgment against them, Phrynichos also makes clear in the Poastriai.
§ e73 Exomosia: to refuse a certain action with an oath, owing to illness or some other excuse, as Demosthenes makes clear in On the Embassy.
§ e74 Epaggelia: It denotes other things as well, but it is said in a particular sense applying to those who accuse someone of addressing the assembly or taking part in government, though it is not permitted, and it is like a summons (paraggelia): Aischines, Against Timarchos. 'Epaggelesthai' is said among them also for 'to order' or 'to demand,' as in Antiphon in On the Lindians' Tribute and in Demosthenes in On the Embassy.
§ e75 Epaktos horkos (imposed oath): (An oath) that a person himself willingly imposes on himself, that is chooses. But others, by contrast, (say that it is) one that is imposed from elsewhere, but not chosen voluntarily. Lysias in Against Chairestratos and Isokrates the Apolloniate in the exhortations To Demonikos. There are three types of oath: an oath of abjuration, an oath of affirmation, and the so-called imposed oath. But this one is not simple: for it is necessary that the one being made to swear repeat with the same words the oath that is proposed by the one making him swear.
§ e76 Epaktrokeles: Aischines in Against Timarchos. It is a type of ship possessing a hybrid construction, from a light vessel (epaktris) and a swift boat (keles). On the whole it was a pirate ship, as also Deinarchos (shows) in the dokimasia Against Polyeuktos.
§ e77 Epallaxeis (interweavings): For 'interchanges' or 'minglings:' Antiphon, On Truth book one.
§ e78 Epanaphora (reference): Reference and communication to the people.
§ e79 Epairomenos (lifting up): for 'stretching out and holding up,' Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. But in Against Aphobos he says, with another another meaning, "either by desire for profits because they are induced by poverty." [Aristophanes in the Clouds: "Would that the matchmaker perish miserably, who urged me to marry your mother."] .
§ e80 Epedikase kai epedikasanto (he adjudicated a claim to property and they went to law over a property claim): Demosthenes in Against Olympiodoros. 'Epidikasen' is as it were 'he adjudicated,' and 'epedikasanto' is as it were 'they persuaded the jurors to assign the estate to themselves.' .
§ e81 Epenegkein dory epi tei ekphorai kai prosagoreuein epi toi mnemati (to bring a spear at the carrying out of corpse and to speak at the tomb): Demosthenes, Against Euergos and Mnesiboulos, says these (words) applying to one who died violently. Istros in the compilation of Atthides, speaking about Prokris and Kephalos, writes this: "But some say that Erechtheus has been depicted having planted a spear on the tomb, both seated beside it and denoting his suffering, on account of the fact that it was customary for relatives to go after murderers in this manner." .
§ e82 Epeskepsato (he denounced): for 'he brought a charge for false witness.' It is said sometimes, rarely, also for accusing someone of homicide, as Antiphon (says) in On the Revolution. Isaios has used the active 'epeskepsen' (he imposed) for 'he commanded' in the removal to freedom For Eumathes. But Andokides in On the Mysteries and Lysias in for Ktesiarchos have said 'I lay it upon' for 'I speak with an appeal to the gods' and, as it were, 'I conjure.' .
§ e83 Epibates (marine): Demosthenes in On the Extended Trierarchy. So they used to call those of the soldiers serving on triremes who did not row, but were ready only for fighting. Aristophanes in his Babylonians: "Well indeed did the marine plunge into the sea to retrieve a stern cable." .
§ e85 Epiboion: Lykourgos in On the Priestess. And Philochoros in book two says thus: "If someone sacrifices to Athena an ox, then it is necessary also to sacrifice to Pandora a sheep, and the sacrifice is called 'epiboion' (in addition to the ox). Likewise also Staphylos in the first book of On Athens.
§ e87 Epignomonas (aribiters): for 'inspectors' in Lysias, On the Sekos.
§ e88 Epigrapheas (registrars): Those appointed to register how much people ought to contribute (in eisphora) to the treasury: Lysias in On the Eisphora.
§ e91 Epi Delphinioi: A lawcourt at Athens is so called. Those who admit that they have killed but say that they have done this lawfully, are tried there, as Demosthenes shows in Against Aristokrates, and Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians.
§ e92 Epidiatithesthai (to deposit as security): Lysias in the peroration of the guardianship case Against Theopeithes. To make certain agreements, depositing a stated sum of money with one of those who are between (i.e. a third party), who pledges to each party on condition that if the transaction should take place he give the agreed sum of money to the other in full, it 'to deposit as security.' The act itself is also called 'epidiatheke,' as the same orator shows in For Nesokles.
§ e94 Epidietes hebesai (to be two years past puberty): Demosthenes in Against Stephanos. Didymos says (that this is) for 'if they are 16 years old.' For puberty lasts till 14. But the ephebes, among Athenians, become so at 18 years old, and they remain among the ephebes for 2 years, and then are registered in the lexiarchic record, according as Hypereides says, in Against Chares over guardianship: "When I was registered and the law granted the recovery of the things left to my mother, (the law) which bids that sons be masters of the epikleros and all the property, when they are two years past puberty." .
§ e95 Epidikos kai epikleros kai epiproikos kai epikleritis: She who is left an orphan over the entire estate, inasmuch as she has no brother, is an 'epikleros' (and an 'epikleritis' is the same). But she (who is left an orphan) over a part of the estate, so that she has a dowry, inasmuch as she does have brothers, is an 'epiproikos.' And the 'epikleros' who is contested regarding to whom she must be married is an 'epidikos.' These things Isaios shows in Against Satyros on behalf of an 'epikleros,' as does Deinarchos in the speech titled Affidavit in Protest Concerning the Daughter of Aristophon's Not Being an Epidikos. And in this speech he shows also that the closest family relatives married off daughters who lacked resources, by contributing 5 minas. Isaios in Against Lysibios has called the 'epikleros' an 'epikleritis.' .
§ e97 Epithetous heortas (additional festivals): Isokrates in the Areopagitikos. They used to call (festivals) that were not ancestral but had been otherwise decreed in addition, 'additional.' Other things too used to be said among them to be additional, (for example) as many non-ancestral matters as the council of the Areopagos exercised jurisdiction over, as Lysias makes clear in Against the Public Suit of Mixidemos. Lysias calls certain (letters) 'additional letters' in Against Thrasyboulos, and he would mean those that were given to people to convey, for it was customary to say 'he added a letter' for 'he handed over (a letter),' as Demosthenes (says) in For Chrysippos against the counter-suit of Phormio. And Kratinos in Trophonios...
§ e98 Epikekerychenai (to have proclaimed): Demosthenes in On the Embassy. Whenever a city or magistrate wanted someone who among those who were not under their power to be killed it/he used to announce that it/he would give so and so much money if someone should kill (him), just as the Greeks proclaimed, against Xerxes, that, if someone should bring him to Athens, alive or dead, they would give him 100 talents.
§ e99 Epikerycheia: The sending of heralds for friendship and reconciliation. Demosthenes, in the fifth of the Philippics.
§ e100 Epi korres (on the temple/jaw): Demosthenes in Against Meidias. Different people interpreted it differently, but it is better to understand that 'on the jaw' is called 'epi korres,' what we call in daily life a 'slap.' Hypereides at any rate or Philinos in Against Dorotheos, first saying that the man who slapped Hipponikos 'epi korres' was charged for hybris, in the words that follow as it were explains the word by saying, "Next, Hipponikos was only slapped by Autokles on the jaw, but I was dragged by these men by my hair (and) got knuckles (i.e. took a beating)." .
§ e101 Epikrates: Isaios in On the Speeches Made in Macedonia. This is the Athenian demagogue who is nicknamed 'Beard-carrier,' whom Demosthenes also mentions in On the Embassy. There is another Epikrates whom Lykourgos mentions in On the Financial Administration, saying that a bronze (statue) was set up on account of his law concerning the ephebes, whom they say owned property worth 600 talents. There is another Epikrates, a brother in law of the orator Aischines, as is shown by him in his defense On the Embassy. This one, moreover, used to have the eponym Kyrebion, as Demosthenes says in Against Aischines.
§ e102 Epilachon (drawing the secondary lot): Aischines, Against Ktesiphon: "neither drawing the lot nor drawing the secondary lot, but purchasing by scheme." The circumstance seems to be such. Those aiming to serve in the council or to hold office used to be selected by lot, and then for each of those obtaining the lot another man drew a secondary lot, so that if the one first allotted was rejected on scrutiny or died, the one drawing the secondary lot after him became the councillor in his place. This is also indicated in Plato's Hyperbolos.
§ e103 Epimeletes ton mysterion (supervisor of the mysteries): among Athenians the so-called 'king:' Demosthenes, Against Meidias. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says thus: "The king supervises the mysteries first, with the supervisors, whom the people elects, two from all of the Athenians, and one from the Eumolpidai, and one from the Kerykes.
§ e104 Epimeletes emporiou (supervisor of the emporion): Deinarchos in Against Pytheas. Aristotle: "They allot ten supervisors of the emporion, and to them it was appointed to supervise the merchants, and to compel the merchants to convey to the city two thirds of the grain that is shipped to the Attic emporion" .
§ e105 Epimenia (monthlies): Lycurgus in the speech On the Priestess. Either the things sacrificed each month, or the sacrifices for the entire month made at once at some point seem to be monthlies.
§ e106 Epiorkesanta: Lysias, Against Theomnestos, explained that 'epiorkesanta' is 'having sworn.' .
§ e107 Epi Palladioi: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. There is a court so called, as also Aristotle (says) in the Constitution of the Athenians, in which the ephetai judge cases of unwilling homicide, and deliberation. The court got the title of the 'Palladion' and the jurors of the 'ephetai' from this: After Agamemnon, along with the Argives, was brought to Athens from Ilion with the Palladion, Demophon steals the Palladion and slays many of those giving chase. Being upset, Agamemnon, demands satisfaction from the one who stole and convenes the court before 50 Athenians and 50 Argives, whom they called 'ephetai' on account of the fact that the matter of the judgment was entrusted (ephethenai) to them by both sides.
§ e109 Epiplon: Isaios in Against Diokles. They call the equipment in one's home 'epipla,' (that is) the property that is as it were manifest (epipolaion) and able to be conveyed. Sophokles in the Athamas.
§ e110 Epi Prytaneioi: This too is a homicide court, and it judges cases if something inanimate kills someone by falling on him. This is if a rock or piece of wood or iron or some such thing (kills) and one is ignorant of the one who threw it, but knows the thing and has the thing that effected the homicide.
§ e111 Episemainesthai (to put one's seal to): On the one hand, for 'to praise' and, as we say in ordinary use, 'to proclaim:' Isokrates in Panathenaikos; but on the other hand, for 'to put a seal upon:' Isaios in the defense for Kaludon, on charge of ejectment, Against Hagnotheos.
§ e113 Episkopos (overseer): Antiphon in On the Tribute of the Lindians and Against Laispodias. People seem to have been sent by the Athenians to the subject cities, overseeing affairs in each. Theophrastos, at any rate, in book one of Politika pros kairous says thus: "for it is much finer, according, at least, to the word's application, (to use it) as the Laconians do, when they claim to send harmosts to the cities, not overseers and not guards, as the Athenians." .
§ e114 Epistates (chairman): Isaios in Against Elpagoras and Demophanes. Those appointed chairmen were two, one chosen by lot from the prytaneis, the other from the proedroi; what administrative duties each of whom administered, Aristotle shows in the Athenian Constitution. And in general use he who was in charge (ephestekos) of any matter at all also used to be called (epistates), as Hyperides in Against Demosthenes and Aeschines in Against Ktesiphon make apparent.
§ e116 Epiteleoun kai epiteleoma (to sacrifice in full and an additional/completing sacrifice): Both of these words appear often in Lykourgos' On the Priestess, and that which is sacrificed on top of everything for the sake of the previous sacrifices being complete (epiteleis) seems to be called an 'epiteleoma.' The orator himself at any rate says in the speech, "Moreover, he said that these were sacrificed last of all and were epiteleomata of the other sacrifices." .
§ e118 Epiteichisma (fort): the place that is walled against some people, setting out from which those who made the wall will be able to do harm to those against whom the walls were made. Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. And they call the act 'epiteichismon', just as appears in the same speech.
§ e119 Epitrepein (to entrust): Demosthenes in Against Aphobos 1 began thus: "If Aphobos, gentlemen of the jury, were willing to act justly concerning the matter over which we are in dispute and to entrust it to friends," for 'to chose them as arbitrators;' whence also the play of Menander, Epitrepontes. But Lysias, in Against the Guardians of Boon's Children said, "he entrusted to men" for 'he appointed guardians.' .
§ e124 Epogdoon (one-eighth): Demosthenes in Against Pythokles concerning the extended trierarchy. The sum lent so that the eighth part of the principal was given to the lender (in interest), would be 'at one-eighth' (epogodoon), as in a triobol on the tetradrachm.
§ e125 Epobelia (fine of one sixth): Demosthenes in Against Stephanos. The epobelia is a fine, the sixth part of the valuation, which prosecutors used to give to defendants if they did not convict. It was called thus because it was an obol for each drachma, which is exactly a sixth, since the drachma is calculated at 6 obols. It is possible to learn from many (sources) that this is so.
§ e127 Eponymoi: Demosthenes in the Against Timokrates. There are two groups of Eponymoi: the first, ten in number, after which the tribes are named, the other, 42 in number, after which the age groups of citizens for each year from 18 to 60 are named.
§ e128 Epopteukoton (having become epoptai): Hypereides in For Phryne. Those who have been initiated at Eleusis in the second initiation are said to become epoptai (beholders), as is clear from the speech of Demosthenes and from the tenth book of Philochoros.
§ e129 Eranizontes (collecting an eranos loan/contribution): Demosthenes in the letter Concerning Lykourgos' Sons said "eranisas" (having raised an eranos) for 'having sought an eranos.' And in the speech on the name he says, "But what if, expecting to be convicted for false testimony for 'contributions' that he offers to those around him [...]?" He returns the good gesture by rendering the same assistance to them that they too one furnished when they testified falsely on his behalf. An eranistes, moreover, is properly he who has a share of the eranos and contributes the contribution that he was required to pay each month. The word is in Lysias, Against Aristokrates concerning a surety for an eranos, if it is genuine.
§ e130 Erga neon (deeds belong to the young): Hypereides in Against Autokles says that this is also attributed to Hesiod. It is a proverb, which also Aristophanes the grammatikos recorded as running like this: "Deeds belong to the young, counsels to the middle aged, and prayers to the old." .
§ e132 Ergokles: Athenian general [strategos] .
§ e133 Ergophilos: he is also an Athenian general [strategos] .
§ e134 Herkeios Zeus: Deinarchos in Against Moschion, "whether he has phrateres and altars of Zeus Herkeios and Apollo Patroios." Zeus Herkeios, to whom an altar is established inside the outer wall in the courtyard. For they used to call the outer wall a "herkos." That they had a share in the citizenship whoever had a Zeus Herkeios Hypereides also has shown in For a Naturalized Citizen, if it is genuine, and Demetrios in On Lawmaking at Athens.
§ e136 Hermai (Herms): Aischines on Against Ktesiphon and Hypereides in On The Honors for Euboulos. Menekles or Kallikrates in On Athens writes this: "After the Stoa Poikile and the Royal Stoa are the so-called Herms. It (i.e. the place) happens to have acquired this name owing to the fact that many (Herms) have been set up there both by private individuals and by magistrates. On one of them has been inscribed in archaic letters, "For his benefaction the Achaians bound Agamemnon." But that a certain stoa was called Stoa of the Herms Antiphon has shown in Against Nikokles. And that some used to be called 'Hipparcheian Herms' after Hipparchos son of Peisistratos has been said both in old comedy and by Plato, in the Hipparchos."
§ e137 Hermos: It is a deme of Attica of the tribe Akamantis, as Diodoros says in On the Demes. Dionysios the son of Tryphon in On Names says that the name of the deme Hermos appears to be neuter, like 'herkos' (hedge). Zopyros says in On Rivers that (a river) Hermos is in Attica and that the deme is homonymous with it.
§ e138 Hermes ho pros tei pylidi (Hermes by the gate): Demosthenes in Against Euergos and Mnesiboulos. Philochoros in book five of Atthis says that the nine archons dedicated (a statue of) Hermes to the tribes beside the Attic gate.
§ e143 Espathato (was struck by a spathe): Demosthenes in Against Aischines. Didymos says that it is for 'was destroyed,' from the spathe (blade) and a spathe is a sword. But perhaps the metaphor is from weavers. For they use a spathe. Also Aristophanes in the Clouds: "Woman, you are really striking the woof!" .
§ e144 Hestiator (banquet host): the person who provides a banquet to people. Demosthenes in the Reply to Boiotos. They provided food to the tribes, both voluntarily and by lot, as the same orator makes clear in the Against Meidios.
§ e145 Eschara (hearth): Lykourgos in On the Priestess. Ammonios in On Altars says that the hearth that has no height, but is a hollow established in the ground, is called an 'eschara,' by analogy to which also doctors call hollow ulcers in bodies 'escharai.' .
§ e146 Eschatia (farthest part): Demosthenes in Against Phainippos. They used to call the areas at the boundaries of the territory 'eschatia', which either mountain or sea borders.
§ e147 Hetaireia: Andokides has applied the word in a special sense to unchastity, in the defense On the Mysteries.
§ e148 Eteoboutadai: Lykourgos in On the Priestess. A clan among Athenians, as it were, those truly from Boutes. For 'true' is 'eteon.' From these the priestess of Athenian Polias is appointed, as Drakon says in On Clans.
§ e153 Euboulos: There is a speech by Hypereides On Euboulos' Gifts, and Demosthenes mentions him in For Ktesiphon. Theopompos says in the tenth book of the Philippics that he was a very prominent demagogue, diligent and industrious, and that having raised a great deal of money he distributed it to the Athenians, wherefore the city happened to become under his administration quite cowardly and careless. The comic poet is a different person, whom Hypereides mentions in Against Archestratides.
§ e155 Euenos: Hypereides in Against Autokles. They record two elegiac poets, Euenos, with the same name as each other, just as Eratosthenes (says) in On Chronographies, saying that both are Parian. But he says that he is acquainted with the younger one alone. But the other of them Plato too has mentioned.
§ e156 Eueniotata (most well-reined): Antiphon in On Concord. One who is mild and moderate and not causing trouble is 'euenios' (well-reined). The metaphor is from horses. The word appears also in Plato in book 9 of the Laws.
§ e158 Euthynoi (examiners): Lysias in Against Nikidas, if it is genuine. Euthynoi is a name for a magistracy among Athenians. They were ten men in number, before whom those who had served as ambassadors or held office or administered any public resources used to render their accounts. Aristotle has discussed them in the Constitution of the Athenians.
§ e160 Eumenides: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Aischylos in the Eumenides, speaking about the trial of Orestes, says that Athena, having soothed the Erinyes so that they were not harsh toward Orestes, named them 'Eumenides.' They are Alekto, Megaira, and Tisiphone.
§ e165 Eurybaton: Aischines, Against Ktesiphon. Ephoros in the eighth book says that an Ephesian man Eurybatos, having received money from Kroisos in order to assemble an army for the war against the Persians, but having then become a traitor, handed over to Kyros the money that had been given (to him) and that henceforth wicked men are called 'Eurybatoi.' .
§ e168 Eusymbolos (readily contributing): for 'contributing easily and well,' that is, good at contributing, Antiphon in the Politikos.
§ e171 Ephesis (appeal): The transfer from one court to another. The same is also called 'ekkletos' (subject to appeal). There is a speech of Demosthenes titled 'appeal Against Euboulides,' and in the speech 'appeal' and the phrase 'to appeal' appear many times.
§ e176 Ephormein (to lie by and watch): For 'to lie in wait.' This is what they used to call lying at anchor against people, watching for an opportunity to attack. Demosthenes in the Philippics.
§ e177 Echinos: It is a vessel into which documents for law suits used to be deposited. Demothenes in Against Timotheos. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians also mentions this vessel, as does Aristophanes in Danaids. There was also a city Echinos, which Demosthenes mentions in the ninth of the Philippics. There is also a terrestrial creature and a marine bivalve.
§ e178 Heolokrasia: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon: "But this man is at fault, since he splattered me with, as it were, dregs of his own depravity." And Didymos: "This man pours on me today the things that he mixed up yesterday and the day before, and says that I did them." .
§ z1 Zeira etoi seira (zeira or seira): As some (say), it was a garment that they used to put on after their tunics, just like cloaks: Lysias in Against Philip, if it is genuine. Also Xenophon on book seven of the Anabasis, talking about Thracians, says, "and, on horses, they wear zeiras down to their feet but not mantles." .
§ z4 Zetetes (investigator): A certain magistracy at Athens appointed according to circumstances, if ever it should be necessary to investigate those doing any wrong at the expense of the public. Demosthenes in Against Timokrates and Andokides in On the Endeixis. This orator was at one time also an investigator, as Lysias says, and Isokrates and Plato the comic poet in Ambassadors.
§ h1 Hegemonia dikasteriou (presidency of a court): Aischines, Against Ktesiphon. Various suits were allotted to various magistrates. And the magistrates, each according to the law of the office, used to introduce the suits brought before them to the court, as presider and foreman. For example, to the Archon went suits of orphans and epikleroi, and to the Archon Basileus went cases of impiety, and to the Polemarch went cases of apostasiou (departure from a manumittor) and aprostasiou (failure to have a prostates), and to the Themosthetes went cases of both xenia (being an alien) and bribery by an alien, and malicious prosecution and bribery and false registration and hybris and seduction and conspiracy and other suits.
§ h2 Hegemon symmorias (leader of a symmory): Demosthenes in Against Ktesiphon. He who was foremost in wealth and owing to this was selected to lead the others used to be called 'leader of a symmory,' as Hypereides indicates in Against Polyeuktos.
§ h7 Eetioneia: Antiphon in On the Revolution. The other point of Peiraieus used to be called thus, after the one who acquired the land, Eetion, as Philochoros says in the antigraphe Against Demon. Thucydides also mentions Eetioneia in book eight.
§ h8 Ekroteriasmenoi (having mutilated): Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon: "each having mutilated his own country" for 'having outraged.' For those who outrage people were accustomed to chop off their extremities, for example Sophokles in Polyxena. Moreover, 'ekroteriasmenoi' appears here for the active 'ekroteriakotes.' .
§ h9 Heliaia kai heliasis: The greatest court of those at Athens is the Heliaia, in which public actions over matters used to be tried, 1000 or 1500 jurors convening (for the purpose). The 1000 used to convene from two courts and the 1500 from three. To try a case in the Heliaia is to 'heliazesthai' and 'heliasis.' Lysias in Against Glaukon names the Heliaia many times, and in Against Philonides, if it is genuine, he used 'heliazesthai.' .
§ h11 Hemiekton kai hemimedimnon (half-hekteus and half-medimnos): Deinarchos in the impeachment Against Kallisthnes. Since the medimnos has 48 choinikes, it is the case that a half-medimnos contains 24 choinikes, and that a half-hekteus contains 4 choinikes, (being) the half of the sixth, which is 8 choinikes.
§ h12 Hemioliasmos: Antiphon in the Politikos, "doubling and multiplying by one and a half" for 'to give at a rate of one and a half' in calculations. A number that has another whole and the half of itself, such as three compared to two, is 'half again more' (hemiolios). Xenophon at any rate in the Anabasis says that he made the wage half again more, three half-Darics instead of one Daric.
§ h14 Herakleia: Demosthenes in Against Aischines. Though there are many Herakleias (festivals of Herakles) throughout Attica, here Demosthenes would be mentioning either those in Marathon or in Kynosarges. For Athenians used to hold these in especially high regard.
§ h16 Eria (mounds): Lykourgos in Against Autolykos. Tombs are 'eria,' as also the orator himself makes clear. But some say that, rather commonly, all tombs are so named, especially those that do not have built structures on top, but whenever the bodies are laid down in the ground; and that they are named from 'era' (earth).
§ h18 Eitemenen (having been begged): for 'having been borrowed:' Demosthenes in Against Euergos, if it is genuine. For that they used to call 'borrowing' 'begging' Menander (shows): "neither asking for fire nor begging for a dish." .
§ h20 Eion: Demosthenes in the Against Aristokrates. Eion is a city in Thrace, a colony of the Mendeans, as Thucydides (says). Theopompos says in book four that the Athenians devastated the area after they threw the Amphipolitans out of Eion.
§ Th2 Themenos ta hopla (having put arms): for 'having put on' (arms) and 'having armed oneself,' Demosthenes in Against Meidias. Also Homer, "and he put his helmet on his stout head." Also Aischines, Against Timarchos, says, "Man, for the city on whose behalf you do not don arms." .
§ Th3 Themisteuein (to declare right / answer by oracle): For 'to deliver oracles:' Lysias in On the Abortion, if it is genuine. That the word has arisen from the fact that Themis once held the oracle, before Apollo, Aischylos says at the start of the Eumenides.
§ Th6 Theognis: Lysias in Against Eratosthenes. He was one of the Thirty Tyrants among the Athenians, as various people say, especially Xenophon in Hellenika book two. Isokrates mentions the poet Theognis in his Advice to Nikokles: this man was a Megarian, from the Megara near Attica, since the poet himself says, "for I at least came once even to Sicily." Not having paid attention to this Plato in Laws book one said he was a citizen of the Megara in Sicily. Not a few have followed Plato.
§ Th7 Theoinion: Lykourgos in the diadikasia of the Krokonidai against the Koironidai. The festivals of Dionysos (Dionysia) held in the demes used to be called the Theoinia, in which the gennetai used to sacrifice. For they used to call Dionysos 'theoinos' (wine god), as Aischylos shows, as does Istros in book 1 of the Synagoge.
§ Th8 Theokrines: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon abusing Aischines says "tragic Theokrines." He wishes to call him a sycophant, since Theokrines was such, as is clear from Against Theokrines, whether that speech is by Demosthenes or Deinarchos. At any rate he reasonably labeled a man who had once been a tragic actor and later a sycophant "tragic Theokrines." .
§ Th11 Thermopylai: Isokrates in the Panegyrikos. Some call this city 'Pylai', but Phileas says in his Periodos of the Earth that it was called 'Thermopylai,' since Athena made hot (therma) baths for Herakles there.
§ Th13 Thesthai: For 'to receive security:' Hypereides in Against Hygiainon; but for 'to accept and ratify a law:' Demosthenes. For it is said applying to the laws, that on the one hand the lawgiver 'gave' while on the other the people 'gave themselves' (i.e., enacted, laws): Demosthenes in On the Tax Immunities. In Against Stephanos, however, he says, "having enacted individual laws for himself," perhaps for 'having given.' .
§ Th15 Thesmothetai: Demosthenes in Against Androtion. In Athens there is a magistracy of the thesmothetai, being six in number, and they are part of the so-called nine archons. They are so called because they used to have care of the laws. And the laws used to be called 'thesmoi,' as I said already. That these men used to revise the laws each year Aischines has said in Against Ktesiphon and Theophrastos in book three of Laws. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians recounts in detail what these men do.
§ Th16 Thetes (one who places): Perhaps they call him who has deposited a hypothek a 'placer,' not as Didymos says, one who adopted. For they used to call, he says, adoptees 'placed.' .
§ Th19 Theorika: Demosthenes, in a Phillipic. Theorika were certain common funds, collected from the city's revenues. Previously these used to be kept for the needs of war and were called 'military funds' (stratiotika), but later they were paid toward public works and distributions, which Agyrrhios the demagogue first started. Philochoros in book three of Atthis says, "The theoric fund was first reckoned as a drachma for the spectacle, whence it also took the name" and so forth. Philinos, in Against the Statues of Sophokles and Euripides, speaking about Euboulos, says, "it was called theoric because when the Dionysia were near Euboulos made distributions for the sacrifice so that all may celebrate the festival and so that none of the citizens may be left out of the spectacle owing to the poverty of his own resources." Elsewhere, however, it is otherwise defined as that which is given for spectacles and sacrifices and festivals, as is clear from the first of Demosthenes' Philippics. That it was not possible for those who were out of town to receive theoric money Hypereides has made clear in Against Archestratides. There was a magistrate in charge of the theoric fund, as Aischines illustrates in Against Ktesiphon. Moreover, not only are the spectators called theoroi, but they also used to so name those sent to gods and in general those who keep the sacred things or see to the sacred things. For they used to call phrontis (care) 'ore' (care). For there is little care for quarrels and assemblies.
§ Th24 Thetes kai thetikon (thetes and thetic class): Antiphon in Against Philinos says "and make all of the thetes hoplites" and Demosthenes in On Hagnios' Estate (says), "of the epikleroi who belong to the thetic class." The polity at Athens having been divided into four, the poorest used to be called 'thetes' and (were said) to belong to the thetic class. These people had a share of no office, as also Aristotle shows in the Constitution of the Athenians. And that they did not serve in the army also Aristophanes has said, in Daitaleis. Demosthenes in the aforesaid called the poor girl an epikleros, which the Attic (writers) call a 'thessa.' It was necessary for the nearest male family members either to take the thessai in marriage or else give them five minas, as also Poseidippos the comic poet says somewhere.
§ Th25 Thiasos: Demosthenes in Against Aischines. A thiasos is a crowd gathered for the worship and honor of gods: Xenophon in Memorabilia book 2. Ion however in Omphale applied the word commonly to any gathering. The participants in thiasoi were called thiasotai: Isaeus in On the Estate of Astyphilos.
§ Th27 Tholos: Demosthenes in his Against Aeschines. The place where the prytaneis used to dine was so called among the Athenians. Ammonios at any rate in book four of On Altars writes this: "And the place where the prytaneis feast is called 'tholos,' but it is called 'skias' (parasol) by some, because it was so built in a round shape, resembling a conical hat (tholia)." .
§ Th33 Thyrgonidai: Isaios in Against Nikokles. Nikandros the Thyateiran, in On the Demes, says, "Aphidnaians, Perrhidai, Titakidai, and Thyrgonidai, were transferred from the tribe Aiantis." Also Demetrios of Skepsis says in book two of the Catalogue that the deme belonged to the tribe Ptolemais.
§ Th34 Thystion: Aischines, Against Ktesiphon. It is a city in Aitolia, as Didymos says, adducing evidence from the first book of Nikandros' Aitolika. We, however, found it in the Attic authors written with tau, Thytion.
§ i3 Hierax: Demosthenes in the first of the Philippics. That Hierax was one of those sent as ambassadors by the Amphipolitans to Athens, when they wanted to hand over their city and territory to the Athenians, Theopompos has said in book three of the Philippics.
§ i4 Hiera hodos (sacred road): Isaios in the defense Against Diophanes. The sacred road is what the initiates process on from the city to Eleusis. Thus an entire book has been written by Polemon on the sacred road. Kratinos mentions it in Drapetides.
§ i5 Hiera trieres (sacred trireme): Demosthenes in the fourth of the Philippics: "and he departed from the land with the sacred trireme." He could mean the Paralos, as is possible to gather from the sixth book of Philochoros and of Androtion alike.
§ i7 Hieromnemones: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. Those sent to the Amphiktyons' congress from each city of those participating in the congress are so called, as Theopompos makes clear in the 30th book.
§ i8 Hierophantes [sacred-displayer]: Hypereides says somewhere, "I have (as wife) neither a daidouchos (torchbearer)'s daughter nor a hierophant's." Deinarchos in the diadikasia of the Krokonidai says that he who revealed the sacred things, upon returning from war, was named 'the first hierophant.' But concerning the clan (genos) of the Hierophantes Hellanikos has shown in book 2 of Atthis.
§ i9 Hieronymos: Lysias in Against Hippotherses. Some, especially Ephoros in books 18 and 19, mention a Hieronymos who was a general of the Athenians. Hieronymos the Megalopolitan is another person, whom Demosthenes mentions in Against Aischines. That he was one of those who most sympathized with Macedon Theopompos has said in book fifty-one.
§ i10 Ithyphalloi: Hypereides in Against Archestratos: "those who dance the ithyphalloi in the orchestra." Certain poems used to be so called, which were sung at the phallus, as Lykeus says in the Letters. But Demosthenes in Against Konon applied it to a nickname given to certain people in jest. The erect penis used to be called properly 'ithyphallos,' as Kratinos (says) in Archilochoi.
§ i12 Hiketeria: a branch of olive that has been wound into a wreath is called a suppliant branch (hiketeria).
§ i14 Ipnos (oven): Lykourgos in Against Lykophron 1. A part of the house is so called, what is called by us a 'kitchen.' There is at any rate a play by Pherekrates, the Ipnos or Pannychis, in which this is shown, namely that it is a part of the house. And the furnace is properly called an 'ipnos,' whence they call some people oven-makers.
§ i15 Hipparchos: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. This man was a tyrant of Eretria. But there is another Hipparchos, about whom Lykourgos speaks in Against Leokrates, Hipparchos son of Peisistratos. And there is another, Hipparchos son of Charmos, as Lykourgos says in Against Leokrates. And concerning this one, Androtion in the second book says that he was a kinsman of Peisistratos the tyrant and that he was the first to be ostracized when the law on ostracism was then first laid down, owing to suspicion of those associated with Peisistratos, because he was a tyrant while being a demagogue and general. And there is another Hipparchos, an actor, whom Demosthenes mentions in Against Neaira, if it is genuine. And among Athenians the magistrate in charge of the cavalry is also called a hipparch; these were two, as Demosthenes says in the fourth of the Philippics, as does Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians.
§ i16 Hippas (cavalry): Isaios in On the Estate of Apollodoros says "he declared a small valuation (of taxable property) on grounds that he paid the cavalry tax." Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says that Solon divided the whole populace of Athenians into four classes, Five-Hundred-Medimnos-Men (pentakosiomedimnoi) and Cavalrymen (hippeis) and Yoke-Team-Men (zeugitai) and Laborers (thetes). The cavalry(-taxes) thus belong to the Cavalrymen.
§ i17 Hippia Athena: Isaios in Against Kalydon. Mnaseas in book one of Europa says that Hippia Athena is the daughter of Poseidon and Koryphe, daughter of Ocean, and that, since she was the first to outfit a chariot, she was therefore called 'Hippia.'
§ i19 Isa bainon Pythoklei (walking in step with Pythokles): Demosthenes in Against Aischines, for 'always accompanying and keeping back not even a bit.' Also in Against Stephanos 1 he says, "With Aristolochos the banker he used to walk, walking in step." Menander: "an expensive prostitute, walking in step alongside him."
§ i20 Isai psephoi: Aischines, Against Ktesiphon: "another private individual, after having sailed to Rhodes, because he bore his fear like a coward, was just recently impeached, and the votes against him were even. If one (more) vote had slipped in he would have been banished beyond the borders and would have died." .
§ i21 Isaios: This man is one of the 10 orators, a student of Isokrates, and a teacher of Demosthenes, Athenian by descent, as Hermippos says in book two of On the Students of Isokrates. Demetrios in On the Homonymous Poets says that he was Chalkidean.
§ i24 Isoteles (possessing equal tax status and equal tax status): Isaios in Against Elpagoras many times. An honor given to those of the metics who seem worthy, according to which they enjoyed release from the metic tax, as Lysias (shows) in Against Sostratos for hybris, if it is genuine. That individuals possessing equal tax status used to have release also from the other things that metics did Theophrastos has said in book eleven of the Laws. He says that in some cases Athenians used to decree equal tax status for entire cities, for example, for the Olynthians and Thebans. It is possible to learn from the aforementioned speech of Isaios also what the possessor of equal tax status used to pay.
§ i27 Ion: Isokrates in On the Antidosis. The orator could be mentioning here Ion the poet of the tragedy, who was Chian by descent, the son of Orthomenes, but "of Xouthos" by nickname. He wrote many songs and tragedies and a sort of philosophical treatise entitled Triagmos, which Kallimachos says is disputed as belonging to Epigenes; in some (authors) it is also titled in the plural "Triagmoi," such as Demetrios of Skepsis and Apollonides of Nikaia. They record the following words in it: "This is the beginning of my account. Everything is three and there is no more and no less. The excellence of each one is a triad of these three things, intelligence and power and fortune." .
§ k1 Kabyle: Demosthenes in the eighth of the Philippics. It is a place in Thrace, as Theopompos says in book 47, and Anaximenes in the eighth of Philippika. And he says that it is founded by the Taxos river in the middle of Thrace.
§ k2 Kadiskos (voting urn): Isaios in On the Estate of Hagnias. So they used to call a vessel into which the jurors would cast pebbles. Phrynichos in the Muses: "Look, receive the pebble. Your kadiskos is here, this one releasing and this one destroying." .
§ k4 Katharsion (purificatory offering): Aischines, Against Timarchos. It was a custom at Athens to cleanse the assembly and theaters and, in general, gatherings of the people, with quite little piglets, which they used to call katharsia. The so-called peristiarchoi (leaders of the pig sacrifice) used to perform this, who were named thus either after 'walking around' (perISTeichein or after 'hearth' (HESTia).
§ k5 Kathelon (tearing down): Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates says "or tearing down in the road" for 'anelon' (destroying) or 'apokteinas' (slaying). Others too use the word thus, such as Stesichoros in Ilioupersis and Sophokles in Eumelos.
§ k6 Kathekonta: Demosthenes in the tenth of the Philippics says, "who did not deem it worthy to do the duties that are upon him," for 'the things that come upon him.' .
§ k8 Kai gar to medena ton machimon aneu tes ton archonton gnomes apodemein (also the fact that none of the warrior class were to go abroad without the consent of the magistrates): While Isokrates in Bousiris says these things about Lacedaemonians it must be mentioned that also those who have written (on) the Lacedaemonians' constitutions have said the same. And Aristotle says that it is not possible for the Lacedaemonians to go abroad, so that they may not grow accustomed to be fond of other laws. Moreover, while Isokrates says that the warrior class alone are barred from going abroad, those in Aristotle's circle say that all Lacedaemonians (are so barred).
§ k10 Kakotechnion (for scheming wrongs): Name of a suit that those who successfully prosecuted one for false witness brought against the one who had furnished him. Demosthenes in Against Timotheos concerning repayment, if it is genuine, and in Against Euergos and Mnesiboulos.
§ k12 Kakoseos (for maltreatment): It is the name of a suit granted to epikleroi against those who have married them, and to parents against their children, and to those who prosecute on behalf of orphans against guardians: Demosthenes, Against Timokrates, and Lysias in On the Estate of Hegesandros and in For ... , and Hypereides, On the Estate of Pyrrhandros. That is was possible also for anyone who wished to bring the charge for maltreatment of parents and to aid the epikleroi is shown both in the aforesaid speech of Hypereides and in Lysias' Against Philonides for violence, if it is genuine. Also it was without water (i.e. not timed by the water-clock).
§ k13 Kalaureia: Demosthenes in the letter On His Own Return. It is an island near Troizen, as Hekataios said in Periodos of the Earth. But Kalaureia previously used to be called Eirene, according as Antikleides says.
§ k14 Kanephoroi (basket carriers): Lykourgos in Against Lykophron. Concerning the basket carriers, Philochoros in book two of Atthis says that, when Erichthonios was king, maidens held in esteem were first appointed to carry the baskets for the goddess, in which were placed the things for the sacrifice, at both the Panathenaia and the other processions.
§ k15 Karkinos: Lysias in the defense On the Dog, if it is genuine: "for the bitches were ruined by frequenting my crab." And whenever the grain takes root in the earth they say that it has spread like a crab. Pherekrates in the Automoloi: "whenever you have time, send rain so that the crops may be crabbed together." A kind of ailment that occurs in bodies is also called 'crab,' which they now call carcinoma. And there is also a proper name, which Isokrates mentions in the Trapezitikos. This would be the general of the Athenians who was sent to sail around the Peloponnese. But about the tragic poet, the son of Xenokles, Lysias in Against Mnesimachos says, "And to these are added also Karkinos the poet, saying: "the wine did not excite. For no occasion induces minds rightly fixed and planted ... to go wrong."" .
§ k16 Karpou dike (suit for fruit/returns): Lysias in Against Demosthenes over guardianship: "for if you accuse this young man, and he has something of yours, then sue him according to the laws: if you dispute about land, then (bring a dike) karpou, and if about a house, then (bring a dike) enoikiou, just as he now (brings) against you (a suit over) guardianship." .
§ k18 Katabole: Demosthenes in the ninth Philippic: "just as a period or instalment of a fever." In the periodic illnesses an 'instalment' is referred to on account of its coming at an appointed time, just as eranos members make instalment-payments of the money.
§ k20 Kata demous dikastas (deme judges): Demosthenes in Against Timokrates. Concerning the deme judges, that previously there used to be 30 and that they used to judge cases by making rounds through the demes, and that they then became 40, Aristotle has said in the Constitution of the Athenians.
§ k22 Katagein ta ploia (to drive the ships ashore): Demosthenes in the eighth Philippic. 'To drive the ships ashore' is said for 'act with violence' and 'maltreat,' and not to permit those who are sailing to sail where they wish, but to drive them into areas that are home to the plunderers, as also Lykourgos shows in Against Leokrates.
§ k23 Katastasis (appointment): Lysias, "(that) you voted that the phylarchs render an account of those who had been in the cavalry, so that you might collect the appointment-money from them." This seems to be money that those appointed as cavalrymen used to receive upon appointment, as the orator himself indicates in the following words. Eupolis in Philoi also suggests this: "you were not so wise, old man, in taking this appointment-money suddenly, before even learning horsemanship." And it is said still more clearly in Plato's Syrphax. The money was returned by those who had served in the cavalry, when others were appointed in their places. The Phylarchs used to demand it.
§ k24 Kata ten agoran apseudein (not telling lies in the agora): Hypereides in Against Athenogenes 1: "accordingly the law orders one not to lie in the agora." The law seems to be laid down concerning goods for sale; Theophrastos, at any rate, in On Laws says that the agoranomoi must take care of these two things, orderliness in the agora and that not only sellers but also buyers not lie." .
§ k25 Katatome (incised face): Hypereides in Against Demosthenes: "and sitting down below the rock face." But Philochoros in book 6 says thus: "Aischraios of Anagyra dedicated the tripod above the theater, having plated it in silver, after he had won in the previous year serving as choregos for the children, and he inscribed it on the incised face of the stone." .
§ k26 Kataplex (stricken): one who has been struck continuously. Lysias in Against Aischines the Socratic, and in Against Andokides for impiety, of the speech is genuine. Theopompos in Tisamenos: "But Eileithyia is pardoned / by the women for being struck with respect to her craft." .
§ k27 Katachysmata (handfuls of treats showered down on someone): Demosthenes in Against Stephanos 1. That the masters of newly purchased (slaves) used to pour down sweets Aristophanes shows in Wealth. But also that ... of those from a spectacle/embassy. They also used to be poured down over bridegrooms, as Theopompos (says) in Hedychares.
§ k28 Katacheirotonia (condemnation vote): It was a custom at Athens to lay probolai against magistrates and against sycophants in the Assembly. If anyone should be condemned, this man would be led into the lawcourt. The word appears many times in Demosthenes in Against Meidias and in Hypereides in For Chairephilos concerning the salt fish. Theophrastos in book four of the Laws discusses the vote of condemnation.
§ k33 Kegchreon: Demosthenes in the counter-suit Against Pantainetos: "and next he persuaded my slaves to sit down at the kegchreon," for 'at the purifying place where they used to dry the granules from the mines,' as Theophrastos indicates in On Mines.
§ k34 Keioi: Lysias in On His Own Benefactions: "the Keians are so great a city." Keos is one of the Cycladic islands, lying alongside Attica. The orator called the island a city. Also Euripides (called) Euboia (a city): "There is a city neighboring Athens, Euboia." And Aristophanes says about Sicily: "What a poor city is ruined." .
§ k37 Keleontes (loom uprights): Antiphon in the defense against the public suit of Demosthenes (says) "where he planted the loom uprights." Properly the histopodes (vertical loom beams) are keleontes, as is clear also in Aristophanes the comic poet. But here the orator could mean, metaphorically, wooden posts.
§ k38 Kerameis: Hypereides in For Xenophilos 1. Kerameis is a deme of the tribe Akamantis, as Diodoros says. Philochoros says in book three that they (the demesmen) took the name from the ceramic craft, and from sacrificing to a hero, Keramos.
§ k39 Kerameikos: Antiphon in Against Nikokles concerning boundaries. That there are two Kerameikoi, as the orator says also, the one inside the city, the other outside it, where they used to bury at public cost those who died in war and used to give the funeral orations, Kallikrates, or Menekles, shows in On Athens.
§ k40 Kerkidas: Demosthenes in the For Ktesiphon, while listing the traitors says "Arkadas Kerkidas." That this man was one of the Macedonian sympathisers, is also said by Theopompos in book 15 of the Philippika.
§ k41 Kerkouros (light vessel): A type of ship: Deinarchos in the Tyrrhenikos.
§ k42 Kerkops: Aeschines in On the Embassy. In the Kerkopes attributed to Homer, it is shown that the Kerkopes were deceivers and liars. Xenagoras says that they turned into monkeys (pithekous) and that the Pithekoussai Islands were named after them. Aischrion the Samian also records their names in the Iambs: Kandoulos and Atlas.
§ k43 Keineas: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. That Keineas was one of those who betrayed the Thessalians' affairs to Philip is agreed also among historians, especially Theopompus in book one, where he also discusses in detail the things about this man.
§ k44 Kersobleptes: The orators mention this man many times, for example Demosthenes, Against Aristokrates. He was the son of Kotys, and when he was quite young was made king of Thrace by his father. That he also waged war at some point against the Athenians over Chersonnesos Isokrates also shows in On Peace.
§ k45 Kestrinoi: Hypereides in On the Salt Fish. A kestrinos is a fish. Whether it differs at all from mullet needs consideration.
§ k46 Kephalos: proper name, demagogue.
§ k55 Kephisodoros: Lykourgos in Against Menesaichmos. This man has been lampooned in comedy as dull. And another would be the Kephisodoros who, while serving as hipparch at Mantineia with Gryllos son of Xenophon, died, whom Deinarchos mentions in Against Kallaischros.
§ k56 Kephisodotos: Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. Androtion in book 5 of Atthis records that he was voted out of office while besieging Alopekonnesos, and after being tried was convicted and paid a fine of 5 talents.
§ k57 Kigklis (latticed gate): Demosthenes in Against Aristogeiton. The doors of the lawcourts used to be called 'latticed gates.' Aristophanes in Daitales: "The heliast was walking toward the latticed gate." .
§ k59 Kinesias: There are two speeches of Lysias against Kinesias, in which he mentions the man many times, saying that he was most impious and unlawful and that the comic poets even write against him every year. This man would be the dithyrambic poet whom the comic poets have mentioned often, Strattis included, writing an entire play against him, which was titled 'Kinesias,' in which he made fun of his impiety.
§ k60 Kirraion pedion (Kirraian plain): Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. Kirra is a city 30 stades from Delphi. The orator, therefore, seems to call that which lies beside this city 'Kirrhaian plain.' .
§ k62 Kittophoros (ivy-wearing): Some write 'kistophoros' (basket-carrying) with the sigma; for they used to say that the so-called kistai (baskets) were sacred to Dionysos and the two goddesses.
§ k63 Klimazei (bends): Deinarchos in the speech titled 'Supporting Speech for Aischines Against Deinias:' "thus, whenever, in defense, one bends and deflects the laws," for 'turns aside and diverts.' But perhaps one must write 'blimazei' (squeezes) so that it is, for example, 'afflicts' and 'violates.' .
§ k64 Klerouchoi: Demosthenes in the eighth of the Philippics. Those whom Athenians used to send to the cities which they took, distributing shares (kleroi) to each, used to be called cleruchs. Isokrates in the Panegyrikos: "for which it is fitting that right minded men have great gratitude, much rather than reproach us for our cleruchies, which we are accustomed to send into those cities that are deserted for the sake of protection of the territories but not owing to greed." But in On the Symmories Demosthenes would call the property/names of those sent out to any other territory whatsoever on a cleruchy 'cleruchic.' For how is it possible for one who is not residing in Athens to serve as trierarch? .
§ k65 Klesis (summons): The summons to court, that is, the order (to come) to trial. Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Moreover, that they also used to say 'proskleseis' (summons) the same (orator) shows in On the Estate of Hagnias.
§ k66 Kleteres kai kleteuein (witnesses to a summons and to be a witness to a summons): the men through whom those who go to law with people summon (them) to the suits are 'kleteres.' For it was necessary that people be present as witnesses to the summons. Isaios in Against Neokles concerning a plot of land. The word is altogether common both among the orators and in old comedy. To become a witness to a summons is 'kleteusai,' as Isaios (shows) in Against Kleomedon. And 'kleteuesthai' and 'ekkleteuesthai' are said with reference to witnesses whenever people do not give heed to the testimony in the courts, and there is a fine against them, 1000 drachmas, as Isaios (shows) in For Python (on a charge of) departure.
§ k67 Kobaleia: Deinarchos in the impeachment Against Pytheas. Childishness affected with deceit used to be called 'kobaleia,' and the one who employs this is a 'kobalos.' It seems to be synonymous with bomolochos (one who lurks by the altar): Philochoros in book 2 of Atthis: "One mustn't believe, as some say, that Dionysos was some kind of bomolochos and kobalos." And Aristotle in book 8 of the History of Animals says that the horned owl, being a kobalos and a mimic, captures (prey) by imitating their dance.
§ k68 Koinon grammateion kai lexiarchikon common and lexiarchic register): the common register is the one into which those being introduced to their phratry members and clansmen used to be enrolled, and the lexiarchic is the one into which those being enrolled in the demes used to be enrolled, as Isaios, in On the Estate of Apollodoros, and other orators show.
§ k69 Koinonikon (held in common): Demosthenes in On the Symmories. He could mean that perhaps brothers who possess undivided property, whose father was able to perform liturgies, though the heirs to his property were not sufficient to perform a trierarchy alone, were 'common-holders.' But perhaps (he could be speaking) about those who contract a voluntary partnership for commerce or some other thing, each of whom did not possess the full value of the common property.
§ k70 Koironidai: There is a speech by Lykourgos entitled, "Diadikasia of the Krokonidai Against Koironidai," which some think is by Philinos. The Koironidai are a family, about whom Istros speaks in the Attic Collection. They would have been named after Koiron, who they say was an illegitimate brother of Krokon, as a result of which the Krokonidai were more honoured. The author of the speech, whoever he is, says that they were called by three names, the Koironidai, Philieis, and Perithoidai.
§ k72 Kolonetai: Hypereides in Against Apellaios about the Treasury. They used to call hired laborers Kolonetai, because they stood near the Kolonos (Mound) which is near the Agora, where the Hephaisteion and the Eurysakeion are. This Kolonos was called Agoraios (of the Agora). There was also another Kolonos near the temple of Poseidon, as Hypereides (says) in Against Autokles; this might have been the one that belonged to the Cavalrymen. Pherekrates (says) in Petale: "You, where have you come from? I was hurrying to Kolonos, / Not Agoraios, but the one belonging to the Cavalrymen." Demosthenes says, "among those from Kolonos". Diodoros the Periegete and Philochoros in book three of Atthis discussed the Kolonoi.
§ k73 Komistika ploia (transport ships): Hypereides in On Protection against the Tyrrhenians. Ships on which the Tyrrhenians used to transport captured plunder seem to have been called transport ships, as the orator himself indicates in the speech.
§ k74 Kommata kai kyrebia: Deinarchos in the impeachment Against Kallisthenes. Kyrebia are husks and kommata seem to be certain parts either of the stalk or of the parts that are around the grain itself on the ear, or of the beards.
§ k75 Kordakismos (dancing the kordax): Demosthenes in the Philippics. The kordax is a kind of comic dance, as Aristoxenos says in On Tragic Dance. The word appears often in old comedy, for example in Nikophon.
§ k76 Koroplathos: Isokrates in On the Antidosis. They used to call thus those who model girls or boys out of clay or or wax or some such material.
§ k78 Kotylaion oros (Mount): Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. The mountain appears to belong to Euboia. Archemachos at any rate in book three of Euboika says, "Kotylos then seems to cover/include the mountain that is now called 'Kotylaion' after that (place)." .
§ k79 Kotys: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. This man ruled Thrace for 24 years, and at first spent his time on luxuriousness and easy living, but then when his prosperity increased he was carried away into cruelty and rage; for example, his wife from whom he had children, he sliced down the middle with his own hands, starting from her pudenda.
§ k80 Krauallidai: Aischines in the Against Ktesiphon. Didymos says it should be written Kraugallidai, since the place in Phokaia near Kirrai is called Kraugallion, as Xenagoras records in book 4 of the Chronicles.
§ k82 Krithoten: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Krithote is one of the cities in Chersonnesos, as Hellanikos says in book 1 of the Troika. And Ephoros says in the fourth book that it was colonized by Athenians who were there with Miltiades.
§ k85 Ktesiou Dios (of Zeus Ktesios): Hypereides in Against Apellaios. They used to set up (statues of) Zeus Ktesios in their storerooms. Menander (says) in Pseuderakles (False Herakles): "Now whenever I see a parasite entering the women's apartments, and Zeus Ktesios not keeping the storeroom locked, but whores running in" .
§ k86 Ktesiphon: Demosthenes in Against Aischines: "For at first, until Philip obtained leave to speak on the peace, Ktesiphon and Aristodemos were carrying out the beginning of the cheating." He was one of the ten ambassadors who went on the embassy with Demosthenes and Aischines. Each of the orators at any rate in his speech on the embassy mentions him several times. The one who wrote the decree on the crown for Demosthenes, against whom is the speech by Aischines, Against Ktesiphon, could be some other person.
§ k91 Kykloi (Circles): Deinarchos in Against Kallaischros. They used to call 'Circles' the places where people were sold. They were after the fact that the people being sold stood around in a circle. Menander (says) in Ephesios (The Man from Ephesus): "I already seem to see myself by the gods naked in the Circles, running in a circle and being sold." .
§ k96 Kypassis: Lysias in For Bacchios and Pythagoras, if it is genuine. The gloss-writers say that the kypassis is itself a type of chiton, some that it is a woman's, others that it is a man's. And Hipponax has mentioned it, as well as Hekataios in Periodos of Europe, saying, "Kissians wear Persian kypasseis as clothing;" also Aristophanes in Tagenistai.
§ k97 Kyrbeis: Lykourgos in On the Priestess. Apollodoros says in On Gods that kyrbeis hold the inscribed laws, and that they are stones standing upright, which after their upright posture they used to call 'stelai' and after their rising to a height, owing to the fact that they were crested, they used to call 'kyrbeis,' just like a kyrbasia (Persian cap) that is placed on the head. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says, "Having inscribed the laws on the kyrbeis, they erected them in the Royal Stoa." .
§ k100 Kyria ekklesia (chief assembly): Hypereides in Against Demeas for xenia, if it is genuine. What the chief assemblies were Aristotle has shown in the Constitution of the Athenians, saying that the prytaneis convene the council and the people, the council daily, except if it is a holiday, and the people four times each prytany: "And they give prior notice," he says, "also of a chief assembly in which it is necessary to vote out the magistrates who seem not to be performing their magistracies well, and (to discuss) concerning the defense of the territory." And he says that those who wish bring impeachments on that day, and so forth.
§ k103 Kolias: Demosthenes in Against Neaira, if it is genuine. Kolias is a seaside headland in Attica, named by way of metaphor from the 'kolon' (limb). There is a temple of Aphrodite there. Aristophanes has mentioned it at the beginning of the Lysistrata.
§ l1 Lagiska: Lysias in Against Laidas, if it is genuine. Also Strattis the comic poet mentions Lagiska the prostitute thus: "I saw Isokrates' concubine Lagiska plucking figs, still in bed, and the flute-borer himself." .
§ l3 Lampas (torch): Lysias in Against Euphemos. Athenians celebrate three torch feasts, at the Panathenaia and Hephaistia and Prometheia, as Polemon says in On the Paintings in the Propylaia. But Istros in book one of the Atthis, saying that in the feast of the Apatouria, those Athenians who have donned the finest garments, taking lit torches from the hearth, hymn Hephaistos while sacrificing, a reminder of the fact that having perceived the use of fire he taught it to the rest.
§ l4 Lamptreis (demesmen from Lamptrai): Demosthenes in Against Kallippos. Lamptrai is a deme of the tribe Erechtheis, as Diodoros says. There are two Lamptrai, the coastal and the upper. Aristophanes in Amphiareus: "I am a Lamptrian, from lower (Lamptriai)." .
§ l9 Leschai (lounges): Antiphon in Against Nikokles. They used to call certain public places in which many used to sit, taking it easy, 'lounges.' Homer: "Do you not wish to rest, going to a bronze shop or to a lounge somewhere?" Kleanthes, in On Gods, says that the lounges were assigned to Apollo and that they were similar to exedras, and that among some the god is nicknamed 'lounge-guardian.' .
§ l11 Leuke: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon, "crowned with fennel and white poplar." Those performing Bacchic ritual are crowned with white poplar on account of that plant's being chthonic, and the fact that Persephone's Dionysos is also chthonic. And they say that white poplar grew by the Acheron, whence it is also called 'acherois' in Homer: "And he fell as when an oak falls, or a poplar, or a tall pine" .
§ l17 Lexiarchikon grammateion (lexiarchic register): Aischines in Against Timarchos, (it is the record) into which used to be enrolled those children who had passed into adulthood, for whom it was possible thenceforth to administer their patrimony, according to which the word also (seems) to have arisen, on account of 'taking control of one's shares' (lexeon archein). One's estates and properties are 'shares' (lexeis), as Deinarchos (says) in the supporting speech for an epikleros Against Hegelochos [Keaney: ἐν τῇ Κατὰ Ἡγελόχου"].
§ l20 Lithos (stone): Demosthenes in Against Konon: "and of those present with us, leading them one by one to the stone and administering the oath." Athenians seem to make their oaths at some stone, as Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians and Philochoros in book 3 indicate.
§ l21 Liknophoros (carrying the winnowing fan): Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. The winnowing fan is useful for every rite and sacrifice. So, the one who carries this would be called a winnowing fan carrier (liknophoros).
§ l24 Logistai kai logisteria (auditors and auditors' offices): There is an office among Athenians so called. They are ten in number, who audit the public scrutinies of the matters administered (by magistrates) within 30 days of whenever the magistrates lay down their offices: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. Aristotle has discussed these in the Constitution of the Athenians, where he shows that they are different from the euthynoi. The comic poets too have mentioned the office. Eupolis in the Cities: "gentlemen auditors of the choruses under scrutiny." The offices of the auditors are logisteria, as Deinarchos in Against Timokrates and Andokides in On the Mysteries show.
§ l28 Loutrophoros and loutrophorein (bath water carrier and to carry bath water): It was a custom for people getting married to send for bath-water for themselves on the day of their wedding, and for this they used to send the male child who was the most closely related, and these boys would carry the water. It was a custom also when people died unmarried to have a loutrophoros placed on the tomb. This was a boy holding a water jar. Deinarchos talks about these things both in his Against Theodotos and in the impeachment Against Kallisthenes. That they used to fetch the bath-water from the spring that is now called Enneakrounos, but was formerly called Kallirhoe Philostephanos says in On Springs. The comic poets have also mentioned the custom.
§ l30 Lykeion: Demosthenes in Against Timokrates. The Lykeion is one of the gymnasia among the Athenians, which Theopompos in the 21st book (says) that Peisistratos made; but Philochoros in the 4th book says that it arose when Perikles was epistates.
§ l31 Lykiourgeis: Demosthenes in Against Timotheos. Didymos says that the phialai made by Lykios son of Myron were so called. But the grammatikos seems not to know that one would not find such a formation arising from proper names, but rather from cities and peoples. Kritias says "Milesian-made couch" in the Constitution of the Lakedaimonians. Perhaps, then, one ought to write also in Herodotos in book seven, instead of "two wolf-made spears," "Lycian-made," so that, just as in Demosthenes, things made in Lykia may be so named.
§ l33 Lysandros: A proper name, a naval commander of the Lakedaimonians.
§ l34 Lysimachos: Demosthenes in On The Tax Immunities. He was a son of Aristides, who was called The Just. But there is another Lysimachos, whom Lykourgos mentions in On the Financial Administration as a worthless lyric poet.
§ m1 Maimakterion: The fifth month among Athenians. Demosthenes in Against Timotheos. It was named after Zeus Maimaktes. One who is ecstatic and disturbing is 'maimaktes,' as Lysimachides says in On the Months at Athens. And when winter gets its start in this month the air is disturbed and keeps changing.
§ m2 Makrokephaloi (bigheaded ones): Antiphon in On Concord. There is a nation so called which also Hesiod has mentioned in book three of the Catalogue of Women. Palaiphatos in book seven of the Troika says that the Makrokephaloi live in Libya beyond the Kolchians.
§ m3 Malkiomen (we go numb): Demosthenes in the ninth of the Philippics says, "we are idle and go soft." In some it is written 'malkiomen' (we go numb), which shows that one's ass is shivering. Aischylos: "Drive on, pursue, numb in your unwearied foot." .
§ m5 Mantineion dioikismos (Mantineans' displacement): Isokrates in On The Peace, speaking about Lakedaimonians, says, "they displaced the Mantineans," and Ephoros in the 20th book says that the Lakedaimonians displaced the Mantineans' city into 5 villages.
§ m6 Margites: Aischines in Against Ktesiphon: "and he gave a nickname, 'Margites,' to Alexander." Also Marsyas in book 3 of On Alexander gives an account, saying that Alexander was called 'Margites' by Demosthenes. And they used to call senseless people thus, on account of the Margites attributed to Homer, which very poem Kallimachos seems to admire.
§ m7 Maroneia: Demosthenes in the counter-suit against Pantainetos. It is a place in Attica. Maroneia is, however, also a city in Thrace, which they say was called Ismaros by Homer. And both Demosthenes in Against Polykles and Ephoros in the fourth book refer to it.
§ m8 Massalia: Isokrates says in Archidamos that Phokaians sent a colony to Massalia after fleeing from the tyranny of the Great King. But that Massalia had already been settled by the Phokaians before this time, Aristotle also shows in his Constitution of the Massaliotes.
§ m9 Masteira: In the eighth of the Phillipics Demosthenes (says), "awful (places) in Thrace. For what else could a person call Droggilon and Kabyle and Masteira?" Perhaps one ought to write 'Basteira' or 'Pisteira' or 'Epimastos,' since we find these cities in Anaximenes in book 7 of Matters Concerning Philip, but (we find) Masteira receiving mention nowhere.
§ m10 Masteres (searchers): Hypereides in Against Pankalos. It seems to have been an office assigned to searching out common property of the people, like the 'inquirers' (zetetai) and the 'searchers' (mastroi) in Pellene, as Aristotle (says) in the Constitution of the Pellenians.
§ m11 Matryleion (brothel): Deinarchos in Against Proxenos. Herakleon and Didymos say that it is a place in which old women spend time receiving those who wish to get drunk. Menander in Epitrepontes: "will he not lament, having wasted his life in a matryleion?" .
§ m13 Machatas: proper name.
§ m14 Medimnos: Deinarchos in Against Kallisthenes. It is a measure for dry goods, such as wheat or barley, and it holds 48 choinikes, just as Nikandros of Thyateira says in Explanations of the Attic dialect.
§ m15 Methone: Demosthenes in the Philippics. He would mean the one in Thrace, while besieging which Philip lost his right eye. Demetrios the Magnesian in Synonymous Cities says that there were four Methones.
§ m16 Meion and Meiagogos (too little and man bringing too little): Isaios in Against Stratokles says "He presented a meion." It is a sacrifice which those introducing their sons to them offered to the phratores. Eratosthenes in his books On Comedy says thus: "Given that there is a law not to introduce less (meion) than a determined amount, jesting in fun they used to tell every man who introduced (his son) that he had introduced too little (meion)." Apollodoros in his books On The Gods says, "The phratores, in order to receive larger portions, used to stand around and say, 'It must be weighed, for it is too little (meion).'" Regarding the meiagogos, Eupolis says in Demoi: "Therefore no general since that time could, like a meiagogos feasting ... outweigh that man's victory." To contribute the meion to the phratores is 'bring the meion' (meiagogesai), as Lysias (says) in Against Demosthenes for guardianship.
§ m17 Melanippeion: Lykourgos in Against Lykophron. It is a hero shrine of Melanippos son of Theseus, as Asklepiades says in Tragoidoumena. But Kleidemos in book 1 of Atthis says that it is in Melite.
§ m19 Meline (millet): Demosthenes in the Philippics. It is a pulse seed, and they say it in the masculine. But Sophokles in Triptolemos (uses) the feminine, "a stem of meline," and Herodotos, "sowing meline." Xenophon, Anabasis book 1, (says) "of grain and meline," but in the same work, "much sesame and melinos" and in book 6, "all pulses and melinoi." Some, then, reckon that meline is a type of millet (kegchros), the same thing that some call elymos (millet). But Theophrastos in book 7 of On Plants records that these are different: "kegchros or meline or elymos." .
§ m20 Melite: Demosthenes in Against Konon. It is a deme of the tribe Kekropis. Philochoros in book 3 says that the deme was named after Melite, the daughter of Myrmex, according to Hesiod, but of Apollo son of Zeus, according to Mousaios.
§ m23 Mesegguema: the agreed sum of money (deposited) with a middle man who is serving as guarantor for the payment. And to do this is called 'to deposit a sum with a middle man guarantor' as Aischines indicates in Against Ktesiphon.
§ m25 Metalleis (miners): Lysias in Against Diochares, if it is genuine. Those who work the mines are called metalleis. There is also a play of Phrekrates, Metalleis, which Eratosthenes in book 7 of On Old Comedy says that Nikomachos wrote.
§ m26 Metapyrgion (curtain wall): Lysias in On His Own Benefactions. The intervening construction between towers in a wall used to be called a 'metapyrgion.' So also Thucydides many times, for example in the third book.
§ m27 Metoikion (metic tax): Hypereides in Against Aristagora. He who changes his home from one city to another, and not visiting for a short time as an alien, but having established residence there, is a metic. There used to be paid by them each year twelve drachmas, which was called 'metoikion,' as Euboulos shows in Plaggon. And Isaios indicates in Against Elpagoras and (Against) Demophanes that a man used to pay twelve drachmas in metoikion and a woman six, and that if her son dies the mother did not pay; but if he is not dead she does pay. And that slaves, when they were freed by their masters, also used to pay the metoikion, Aristomenes and other comic poets have shown. And Menander in Anatithemene and Didymai says that these (freedmen) pay also a triobol in addition to the twelve drachmas, perhaps to the tax-collector. Those metics, however, who do not pay the metoikion were brought before the poletai, and if they were convicted they were sold, as Demosthenes says in Against Aristogeiton. They also used to board the metics on their ships, as the orator shows in the Philippics. And the comic poets used to call the metics 'bowls', since in the processions they used to carry the bowls.
§ m29 Metronomoi (weights and measures inspectors): an office at Athens is that of the metronomoi, as Deinarchos (says) in Against Kallisthenes. They were 10 in number, five in Peiraieus and five in the city, and they used to take care that the sellers' measures were lawful, as also Aristotle shows in the Constitution of the Athenians.
§ m30 Metaulos (inner court): Lysias in the defense On the Murder of Eratosthenes. The so-called dirty court is the 'metaulos,' where the birds were. Aristophanes in the Lemnian Women and Menander in Thais.
§ m35 Molpis: Lysias in On the Estate of Diogenes says, "Molpis, one of the ten in Peiraieus." For the ten men in the time of the Thirty were ruling in Peiraieus, one of whom was Molpis, as Androtion (says) in book three of Atthis.
§ m40 Mousaios: Lysias, against the public suit of Mixidemos, if it is genuine: "and that two slaves are following him, of whom this man calls the one Mousaios and the other Hesiod." That the man brought to trial contrived to call the slaves thus is clear. But concerning Mousaios, Aristoxenos in Praxidamanteia says that some have said that the man is from Thrace and others that he is a native from Eleusis. And about him Glaukos and others have spoken.
§ m41 Moran: Demosthenes in the Phillipics. Certain Laconian contingents are called this. Aristotle has discussed them in the Constitution of the Lakedaimonians. And he says that there are six named morai and that all Lakedaimonians have been divided into moras. And Xenophon says in the Constitution of the Lakedaimonians, "and each of the civil morai has one polemarch, 4 lochagoi, 8 pentekostyes, and 10 enomotarchoi." .
§ m43 Myrioi en Magalei polei (ten thousand in Megalopolis): Demosthenes in Against Aischines. It is a common council of all Arcadians, which the historians mention many times. And Aristotle too has discussed them in the Common Constitution of Arcadians, as he begins the book.
§ m45 Myrtis: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon, recounting those who betrayed each city says, "Myrtis, Teledamos, Mnaseas (betrayed the) Argives." But Theopompos in the 51st book names Paseas and Amyrtaios as the Macedonizers among the Argives. Thus, (one must) see whether they are graphic errors.
§ m46 Myson leian (Mysians' plunder): Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. It is a proverb, so said, which Demon says in book 1 of On Proverbs took its origin from those neighbors and brigands who ravaged Mysia during the absence of King Telephos. Others have used the proverb, including Strattis in Medea and Simonides in iambics.
§ n1 Nais: A certain prostitute: Lysias in Against Philonides, if it is genuine, and Aristophanes in Gerytades. And perhaps also in Wealth, where the comic poet says, "Does Lais not love Philonides on account of you?" one ought to write it with the ny, Nais.
§ n2 Nannion: Hypereides in Against Patrokles, if it is genuine. Apollodoros in On the Prostitutes says that this prostitute is called Aix (Goat) on account of the fact that she devoured Thallos the shopkeeper. For that goats enjoy a shoot (thallos) Sophokles also (shows) in Shepherds: "For at dawn, before any of the farm servants saw, / as I was bringing a fresh-plucked shoot for the she-goats / I saw an army marching on the headland by the sea." And there is mention of her also in comedy. And Antiphanes the younger in On the Prostitutes says that Nannion is nicknamed Proskenion (Backdrop) on account of the fact that she seems to have a better figure on the outside.
§ n3 Naukleros: Hypereides in On the Salt Fish uses the word not only as is the custom, but also applied to him who has leased (a property) with a view to collecting rents, either from a house or a tenement, as the same orator shows in Against Aristogeiton, as does Sannyrion in Gelos, and Diphilos in Emporos.
§ n4 Naukrarika (Things of the Naukraroi): Demosthenes in Against Timokrates. But perhaps it is transmitted better in the Attic authors as Naukratitika (things from Naukratis), so that it comes from a Naukratitic ship or Naukratitic sailors. For Naukratis was the ancient trading port of Egypt. But if it is naukrarika, it would be things to do with the archons: for they used to call archons naukraroi, as Herodotus indicates in book 5. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says "they established demarchs who had the same responsibility as the former naukraroi." [they made demes in place of naucraries.] .
§ n5 Nautodikai: Lysias in Against Alkibiades, if the speech is genuine. The nautodikai were an office at Athens. Krateros at any rate in book 4 of On Decrees says, "if someone born from two foreign parents joins a phratry, it is for him who wishes of the Athenians — to whom suits are available — to prosecute, and bring suit before the nautidikai on the last day of the month." Aristophanes, in Daitaleis, "Dunking a foreigner, I want to (haul him) right off to the nautodikai." .
§ n7 Nebrizon (wearing/robing in a fawnskin): Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. Some (see this) as pertaining to an initiate when he has tied on a fawnskin or is girding the initiands in fawnskins, but others (see it) applying to ripping fawns apart according to some unspeakable precept. Fawnskin wearing (nebrismos) also appears in Arignotes, in On the Teletai.
§ n8 Neelata (newly rolled): Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon, by ellipsis for 'newly rolled barley groats,' newly ground, soaking which in honey and throwing in raisins and green chickpeas, they used to distribute them to those performing the rituals. Some used to call this 'ambrosia,' and others, 'bliss.' .
§ n10 Nemeas: Hypereides mentions Nemeas the pipe-girl [Νεμέας: Νεμέαδος αὐλητρίδος] in Against Patrokles, if it is genuine. Polemon in On the Acropolis adduces a decree according to which it was forbidden in Athens to give the name of a penteteric festival to a slave-woman or freedwoman or prostitute or pipe-girl; it is reasonable to wonder, then, how the pipe-girl was named thusly.
§ n13 Neoria kai neosoikoi (shipyards and shipsheds): Perhaps the whole place into which the triremes are hauled up and hauled down back out of it is called 'dockyards,' as Lykourgos indicates in Defense of His Policy and Andokides in On the Peace, if the speech is genuine.
§ n16 Nikanor: Hypereides in Against Demosthenes. There have been three Nikanors, one a son of Balakros, and another a son of Parmenion, and another a Stagirite by descent, whom the orator would mention here.
§ n17 Nike Athena: Lykourgos in On The Priestess. That the wingless xoanon (wooden statue) of Nike Athena with a pomegranate in her right hand and a helmet in her left was honored by the Athenians, Heliodoros the periegete has shown in book 1 of On the Acropolis.
§ n18 Notheia (bastard's inheritance): Things given to bastards from their patrimony used to be called so, and it was up to one thousand drachmas. Lysias in Against Kalliphanes for xenia (being a foreigner), if it is genuine, Isaios Against Lysibios regarding inheritance. Aristophanes in Birds: "What if my father gives me his money as bastard's inheritance when he dies? The law doesn't allow him." In which things it was not possible for bastards to participate Hypereides has shown in Against Aristagoras 2. Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates says that they used to pay for the Kynosarges.
§ n19 Nomophylakes (guardians of the laws): An office among Athenians used to be so called, different from the thesmothetai: Deinarchos, Against Himeraios, and in Against Pytheas. Philochoros in the seventh book discussed other things about them including that they used to compel the magistrates to use the laws.
§ x1 Xenizein (to speak with a foreign accent): Demosthenes in the ephesis Against Euboulides, many times. Some (say that it is) as it were to use a foreign dialect/language, but perhaps it would be spending time in a foreign land instead.
§ x2 Xenikon en Korinthoi (mercenary contingent in Korinth): Demosthenes in the Philippics and Aristophanes in Ploutos. Konon first organized it, and Iphikrates later took it over, and also Chabrias, using which they cut down the Lakedaimonians' division when Iphikrates was their general, and Kallikles, according as Androtion and Philochoros say.
§ x3 Xeniteuomenous (serving as mercenaries abroad): for 'serving for pay:' Isokrates in Philip and in one of the letters to Philip. Antiphanes in Euthydikos: "I was on campaign, serving as a mercenary." .
§ x4 Xeraloiphein (to rub dry with oil): Aischines, Against Timarchos. They use to call anointing without washing 'rubbing dry with oil,' as Didymos (says) in book 28 of Tragic Speech and Nikandros in book 18 of Attic Dialect, adding that perhaps also that which is called 'dry-rubbing' by trainers (lit. anointers) used to be so called. Sophokles in Peleus: "and dry-rubbing through the garment's folds." .
§ x6 Xystis (robe): Lysias in Against Nikodemos and Kritoboulos. The xystis is an embroidered woman's garment, as some of the comic playwrights make clear including Antiphanes in his Pleasant Voyage: "the man dressed elaborately as if in a xystis". There is also a garment used in tragedies that is so called, as Kratinos (says) in his Hours. It is also an equestrian garment, as Aristophanes (says) in his Clouds.
§ o1 Obolostatoi (weighs obols): For "lends," Lysias in Against Nikides, if genuine. In Against Lakrates he says, making it clear, "Not even if one should reckon much less interest than these obol-weighing men exact from others." And they used to call lenders "obol-weighers," as in Hypereides, in Against Polyeuktos, and often in comedy.
§ o2 Hodos [road]: Demosthenes in the Against Aristokrates says "or killing him on the road" instead of in an ambush or "enedra" [lying in wait]. They say also that this is the sense of the Homeric word "elthemenai". But if the first syllable should is written with smooth breathing [odos], it denotes 'threshold,' as in Lysias in Against Philippos, if the speech is genuine.
§ o4 Oiethen (from Oie): Isaios in Against Elpagoras. Oie is a deme of the tribe Pandionis, as Diodoros (says). 'Oiethen' is an adverb of place. Philochoros in the third book recounts that Oie is the daughter of Kephalos and wife of Charops.
§ o5 Oikeos (inmate of one's house): Lysias in Against Theomnestos, as it were explaining the word, says, "the 'house-member' is 'servant.' .
§ o6 Oikema [building]: Instead of "prison" [desmoterion] by Deinarchos in the Tyrrhenian Speech and in the Against Poseidippos; instead of "brothel" [porneion] by Aischines in the Against Timarchos .
§ o7 Oikiskoi (in a small room): For 'in a small house,' Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. The Attic authors used to call what's called a 'bird coop' by us an 'oikiskos:' Aristophanes in Pelargoi, Metagenes in Aurai. And on the basis of these, Didymos seems, being misled/at a loss, to interpret also the Demosthenic example (the same way).
§ o9 Oinoe kai Oinaios: Hypereides in Against Aristogeiton: "and they said that they had heard in Oinoe that a battle had taken place." Oinoe is a deme of the tribe Hippothontis, by Eleutherai, but the (Oinoe) of the tribe Aiantis is by Marathon. The demesman from each of the demes is called Oinaios. Here the orator would be mentioning the one by Eleutherai, which Thucydides also mentions in the second book.
§ o10 Oion: Isaios in the On the Adoption. There are twin demes in Attica, said in the neuter, and they are called Oion. Philochoros says in the third book that they were so called owing to the fact that they nowhere had an inhabited place and were isolated, for the ancients used to call isolation 'oion.' There is Oion Kerameikon, in the tribe Leontis, and Oion Dekeleikon, in the tribe Hippothontis, as Diodoros (says). The demesmen from each used to be called 'from Oion.' But those who are called 'Oiethen' [from Oe] were others, as previously stated.
§ o11 Hoios ei kai hoios te ei (you wish and you can): The one without the τε denotes 'you wish' and 'you prefer,' and the one with the τε 'you are able.' Lysias used both in Against Lysitheos, if it is genuine.
§ o13 Hoti diamartanei: That Demosthenes in Against Neaira is mistaken in says that the Plataeans are depicted in the Stoa Poikile; for no one has said this, for example, not even Krateros in the Collection of Decrees.
§ o14 Ho katothen nomos (the law below): Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Didymos says, "Either the orator means the Heliaia on account of the fact that of the courts some were called upper and others lower, or on account of the fact that the manner of the writing written on the axones was boustrophedon, in which [Keaney: γεγραμμένης ᾗ τὸν] Demosthenes calls the law that begins from the left 'from below.' For," he says, "that the axones and kyrbeis had been written boustrophedon Euphorion in Apollodoros has made clear. Or since," he says, "Ephialtes moved the axones and kyrbeis from above, from the Akropolis, to the bouleuterion and the agora, as Anaximenes says in the Philippika." .
§ o15 Hoti hexakischilia en talanta to timema tes Attikes (that the assessment value of Attika was six thousand talents). Demosthenes in On the Symmories says thus: "He will hear that we have as means the assessment value of the territory, eight thousand talents." This, then, is either a scribal error or perhaps the orator is carrying (his audience away) with him so that the city appears to have greater means for the war against the king. For that the assessment value of Attica was six thousand talents he says in the following bits, at the close of the speech, offering an account of them in detail, as does Philochoros in book 10 of Atthis.
§ o16 Oligoresete (you will make little account of): for 'you will neglect,' Demosthenes in the Philippics. For to have little care is called 'to make little account of.' And 'little' is for 'not even a little,' as in "Tydeus bore a son indeed little like himself." 'Attention is 'care.' .
§ o17 Holoschoinoi (club-rush): Aischines in On the Embassy. Theophrastos in book 4 of On Plants, saying that there are 3 types of rush, says that the third, surpassing in size and meatiness, is called club-rush.
§ o18 Homereuontas (people serving as hostages): People Serving as Hostages: Aischines in Against Ktesiphon, applying to the Lacedaemonians who were sent to Alexandros. Kleitarchos says in book 5 that those who were given as hostages by the Lakedaimonians were 50. Those given on condition of an agreement are hostages (homeroi), for "to agree" is "to meet" (homeresai): Homer: "A messenger met me coming from your companions." Theopompos says that among the ancients "to follow" was called "to meet;" thus, those who are given on condition of following agreements are therefore, he says, called hostages.
§ o19 Homeridai: Isokrates in Peace. The Homeridai were a clan on Chios, the one which Akousilaos in book 3 and Hellanikos in his Atlantias say was named after the poet. But Seleukos in book 2 of his On Lives says that Krates was mistaken in thinking in his Hieropoiiai that the Homeridai were descendants of the poet; for they were named after hostages (homera), since the ancient Chian women, having gone out of their minds at the Dionysia, came to fight with the men, and after giving brides and grooms to each other as hostages ('homera'), they stopped fighting, whose descendants they say were the Homeridai.
§ o21 homose ienai [to come together]: Hypereides in the Against Athenogenes says "but I want to come together at this speech" instead of parabalesthai [compare, match against]. This is said after the metaphor of military forces coming together, instead of "going to the same place from opposing sides and not being turned back nor fleeing." .
§ o22 homou: Demosthenes in the Against Aristogeiton says "There are altogether [homou] twenty thousand Athenians in all" instead of "nearly" [engys]. This is common among Attic writers. Menandros, too, says somewhere "For now she is altogether [homou] about to give birth." .
§ o23 Onetor: Isokrates in On the Antidosis. The speeches written by Demosthenes regarding ejectment would have been directed against him. That he was one of the Athenian choros sponsors, Heliodoros, On the Tripods of Athens.
§ o25 Oxythymia (refuse): Hypereides says in Against Demades, "regarding whom much more justly would the stele be set up among the crossroads-refuse (oxythymia) than among our temples." Some, of whom Aristarchos is one, say that the wooden things from which some people are hanged are 'oxythymia,' because they used their spirit (thymos) angrily (oxeos); when they cut them down they cast them beyond the borders and burn them. Didymos adducing a word from Antikleides' Exegetika says, "refuse and castoffs are called 'oxythymia;' for they carry these off to the crossroads, whenever they purify their houses." In the commentary on Against Demades he says that the things at the crossroads belong to Hekate, where some people used to bring purificatory offerings, which are called 'oxythymia.' Eupolis (says) in Demoi: "whom they should have burnt crackling at the crossroads and among the oxythymia as an offering for the city." The word also appears in Pytheas, in Against Adeimantes.
§ o26 Opisthodomos: Demosthenes in On Organization. "Recently, of course, some people broke into the opisthodomos." The room at the back of the temple of Athena is so called, in which they used to put away the money.
§ o27 Orgas: Demosthenes in On Syntaxis. The bushy and hilly and uncultivated places are called an 'orgas,' whence also the Megarian orgas is so named, since it is such a place, concerning which the Athenians warred against the Megarians.
§ o28 Orgeonas: There is a speech of Isaios Against Orgeones, and those who gather in honor of gods and heroes are orgeones. For to sacrifice and perform the customary things is to perform ritual (orgiazein), either from raising (oregein) one's hands, or from secret rites (orgia), or on account of the fact that one performs the rituals in meadows (orgades) and groves. The poets, however, used to apply the word simply to the priests, as Antimachos (does) somewhere, and Aischylos (does) in Mysoi. Perhaps later it was custom that some people coming together in honor of the dead and orgeones were named alike, as it is possible to understand from Theophrastos' will.
§ o31 Orignethenai (to stretch oneself after): For 'to desire;' Antiphon in On Truth book one.
§ o32 Horkane (enclosure): Lykourgos in the second speech Against Lykophron. Perhaps the fence, that is, the enclosing fence and the dry-stacked wall is so called, from 'herykein' (to keep back) or from its being a 'herkos' (fence). Homer: "they were laying walls, as fence for the vineyard." .
§ o34 Horos (boundary): So the Attic authors used to call documents that were set upon houses and land that lay under (a debt), showing that they lay under (a debt) to a lender: Demosthenes in Against Spoudias and Menander in Parakatatheke.
§ o35 Oron: A farm implement, as Isaios indicates in the Against Diokles. It may well be that in Aischylos' Cercyon and in Menandros' Second Heiress, "oron" indicates a wooden thing with which one presses grapes when they have been trodden.
§ o38 Hosion (sacred/profane): Hypereides in Against Aristogeiton says, "and the money, both sacred and profane," which Isokrates also (says) in Areopagitikos, "to both sacred and profane." That 'the profane' (ta hosia) are 'public things' Demosthenes shows in Against Timokrates
§ o39 Oschophoroi (carriers of vine branches): Hypereides in Against Demeas, if it is genuine. Concerning the oschophoroi others have spoken, including Philochoros in the second book. But Istros in the thirteenth book, talking about Theseus, writes thus, that Athens/Theseus(?) deemed fit to select two so-called oschophoroi from those who were distinguished in birth and wealth. The osche is a branch with grape clusters hung upon it. Some call this an 'oreschas.' .
§ o41 That over drinks Satyros begged from Philip the release of certain guest-friends of his, who were digging in Philip's vineyard, as prisoners and bound, Aischines says in On the Embassy; but Demosthenes says in Against Aeschines that he begged for the release of Apollophanes' daughters, and he rather seems to speak the truth. For also Aristotle, in one of the letters to Philip, says that he released the daughters of Apollophanes to Satyros the actor.
§ o42 That those convicted of involuntary homicide used to have authority over administration of their own affairs Demosthenes indicates in Against Aristokrates, and Theophrastos makes clear in the thirteenth book of the Laws.
§ o43 That adopted sons did not use to have authority to return to their paternal home, unless they should leave legitimate sons in the home of him who had adopted them, Antiphon in the guardianship case Against Kallistratos and Solon in the twenty-first (sc. axon) of the Laws (show).
§ o47 That women who were disorderly on the roads used to be fined a thousand (drachmas) Hypereides in Against Aristagora 2 has said. And Kroboulos the comic poet says that the law that was in effect regarding these was Philippides'.
§ o49 Ousias dike (private action for property): Those bringing suit concerning lands or houses against those who possessed them used to bring the second action for property. The first was for rent for houses and produce for lands, and a third in addition to these was for ejectment. And it used to be possible for those who lost to possess their property even if they should be defeated in the action for produce or for rent and if they should be defeated in the second action for property. But if they should also be convicted of ejectment it was no longer possible to possess, but it was necessary to relinquish thenceforth their possessions to those who had brought suit against them. These things appear also in other orators but have been said most precisely by Isaios in Against Timonides concerning land and Against Dorotheos for ejectment. Theophrastos too has discussed the action in book eighteen of On Laws.
§ o51 Ocheion (stud horse): For 'carriage:' Deinarchos in the defense Against Antiphanes concerning the horse, but the same author in the same speech (uses it) for 'appointed for breeding.' For he says, "They are buying from me the stud horse." But Lykourgos in On Administration speaks of neighbors of the ocheion, and perhaps applied it to a place in which breeding of stock takes place or carriages are let.
§ p2 Paianeis kai Paionidai (demesmen of Paiania and Paionidai): Aischines in Against Ktesiphon: "when he brought public suit before the Areopagos against Demomeles of the deme Paiania, his cousin." Didymos says that it must be written 'Paiania,' without the epsilon. There are twin demes of Paianieis in the tribe Pandionis, which Diodoros says are called Kathyperthen (Upper) Paiania and Upenerthen (Lower) Paiania. And he says that the demesman of each of the demes alike is called a Paianeus. But these differ from Paionidai, as Istros indicates in Ataktos. The orators also mention these, for example, Deinarchos in Against Stephanos concerning the water-pipe. This is a deme of the tribe Leontis, as the same Diodoros shows.
§ p3 Palinairetos (elected again): Deinarchos in the endeixis Against Polyeuktos upon his being expelled by (voting on) leaves. Perhaps the orator calls Polyeuktos 'elected again' since, though he maliciously prosecuted some men, he then, taking bribes, started assisting the same men, as is shown in the very speech; or because having been convicted of malicious prosecution he was fined and owing to this barred from speaking before he paid the fine that he owed, but then, having paid the fine, started speaking again, since also this is shown in the speech. For that they used to call such people 'elected again' and also those who were voted out of office and elected again, Eupolis shows in Baptai, as does Archippos in the Fish, saying, "electing overseers of affairs, / to disapprove and then approve again. / Thus, if we do this, there is a risk that we do not notice / that they are being altogether elected again." Pindar in Dithyrambs (says this) applying to buildings that have been torn down and rebuilt.
§ p4 Palinskion (shaded over): Isaios in Against the Orgeones: "that the land not become shaded over," for 'thickly shaded.' And Archilochos in trimeters: "They leaned against a wall, in the shade" for 'in darkness,' and Sophokles in Inachos: "with a darkening winter/storm" for 'gloomy.' .
§ p5 Palimbolon [throwback]: Aischines in the On the Embassy. Someone who has been exchanged many times in commerce is called "resold palimbolos", as is clear from Deinarchos' Against Polyeuktos and Menander's Sikyonian.
§ p6 Palleneus: Hypereides in the defense For Chairephilos. Pallene is a deme of the tribe Antiochis. The adverb of place, Deinarchos, in Against Stephanos, says is 'Pallenethen,' and the demesman is a Palleneus. That there is also a Pallene in Thrace is well known.
§ p7 Palamnaios (murderers): Hypereides in Against Demades. Those who with their own hand dispatched people, by force/hand (palame), they used to call 'palamnaioi,' as also Autokleides indicates in Exegetikon.
§ p9 Pandaisia: Isaios in Against Medon. The word appears often also in old comedy, and to have everything in abundance and lack nothing at the banquet (dais) is 'pandaisia.' For the interpretation of Didymos is over-elaborate.
§ p10 Pandemos Aphrodite: Hypereides in Against Patrokles, if it is genuine. Apollodoros in On Gods says that the goddess who was established around the old agora was called 'Pandemos' at Athens, owing to the fact that in the past the entire people gathered there in assemblies, which they used to call 'agorai.' Nikandros in book six of Kolophoniaka says that Solon, having purchased some attractive slaves, set them up in a house, on account of the young men, and that from the money that came in he established a sanctuary of Aphrodite Pandemos. What is 'pandemos' is 'common to all.' .
§ p14 Panathenaia: Demosthenes in the Philippics. Two Panathenaias used to be celebrated by the city of Athens: one every year, the other every penteteris (four-year cycle), which they also used to call the Great (Panathenaia). Isokrates in Panathenaikos says, "But a short time before the Great Panathenaia." Erichthonios son of Hephaistos was the first to celebrate the festival, according as Hellanikos and Androtion say, each in the first book of Atthis. Before this time, it used to be called the Athenaia, as Istros has shown in book 3 of the Attika.
§ p15 Panaktos: Demosthenes, Against Konon. It is a city between Attica and Boiotia, as also Euripides mentions in Aigeus. Thucydides, then, calls the place by the neuter in book 5 and elsewhere, but Menander (calls it) by the masculine in Psophodees.
§ p16 Paragraphe (marginal note): is applied not only to the common and known (use) among the orators, but in a special sense Isokrates, in On the Antidosis, says, "Read, starting from the marginal note," that is, from the stroke that even up to now we call a 'paragraphos.' And what's meant is 'from where I wrote in the margin.' This would be 'from where I cited/noted.' But Hypereides in Against Demosthenes says, "not so long as a paragraphe" for 'not so long as a set and bracketed time,' that is 'circumscribed.' .
§ p17 Paraggelia (canvassing): Demosthenes in Against Aischines: "how much zeal and canvassing there has been concerning this here trial." Aischines in a way used the same meaning in Against Ktesiphon: "You see, men of Athens, how much preparation and marshalling has taken place, and the entreaties in the agora that some have employed." Deinarchos in the apophasis Against Polyeuktos: "and the private canvassing that has taken place, and the entreaties." .
§ p18 Paraklesis (exhortation): For 'encouragement.' Isokrates in the Exhortations: "wherefore we (are going to advise), not having devised an exhortation but having written advice." It is seldom used, however, also for 'entreaty:' Lykourgos in On the Priestess, while first saying, "If the case were about a private matter, I would be entreating you to listen to me with good will," after a bit he says, "But now I think that you yourselves will do this even without my exhortation." .
§ p19 Paralos: Demosthenes in the Philippics. One of the triremes sent by Athenians for public matters, taking its name from a hero, Paralos. Those who were on board it used to be called Paraloi, who owing to this service used to receive four obols and remained the greater part of the year at home; and certain other things belonged to them from the city, as Hypereides says in Against Archestratides. Also Phylarchos, in book 21, has mentioned the hero Paralos.
§ p20 Parabyston [Stuffed in]: One of the Athenian law courts, in which there were eleven judges. Antiphon in the Against Nikokles on boundaries. It is mentioned by several of the comedians, including Timokles in the Orestautokleides. And a couch in the the marriage chamber is also called a "parabystos", as Hypereides mentioned in the Against Patrokles. And it seems these terms are based on the metaphor of things stuffed into a wagonload, i.e filling it up.
§ p22 Parakatabole kai parakataballein (court-deposit and to make a court-deposit): Those who dispute certain funds confiscated to the city and those who go to law against private individuals concerning estates or heiresses (epikleroi) used to deposit some money. And they had to forfeit this if they should lose the suit. Thus in disputes against the treasury it is clear that the fifth part of the disputed sum used to be deposited. Concerning the public funds, then, there is discussion in many places in Lysias, for example, in Against Alcibiades concerning a house, and in Against Asopodoros concerning a house; and concerning inheritance matters other orators in turn have spoken, including Hypereides in the second speech concerning the estate of Hippeus. Demosthenes, however, in the counter-suit Against Pantainetos concerning a private suit, says, "and next he summoned me again to the suit, as soon as he recovered the court-deposits." .
§ p24 Paredros (assistant): Lykourgos in On the Priestess. The word appears often among the orators and in old comedy. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians, says, "both the archon and the polemarch take paredroi, two each, whomever each wishes. And these men are approved in the lawcourt before they serve as paredroi, and they submit to scrutiny when they have served as paredroi.
§ p25 pareiai snakes: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. Some snakes are called pareiai on account of being very big about the pareias [cheek], as Kratinos indicates in the Trophonios. Hypereides in the Against Demades writes this exact thing "the orators are like snakes, for though all snakes are hated, among snakes the vipers harm humans, while the pareiai devour the vipers." .
§ p27 Parakrouetai (strikes aside/misleads): For 'he deceives.' Appears often in the other Attic authors and in Demosthenes in the Philippics. The word is borrowed from when those who weigh or measure something strike the measures and shake them in order to gain an advantage, as also Sophokles (says) somewhere: "that you neither strike not put over the rim." .
§ p28 Paraskenia: Demosthenes in Against Meidias. As also Theophrastos indicates in book 20 of the Laws, the place beside the stage that was appointed for props for the play appears to have been called the 'paraskenia.' But Didymos says that the entrances from each side of the orchestra were so called.
§ p29 Parasemos rhetor (counterfeit orator): Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. It is said by way of metaphor from the coins that they call 'counterfeit' either because they are gouged by the money changers with some mark that indicates their worthlessness, or since they have been counterfeited or debased. For that 'to parasemon' is said applying to coins the orator has shown in Against Timokrates.
§ p30 Parastasis: Isaios in On the Estate of Pyrrhos. The word appears in many Attic authors, and is a drachma paid by those who bring public suits: Menander in Misogynes: "And he drags a two-leaved tablet there and parastasis of one drachma." Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians, speaking about the thesmothetai says this: "to them go public actions for which a parastasis is paid: for being an alien (xenias), and for bribery by an alien (doroxenias), if someone escapes a conviction of being an alien by having given bribes, and for false entry (of someone) as a debtor (pseudeggraphes) and for falsely claiming to have witnessed a summons (pseudokleteias) and for wrongfully retaining a debtor who has paid (bouleuseis) and for having had debts cancelled without paying (agraphiou) and for seduction (moicheia). Demetrios of Phaleron in On Lawmaking says that the arbitrators take one drachma from the initial written complaint, which they used to call 'parastasis' and another at each oath to delay.
§ p31 Paraphryktorein (to make secret signals): Deinarchos in the endeixis Against Deinias. Using signal fires contrary to what is appropriate, that is, to the advantage of the enemies, and to the injury of friendlies, they used to call thus, as the orator himself explained it in the speech.
§ p32 Pareggyesen kai pareggyethentos (he entrusted and having been entrusted): Isaios, in the defense Against Diophanes concerning guardianship, says, "part (he paid?) being present, and part he entrusted them to receive from others," for 'he granted, having authorized each, the one to receive and the other to give.' And again he says, "since I paid off some myself, namely two talents and thirty minas, and the farmer had been entrusted (to pay off) the rest," for 'having undertaken' (to pay the rest).
§ p34 Parousia: for 'surplus' or 'property that is the cause of wealth.' Demosthenes in On Syntaxis and Deinarchos in Concerning the Ship. Also Krates in Theria: "Having an easy life and a plenty of money." .
§ p35 Parrasios: Isokrates in On the Antidosis. That Parrasios is a painter is clear to everyone. Iobas in book eight of On Painters covers in detail matters concerning the man, and says that he is the son and student of Euenor, and that he is Ephesian by birth.
§ p36 Pasinos: Isokrates, in Aiginetikos. A proper name.
§ p37 Pasion: proper name, a banker.
§ p38 Pataikion: proper name, a thief and burglar.
§ p39 Pediaka (plains): Lysias in Against Philip concerning guardianship, if the speech is genuine. It is a part of Attika, which used to be called 'Pedion' after its characteristics. It also used to have pasturage for flocks and, hence, so it seems, it used to be called 'Pediaka.' The word appears also in other orators.
§ p41 Pezetairoi (infantry companions): Demosthenes in the Philippics. Anaximenes in book one of the Philippika, speaking about Alexander, says: "next, after getting the most esteemed men accustomed to horsemanship he called them companions (hetairoi), but dividing the majority and the infantry (pezoi) into units and companies of ten and the other offices, he named them pezetairoi (infantry companions), so that each, because they shared in the royal companionship, might persist in being most zealous." .
§ p42 Pelanos: Lykourgos in On the Priestess. The word is frequent among many of the ancients. Apollonios the Acharnian in On the Festivals writes thus: "And likewise also the so-called pelanos. Certain cakes are said to be made for the gods out of grain removed from the threshing-floor." Sannyrion says in Laughter: "pelanos… which you mortals reverently call barley groats." Didymos says it is properly the cake made of fine flour, out of which cakes are made, either after its having been widened out, or because it is white. Homer: "when indeed snow covered the fields." Or because it is shining, that is white. Euripides however in Orestes says in a special sense: "wipe the foaming pelanos from your wretched mouth" which shows that it is the foam on the mouth.
§ p43 Pentakosiomedimnon (possessing land that generates 500 medimnoi): Lysias in On the Daughter of Onomakles. That Solon made four classes of all Athenians, to which belonged also the pentakosiomedimnoi, Aristotle has shown in th Constitution of the Athenians.
§ p46 Penestai: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Among Thessalians, they are called Penestai who among Lakedaimonians are called Helots. Xenophon at any rate in book 3 of the Hellenika says, pertaining to someone, "he armed the penestai against their masters." Staphylos has discussed them further in the third book of On the Thessalians. He says that they are called not only Penestai, but also Thessaliktai.
§ p47 Pentekontarchos: The pentekonter's commander, as Demosthenes shows in On the Extended Trierarchy. It is clear that the ship rowed by 50 (men) used to be called a pentekonter.
§ p48 Pentekoste kai pentekosteuesthai kai pentekostologoi (fiftieth and to collect the fiftieth and collectors of the fiftieth): 'Fiftieth' is a tax and those who collect the tax are 'collectors of the fiftieth,' and to collect the fifthieth is 'pentekosteuesthai.' It is possible to find these in Against Meidias and in the speech against the counter suit of Lakritos by Demosthenes and in Hypereides' On the Gifts of Euboulos.
§ p49 Peplos: Isaios in On the Speeches Made in Macedonia: about the peplos that is brought up to Athena at the Great Panathenaia there is mention not only in the orators, but also in the comic poets.
§ p51 Periander: Proper name.
§ p52 Peri tes en Delphois skias (concerning the shadow in Delphi): Demosthenes in the Philippics. Didymos says that proverb about an ass's shadow was adapted by the orator, when he speaks about the shadow in Delphi, and that it is said applying to those who fight about things that are worth nothing.
§ p55 Periodos: Demosthenes in the Philipics says, "since (no one fails to know) that just like a course or attack of fever." Doctors call those that in regular fashion relax and then intensify again 'periodic diseases,' for example tertian and quartian fevers. For in those diseases those who suffer seem in the days of their remission not to be sick at all, but to be healthy.
§ p57 Peripolos [march about, patrol]: Aischines in the On the Embassy. Aristotle in Constitution of the Athenians, writing about the ephebes says this "during the second year, an assembly is held in the theatre at which they are displayed to the demos in battle array and after receiving a shield and spear from the demos, they patrol the countryside and spend their time in the border outposts." It ought to be noted that Aristotle says that the ephebes go on patrols for one year, while Aischines says two. In this, perhaps, the rhetor recorded the fact that, although all ephebes patrolled as needed, he himself had been on patrol for two years, for which reason he reports and states this thing.
§ p58 Peristatoi (surrounded by admirers): Isokrates, On The Antidosis: "by worthless conjuring, where circles are formed by silly people," instead of 'around which onlookers stand in a circle.' The word is also in Archidamos and in Eupolis, in Kolakes.
§ p59 Peristasin (surrounding): Deinarchos in the Tyrrhenikos: "After these things, when Damon, as I was already on the verge of putting to sea, made a surrounding and expected me to testify" and so on. Perhaps what is being said is some such: 'he and those with him surrounded me in a circle, and forced me to testify,' so that it has the same meaning as 'they made me surrounded.' In some it is written 'parastasis.' .
§ p60 Peristoichizetai: Demosthenes in the Philippics says: "while we delay and sit he is staking us out," by way of metaphor from hunters. For up and down the animals' trackways they erect straight timbers, which they call poles or pillars, spreading nets across them, so that if the animals flee from them they fall into the nets, as Xenophon indicates in the Kynegetikos. In some (copies) however it is written 'peristoichizetai' (he stakes out) but in others even 'perischoinizetai' (he is roping around).
§ p61 Peristoichoi (set in rows): Demosthenes in Against Nikostratos concerning the slaves of Arethousios: "He broke down the plantings of olives arranged in rows." But Didymos calls a certain variety of olives 'peristoichoi,' which Philochoros called 'stoichades' (in a row). Perhaps the orator has called those that have been planted in a circle around the area, in a row, 'peristoichoi.' .
§ p63 Pephoriosthai: Lysias in the Letter to Polykrates against Empedos, if genuine, says, "either that the other eye is more gray or that it has been covered over with skin" in reference to one that is 'closed up,' as Euphorion has used the word; for there are some eyes that have their lids droopy and are sort of closed. But if it is written 'pephorinosthai,' it would be 'to have been thickened,' from 'thick skin' (phorine); for Antiphon in book two of On Truth makes it clear that they apply (the word) "thick skin" also to humans.
§ p66 Pinakia (little tablets): The things that are dropped for lots by those obtaining something by lot. These seem to be bronze, as Demosthenes indicates in On the Name. And in the Philippics when he says, "Athenians, a small, small little tablet (could stop) everything here," perhaps he means a little tablet on which are inscribed the charges against those who are being impeached, as also is shown in Deinarchos, in the supporting speech for Aischines.
§ p68 Pleisteriasantes (having raised the price): For 'over-bidding' (or inflating) on the price of the things that are sold; Lysias in Against Andokides, if it is genuine. Also Plato the comic poet has used the word in the Griffins.
§ p69 Plerotes (filler): Demosthenes, Against Aristogeiton. They used to call those who give the eranos to them who either were allotted it or purchased it 'fillers.' These could be those who among us are called 'eranarchs.' The word 'filler' appears also in Against Meidias and Deinarchos' Against the Sons of Patrokles.
§ p70 Plintheion: the place in which a brick is molded; Lysias in Against Lysitheos.
§ p73 Podostrabe (foot trap): Hypereides both in Against Athenogenes and in Against Autokles. They used to call certain devices constructed by hunters 'foot traps,' upon stepping into which game used to be trapped. Xenophon has discussed their construction in On Hunting, and their use.
§ p74 Podokakke: Demosthenes, Against Timokrates. The wood in the prison was so called, either with the second kappa inserted, there being some damage to the feet, or else by abbreviation, as Didymos says, as if podokatoche (foot restraint). Lysias in Against Theomnestos, if it is genuine, explains the word. For he says, "the podokakke is that which is now called 'to have been bound in the wood." .
§ p76 Polemarchos: Isaios in the defense of the case for apostasiou Against Apollodoros. There was an office among Athenians so called, and it is one of the nine archons. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians, going over what the polemarch administers, says, "for these things(?), the polemarch himself introduces suits for apostasiou and aprostasiou and inheritances and epikleroi, for metics, and otherwise as many things as the archon (handles) for citizens, the polemarch (handles) these things for metics." Naturally, then, the orator in the aforementioned speech says that Apollodoros gave a pledge before the polemarch. For Apollodoros was a metic, Samian by descent. That it was also a proper name, Polemarchos brother of Lysias, both Lysias himself, in Against Eratosthenes, and Plato, in the first book of the Republic and in the Phaidros, say.
§ p77 Poliochos and Polyalkes: proper names.
§ p78 Pompeias kai pompeuein (processions and to process): for 'abuses' and 'to abuse,' Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. He is using a metaphor from those in the Dionysiac processions who abuse each other on wagons. Menander in Perinthia: "On the wagons there are some exceedingly abusive ribaldries." And the equipment furnished for the processions was called 'pompeia,' as the same orator in Against Androtion indicates. Philochoros says, "Formerly, the Athenians used to use things furnished out of the property of the Thirty, as 'pompeia;' but more recently," he says, "Androtion furnished other things." .
§ p81 Polygnotos: Lykourgos in On the Priestess: about Polygnotos the painter, a Thasian by descent and son and student of Aglaophon, but having acquired Athenian citizenship either since he painted the Stoa Poikile for free, or, as others write, the pictures in the Theseion and the Anakeion; others have told the story, including Artemon in On Painters and Iobas in his books on Painting.
§ p82 Polystratos: Lysias in Against Thrasyboulos, if it is genuine. Polystratos, being guilty of mutilating the Herms was done away with by the Athenians. It would be another Polystratos for whom Lysias has a speech entitled 'For Polystratos, defense on a charge of abolishing the demos.' And it would be another Polystratos whom Demosthenes mentions in the Philippics, saying that he once maintained a mercenary force at Korinth. Perhaps, however, one must write there 'Polytropos' instead of of 'Polystratos.' For Didymos says that in no source has he found Polystratos having led the mercenary force in Korinth. I, then, found Polytropos in the sixth book of Xenophon's Hellenika, but Xenophon said neither that this mercenary force was maintained by Athenians nor that Polytropos was himself an Athenian.
§ p84 Potamos: Lysias in Against Nikidas for idleness. Potamos is a deme of the tribe Leontis, a dememan of which is a Potamios. They used to be made fun of in comedy as readily accepting the illegally registered, as Menander, in Didymai, and others show.
§ p85 Proballomenous (putting forward): For 'proposing,' as in placing (something) in one's mind before the action, as Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. In Against Aischines he said that the policy of the government was "put forward and untrusting," meaning 'cautious' and 'guarded.' In For Ktesiphon he says, "having thus been put forth as an Amphictyonic delegate and with three or four having voted for him." In Against Meidias, "And I put forward," he says, "that this man committed an offense concerning the festival," for 'I employed the preliminary accusation (probole) which is usual and customary against those committing offenses concerning the festival,' ['I named this man among the people']. In the Philippics he says, "He doesn't know how, and isn't willing, to defend himself (proballesthai) or to watch an enemy," meaning 'to raise his hands as for a battle.' .
§ p86 Probolas (projections): for 'safeguards from cities or walls or certain other powers that exist with a view to safety and strength:' Demosthenes in On the Agreement with Alexander, if it is genuine. But in Aischines in On the Embassy the word 'probole' has arisen from 'putting forward' that someone does wrong.
§ p88 Probolion: A kind of spear, which hunters use for the hunting of boars. Hypereides in On Defense Against the Tyrrhenians used the word figuratively by way of metaphor. That it often denotes a spear is possible to learn from Xenophon's Kynegetikos.
§ p89 Proboloi: Rocks that project into the sea and as it were certain promontories: Demosthenes in the Philippics.
§ p90 Proedroi (presiding officers): Men used to be chosen by lot by the prytaneis, each assembly, one from each tribe, except for the one that was serving as prytanis, who managed the business of the assembly. They used to be called 'proedroi' for the very reason that they sat in front (proedreuon) of everyone else. The word appears many times in the orators, for example, in Demosthenes in Against Androtion and in Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. That the one called the 'chairman' (epistates) selects them by lot Aristotle has said in the Constitution of the Athenians.
§ p91 Proerosia: Hypereides in Deliakos. Name of a sacrifice.
§ p92 Prothesmias nomos: Demosthenes, For Phormion. The orator would be talking about the fixed limit of five years, as he indicates in the speech, as does Lysias in Against Menestratos, if the speech is genuine.
§ p93 Proklesis (challenge): they were accustomed, whenever people went to law, sometimes to demand female or male slaves for torture or for testifying to the matter, and this used to be called 'challenging,' and the document written concerning this used to be named a 'challenge.' It appears in many orators. Demosthenes in Against Stephanos also shows what the challenge concerns.
§ p94 Prokonia (groats): Lykourgos, Against Menesaichmos. "Prokonia," Didymos says, "are wheat dabbed with honey." But Aristophanes the grammatikos and Krates say that grains of unroasted barley are called thus. It seems that they come from both wheat and barley, as Autokleides indicates in the Exegetika. And Demon says in On Sacrifices, "and prokonia are parched barleycorns ground with aromatics." .
§ p95 Prometretas (pre-measurers): Hypereides in On the Salt Fish. Deinarchos, Against Agasikles: "there was a son of a Scythian pre-measurer and he has come to be among demesmen (i.e. became a deme member) and he has continued pre-measuring in the agora." .
§ p96 Pronaia: Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. At Delphi an Athena used to be named Pronaia on account of her being established in front of the temple. Herodotos calls this (Athena) 'Proneie' in book eight. Others have written about her, including Staphylos in On Aiolians.
§ p97 Propempta: Lysias in Against the Graphe of Mixidemos, if it is genuine, and Demosthenes in On the Estate of Hagnias. Didymos says, "Perhaps (the propempta) are some other payment that comes before the deposit: for there are some who say that a fifth (pempta) of the disputed sum is put down as a deposit, as Lysias implies in Against Apollodoros. Unless propempta (means) as Demosthenes (uses it) 'five days before,' since in large cases one day (of notice) did suffice for the trial." .
§ p98 Propepokotes (having made a present of): For 'having betrayed.' It is said by way of metaphor. Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. At the beginning of the Myrmidons, Aischylos (says): "Do you see this, brilliant Achilles, / the hardships of the spear-wrecked Danaans, / whom ... inside the hut." .
§ p99 Propylaia tauta (these propylaia): Demosthenes in the Philippics. It can be meant demonstratively, inasmuch as the Propylaia are visible from the Pnyx, but it is better to understand it referentially. For they were accustomed to speak thus in reference to very well known things. In Against Aischines, at least, Demosthenes himself says, "he asked Satyros here, the comic actor." And about the Propylaia of the Akropolis, that Athenians began construction in the archonship of Euthymenes [437/6 BCE], under the architect Mnesikles, others have recorded, including Philochoros in the fourth book. And Heliodoros in book one of On the Akropolis at Athens, after other things says also this: "They were totally completed in five years and 2012 talents were spent. And they made five gates, through which people enter the Akropolis." .
§ p100 Prosepoiesato: For 'laid claim to;' Isaios in Against Nikodemos: "no one ever laid claim to or disputed his inheritance." .
§ p103 Prostates (protector): those who protected the metics at Athens used to be called prostatai. For it was necessary that each of the metics have as a prostates an Athenian citizen: Hyperides in Against Aristagora; also Menander has mentioned (this) in the beginning of the Perinthian Girl.
§ p104 Prostasia (protection): Demosthenes in Against Onetor: "Is this not an admitted case of protection?" for 'assistance of someone who is protecting and aiding one who is wronged.' Aischines in On the Embassy: "that it is necessary to transfer the Propylaia of the Athenians' Acropolis to the entrance of the Kadmeia." Didymos says that 'prostasis' appears for 'prostasis,' that is, for that which is called by some 'prostas' (vestibule).
§ p105 Pros tei pylidi Hermes (Hermes by the gate): Demosthenes in Against Euergos. Philochoros in the fifth book says, "when Athenians began to fortify Peiraieus the nine archons, having dedicated this, inscribed: 'when first they began to fortify, these men dedicated this, obeying the decisions of council and people." .
§ p106 Prostimemata (additional fines): there are certain fines determined in the laws against wrongdoers, for example the epobelia in Isaios in Against Diokles, and there are also others that the jury court awards in addition, as Demosthenes shows in Against Timokrates.
§ p107 Prostropaion (polluted person/thing): Aischines, On the Embassy: "Will you, then, permit him, such a polluted person" for 'pollution' and 'defilement.' And purification (prostrope) is said alongside (or 'deriving from') this. In Against Ktesiphon anyway the orator deploys the words in parallel. And this word appears in Deinarchos in Against Phormisios for impiety.
§ p108 Proteleia (preliminary rites): Lykourgos in On the Priestess. Those things that happen or are given before any of the things offered to the divinity are fulfilled are called preliminary rites.
§ p111 Procheirotonia (preliminary vote): Such a thing seems to happen at Athens, whenever, after the Council has finished preliminary deliberations, its resolution is brought to the People. First a show of hands is taken in the Assembly as to whether it seems best that the people take consideration concerning the preliminary deliberations, or whether the preliminary decree suffices. These matters are indicated in the speech of Lysias Against the Graphe of Mixidemos.
§ p113 Prytaneia: Isokrates in the counter-suit Against Kallimachos. The prytaneia appear also among other Attic authors. It was a sum of money that both parties who were going to law used to pay, both the defendant and the prosecutor.
§ p114 Prytaneias: Antiphon in Against Nikokles. The prytaneia is a number of days, either 30 or 35, for which each tribe serves as prytanis. Aristotle has discussed these in the Constitution of the Athenians.
§ p115 Prytaneuonta: properly for 'being prytanis,' but for 'managing,' Demosthenes in the Philippics. And in another Philippic he says 'prytaneuomenoi' for 'managed' and 'maintained.' .
§ p116 Prytaneis: the tenth part of the council of 500, 50 men from each tribe, who manage everything that is done by the council, used to be called prytaneis. The ten tribes used to serve as prytaneis in succession to each other, chosen by lot, as Aischines (shows) in Against Ktesiphon.
§ p117 Ptoiodoros: Demosthenes. A proper name.
§ p118 Pyanopsia: Lykourgos in Against Menesaichmos: "and we call this festival Pyanopsia, but the other Greeks (call it) Panopsia, because they see all (pantas) the fruits in sight (en opsei)." Apollonios and nearly all who have written on the festivals at Athens say that on the 7th of Pyanepsion the Pyanepsia are celebrated for Apollo. They say that one must say 'Pyanepsia' and the month 'Pyanepsion.' For they boil beans (pyana hepsousin) in it and the fruit-branch is carried.
§ p119 Pygela: Lysias in For Bacchios, if it is genuine. Pygela is a city in Ionia, which Theopompos says in book 6 got its name when some of the men with Agamemnon stayed there on account of a disease to do with their buttocks (pygai).
§ p120 Ptomata elaion (fallings of olives): Lysias in Against Nikides. He could mean either the fallen fruit of the trees or the trees themselves, having fallen by some chance.
§ p122 Pythaea: Hypereides, Against Apellaios. Confusion what he meant by this in Didymos, because according to the people that scholar cited, he identified the festival as Pythia and Apollo as Pythios.
§ p123 Pykni (Pnyx): Hypereides in the first speech For Chairephilos says, "and when the Pnyx discovered as much." The assembly of the Athenians used to be called thus. There is much mention of it among Attic authors. And Kleidemos in the third book of Protogonia says, "They used to assemble at the Pnyx, named on account of the fact that the community is packed tight." .
§ p124 Pylai kai Pylaia kai Pylagoras: Thermopylai is called Pylai: Demosthenes in the Philippics. It was called this on account of the fact that this entrance, as one journeys from Thessaly to Phokis, is narrow. The assembly of the Amphiktyones at Pylai used to be called a Pylaia: Demosthenes For Ktesiphon. That there used to be an assembly of the Amphiktyones at Pylai, both Hypereides in the Epitaphios and Theopompos in book 30 have said. From the cities that belonged to the Amphiktyony certain people, who were called Pylagorai, used to be sent. Many also mention these things, for example Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon and Aristophanes in the second Thesmophoriazusai.
§ p127 Poletai kai poleterion: The poletai are an office at Athens, 10 men in number, one from each tribe. They administer everything sold by the city: taxes and mines and leases and confiscated items. Hypereides in Against Aristagora 2. Aristotle has also discussed them in the Constitution of the Athenians. The place where the poletai hold council is called the poleterion: Isaios in Against Elpagoras, many times.
§ p129 Polosi (they sell): Demosthenes in Against Neaira, "or sell something openly in the agora." Didymos says (that this is) for 'they prostitute themselves openly.' For to furnish oneself to the willing is 'to sell,' whence (comes) also 'to be a prostitute' (porneuein), which is 'to sell' (pernanai). But I say that here the orator applied 'to sell' in the proper sense. For he says that "the law does not permit one to seize an adulterer (who is) 'with those women' whoever reside in a workshop (i.e. brothel) or sell something (i.e. prostitute themselves) openly in the agora." .
§ p130 Pomala: For 'not at all;' Demosthenes in Against Aischines. The 'po' (πῶ, where) is Doric, used for 'pothen' (πόθεν, whence). The 'mala' (μάλα, quite) either is redundant or else 'pomala' is said in certain cases, just as 'ou mala' (not much) and 'ou pany' (not at all). It is common in old comedy. Aristophanes: "'Is it that you had a quarrel?' 'Not at all. I did not say anything.'" .
§ r1 Raisas (having recovered): For 'being better after