§ B2016 Ninus son of Belus was the first to reign over all Asia except for the Indies, for 52 years. In the 43rd year of the rule of this Ninus, Abraham was born.
In his reign Abraham is born among the Hebrews; when Abraham was 100 years old he fathered Isaac.
In Greece, however, Europs was the second to rule over the Sicyonians in Greece, for forty-five years. In the twenty-second year of his reign Abraham was born.
From here onwards was the 16th government among the Egyptians, which they call a dynasty, at which time the Thebans were ruling for 190 years.
Ninus founded the city of Ninus in the land of the Assyrians, which the Hebrews call Nineveh.
While Ninus is reigning among the Assyrians, in his final years Abraham is born.
While Ninus was reigning among the Assyrians, Aegialeus, from whom Aegialea was named, which is now called the Peloponnesus, ruled first among the Sicyonians for 52 years.
After whom the second was Europs, whose name was also used as a place name.
While Ninus was reigning among the Assyrians, the Thebans rule over the Egyptians. [2016 BCE]
§ B2002 2nd of the Assyrians, Semiramis for 42 years; Semiramis, wife of Ninus, ruled over the Assyrians, of whom innumerable things are recounted.
She also held Asia, and constructed mud-banks, because of a flood, restoring very many of the cities of Babylonia. [2002 BCE]
§ B1972 The beginning of the 41st Jubilee, according to the Hebrews. Now, among them, the fiftieth year is called a 'jubilee'. Accordingly, after their calculation, there have been 2000 years from the time of Adam until the present.
4th of Sicyon, Apis, for 25 years. After whom Apia was named, which is now called the Peloponnesus, and was previously Aegialea. [1972 BCE]
§ B1957 Crete is named after the indigene Cres, whom they say was one of the Curetes, by whom Jupiter was kidnapped and raised. They established Knossos, a city on Crete, and the temple of Cybele the Mother. [1957 BCE]
§ B1942 When Abraham was 75 years old, he is considered worthy of being spoken to by God, and of the covenant that was established for him.
First year of the Covenant of God with Abraham.
From Abraham's 75th year, to Moses and the Hebrew nation's flight from Egypt, 430 years are counted, which Paul recalls as follows: "The law, which was made 430 years later, does not annul the covenant confirmed by God, so as to destroy the promise." Also, Moses himself in Exodus agrees with this in saying: "The time that the children of Israel had lived in Egypt, and they and their fathers in the land of Canaan, was 430 years." [1942 BCE]
§ B1912 Of the Hebrews, Isaac, son of Abraham: in the sixtieth year of his life, Isaac fathered Jacob.
The word of God, when it appeared in human form, promises the calling of the gentiles to Abraham, the first of all the prophets, which in our time the word of Christ has brought to completion through preaching the Gospel among all nations.
30th year of the Covenant. [1912 BCE]
§ B1862 Beginning of the kingship of the Argives; 80th year of the Covenant [1862 BCE]
§ B1857 7th of the Sicyonians, Thurimachus for 45 years; Twin sons are born to the sexagenarian Isaac: first Esau, also called Edom, from whom come the race of Idumaeans. Secondly Jacob, later called Israel, from whom come the Israelites, who are now called Jews.
160th year of Abraham [1857 BCE]
§ B1852 6th of the Assyrians, Xerxes, also called Balaneus, for 30 years.
Of the Hebrews, Jacob, son of Isaac, until the birth of his son Joseph, for 121 years. Jacob.
In these times among the Argives Inachus was the first to reign, for 50 years.
Inachus's daughter Io, whom the Egyptians, having changed the name, call Isis and worship.
The river Inachus at Argos is named after his father Inachus, the Bosphorus after his daughter Io.
90th year of the Covenant [1852 BCE]
§ B1847 Castor the Chronographer speaks thus concerning the Argive kingdom: "I will therefore trace the kings of the Argives from Inachus to Sthenelas son of Crotops; the complete span of time of which is found to be 382 years."
170th year of Abraham, but 70th of Isaac. [1847 BCE]
§ B1842 100th year of the Covenant, in which Abraham dies having lived in total 175 years. [1842 BCE]
§ B1822 7th of the Assyrians, Armamitres, for 38 years.
17th dynasty of the Egyptians, in which time the Shepherds were reigning for 103 years; We conjecture that the Kings of the Egyptians were called 'Shepherds' because of Joseph and his brothers, who were attested to have gone down to Egypt in the beginning as shepherds.
120th year of the Covenant [1822 BCE]
§ B1802 2nd of Argos, Phoroneus, for 60 years.
Phoroneus, son of Inachus and Niobe, was the first to establish laws and courts. Some consider Niobe to be his daughter.
Plato recalls these times in the Timaeus as if very ancient ones, saying: "And at one time, wanting to draw them on to conversations about ancient times, what had happened among the oldest people of his civilisation, concerning Phoroneus, who was said, with this name, to be the first man, and Niobe, and those who lived after the Flood."
140th year of the Covenant [1802 BCE]
§ B1787 Jupiter slept with Niobe first of all women, so the Greeks tells us, from whom Apis was born, who they surname Serapis.
8th of the Assyrians, Belocus, for 35 years.
130th year of Isaac; The Thelcisians and the Cariatians started a war against Phoroneus and the Parrhasians. [1787 BCE]
§ B1777 Ogygus founded Eleusis in Attica, which anciently used to be called Acte, and very many other communities. In his time a virgin appeared at Lake Triton, whom the Greeks named Minerva.
Jacob went down into Mesopotamia and worked for Laban for 7 years.
140th year of Isaac [1777 BCE]
§ B1742 3rd of the Argives, Apis, for 35 years; They say that this Apis is Serapis: accordingly, when his brother king Aegialeus had been put in charge of Achaia, he himself sailed to Egypt with the people.
200th year of the Covenant [1742 BCE]
§ B1702 60th year of Joseph; 240th year of the Covenant [1702 BCE]
§ B1697 10th of the Assyrians, Altadas, for 32 years
2nd, Chebron, for 13 years. [1697 BCE]
§ B1682 80th year of Joseph; Of Egypt, Amenophis, for 21 years; According the opinion of some, Prometheus lived in this time, by whom men recall that they were created. But the truth of the matter: because he was a wise man, he transformed their savagery and excessive ignorance into refinement and knowledge.
260th year of the Covenant [1682 BCE]
§ B1668 "At that time, all the kings of the Egyptians were called Pharaohs, not having names of their own, but rather, for the sake of their dignity, kings would use this word, just as among our people, emperors are called Augusti. But each Pharaoh used to have his own name. Thus we set down this which has been read from the books of Manetho, priest of the Egyptians." [1668 BCE]
§ B1662 100th year of Joseph; Of Egypt, Mephres, for 12 years; 280th year of the Covenant [1662 BCE]
§ B1652 Joseph dies in his 110th year, after which the Hebrews served among the Egyptians for 144 years. Altogether the years the Hebrews spent in Egypt make 215, which are counted from the time that Jacob descends into Egypt with his sons. The servitude of the Hebrews in Egypt, for 144 years.
Of Egypt, Mispharmuthosis, for 26 years; 290th year of the Covenant [1652 BCE]
§ B1637 5th of Argos, Criassus, for 54 years; In Argos, Callithias son of Pirantos was the first to discharge the duties of the priesthood.
12th of the Assyrians, Magchaleus, for 30 years; Atlas, the brother of Prometheus, was particularly called "The Astrologer"; because of his learnedness in this discipline, he was even said to hold up the sky. But Euripides says that it is the highest mountain which is called "Atlas." [1637 BCE]
§ B1617 Of Egypt, Amenophis, for 31 years; When these were reigning, there was a Syrus, regarded as an indigene, from whose name Syria received its name.
This is the Amenophis, whom they believe to be Memnon, the talking stone. [1617 BCE]
§ B1592 350th year of the Covenant; Amram fathered Moses when he was 70 years old. [1592 BCE]
§ B1586 Some write that Prometheus, Epimetheus, Atlantis the brother of Prometheus, Argos ' all-seeing', and Io the daughter of Prometheus lived in these times; others that in fact they lived in the age of Cecrops, and a few that they lived even 60 or 90 years before Cecrops. [1586 BCE]
§ B1582 360th year of the Covenant; 10th year of Moses [1582 BCE]
§ B1572 370th year of the Covenant; 20th year of Moses [1572 BCE]
§ B1568 Trochilus is reported to have been the first to yoke a quadriga. [1568 BCE]
§ B1563 Beginning of the kingship of the Athenians [1563 BCE]
§ B1561 380th year of the Covenant; 30th year of Moses [1561 BCE]
§ B1559 15th of the Assyrians, Sparetus for 40 years
13th of the Sicyonians, Marath[on]ius for 30 years; In these times in Acte, which is now called Attica, Cecrops, also called Diphyes, was the first to reign, for 50 years. [1559 BCE]
§ B1550 When Cecrops was reigning, an olive tree emerged for the first time in the citadel, and from the name of Minerva, which is Athena in Greek, Athens was named. Cecrops was named 'Diphyes' that is to say 'of two natures' either because of the length of his body or on account of the fact that, since he was Egyptian, he knew both languages, Greek and Egyptian. [1550 BCE]
§ B1541 400th year of the Covenant; 50th year of Moses [1541 BCE]
§ B1537 Musicus, the son of Euctaeius and Nymphe, is well known. [1537 BCE]
§ B1531 410th year of the Covenant; 60th year of Moses [1531 BCE]
§ B1529 Jupiter slept with Io daughter of Iasus, after whom, having been changed, so it is said, into an ox, the Bosporus was named.
14th of the Sicyonians, Marathus for 30 years; Cecrops founded Athenai in Euboea, which they also call Diada: this city the Euboeans call Orchomenon. [1529 BCE]
§ B1527 Chenchres for 16 years [1527 BCE]
§ B1521 420th year of the Covenant; 70th year of Moses [62/63] [1521 BCE]
§ B1519 16th of the Assyrians, Ascatades, for 40 years; From Deucalion, Hellene and Pyrrha, those who were previously called Greeks were now called Hellenes: and Acte in their time was called Attica. [1519 BCE]
§ B1511 430th year of the Covenant; 80th year of Moses; According to some, Io proceeded to Egypt, and there was named Isis, who married Telegonus later, and fathered Epaphus.
Of the Hebrews: In the
80th year that Moses is leader, the journey of the Hebrew nation out of Egypt is brought about, handing over the law to them in the desert throughout
Of Egypt, Acherres, for 8 years.
From this point down to Solomon and the building of the temple 480 years are numbered.
Temple of Apollo at Delos built by Erysichthon. [1511 BCE]
§ B1509 15th of the Sicyonians, Echyreus for 55 years; Hercules is considered important in Phoenicia under the name of Desinaus: for which reason all the way down to our own time, he is called Desinaus by the Cappadocians and Elians.
The court of the Areopagus established with that name. [1509 BCE]
§ B1506 8th of Argos, Crotopus, for 21 years.
2nd of the Athenians, Cranaus, for 9 years.
Oris, son of a shepherd, is the 7th from Inachus.
Cranaus the indigene, after the name of whose daughter Atthis Attica was named. [1506 BCE]
§ B1497 3rd of the Athenians, Amphictyon, for 10 years
Moses was in charge of the Jewish nation in the desert.
Deucalion's son Dionysus — but not the one who was Semele's son — when he arrived in Attica, he was received as a guest by Semachus and gave his daughter the pelt of a goat. [1497 BCE]
§ B1487 4th of the Athenians, Ericthonius, for 50 years.
Sthenelus of the Argives. Castor's [statement], concerning the leaders of the Argives:
Lacedaemon founded by Lacedaemon son of Semele. [1487 BCE]
§ B1483 After whom Ramesses, also called Aegyptus, for 68 years. "When Danaus had expelled Sthenelus, he held Argos, and his descendants continued until Eurystheus son of Sthenelus, nephew of Perseus, after whom the Pelopidae received power, Atreus reigning first."
Arcas the son of Jove and Callisto, after bringing the Pelasgii back into subjection named their region Arcadia. [1483 BCE]
§ B1471 Of the Hebrews, after Moses Joshua is appointed leader for 27 years
The five books of Moses, according to the translation of the LXX elders, contain 3,730 years until this point.
Start of the 51st Jubilee according to the Hebrews.
Among the Hebrews Eleazer received the pontificate.
Erichthonius put together the first four horse chariot team in Greece. Of course it existed already in other nations. [1471 BCE]
§ B1467 Danaus killed the
50 sons of his brother Aegyptus through his 50 daughters; only Lynceus escaped, who reigned after him. Now such a multitude of sons should not seem incredible among the barbarians, since they have innumerable concubines. [1467 BCE]
§ B1444 1st judge of the Jews, Gothoniel, for 40 years.
Jupiter slept with Europa, the daughter of Phoenix; afterwards, Asterius, King of Crete, received her as his wife and fathered Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Sarpedon by her.
After the death of Joshua, strangers held the Hebrews subject for 8 years, which are included in the date-range of Gothoniel, according to the traditions of the Jews. [1444 BCE]
§ B1438 Gothoniel the judge, from the tribe of Judah. [1438 BCE]
§ B1434 18th of the Assyrians, Belochus, for 25 years.
At Argos Hypermnestra daughter of Danaus carried out the duties of the priesthood.
His daughter Actosa, also called Semiramis, reigns with her father for seven years.
Rhadamanthus and Sarpedon (were) kings of the Lycians. [1434 BCE]
§ B1432 Abduction of Europa. [1432 BCE]
§ B1404 Of the Hebrews, Ehud, for 80 years.
After the death of Gothoniel, strangers held the Hebrews subject for 18 years, which are included in the date-range of Ehud, according to the traditions of the Jews.
The Cadmea, and Side in Cilicia, founded.
Ehud the judge from the tribe of Ephraim.
Celeus reigned at Eleusis, coaeval with Triptolemus, whom Philochorus says approached the cities in a long ship to distribute grain, and on that account aroused mistrust, because his ship was a winged serpent: and this is a picture that it is possible to accept. [1404 BCE]
§ B1397 Pelops, from whom the Peloponnese was named, reigned 59 years at Argos;
6th of the Athenians, Erechtheus, for 50 years, son of Pandion, in whose reign the Mysteries began.
Achaia founded by Achaeus.
The fable of Proserpina, whom Aidoneus carried off — that is, Orcus, king of the Molossians. His dog named Cerberus, of enormous size, devoured Pirithous, who had come to abduct his (Aidoneus') wife with Theseus. When the latter found himself already in mortal danger, Hercules arrived and set him free. For this reason he (Hercules) is spoken of as if he had been received from the underworld: so Philochorus writes in the second book of the Atthis. [1397 BCE]
§ B1387 Dionysus who in Latin is called father Liber is born of Semele.
Boreas the Thracian, son of Astraeus, carried off Orithyia daughter of Erechtheus, who the myths pretend was the north wind. At this time also the mysteries began. [1387 BCE]
§ B1381 According to the opinion of some, it seems that in this age Phrixus, along with his sister Helle, fleeing the treacheries of their step-mother, was carried through the sea by a ram with golden fleece. In fact there was a ship prepared for his flight, of which the ram was the sign. Further, Palaephatus affirms that the ram by which he was freed was called 'Nurse'. [1381 BCE]
§ B1379 20th of the Assyrians, Lamprides, for 32 years. [1379 BCE]
§ B1372 19th Dynasty of Egypt, of whom first, Sethus, for 55 years.
After Cadmus had been expelled from Thebes, Amphion and Zethus reigned.
Those things which are told concerning Procne and Philomela. [1372 BCE]
§ B1370 The war, which happened in the time of Eumolpus. [1370 BCE]
§ B1366 Melampus the seer is well known. [1366 BCE]
§ B1358 On account of the abduction of Ganymedes, war broke out between Tros the father of Ganymede and Tantalus, as Phanocles the poet writes. Therefore, the fable of Jupiter is in vain; and the abducting Eagle is invented. [1358 BCE]
§ B1352 Tityus banqueted with Tantalus. Tityus lived at the time of Leto mother of Apollo, who with Hercules served Admetus.
Those things that are said about Phrixus and Melicerta happened, in whose time the Isthmian games were celebrated. [1352 BCE]
§ B1345 Perseus fought against the Persians, holding the decapitated head of the licentious Gorgon, which on account of her extraordinary beauty so rendered the minds of her spectators impotent, that she was thought to turn them into stones; Didymus writes in his Foreign History, and exposes its author. [1345 BCE]
§ B1343 After whom 14th, Acrisius, for 31 years. [1343 BCE]
§ B1331 The deeds of Perseus. [1331 BCE]
§ B1327 The kings of the Argives come to an end
22nd of the Assyrians, Lampares for 30 years; Amphion reigned at Thebes, who is said to have moved the rocks with the song of the cithara.
In reality there were certain listeners who were hard hearted and, so to speak, like stones. [1327 BCE]
§ B1324 Of the Hebrews, Deborah with Barak, for 40 years.
After Ehud, foreigners drove the Hebrews into subjection for 20 years, which are joined together to the time of Deborah and Barak, according to the Hebrew tradition. [1324 BCE]
§ B1316 When Pelops was reigning in the Peloponnese, he also presided over the Olympics.
Later, taking up arms against Ilium, he was defeated by Dardanus.
Those things which are recorded about the Sparti, which Palaephatus writes; since they were of the neighbouring regions, they suddenly formed an alliance against Cadmus, and on account of the way they seemed to spring up suddenly from the earth, and coming together from all directions, they were called 'Sparti' (Sown Men). [1316 BCE]
§ B1312 The kings of the Argives came to an end, who ruled for 544 years down;
After Acrisius, in Mycenae by the power of the Argives the kings were: Perseus, Sthenelus, Eurystheus, Atreus, Thyestes, Agamemnon, Aegistus, Orestes and Tsiamneus and Penthilus and Cometes down to the descent of the Heraclidae. [1312 BCE]
§ B1310 Midas reigned in Phyrgia. [1310 BCE]
§ B1308 Mycenaeans to Pelops, who reigned for 59 years, and in Mycenae, power having been transferred, after Acrisius, Eurystheus son of Sthenelus reigned for 45 years.
Ilium founded by Ilus. [1308 BCE]
§ B1302 The temple in Eleusis built. [1302 BCE]
§ B1298 Some claim the deeds of Liber Pater, and those things which are recorded concerning India, Lycurgus, Actaeon, and Pentheus happened at this time; in what way while standing against Perseus, he is slain in battle, says Dinarchus, the poet not the rhetor. However whoever wants can see the tomb of Liber Pater himself at Delphi next to Golden Apollo. Now, Liber is depicted with a delicate and womanly body, on account of the women who fought in his entourage: For he would bind men and women to weapons equally, as Philochorus says in the second book of the Atthis. [1298 BCE]
§ B1297 23rd of the Assyrians, Pannias, for 45 years. [1297 BCE]
§ B1286 Miletus founded. [1286 BCE]
§ B1284 Europa the daughter of Agenor, as we read in some (books), is carried off, which is consistent with those things which are said about Minos.
Of the Hebrews, Gideon, for 40 years.
After Deborah, strangers drove the Hebrews into subjection for 7 years, which are conjoined with the time of Gideon according to the traditions of the Jews. [1284 BCE]
§ B1282 9th of the Athenians, Aegeus son of Pandion, for 48 years.
Philammon the Delphian is considered renowned, who first set up the choral dance at the Pythia.
Gideon the judge (was) from the tribe of Manasseh.
These are the fables that are said about Daedalus, who seems to have made sculptures composed of different parts, he was the first that separated the feet of every sculpture from each other, whereas others had fabricated them together, as Palaephatus notes. Also how, with his son Icarus, he escaped from Minos in a ship; and, because his escape was traceable, he is supposed to have flown away on wings. [1282 BCE]
§ B1261 Of the Mycenaeans, Atreus and Thyestes for 65 years.
At Mycenae reigned Eurystheus, for 40 years; Those things happened which are said about the sphinx, and Oedipus, and the Argonauts, among whom were Hercules, Asclepius, Castor and Pollux. However if Castor and Pollux were among the Argonauts, in what way is it possible to believe that Helen was their sister, who after many years is carried off by Theseus as a virgin?
Palaephatus writes that the Sphinx was really the wife of Cadmus, and, fleeing from poison on account of Harmonia's jealousy, a war was started against the Cadmeans. [1261 BCE]
§ B1254 Of Egypt Amenophis for 40 years. [1254 BCE]
§ B1252 24th of the Assyrians, Sosarmus, for 19 years. [1252 BCE]
§ B1246 Thamyris son of [Phil]ammon is considered notable. [1246 BCE]
§ B1244 Hercules finishes his labors, slays Antaeus, devastates Ilium. Antaeus, however, is said to be the son of the earth, because he was most versed in the art of wrestling in single matches that are staged on the earth, and on that account was seen to be aided by the earth as his mother. But Plato asserts that a Hydra was (just) a most cunning sophistry.
Of the Hebrews, Abimelech son of Gideon, for 3 years [1244 BCE]
§ B1232 These things are said about the Minotaur, who, Philochorus writes in the second book of the Atthis, was the teacher of Minos, by name Taurus, inhuman and cruel; and because Minos had set up a contest upon the death of Androgeus, offering up Athenian boys as a prize, and he, the strongest in the contest, defeated everyone else in the games. At last it happened that he was overcome by Theseus in wrestling, on account of which the Athenian boys were freed from the tributary penalty, as the Knossians themselves are also reported to say. [1232 BCE]
§ B1219 After whom, Jair, for 22 years. From the tribe of Manasseh.
When Theseus had gathered the Athenians, who had previously lived in scattered groups throughout the region, into one community, he was ignominiously banished through ostracism, this being the selfsame rule he had been the first to establish. [1219 BCE]
§ B1215 Minos established laws and rights. [1215 BCE]
§ B1212 After whom 23rd Adrastus, for 4 years.
Of Egypt, Ammenemes for 26 years; Philistius writes that in this time Carthage was founded by Zorus and Carthago, the Tyrians.
Hercules establishes the Olympic games, from which there are counted 430 years until the first Olympiad. [1212 BCE]
§ B1197 Of the Hebrews, Jephthah, for 6 years; After Jair, the Ammonites bring the Hebrews under their control for 18 years, and they are included in the dates of later judges according to the traditions of the Jews.
Menelaus reigns in Lacedaemon.
Agamemnon rules at Mycenae for 35 years, and in the 18th year of his reign Troy is captured. [1197 BCE]
§ B1196 Of the Mycenaeans, Agamemnon for 35 years.
The slain men's progeny, who were called Epigoni, declare war against Thebes.
Hercules, when he had fallen into a pestilent illness, as a remedy from his suffering, threw himself into the flames, and thus by death did he come to his end in the
52nd year of his life; certain people, however, write that he perished in his 30th year. [1196 BCE]
§ B1194 In the book of Judges, Jephthah says from the era of Moses to himself is reckoned to be 300 years. [1194 BCE]
§ B1191 After whom Esebon, for 7 years.
Alexander carried off Helen. The 10-year-long Trojan War broke out because of an apple, which was the prize for judging three women's beauty, one of these offering Helen to the shepherd-judge. [1191 BCE]
§ B1187 Of Egypt, Thuoris, for 7 years. [1187 BCE]
§ B1184 Of the Hebrews, Labdon, for 8 years.
After Hesebon in the book of the Hebrews Aelon is considered to have ruled as Judge over the people for 10 years, which LXX translators do not have.
Mopsus reigned in Cilicia, from whom Mopsicrene and Mopsistiae. [1184 BCE]
§ B1181 Troy Captured; From the capture of Troy down to the first Olympiad makes 406 years. Menestheus dies in Melos returning from captured Troy, after whom Demophoon reigned at Athens.
The entire period up to the present day is counted thus:
From the first year of Cecrops, who first reigned over Attica, until the capture of Troy, and until the twenty-third year of Menestheus, whom Homer mentions, there are reckoned 375 years. Similarly, from Moses' thirty-fifth year there take place 375 years.
Thuoris, King of Egypt, by Homer is called Polybus, Alcandra's husband, whom he mentions in the Odyssey, saying that after the capture of Troy, Menelaus and Helen sojourned with him.
According to the Assyrians from the 43rd year of the reign of Ninus 835 years
According to the Hebrews from the first year of the birth of Abraham 835 years According to the Sicyonians from the 20 and 2nd year of Europs similarly 835 years But from the birth of Moses 410 years
First king of the Latins after the fall of Troy Assyrians: the rest of the years of Tautanis.
Hebrews: the rest of the years of Labdon.
12th of the Athenians, Demophon son of Theseus, for 33 years.
After the third year of the Trojan captivity or, as some would have it, after 8 years, Aeneas reigned over the Latins, who later were called Romans, for 3 years.
From the 3rd book of Manetho. 20th Dynasty of Egypt, of the Diospolites, for 178 years. [1181 BCE]
§ B1177 Before Aeneas, Janus, Saturnus, Picus, Faunus and Latinus reigned in Italy for about 150 years.
After Labdon, foreigners bring the Hebrews under their control for 40 years, which are included in the dates of later judges according to the traditions of the Jews. [1177 BCE]
§ B1172 Palaephatus writes in book 1 of his Incredible Things those things which they say about Ulysses: how the 'Scylla' that he escaped was a Tyrrhenian trireme that used to rob guests, and how the 'Sirens' were whores who used to deceive people sailing. [1172 BCE]
§ B1166 The kingdom of Lavinius having been left to his stepmother, Ascanius founded Alba Longa, and with the greatest loving piety raised his brother Sylvius Posthumus, son of Aeneas by Lavinia. [1166 BCE]
§ B1142 The Lycian Games first held.
Ascanius fathered Julius, from whom the Julian family originated; and on account of the age of the little one, because it was not appropriate for ruling citizens, he left the kingship as a bequest to his brother Sylvius Posthumus. [1142 BCE]
§ B1138 Because he appeared after the death of his father, Sylvius Posthumus was raised in the country, and took the names 'Sylvius (Woodsman)' and 'Posthumus' (After-Burial), whence all the Alban kings are called 'Sylvius'. [1138 BCE]
§ B1137 3rd of the Latins, Silvius son of Aeneas, for 29 years.
Castor, the chronographer, concerning the kingdom of the Sicyonians: "We shall set forth the kings of the Sicyonians from Aegialeus to Zeuxippus, who together reigned for 962 years, and the six priests of (Apollo) Carneus, who presided for 33 years. After these Charidemus was appointed priest, who fled, unable to meet his debts." [1137 BCE]
§ B1136 After whom 14th Aphidas, for 1 year.
Castor concerning the kingship of the Athenians: "We list also the Athenian rulers known as the Erechtheids and Cecropids, up to Thymotes, all together come up to a period of 429 years. After them, Melanthus the son of Pylian Andropompus received the kingdom; and the latter's son Codrus, who together ruled for 58 years." [1136 BCE]
§ B1135 After whom 15th Thymoetes for 8 years. [1135 BCE]
§ B1134 28th of the Assyrians, Thineus, for 30 years. [1134 BCE]
§ B1129 After the rule of the Erechtheids had been destroyed, the kingship of the Athenian princes was transferred to another nation, when Xanthus the Boeotian had challenged Thimoetes to fight, and Thimoetes had been refusing, Melanthus of Pylos the son of Andropompus had taken up single combat, and had reigned thereafter.
And from this, Apaturion, that is, the festival of Deceptions, is celebrated, for the victory had appeared by fraud. [1129 BCE]
§ B1116 Of the Hebrews, Samuel and Saul for 40 years.
After the death of Eli the priest, the Ark of the Covenant is possessed by foreigners: and then it was in the house of Aminadab for 20 years.
Saul was the first king, from the tribe of Benjamin. [1116 BCE]
§ B1110 Samuel was prophesying. [1110 BCE]
§ B1108 First king of the Lacedaemonians
First king of the Corinthians
4th of the Latins, Aeneas Silvius, for 31 years.
In another history we learn that fourth to have reigned was Silvius the Latin, the son of Lavinia and Melampus, that is, born from the same mother as his brother Posthumus, and that the fifth, who is now placed here as the fourth, was Silvius Aeneas, the son of Posthumus. [1108 BCE]
§ B1104 29th of the Assyrians, Dercylus, for 40 years.
According to the opinion of some, Homer is judged to have been in these times. However, how much disagreement there was among the ancients about him, can be revealed from the following. Some, among them Crates, place him before the descent of the Heraclids, 80 years after the Trojan War. Eratosthenes, after 100 years from the Trojan captivity. Aristarchus, at the time of the Ionian migration, or after 100  years. Philochorus, after the Ionian migration at the time when Archippus held the magistracy of the Athenians and 180 years after the capture of Troy. Apollodorus the Athenian, 240 years after the overthrow of Ilium. Others have come forward, who think that he lived earlier, a short time before the Olympiads began, In
Lacedaemon, Eurystheus was the first to reign, for 42 years.
At Corinth Aletes was the first to reign, for 35 years. [1104 BCE]
§ B1070 The high priest of the Hebrews Abiathar is considered important. [1070 BCE]
§ B1069 After whom the leaders whom death finished: of whom the first, Medon son of Codrus, for 20 years
The Peloponnesians fight against the Athenians.
There were prophesying: Gad, Nathan, Asaph.[1069 BCE]
§ B1067 Codrus, handing himself over to death following a personal oracle, is murdered in the Peloponnesian war, in which the kingship of the Erechtheids is destroyed, which had lasted for 487 years. [1067 BCE]
§ B1064 30th of the Assyrians, Eupal[m]es, for 38 years. [1064 BCE]
§ B1058 After whom, Echestratus, for 35 years. [1058 BCE]
§ B1056 The Pelasgians controlled the sea. [1056 BCE]
§ B1032 Solomon begins to build the temple in Jerusalem, and completes the work in 7 years. Moreover the whole time, from Moses and the exodus of Israel from Egypt until the present time, is counted as 480 years, as the third Book of Kings bears witness.
According to the third book of Kings, from Moses and the departure of Israel from Egypt down to Solomon and the building of the Temple, there are counted 480 years. From the flood until Moses, 1,447 years. From Adam until the flood, 2,242 years. Altogether 4,169 years. [1032 BCE]
§ B1026 31st of the Assyrians, Laosthenes, for 45 years. [1026 BCE]
§ B1018 There were prophesying: Zadok, Achias Silonites, and Sameas [1018 BCE]
§ B1005 The Thracians were the third to control the sea, for 19 years. [1005 BCE]
§ B1004 In Egypt in the 21st Dynasty reigned Smendis, for 26 years. [1004 BCE]
§ B996 3rd of the Hebrews, Rehoboam, for 17 years.
After the death of Solomon, sedition having arisen in the Jewish nation, and the kingdom having been divided into two, Jeroboam reigned in Samaria over ten tribes. Rehoboam the son of Solomon reigned in Jerusalem with two tribes subject to him, which were called Judah on account of the kings of the Jews who had descended from the line of Judah, and so the name of Judah fell to the whole people of the Jews. [996 BCE]
§ B992 4th of the Corinthians, Prymnis for 35 years [992 BCE]
§ B988 Susacin, king of Egypt, fighting against the Jews, despoils the temple.
7th of the Latins, Aegyptus Silvius, for 24 years.
Silvius Atis, or Aegyptus, was the son of the previous King of Alba. [988 BCE]
§ B981 32nd of the Assyrians, Peritiades, for 30 years. [981 BCE]
§ B979 After whom 4th Abijah, for 3 years. [979 BCE]
§ B978 After whom Pseusennes for 41 years. [978 BCE]
§ B976 After whom 5th Asa, a righteous man, for 41 years. [976 BCE]
§ B974 Abimelech, high priest of the Hebrews, is considered illustrious.
2nd of the Hebrews of Israel, Nadab, for 2 years.
There were prophesying Ahijah, and he who had been at the altar of Samaria, [974 BCE]
§ B972 After whom 3rd Baasha, for 24 years.
The Thracians crossing over from Strymon occupied Bebrycia which is now called Bithynia.
Azariah, also called Iddo; Start of 61st jubilee according to the Hebrews and Ananiah. [972 BCE]
§ B966 The Thracians controlled the sea. [966 BCE]
§ B962 The Thracians controlled the sea. [962 BCE]
§ B951 33rd of the Assyrians, Ophratheus, for 20 years [951 BCE]
§ B948 After whom 4th, Hela, for 2 years [948 BCE]
§ B937 Of the Egyptians, Nephercheres, for 4 years. [937 BCE]
§ B933 Of the Egyptians, Amenophis, for 9 years. [933 BCE]
§ B924 After whom Osochor, for 6 years. [924 BCE]
§ B916 The Rhodians controlled the sea fourth, for 23 years. [916 BCE]
§ B913 7th of the Lacedaemonians, Archelaus, for 60 years.
In the Latin history we discover these things written word-for-word: "When Agrippa is reigning among the Latins, the poet Homer is important in Greece," as Apollodorus the Grammarian and Euphorbus the Historian testify, 124 years before the founding of Rome, and so Cornelius Nepos says, 100 years before the first Olympiad. [913 BCE]
§ B909 Of the Egyptians, Pseusennes, for 35 years.
There were prophesying: Elijah, Elishah [909 BCE]
§ B903 Elijah is caught up (to heaven). [903 BCE]
§ B902 After whom 8th, Ahaziah, for 1 year [902 BCE]
§ B901 After whom, his mother Athaliah, for 7 years; Jonadab son of Rehab is considered important. [901 BCE]
§ B898 After whom 9th, Jehu for 28 years. [898 BCE]
§ B894 After whom 10th, Joash, for 40 years. [894 BCE]
§ B887 Zechariah, prophet of the Hebrews, is murdered. [887 BCE]
§ B883 Lycurgus is considered notable. [883 BCE]
§ B881 35th of the Assyrians, Acrazapes, for 42 years [881 BCE]
§ B874 12th of the Latins, Aremulus Silvius, for 19 years.
Sylvius [A]remulus, son of Agrippa, the previous king, stationed a garrison of the Alban people among the hills where Rome now is; who on account of his impiety, died later having been struck by lightning. The son of this man was Julius, the great-grandfather of Julius Proculus, who, migrating with Romulus to Rome, founded the gens Julia. [874 BCE]
§ B863 The prophet Elisha dies. [863 BCE]
§ B860 Among the Hebrews, the prophet Zechariah is killed by King Joash. [860 BCE]
§ B856 13th of the Latins, Aventinus Sylvius, for 37 years.
Aventinus, the elder son of the previous king, Remulus, having died and been buried on that hill which is now a part of the City, gave that place its permanent name. [856 BCE]
§ B850 Some think that Carthage was founded in this period; but others in fact as we recounted above. [850 BCE]
§ B838 After whom Tacelothis, for 13 years. [838 BCE]
§ B837 After whom 12th, Jeroboam, for 41 years.
The Phoenicians controlled the sea seventh for 45 years. [837 BCE]
§ B825 12th of Judah of the Hebrews, Azariah, also called Oziah, for 52 years.
10th of the Athenians, Thespiseus, for 27 years.
23rd dynasty of Egypt. Petubastis for 25 years [142/143]
Beginning of the kingship of the Macedonians [825 BCE]
§ B819 History declares that the kings of the Assyrians existed up to this time, and together they make up 1197 years. However all the years of the kingship of the Assyrians from the first year of Ninus add up to 1240.
14th of the Latins, Procas Silvius, for 23 years.
The son of Aventinus the previous king.
In Media the first to reign was Arbaces for 28 years.
Lycurgus codifies the laws for the Lacedaemonians.
After the Assyrian empire had been destroyed, Arbaces the Mede transferred the kingdom to the Medes, and government was meanwhile exercised without princes until Deioces, king of the Medes. However in the intervening time, the Chaldaeans almost prevailed, of whose kings separate successions are recounted. The rest of the nations also had their own kings. [819 BCE]
§ B814 Temple of Juno burned down. [814 BCE]
§ B803 Among the Hebrews were prophesying: [803 BCE]
§ B793 13th of Israel, Zechariah, for 6 months. After him, Shallum for  days.
After him, Menahem for 10 years.
15th of the Latins, Amulius Sylvius, for 44 years.
The Laws of Lycurgus adopted in this period in Lacedaemon, according to the opinion of Apollodorus.
Numitor the elder son of the previous king, Proca, expelled from the kingdom by his brother Amulius, lived on his own farm. His daughter was selected as a vestal virgin to remove any possibility of a child. She was buried alive in the earth according to the law, because in the 27th year of her uncle's reign she had given birth to twin babies. Indeed, Faustulus, a palace shepherd, carried off the little ones exposed near the bank of the Tiber to his wife, Acca Laurentia. She, on account of her beauty and greed to make money from her body, used to be named 'Lupa' (She-wolf) by the neighbours, whence down to our own memory, brothels of whores are called 'lupanaria' (wolf dens). When the boys had grown up, having gathered a band of shepherds and robbers, after Amulius had been killed at Alba, they restored their grandfather Numitor to power. [793 BCE]
§ B789 The first trireme sailed in Corinth. [789 BCE]
§ B781 Dynasty 24. Bocchorus for 44 years. [781 BCE]
§ B776 The kings of the Lacedaemonians came to an end.
First Olympiad; From the captivity of Troy, until the first Olympiad, 405 years.
Africanus writes that the first Olympiad was in the times of Joathan, king of the Hebrews.
Bocchorus established laws for the Egyptians, in whose reign a lamb spoke.
In the second year of Aeschylus, judge of the Athenians, the first Olympiad held, in which Coroebus the Elian was champion.
The Elians hold a contest every fifth year, with four years elapsed between, in which four annual leaders are created; Iphitus, son of Praxonides or of Haemo, was the first to create this system of Olympiads.
Also, our own computation has shown it at this same time period. Moreover Africanus writes — I will transcribe his words — in this manner: "Aeschylus, son of Agamestor, held leadership among the Athenians for 28 years; in this period, Joathan was ruling in Jerusalem." We ourselves have also placed Joathan in the first Olympiad.
From this time, Greek history is believed to be true in the matter of dates: for before this, as it seemed to everyone, they have advanced different opinions.
1st Olympiad [776 BCE]
§ B775 17th of Israel, Phacee, for 20 years.
In his reign, Tiglath Pileser, king of the Assyrians, carried off a large part of the people of the Jews to Assyria.
Arctinus of Miletus is considered as a most eminent versifier. [775 BCE]
§ B772 2nd Olympiad [772 BCE]
§ B771 The trireme sailed at Athens for the first time, with Aminocleus leading the way. [771 BCE]
§ B769 Those also above were prophesying. [769 BCE]
§ B768 3rd Olympiad [768 BCE]
§ B767 Hesiod is considered important, according to some. [767 BCE]
§ B765 There were prophesying: [765 BCE]
§ B759 Aradus the island-town is founded. [759 BCE]
§ B757 14th of the Hebrews of Judah, Ahaz, for 16 years.
In Lacedaemon the first ephor — which is the name of the magistracy — is established: however it was under the Lacedaemonian kings for 350 years. [757 BCE]
§ B753 Remus slain with a pastoral shovel by Fabius, the general of Romulus.
14th of the Athenians, Charops for 10 years.
The leaders at Athens who had ruled the state for life came to an end; and in 10 years the custom changed to have a magistrate: and the first to reign was Carops, son of Aeschylus.
Because of the security of the place of refuge, a vast multitude is gathered to Romulus. [753 BCE]
§ B752 7th Olympiad
16th of the Latins, Romulus reigns for 38 years; The Sabine women carried off at the Consus Games in the third year from the founding of the city, and one, the most beautiful of the virgins, is picked out by the shouted agreement of all the abductors for Romulus' general Thalassus; whence during wedding ceremonies they shout from the crowd 'For Thalassus!' — which is to say the bride is so pretty it is right for Thalassus to have her. [752 BCE]
§ B748 8th Olympiad [748 BCE]
§ B746 The first captivity of Israel.
The ten tribes of the nation of the Jews who were called Israel, and were in the part of Samaria conquered by Sennacherib, also called Shalmaneser, King of the Chaldeans, were taken off into the mountains of Media: and the kingship is in Samaria for 250 years.
Sennacherib, king of the Chaldeans, sent Assyrians into the neighbouring regions to garrison the region of Judaea, who, having become enviers of the law of the Jews, were called Samaritans: which in the Latin language is expressed as 'guards'.
The Ceninenses, Antemnates, Crustumini, Fidenates and Veientes, who had made war on account of the abduction of the Sabine women, are conquered by Romulus.
The Lacedaemonians were waging war against the Messenians for 20 years. [746 BCE]
§ B744 9th Olympiad [744 BCE]
§ B733 Tarpeia was crushed by the round-shields of the Sabines; from which the Tarpeian hill takes its name, on which the Capitol now stands.
After whom Clidicus [in Athens] for 10 years. Year 1. [733 BCE]
§ B732 12th Olympiad [732 BCE]
§ B728 13th Olympiad; When Tatius, King of the Sabines, was ruling with Romulus, the Romans came to be called 'Quirites' from Cures.
3rd of the Lydians, Meles, for 12 years.
Romulus was the first to recruit soldiers from the people, and 100 of the most noble old men as senators on account of their age, and on account of the similarity of care, he called them fathers. Also he constructed the temples and the walls of the Roman city. [728 BCE]
§ B724 14th Olympiad [724 BCE]
§ B717 In Sicily, Chersonesus founded. [717 BCE]
§ B716 16th Olympiad
4th of the Lydians, Candaules, for 17 years.
Romulus never reappeared from the She-Goat Marsh; and, by the persuasion of Lucius Proculus, he was deified with the name of Quirinus. [716 BCE]
§ B714 2nd of the Romans, Numa Pompilius, for 41 years.
After Romulus had died, Senators ruled the republic for five days, and so 1 year was completed, which period was called the Interregnum.
Numa Pompilius added two months to the year — January and February — , although before this there had been only ten months among the Romans. Also, he constructed the Capitol from the ground up and he gave a public donation: coppers, woodens, and leathers. [714 BCE]
§ B704 19th Olympiad [704 BCE]
§ B703 After whom, Apsander, for 10 years. [703 BCE]
§ B700 20th Olympiad [700 BCE]
§ B699 After whom 5th, Gyges, for 36 years [699 BCE]
§ B692 22nd Olympiad [692 BCE]
§ B685 Chalcedon founded. [685 BCE]
§ B680 25th Olympiad [680 BCE]
§ B676 26th Olympiad [676 BCE]
§ B673 Tullus Hostilius was the first of the kings of the Romans to use purple and the fasces, and afterwards he was burned up with his house by lightning.
3rd of the Romans, Tullus Hostilius, for 32 years. [673 BCE]
§ B664 29th Olympiad a Tullus Hostilius, after a long peace, revived wars; he conquered the Albans, Veii, inhabitants of Fidenae, and, the Caelian Hill having been added on, he enlarged the City.
Archilochus and Simonides, and Aristoxenus the musician, are considered illustrious. [664 BCE]
§ B659 Byzantium founded. [659 BCE]
§ B657 17th of the Hebrews of Judah, Amon, for 12 years a According to the translation of the LXX elders, Amon reigned for twelve years; according to the Hebrews, for two years.
The community of Histrus founded in Pontus. [657 BCE]
§ B656 31st Olympiad [656 BCE]
§ B648 33rd Olympiad [648 BCE]
§ B645 After whom, 18th, Josiah the Just for 32 years. [645 BCE]
§ B644 34th Olympiad [644 BCE]
§ B642 Hilkiah, high priest of the Hebrews, is considered notable. [642 BCE]
§ B639 Greece first used the Dodonean Oracle. [639 BCE]
§ B636 36th Olympiad [636 BCE]
§ B629 The woman Hulda was prophesying among the Hebrews. [629 BCE]
§ B627 Prusias founded. [627 BCE]
§ B622 Ancus Martius, the grandson of Numa by his daughter, added the Aventine Hill and the Janiculum to the city, and founded Ostia on the sea, at the 16th milestone from the City: at the end, he perished in an illness.
Cyaxares, fighting against the Assyrians, captures the city of Nineveh. [622 BCE]
§ B620 40th Olympiad [620 BCE]
§ B618 5th of the Romans, Tarquinius Priscus, for 37 years.
Tarquinius Priscus constructed the Capitol.
Arion of Methymna is considered important, who is said to have been carried from Delphi to (Cape) Taenarum. [618 BCE]
§ B616 41st Olympiad; Josiah, King of the Jews, is slain when he encounters Necho King of the Egyptians, and it strikes me as a miracle how each meets the other in the present time, especially when the Divine Scripture calls this same Pharaoh 'Necho'. [616 BCE]
§ B612 42nd Olympiad [612 BCE]
§ B610 In the third year of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylonia, captures Judah, and after very many of the Jews have been taken away into his jurisdiction, when he had also seized a part of the Temple's vessels, and made Jehoiakim into a tributary, he returns as a victor to his homeland. [610 BCE]
§ B609 Alcman, so it seems to some, is well known. [609 BCE]
§ B604 44th Olympiad [604 BCE]
§ B598 8th of the Medes, Astyages, for 38 years.
Tarquinius Priscus built the Circus at Rome, augmented the number of Senators, instituted the Ludi Romani, built walls and sewers, and finally was slain by the sons of Ancius, his king, to whom he himself had succeeded.
Massilia founded, a city in Gaul. [598 BCE]
§ B592 47th Olympiad [592 BCE]
§ B590 The first year of the captivity of Jerusalem.
The people of Judah are captured.
Nebuchadnezzar, king of the Chaldeans, after Jerusalem had been captured, burned down the temple, which from the start of its construction had stood for 442 years.
Indeed, Clement agrees with our opinion in the first book of the Stromateis, asserting that the Captivity of the Jews took place in the 47th Olympiad, while Vaphres was reigning in Egypt, and Phenippus in Athens; and by calculation, 70 years from the destruction of the Temple until the second year of Darius.
When Jerusalem had been captured, the remnant of the Jews fled from the Assyrians over to Vaphres, the king of Egypt. Even the Prophet Jeremiah makes mention of this Vaphres.
In these times, those competing in contest were given a 'tragus' — that is, a goat — whence they say tragedians are so-called.
Of the captivity of the Hebrews and the destruction of the Temple that was in Jerusalem, 70 years. [590 BCE]
§ B586 An eclipse of the sun happened, as Thales had said beforehand would happen. [586 BCE]
§ B585 In Babylon prophesied [585 BCE]
§ B584 49th Olympiad [584 BCE]
§ B581 6th of the Romans, Servius, for 34 years.
Servius, the son of a captive but noble-born servant, added three hills to the City: the Quirinal, the Viminal, and the Esquiline. He drew trenches around the walls.
He was first to institute a census of the Roman citizens. And, in the end, he was slain by the wicked deed of Tarquinius Superbus, his own son-in-law and son of the previous king.
The Isthmian games, after Melicertes, and the Pythian games first held. [581 BCE]
§ B580 50th Olympiad [580 BCE]
§ B579 The seven sages so called. [579 BCE]
§ B572 52nd Olympiad; After Nebuchadnezzar, king of the Babylonians, had died, Evilmerodach received power, to whom succeeded his brother Belshazzar, in whose reign Daniel interpreted the writing that had appeared on the wall, signifying that the power of the Chaldaeans would pass to the Medes and Persians. [572 BCE]
§ B571 Phalaris exercised a tyranny for 16 years. [571 BCE]
§ B560 55th Olympiad Cyrus destroyed the power of the Medes and reigned over the Persians, having overthrown Astyages, king of the Medes.
Anaximenes the natural philosopher is well known.
Cyrus, after the captivity of the Hebrews had been relaxed, caused nearly 50,000 men to return to Judaea. They built an altar and laid the foundations of the Temple. However, because construction was held up by neighbouring nations, the work remained unfinished down to the time of Darius, with only the altar standing.
First of the Persians, Cyrus, for 30 years.
The poet Stesichorus dies. [560 BCE]
§ B559 Simonides is considered important. [559 BCE]
§ B555 The kingship of the Lydians ended.
Haggai and Zechariah were prophesying; in this period, Jeshua son of Jozadak and Zerubbabel, of the royal family, son of Shealtiel, are considered important, who were also the leaders of those who returned to Judaea. [555 BCE]
§ B552 57th Olympiad [552 BCE]
§ B549 The whole period of the captivity of the Jews is reckoned as 70 years, which according to some are counted from the third year of Joachim to the 20th year of Cyrus king of the Persians.
Further, according to others, (this number of years is counted) from year
13 of Josiah king of the Judaeans, in whose reign Jeremiah began to prophesy, until the first year of the aforementioned king Cyrus. In fact the 70 years of the desolation of the temple are completed in the time of Darius the king.
The temple of Delphian Apollo burned down for the second time. [549 BCE]
§ B547 7th of the Romans, Tarquinius, for 35 years Croesus was taken prisoner by Cyrus: and the kingdom of the Lydians, which lasted for 130 years, was destroyed.
Cyrus captures Sardis.
Tarquin the Proud contrived chains, leather whips, clubs, shackles, quarry-chains, prisons, exiles, and mines.
Harpagus, who Cyrus used to consider as his best general, fights against Ionia. [547 BCE]
§ B537 Tarquinius Superbus, after his father-in-law Servius had been murdered, seized the throne. He subjugated the Volsci, the Gabii, Suessa, and Pometia: and when he attacked Ardea, on account of his son, Tarquin the Younger, who had defiled Lucretia, he was driven out from the kingship. [537 BCE]
§ B532 62nd Olympiad [532 BCE]
§ B530 2nd of the Persians, Cambyses, for 8 years; The Samians founded Dicaearchia, which is now called Puteoli.
They say that this Cambyses was called by the Hebrews Nebuchadnezzar II, in whose reign the story of Judith is composed.
Pythagoras the natural philosopher is considered important. [530 BCE]
§ B524 64th Olympiad
27th Dynasty of Egypt, of the Persians. Indeed Cambyses occupied Egypt in the 5th year of his reign.
Until Darius son of Xerxes, for 111 years; Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were the most recent to prophesy among the Hebrews. [524 BCE]
§ B523 3rd of the Persians, two magi brothers, for 7 months, after whom, 4th, Darius, for 36 years.
In the second year of Darius the king, the Temple in Jerusalem is constructed by Zerubbabel, and the work is concluded in the 4th year.
Clement also agrees with this, writing thus in the first book of his "And the captivity lasted for 70 years down to the second year of Darius the son of Hystaspes, who reigned over the Persians, Assyrians, and Egypt: in whose reign Haggai and Zechariah, and one of the Twelve who is called 'Messenger' (Malachi), prophesied, and Jeshua the son of Jozadak discharged the high priesthood. The aforementioned man (writes) these things." However, that the seventy years of the abandonment of the Temple had been completed in the second year of Darius, Zechariah the prophet bears internal witness, saying in Darius's second year: "Almighty Lord, how long will you not have pity on Jerusalem, and on the cities of Judah, which you disdained?" That year is the 70th.
However the end of the captivity of the Jews, and the permission to rebuild the temple began under Cyrus: the temple is finished in fact under Darius; because the neighbouring nations had impeded the building with unremitting attacks.
§ B520 65th Olympiad; In which was the second year of Darius, son of Hystaspis, king of the Persians.
Harmodius and Aristogiton killed the tyrant Hipparchus, and the courtesan Leaena their friend, when compelled with torments, lest she betray her companions, she amputated her tongue with her teeth. [520 BCE]
§ B512 67th Olympiad; After the kings had been expelled from the City, Rome was holding power barely as far as the 15th milestone. The seven kings of the Romans from Romulus until Tarquinius Superbus reigned for 240 years, or as some prefer, 243. [512 BCE]
§ B509 After the kings had been expelled, first two consuls began to exist at Rome, from Brutus; then tribunes of the plebs and dictators, and then consuls again controlled the Republic for close to 464 years, until Julius Caesar, who was the first to seize sole rule, in the 183rd Olympiad. [509 BCE]
§ B503 Of the Macedonians, Alexander, for 43 years;
Nine years after the kings were expelled, a new rank was created, that is, the dictatorship, and the Master of the Horse, who would answer to the dictator. Largius was the first Dictator, and Spurius Cassius the Master of Horse. [503 BCE]
§ B497 Pythagoras the philosopher dies. [497 BCE]
§ B495 The Latins rebelled against the Romans. [495 BCE]
§ B494 After an uprising had happened, the people of Rome, seceded from the fathers. [494 BCE]
§ B489 Panyasis the poet is considered illustrious. [489 BCE]
§ B488 300 nobles of the Fabian family slaughtered by the people of Veii.
When the Roman soldiers were besieged on mount Algidus, they were freed by the dictator Quintius Cincinnatus.
73rd Olympiad; Egypt was severed from Darius. [488 BCE]
§ B482 Diagoras is well known, and the followers of his natural philosophy. [482 BCE]
§ B477 Aeschylus the tragedian is well known. [477 BCE]
§ B473 Pindar the musician is considered important. [473 BCE]
§ B471 Sophocles, the tragedian, first published the works of his ingenuity. [471 BCE]
§ B464 79th Olympiad; These things were written about Esther and Mordecai: some affirm that they took place under this king, which I do not think; for Ezra, who writes that in this time Ezra and Nehemiah were returned from Babylon, and the subsequent deeds which are reported to have been performed by them, would not have been silent about Esther. [464 BCE]
§ B459 Heraclitus is considered important.
Evenus the poet is important.
Ezra the priest, notable among the Hebrews, is well-known, in whose time the high priesthood was held by Eliashib, son of Joakim, son of Jeshua, son of Jozadak. Moreover Ezra was most well-learned in the Divine Law, and an important teacher of all the Jews who had returned from captivity to Judaea. [459 BCE]
§ B453 Aristarchus the tragedian is well known.
The very famous centennial games of Rome first held.
302 years from the founding of the City, the Decemvirs were created, and after one year they were ejected on account of Appius Claudius, who wished to abduct the daughter of a certain Virginius who was fighting against the Latins in Algidus. [453 BCE]
§ B448 The temple of Juno that had been at Argos burned down.
Abaris the Hyperborean Seer is well known.
83rd Olympiad; Tribunes of the plebs and aediles created at Rome, after the consuls had been ejected.
Nehemiah the Hebrew, the attendant of King Artaxerxes, with the permission of his master, came to Judaea from Babylon in his 20th year, [448 BCE]
§ B447 and in his 32nd year restored the walls and the city. Ezra writes that the task was completed under the high priest Joiada, Joasib, who was succeeded by his own son, Jonathan, who lived in the time of Alexander of Macedon. [447 BCE]
§ B446 Up to this point, the divine Scriptures of the Hebrews contain annals of time: those things which happened among them after these things, we provide from the book of Maccabees, and Josephus, and from the writings of Africanus, which thereafter continued the universal history until the Roman period. [446 BCE]
§ B436 86th Olympiad; The Campanian gens established in Italy.
Democritus of Abdera, and Empedocles, and Hippocrates the doctor, Gorgias, and Hippias, and Prodicus and Zeno and Parmenides the philosophers are considered notable. [436 BCE]
§ B432 Socrates is celebrated for his superlative eloquence.
Ezra recalls that Nehemiah, who constructed the walls of Jerusalem, had finished the work in the 32nd year of Artaxerxes, king of the Persians. If someone should count from this point the 70 weeks (of years), written of by Daniel, which come to 490 years, he will find them fulfilled in the reign of Nero, in whose reign Jerusalem, after it had begun to be besieged, is seized in the second year of Vespasian.
11th of the Macedonians, Archelaus for 24 years.
87th Olympiad; Beginning of the Peloponnesian war. [432 BCE]
§ B431 Bacchylides the song writer is well known. [431 BCE]
§ B430 The Athenians suffer in the plague. [430 BCE]
§ B426 Fire erupted from Mount Etna. [426 BCE]
§ B424 89th Olympiad
8th of the Persians, Xerxes the second, for two months. After which the 9th, Sogdianus, for seven months. To whom succeeds 10th Darius, surnamed Nothus, for 19 years.
The Lacedaemonians and Athenians strike a treaty. [424 BCE]
§ B420 90th Olympiad; [420 BCE]
§ B407 28th Dynasty of Egypt. Nepherites for 6 years. [407 BCE]
§ B405 11th of the Persians, Artaxerxes, who was surnamed Mnemon, son of Darius and Parysatis, for 40 years.
In the reign of this king, it seems to me, the story which is contained in the book of Esther came to pass: of course he is the one who is called 'Ahasuerus' by the Hebrews, and 'Artaxerxes' by the LXX translators. [405 BCE]
§ B404 94th Olympiad [404 BCE]
§ B401 Dionysius exercises a tyranny at Syracuse.
14th of the Macedonians, Amyntas, for 1 year.
After whom Achoris, for
The Athenians support tyranny.
Isocrates the orator is well known. [401 BCE]
§ B400 After whom Pausanias, for 1 year.
29th dynasty of Egypt, of the Mendesians.
Pharnabazus kills Alcibiades.
The Anabasis of King Cyrus, about which Xenophon writes.
95th Olympiad; The tyrants overthrown at Athens. [400 BCE]
§ B399 The Athenians began to use 24 letters, when previously they had only had 16 letters.
Xenophon the son of Gryllus, and Ctesias are considered important.
After whom Amyntas for 6 years.
Socrates drinks poison. [399 BCE]
§ B398 Temple at Ephesus burned down again. [398 BCE]
§ B397 The followers of Socrates are considered important. [397 BCE]
§ B395 Speusippus is considered notable. [395 BCE]
§ B389 Of Egypt, Psammuthes, for 1 year. [389 BCE]
§ B387 After whom Nectanebis for 18 years. [387 BCE]
§ B382 [382 BCE]
§ B344 Plato dies, after whom Speusippus headed the Academy.
109th Olympiad; The Romans, since they had defeated the Samnites in two battles, brought all the neighbouring regions back under their own rule because they had withdrawn from her alliance. [344 BCE]
§ B333 After whom Darius, 14th, son of Arsamus, for 6 years.
Manasseh, the brother of Jad the high priest of the Jews, constructs a temple on Mount Garizin.
Alexander, fighting successfully against the Illyrians and Thracians, having destroyed Thebes, took up arms against the Persians, and at the River Granicus, overpowering the royal generals, captures the city of Sardis.
The Roman consul Manlius Torquatus beat his son with rods and executed him with an axe, because he had disobeyed orders by fighting against the enemy. [333 BCE]
§ B332 112th Olympiad;
After the capture of Tyre, Alexander takes possession of Judaea, and being received favourably there, sacrifices victims to God, compliments the high priest of the temple with many honors, and as guardian of the holy places sends forth Andromachus, whom the Samaritans later kill: on account of which things, after returning from Egypt, Alexander put them to death with great torment, and hands over their captured city to the Macedonians to dwell in. [332 BCE]
§ B329 The kingship of the Persians was destroyed.
Alexander occupied Babylon after Darius had been killed, in whom the kingship of the Persians was destroyed.
Alexander reigns in Asia in the 7th year of his reign and holds it all for 12 years.
Anaximenes and Epicurus are considered important.
Alexander captures the Hyrcanians and Mardians, and returning, he founded Paraetonium in Ammon. [329 BCE]
§ B324 114th Olympiad; Alexander dies in the 32nd year of his life in Babylon. After him, power was transferred into many hands.
At Rome Appius Claudius Caecus is considered important, who introduced the Claudian aqueduct and laid out the Appian Way.
Lysimachus held Lydia, Thrace and the Hellespont.
The generals of the Macedonians turned to sedition. [324 BCE]
§ B322 Ptolemy the son of Lagus, after he had gained control of Jerusalem and Judaea by treachery, transferred very many captives into Egypt.
Onias the high priest of the Jews, the son of Jad, is considered important. [322 BCE]
§ B312 117th Olympiad;
The Hebrew history of the Maccabees reckons the kingship of the Greeks from this year. But these books are not accepted as part of divine Scripture.
In Syria and Babylon and the upper regions reigned Seleucus Nicator, for 32 years.
The Romans defeat the Marsi, Umbri, and Peligni. [312 BCE]
§ B311 From this point the Edessenes calculate their dates.
The Romans plant colonies. [311 BCE]
§ B309 Theodorus the Atheist is well known. [309 BCE]
§ B304 119th Olympiad; Seleucus founded the cities of Antioch, Laodicia, Seleucia, Apamia, Edessa, Beroea, and Pella, of which he constructed Antioch in the 12th year of his kingship.
Seleucus occupied Babylon. [304 BCE]
§ B302 120th Olympiad; In Asia, Demetrius, also called Poliorcetes, for 17 years.
The high priest of the Jews, Simon the son of Onias, is considered important, to whom 'the Just' was the sobriquet because of his religious reverence towards God and his clemency towards his fellow-citizens.
Of the Macedonians, the sons of Cassander, Antigonus and Alexander, for 4 years. [302 BCE]
§ B294 A census of Rome having been taken, there were found to be 270,000 Roman citizens were found. [294 BCE]
§ B291 The Romans defeat the Gauls and the Tyrrhenians: and the land of the Sabines is apportioned by lot.
Seleucus transfers Jews into those cities that he had constructed, granting them the right of citizenship and municipal rank in honour equal to the Greeks. 123rd Olympiad; Of the Macedonians, Pyrrhus, for 7 months
Eleazar the brother of Simon took over the supervision of the temple as high priest of the Jews, because Onias the son of Simon was still a young boy.
After whom, Lysimachus, for 5 years.
After capturing Demetrius in Cilicia, Seleucus ruled both in Syria and Asia. [291 BCE]
§ B284 124th Olympiad; 2nd of Egypt, Ptolemy Philadelphus, for 38 years
Sostratus of Cnidus constructed the Pharos in Alexandria.
Antigonus, surnamed Gonatas, occupied Lacedaemon.
The Romans capture Croton. [284 BCE]
§ B283 Ptolemy Philadelphus permitted the Jews, who were in Egypt, to be free men: and, transmitting a votive vessel to Eleazar, high priest at Jerusalem, he arranged for the divine scriptures — which he had in the Alexandrian library that he had collected for himself from every kind of literature — to be translated into Greek speech from the Hebrew language by LXX translators. [283 BCE]
§ B276 126th Olympiad; One of the Roman virgins, caught in an (act of) corruption, is punished. [276 BCE]
§ B271 The silver nummus minted at Rome for the first time. [271 BCE]
§ B263 The Romans capture Syracuse. [263 BCE]
§ B257 Erasistratus the doctor is well known. [257 BCE]
§ B246 3rd of Egypt, Ptolemy Euergetes, for 26 years.
In Syria, Seleucus Callinicus, for 20 years.
Onias the high priest of the Jews, the son of Simon the Just, is considered important, who, failing to render the usual tribute to king Ptolemy, compelled him to anger. In fact, Josephus, a noble man among his own people, having been sent by the Jews as an ambassador to Ptolemy, when he had won the friendship of the king because of his many presents to him, is appointed governor of Judaea and the surrounding region. [246 BCE]
§ B244 134th Olympiad [244 BCE]
§ B240 135th Olympiad; The poet Quintus Ennius is born at Tarentum, who having been translated by Cato the quaestor to Rome, lived on the Aventine hill, content with a very meagre income and the help of one servant woman. [240 BCE]
§ B232 137th Olympiad; The high priest of the Jews Simon, son of Onias, is considered important, in whose time, Jesus the son of Sirach composing the book of wisdom, which they call the Panareton, also made mention of Simon in it. [232 BCE]
§ B228 138th Olympiad; [228 BCE]
§ B227 Nearly 40,000 Gauls slaughtered by the Romans. [227 BCE]
§ B213 Eratosthenes is well known. [213 BCE]
§ B200 145th Olympiad; Plautus, from Sarsina in Umbria, dies at Rome; who, because of trouble over his income, had hired himself out at a baker's handmill; there, as often as he had leisure from work, he was accustomed to write and sell plays. [200 BCE]
§ B196 146th Olympiad; The Romans commanded the Greeks to be free and all Spain carried out orders. [196 BCE]
§ B192 147th Olympiad; Antiochus, after the battle at Thermopylae in which he was defeated, agreed this between himself and the Romans, that he would pay one thousand talents each year in the name of "compensation." [192 BCE]
§ B189 Antiochus, having returned to friendship with Ptolemy, made peace with him; and (Ptolemy) gave him his daughter Cleopatra as wife, and conceded Syria, Phoenicia, Samaria, and Judaea under the name of a "dowry." [189 BCE]
§ B188 148th Olympiad; Eumenes, who founded Eumenia in Phrygia, brother of King Attalus, is considered important.
The second book of Maccabees contains things that happened among the Jews of this time. [188 BCE]
§ B187 In Syria and Asia, Seleucus, also called Philopator, for 12 years
Titus Livius, the tragedian, is considered important; who, as a reward for his ingenuity, was granted his freedom by Livius Salinator, whose children he used to teach. [187 BCE]
§ B186 When Hannibal was demanded from Antiochus, with whom he had associated himself after he had been conquered by Scipio, by means of envoys, he fled to Prusias, the king of Bithynia. But when through Flaminius the Senate again were demanding him (Hannibal) also from him (Prusias), and when he was going to have to be handed over, he drank poison, and was buried at Libyssa in Bithynia. [186 BCE]
§ B184 149th Olympiad; Simon, a dignitary of the temple at Jerusalem, fleeing to Apollonius the governor of Phoenicia; many gifts having been promised to him, he began to claim the priesthood for himself. [184 BCE]
§ B183 When Seleucus heard about this, he sent Heliodorus to carry out the job, who, when he arrived in Judaea, judging unfairly and carrying out many crimes, is frightened away by divine omens against himself, and returns to Seleucus. However, the priest Onias had taken care that Simon should be made a fugitive. [183 BCE]
§ B181 Hyrcanus, a son of Joseph the leader of Judaea, when he went abroad to visit Ptolemy, was received honorably by him. But his brothers, after a plot had been formed against him, were the cause of great tribulations for the nation of Judaea. [181 BCE]
§ B179 Statius Caecilius, the writer of comedies, is considered important. By nation he was an Insubrian Gaul and at first he was an comrade of Ennius. Some say that he came from Milan. He died in the year after the death of Ennius, and was buried next to the Janiculum. [179 BCE]
§ B176 151st Olympiad; Aristobolus, by nation a Jew, the peripatetic philosopher, is well known, who writes commentaries (consisting of) explanations on (the books of) Moses for Ptolemy Philometor. [176 BCE]
§ B172 152nd Olympiad; Antiochus Epiphanes, when he had returned by order of the senate from the land of the Ptolemies, which he had unexpectedly invaded, came into Judaea, and there Jesus, who also was called Jason, handed over the pontificate to his brother Onias; later, having been expelled, he appointed Onias named Menelaus his successor to it. And so, strife having been started between the princes over the dignity of the priesthood, the seeds of immense miseries sprouted. [172 BCE]
§ B170 153rd Olympiad; Antiochus attacks the law of the Jews: in fact firstly compelling their whole province to idolatry, those who were unwilling to comply he tortured to death. Afterwards, actually going up into Jerusalem, he devastates the temple and vessels of God which had been consecrated for ministry: he puts an image of Jupiter of Olympus in the temple, he builds a shrine of Jupiter the Foreigner in Samaria on the summit of mount Garizin, the Samaritans themselves having entreated that he should do this. In fact in this time a certain Matthathias from the priesthood, son of Hasmonaeus, in the hamlet of Modeim, taking up arms against the generals of Antiochus, also supported by the help of his sons, vindicated the laws of his country, in the 153rd Olympiad. [170 BCE]
§ B168 Ennius the poet dies, older than 70, of a joint disease, and was buried in Scipio's Monument on the Appian Way within the first milestone of the City. Some claim that his bones were transferred to Rudiae from the Janiculum. [168 BCE]
§ B164 154th Olympiad; In Syria and Asia, Antiochus Eupator, for 2 years.
Judas, also called Maccabeus, son of Mattathias, the general of the Jews, expelling the generals of Antiochus from Judaea, and purifying the Temple from the statues of the Idols, returned the laws of his country to his countrymen after three years in the 154th Olympiad. [164 BCE]
§ B162 Demetrius Soter , for 12 years. [162 BCE]
§ B159 155th Olympiad; Of the Jews, general Judas, for 3 years;
After Menelaus the high priest of the Jews had been slain by the younger Antiochus, who had earlier abandoned Judaea to Antiochus Epiphanes, Alcimus, an outsider to the sacerdotal tribe, through ambition takes possession of the pontificate.
On account of this Onias, son of the high priest Onias, moving into Egypt, founded a community with his name in the Heliopolitan district, after a temple in the likeness of the temple of his country had been constructed. Alcimus, indeed, while carrying on hostilities against Judas Maccabaeus, after no great time died, struck down by the wrath of God; and, so, with the approval of all the Jews, it is decided that the priesthood should go to Judas Macabaeus, who, having received that dignity, sends legates to Rome: and the Senate decreed that the Jews were to be considered friends and supporters of the Romans. [159 BCE]
§ B158 Publius Terentius of Carthage, a writer of comedies, granted his freedom on account of his genius and his appearance, dies in Arcadia; before he delivered it to the aediles, he first reads the Andria to Caecilius, who was himself greatly admiring. [158 BCE]
§ B154 Pacuvius of Brundisium the tragedian, the nephew of the poet Ennius by his daughter, is considered important; and he lived in Rome as long as he busied himself with painting and offered fables for sale; then, having moved to Tarentum, he died almost a nonagenarian. [154 BCE]
§ B139 Ptolemy marries off his daughter to Demetrius, along with the kingdom which he had taken away from Alexander.
L. Accius, a tragedian, is considered important. (He was) born to freed parents in the consulship of Mancinus and Serranus, and already recited his own writings to Pacuvius of Tarentus when he [Pacuvius) was an old man: from him the estate next to Pisaurum is called Accianus: since he had been brought there from the City among the colonists.
Of the Jews, Duke Simon, for 8 years. [139 BCE]
§ B133 The first book of the Maccabees contains a history of this time. [133 BCE]
§ B132 162nd Olympiad; Antiochus Sidetes, king of Syria, taking up arms against Judaea and surrounding Jerusalem with a siege trench, when he had forced the high priest Simon to terms, withdraws, in the 162nd Olympiad. [132 BCE]
§ B130 Dying, Attalus made the Roman people the heirs of his kingdom. [130 BCE]
§ B128 163rd Olympiad; Arsaces the Parthian killed Antiochus.
After whom Demetrius again for 4 years
The slaves, who were rebelling in Sicily, compelled by the necessity of the siege, were driven in turn to have to devour their comrades' corpses. [128 BCE]
§ B126 The most renowned city of the Arvernian Gauls, and King Vituitus captured.
Close by the Aeolian islands, cast up in the fire from an eruption, appeared the island that is now called Hiera. [126 BCE]
§ B124 164th Olympiad; In Syria and Asia, Antiochus Grypus, for 12 years
While John, the general and priest of the Jews, was waging war against the Hyrcanians, he received the name of Hyrcanus and, when he asked the Romans for the privilege of friendship, he was by decree of the Senate recorded on the list of friends. [124 BCE]
§ B121 Colonies planted at Narbo. [121 BCE]
§ B118 165th Olympiad
The Jews' priest Hyrcanus razed Samaria, which in our day is called Sebaste, which had been captured by siege. Later Herod, restoring it, wanted it to be called Sebaste in honor of Augustus. [118 BCE]
§ B112 167th Olympiad; After whom Antiochus Cyzicenus for 18 years
Antiochus Cyzicenus, having cast out Grypus, seized Syria: and then Grypus, having defeated Cyzicenus, took it back again. Thus they were ruling in turn, fighting in turn against each other. [112 BCE]
§ B106 Among the Jews, Jonathas holds the principate in a glorious way.
Cicero is born at Arpinum, to a mother named Helvia and a father of knightly rank, from the royal stock of the Volsci. [106 BCE]
§ B105 Gn. Pompey the Great is born. [105 BCE]
§ B104 169th Olympiad; Of the Jews, Aristobolus, for 1 year.
Aristobolus, the son of Jonathan, both king and high priest, was the first amongst the Jews to wear the insignia of the diadem, 484 years after the Babylonian captivity.
After him reigned Jannaeus surnamed Alexander, who, also controlling the pontificate, presided over the people with great cruelty.
after whom Jannaeus, also called Alexander, for 27 years. [104 BCE]
§ B103 Turpilius the writer of comedies, exceedingly old, dies at Sinuessa.
Gaius Lucilius the satirical writer dies at Naples, and is given a public funeral, in the forty sixth year of his life. [103 BCE]
§ B100 170th Olympiad; The Thracians conquered by the Romans. [100 BCE]
§ B99 Once more a Slave War flares up in Sicily. [99 BCE]
§ B94 In Syria, Philip, for 2 years;
The poet Titus Lucretius is born, who afterwards, driven mad by a love-potion, although during intervals of his insanity he had composed several books which Cicero later corrected, killed himself with his own hand in his forty-fourth year. [94 BCE]
§ B91 Syria, having been possessed by kings until this point, fell under Roman control. [91 BCE]
§ B88 Lucius Pomponius of Bononia, writer of atellans, is considered important.
10th of Egypt, PTOLEMY, who was ejected by his mother, for 8 years. Returned from exile, he (Ptolemy) obtained the kingdom because the citizens had expelled Alexander, who had been king before him, on account of the murder of his mother. [88 BCE]
§ B87 Plotius Gallus first taught Latin rhetoric at Rome, about whom Cicero thus declares: "I retain the memory that, when we were boys, a certain Plotius first began to teach in Latin."
Gaius Valerius Catullus, the lyric writer, is born at Verona. [87 BCE]
§ B83 Jannaeus captures many towns. [83 BCE]
§ B82 In the 26th year of his life, Cicero defends Quintius.
P. Terentius Varro, from the hamlet of the Atax, is born in the province of (Gallia) Narbonensis; after living for 35 years, he learned Greek letters with great zeal. [82 BCE]
§ B78 Pompey celebrated a triumph most gloriously. [78 BCE]
§ B77 Jannaeus devastates many communities.
Lepidus declared a public enemy.
T. Quintius Atta, a writer of national dramas, dies at Rome, and is buried at the second milestone of the Praenestine Way. [77 BCE]
§ B76 Of the Jews, Alexandra reigned for 9 years.
176th Olympiad; Alexandra, also called Salina, the wife of Alexander, reigned at Jerusalem, in whose time the breakdown of government and various military disasters oppressed the Jews. [76 BCE]
§ B74 The Gladiators' War in Campania. [74 BCE]
§ B70 Crassus celebrated a triumph. [70 BCE]
§ B68 178th Olympiad; Antioch in Syria captured by the Romans.
The Cretan war started, from which Metellus was called Creticus.
The Jews made tributaries by Pompey, and Hyrcanus received the pontificate among them, for 34 years.
The grove of Daphne near Antioch is consecrated to Apollo by Pompey. [68 BCE]
§ B67 Aristobulus and Hyrcanus, sons of Alexandra, fighting against each other for power, exposed an opportunity to the Romans to take possession of Judaea. And so Pompey, coming to Jerusalem after the city had been captured and the Temple had been opened, approaches up to the holy of holies; he brings Aristobolus with him as a captive, and confirms the pontificate to Hyrcanus; then he makes Antipater, the son of Herod of Ascalon, procurator of Palestine. [67 BCE]
§ B65 Libya left by the will of king Appion to the Romans. [65 BCE]
§ B64 The satiric and lyric poet Horace Flaccus is born at Venusia to a freedman father.
179th Olympiad; Apollodorus the Pergamene, a Greek orator, teacher of Callidius and Augustus, is considered important. [64 BCE]
§ B49 Diodorus Siculus, a writer of Greek history, is considered important. [49 BCE]
§ B48 183rd Olympiad; Gaius Julius Caesar was the first among the Romans to attain sole power, from whom Romans holding first rank are called 'Caesars'.
First of the Romans, C. JULIUS CAESAR, for 4 years and 7 months.
From this point the Antiochenes calculate their dates.
Pompey, conquered in battle, and fleeing, is killed by the eunuchs of the king of the Alexandrians. [48 BCE]
§ B47 M. Caelius the praetor and T. Annius Milo the exile crushed while simultaneously promoting a revolt in the Thurian and Bruttian regions.
Ptolemy's carcass found in the Nile wearing a golden breastplate. [47 BCE]
§ B45 A decree of the senate and the Athenians is sent to the Jews, who had proposed alliance through emissaries.
Cleopatra entered the City with a royal escort.
Women who have neither husbands nor children prohibited from the use of litters or pearls, and remain minors for 44 years.
Nigidius Figulus, a Pythagorean and a magician, dies in exile. [45 BCE]
§ B44 184th Olympiad; Antony decreed that the month Quintilis should be called July: because Julius Caesar had been born in it.
After Judaea had been captured, Cassius despoils the temple.
On the Ides of March, Gaius Julius Caesar is slain in the Curia, and at once Publius Dolabella took office.
The body of C. Caesar cremated on the Rostra, as an honour.
Servius Sulpicius, a lawyer, and Publius Servilius Isauricus given a state funeral.
At Rome, three simultaneously risen suns gradually coalesced into the same disk.
Among other portents, that occurred all around the world, an ox in the region of Rome at its plowing spoke: "It is useless to goad me on. For soon there will be a shortage not of crops but of men." [44 BCE]
§ B43 2nd of the Romans, Octavianus Caesar Augustus reigned for 56 years and 6 months;
from whom the kings of the Romans are called 'Augusti'
Antonius launches a war against Caesar Augustus.
Laberius, writer of mimes, dies at Puteoli, in the 10th month after the murder of Caesar.
Publius the mime playwright, a Syrian by birth, debuts on the Roman stage.
Cicero, in his 64th year, is slain by Herennius and Popilius in his villa at Formiae.
According to some, Cicero is killed in his villa at Caieta.
The head of Cicero, with his right hand, placed in front of the Rostra, and next to it the crowned likeness of the soldier Popilius who had slain him.
Ovid Naso is born in Abruzzi. [43 BCE]
§ B42 Caius Falcidius, a Tribune of the People, brought in a law against anyone making a legacy in his will so great that it did not leave to the heirs a fourth part of the estate.
Curtius Salassus was burned alive with four cohorts in the island of Aradus, because he had exacted tributes quite oppressively. [42 BCE]
§ B41 His owner recognized Vibius Maximus that had been designated quaestor, and carried him off.
Oil erupts out from the earth from a taberna meritoria on the other side of the Tiber, and flowed all the day without interruption, signifying the Grace of Christ from the nations.
Augustus defeats Antony, and by the senate intervening, returns to friendship with him.
The poet Cornificius died, deserted by the soldiers whom on account of their often fleeing, he calls 'helmeted hares'. His sister was Cornificia, whose notable epigrams survive.
Cassius looted the temple of the Rhodians.
Second split of Augustus and Antonius. [41 BCE]
§ B39 Antigonus while fighting against the Jews is at length killed. From then on down to the present time the kingship of Jerusalem has been destroyed. Accordingly after him Herod, a foreign prince, and in no way relating to Judea, was installed by the Romans. [39 BCE]
§ B37 The Fornii, father and son, are considered important orators, of whom the consular son dies before the father. [37 BCE]
§ B35 Herod the foreigner reigned over the Jews, the secular power of the pontificate having ended, for 37 years.
Herod, the son of Antipater from Ascalon and whose mother was Cypris from Arabia, received the principate of the Jews from the Romans: in whose time, around the time of Christ's birth, the kingship and the priesthood of Judaea, which previously had been held by a succession of lesser men, were destroyed, and the prophecy was fulfilled which speaks thus through Moses: "There will not lack a prince from Judah, nor a leader from his loins, until he shall come in whom it is entrusted. And he himself will be the hope of the nations."
And in this very place, Christ, whom the Scripture of Daniel prophesies, received his end. For until Herod, christs (anointed ones), i.e. the high priests, were the kings of the Jews, who began to rule from the 65th Olympiad and the restoration of the Temple under Darius, until Hyrcanus and the 186th Olympiad, around 433 years having passed: which is what Daniel also signifies, saying:
And may you know and understand that from the beginning of the word of returning to and rebuilding Jerusalem, until the leadership of CHRIST (the anointed one), 7 weeks and 62 weeks
These 69 weeks come to 483 years, in which the christs (anointed ones), that is, the high priests reigned through the anointing of oil until Hyrcanus.
The latter having been captured finally by the Parthians, Herod son of Antipater received Judaea, which did not belong to him, from Augustus and the Senate.
And his sons after him reigned until the most recent captivity of Jerusalem, never having been appointed high priests from the succession of the sacerdotal line, serving God according to the Law of Moses for all their lives. Indeed, certain lay persons, and others at another time, and not a few, used to buy the priestly office from Roman Emperors, for a single year or a bit more. All these things Daniel the prophet also foretells, saying:
"And after 7 and 62 weeks the anointing will perish, and there will be no sound judgement there and the people will defile the temple and the sanctuary with the leader who is coming: and they will be struck down in the flood of war." And in what follows: "And upon the Temple, he says, an abomination of desolation:
and until the fulfillment of the time, a fulfillment will be given upon the desolation."
Herod installed a certain Ananelus, invited from Babylon, as high priest of the Jews, and after a short while he appointed Aristobulus, the brother of his wife and nephew of Hyrcanus as the successor to him; when he was murdered after a year, he reappointed Ananelus to the priesthood.
The movements of the moon, according to the Romans, discovered.[BCE 34]
§ B32 Treaty of Antony and Augustus.
The Romans planted colonies.
Augustus celebrated a triumph for his land-battle triumph.
Antony handed over Arabia to Cleopatra.
The beginning of the third disagreement of Augustus and Antony, because the sister of Caesar having been repudiated, he had married Cleopatra.
Nicetes, Hybreas, Theodorus and Plution are considered the most noble Greek teachers of the rhetorical art.
187th Olympiad; Cleopatra and Antony kill themselves, and Egypt is made a Roman province, which Caius Cornelius Gallus first headed, about whom Virgil writes in the Eclogues.
Until Cleopatra, the Ptolemies, who were called Lagids, reigned in Egypt for 295 years. [32 BCE]
§ B30 Caesar called Augustus, from whom the month Sextilis received the name of Augustus.
With a huge pomp of triumphs, Augustus entered Rome, and led before his chariot the children of Cleopatra, the Sun and the Moon. [30 BCE]
§ B28 188th Olympiad
A census of Rome having been taken, there were found to be 4,164,000 Roman citizens. Colonies planted.
Anaxilaus Larisseus, a Pythagorean and a magician, is expelled from the City and from Italy by Augustus.
M. Terentius Varro the philosopher dies when nearly a nonagenarian. [28 BCE]
§ B27 Thebes of Egypt razed to the ground.
Cornelius Gallus the poet from Forum Julii, by whom Egypt was first governed, as we said above, killed himself with his own hand in the 43rd year of his life.
Trallis destroyed in an earthquake. [27 BCE]
§ B26 The Indians through a deputation requested friendship with Augustus.
Messala Corvinus, when he was first made urban prefect, relinquished his magistracy on the sixth day, claiming that it was an unjust form of authority. [26 BCE]
§ B25 Augustus makes the Calabri and the Gauls subject to taxation.
Munatius Plancus, a student of Cicero, is considered notable as an orator; who, when he was in charge of Gallia Comata, founded Lugdunum. [25 BCE]
§ B22 Augustus deprived the Cyzicenes of their liberty.
Pylades, the Cilician writer of pantomime, although the ancients themselves had sung and danced, was the first in Rome to make a chorus and pipe make music. [22 BCE]
§ B21 Sent by Augustus, Tiberius took possession of Armenia.
Atratinus, who had prosecuted Caelius at the age of seventeen, is considered important among orators. In the end, due to the weight of his illnesses, having died voluntarily in the bath, he left Augustus his heir. [21 BCE]
§ B18 Vergil dies in Brundisium, when Sentius Saturninus and Lucretius Cinna were consuls. His bones, having been taken to Naples, are buried within the second mile-marker of that city, with this very epitaph written above it, which he himself had dictated as he lay dying:
"Mantua gave birth to me;
Calabria carried me off;
Now Parthenope holds me.
I sang of pastures, the country and leaders." [18 BCE]
§ B17 Rebuilding Samaria from the ground up, which for a long time now had been sitting in ashes, Herod renamed it Augusta in honor of Augustus, that is, Sebaste, and constructed the town which is called Panion in Paneas.
Augustus granted freedom to the Samians. [17 BCE]
§ B16 In Cyprus, many parts of the cities were ruined in an earthquake.
Marcus Lollius defeats the Germans who had taken up arms.
The poets Varius and Tucca, companions of Vergil and Horace, are considered illustrious, who later corrected the books of the Aeneid under this condition: that they added nothing.
191st Olympiad; Augustus adopted Gaius Agrippa as his son. [16 BCE]
§ B14 Colonies at Beirut and Patras planted. [14 BCE]
§ B11 Herod founded Caesarea in the name of Caesar, which previously used to be called Strato's Tower.
Herod founded Anthonis, and Antipatris: and he constructed Herodion in his own honour and that of his father Antipater: also he constructed most cleverly innumerable works in individual cities of Syria which he was ruling. [11 BCE]
§ B8 Passienus the Father, a notable speech-maker, died.
C. Julius Hyginus, surnamed Polyhistor, the grammarian, is considered illustrious.
After Germany had been devastated, Tiberius is hailed as imperator. [8 BCE]
§ B7 Herod killed Hyrcanus, who previously had been high priest of the Jews, when he returned from his Parthian captivity, and killed his son, who had succeeded his father in the high priesthood: in addition, he most cruelly puts to death his (Hyrcanus's)
sister, his very own wife, with his own two sons already in adolescence, and the mother of his murdered wife, his mother-in-law. [7 BCE]
§ B4 Augustus condemns to exile his daughter Julia, caught in adultery.
194th Olympiad; M. Tullius Tiro, Cicero's freedman, who is credited with being the first to use shorthand, lives to his 100th year on his estate in Puteoli. [4 BCE]
§ B3 Augustus exhibited gladatorial games and a naval battle.
Melissus of Spoleto, the grammarian, is well known.
M. Porcius Latro, the Latin declaimer, killed himself from the weariness of a double quartan fever.
Herod added to these things, which he accomplished above cruelly, this also: he killed the husband of his sister Salome, and when he handed her over to another, he put him to death, too: moreover he slew the scribes and translators of the divine law in a similar crime. [3 BCE]
§ A1 Quirinius, sent to Judaea by a resolution of the senate, makes a survey of men and property.
All the years taken together from Abraham until the birth of Christ come to 2015 years.
C. Caesar made a treaty with the Parthians.
Sextus the Pythagorean philosopher is well known. [1 CE]
§ A2 Augustus adopts Tiberius and Agrippa as his sons.
Judas the Gallilean urges the Jews to rebel.
Herod, when he had learned of the nativity of CHRIST from the information of the Magi, ordered all the infants in Bethlehem to be killed. [2 CE]
§ A3 Herod, suffering from the dropsy and with his whole body infested with worms, dies miserably and deservedly. [3 CE]
§ A5 Of the Jews, Duke Archelaus, for 9 years
196th Olympiad; Into Herod's place Archelaus is substituted by Augustus, and his four brothers are made Tetrarchs: Herod, Antipater, Lysias, and Philip. [5 CE]
§ A12 Two years before Messala Corvinus the orator died, he had so lost his memory and intellect that he could scarcely string a few words together, and at the end, when a sore had developed around his lower spine, he ended his life by fasting at 72 years of age. [12 CE]
§ A14 Archelaus, in the 9th year of his reign, is banished to the Gallic city of Vienne.
Of the Jews, Herod the Tetrarch holds the principate for 24 years;
An eclipse of the sun happened, and Augustus dies in his 76th year, in Atella in Campania, and is buried at Rome in the Campus Martius.
3rd of the Romans, Tiberius reigned for 23 years
The orator Gaius Asinius Gallus, son of Asinius Pollio, whom even Vergil mentions, is put to death with fearful tortures by Tiberius. [14 CE]
§ A20 Tiberius, by blandishments, having summoned to himself many kings, never returned them: among these was Archelaus of Cappadocia; after his kingdom had been turned into a province, he (Tiberius) ordered its most noble city Mazaca to be called Caesarea. [20 CE]
§ A23 Drusus Caesar perished by poison. [23 CE]
§ A24 Quintus Haterius, the active Populares orator, lives until almost his 90th year with the highest honours. [24 CE]
§ A25 Servius Plautus, guilty of corrupting his son, kills himself in punishment.
201st Olympiad; Philip the Tetrarch called Paneas, in which he had constructed many buildings, Caesarea Philippi, and another city Julias. [25 CE]
§ A28 John the son of Zechariah, preaching in the desert by the Jordan River, bears witness that Christ, the son of God, is present in their midst. Also the Lord Jesus Christ himself announces the way of salvation to all people, proving by signs and wonders that the things that he said were true.
There are computed to the present year, that is the 15th of Tiberius Caesar, from the year following the restoration of the temple, which was completed under the second year of Darius, king of the Persians, 548 years from Solomon however, and the building of the first temple, 1060 years from Moses, and the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt, 1539 years, from Abraham and the reign of Ninus and Semiramis, 2044 years from the flood until Abraham, 942 years; from Adam until the flood, 2242 years. [28 CE]
§ A29 202nd Olympiad; Start of the 81st jubilee according to the Hebrews
Jesus Christ the son of God, preaching the way of salvation to all, performs the miracles which were written in the Gospels. [29 CE]
§ A30 Jesus Christ the son of God, imparting the divine sacraments to his own disciples, commands that they announce (the opportunity and need for) conversion to God, to all peoples. [30 CE]
§ A32 Jesus Christ, according to the prophecies, which had been spoken about him beforehand, came to the Passion in the 18th year of Tiberius, at which time also we find these things written verbatim in other commentaries of the gentiles: an eclipse of the sun happened, Bithynia shaken by earthquake, and in the city of Nicaea many buildings collapsed: all of which agree with what occurred in the Passion of the Saviour. Indeed Phlegon, who is an excellent calculator of olympiads, also writes about this, in his 13th book writing thus: "However in the fourth year of the 202nd Olympiad, an eclipse of the sun happened, greater and more excellent than any that had happened before it; at the sixth hour, day turned into dark night, so that the stars were seen in the sky, and an earthquake in Bithynia toppled many buildings of the city of Nicaea."
These things the aforementioned man (says).
The proof however of this matter, that in this year the Saviour suffered, the gospel of John presents, in which it is written that after the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar, the Lord preached for three years. Also Josephus, a native writer of the Jews, attests that around that time on the day of Pentecost, the priests first perceived an earth tremor and certain (loud) sounds. Then, that an unexpected voice suddenly burst out from the innermost part of the Temple saying: "Let us flee from this abode."
However the aforementioned man writes that in the same year Pilate the governor secretly in the night set up images of Caesar in the temple, and from this arose the first cause of the rebellion and turmoil of the Jews.
The first bishop of the Church of Jerusalem, James the brother of the Lord, is ordained by the Apostles. [32 CE]
§ A33 From this point it must be considered, what a great number of calamities will have then oppressed the nation of the Jews.
Cassius Severus the outstanding orator, who had mocked the Quintian Proverb, dies of starvation in the 25th year of his exile, covered with hardly a rag over his privates.
203rd Olympiad; Pilate, after the aforementioned uprising which had been incited on account of Caesar's images, laid the seeds for a second uprising when he spent the sacred treasury, which the Jews call the korban, on an aqueduct for Jerusalem. [33 CE]
§ A34 Sejanus, the prefect of Tiberius, who used to possess the greatest influence over him, urges most insistently that the Jewish nation be destroyed: Philo recalls this in the second book of his Embassy. [34 CE]
§ A35 The satirical poet Persius Flaccus is born at Volaterrae.
Agrippa the son of Aristobulus, the son of King Herod, the accuser of Herod the Tetrach, having set out for Rome, is thrown in chains by Tiberius. [35 CE]
§ A36 Pilate referring the matter of Christian doctrine to Tiberius, Tiberius referred it on to the Senate, so that it would be accepted among the other recognised religions.
Indeed, when by a decree of the fathers, it had pleased them that the Christians be evicted from the City, Tiberius by an edict threatened accusers of the Christians with death: thus writes Tertullian in his Apologeticum. [36 CE]
§ A37 Many Roman Senators and Knights killed.
Tiberius dies in Campania.
204th Olympiad; 4th of the Romans, Gaius Caligula reigned for 3 years and 10 months.
Gaius Caesar, called Caligula, makes Agrippa, who had been freed from his bonds, king of Judaea. [37 CE]
§ A38 Prince of the Jews, Agrippa, for 7 years;
Gaius declares himself to be among the gods.
Flaccus Avilius, prefect of Egypt, oppresses the Jews with many injuries, with the people of Alexandria consenting and resounding with numerous cries against them: he also pollutes their synagogues with images, statues, and altars and sacrificial victims.
Philo declares, in the book called Flaccus, that he was present at all these things, which is why he himself had even undertaken a delegation to Gaius. [38 CE]
§ A40 Pontius Pilate, falling into many calamities, killed himself by his own hand: so the historians of the Romans write.
Gaius ordered Petronius, prefect of Syria, to place his statue in Jerusalem under the name of Jupiter Optimus Maximus: which the Jews refused to do with the utmost obstinacy.
In the whole Roman world, as Philo and Josephus write, statues and images and altars of Gaius Caesar consecrated in the synagogues of the Jews.
Many of the nobles killed by Gaius.
Gaius condemned his sisters, whom he had brought into unchastity, to exile on islands.
Gaius ordered all the exiles to be killed.
Gaius is slain by his bodyguards on the Palatine in the 29th year of his life. [40 CE]
§ A41 5th of the Romans, Claudius reigned 13 years, 8 months, 28 days.
This is Claudius the paternal uncle of Drusus, who has a monument at Moguntiacum: elsewhere I have read that he was the maternal uncle, because he was the brother of the mother of Gaius. [41 CE]
§ A42 Peter the Apostle, by nation a Galilean, first high priest of the Christians, after he had been the first to found a church at Antioch, proceeded to Rome, where as bishop of the same city he remains, preaching the gospel for 25 years. [42 CE]
§ A44 Evodius is ordained the first bishop of Antioch.
Agrippa, king of the Judeans, having ruled 7 years, dies. After him, his son Agrippa is placed in power by Claudius.
Of the Jews, Agrippa, for 26 years.
The prophecy of Agabus, who had said in the Acts of the Apostles that there would be a famine in the whole world, came true under Claudius.
Claudius celebrated a triumph over the Britons and added the Orkney islands to the Roman empire.
In celebration of this glory he named his son Britannicus.
Domitius Afer of Nemausus is considered a brilliant orator; afterward, when Nero was emperor, he dies from overeating at a meal.
Claudius Quirinalis, a rhetor from Arelate, teaches most notably at Rome. [44 CE]
§ A47 Hitherto having been under kings, Thrace is reduced to a Roman province.
When Cumanus was procurator of Judea, during the days of unleavened bread, the unrest in Jerusalem was so serious that 30,000 Jews perished as the people ran together attempting to exit through the gates. [47 CE]
§ A48 Palaemon Vicentinus is considered a notable grammarian at Rome, who once, when he was asked what was the difference between a drop and a spot, said, "A spot stays put and a drop falls."
Marcus Antonius Liberalis the rhetor pursues a very bitter rivalry with Palaemon. [48 CE]
§ A49 207th Olympiad; A famine having occurred in Greece, a bushel of wheat was sold for six drachmas. [49 CE]
§ A50 Great famine at Rome. [50 CE]
§ A53 208th Olympiad
When Felix was procurator of Judaea, there were many who were deceiving the people with their opinions.
Among them also was a certain false prophet from Egypt who gathered many to himself but was crushed by the army of Felix in his very attempt to achieve great things. Josephus writes, agreeing with the Acts of the Apostles, in which the tribune says to Paul: 'Are you not the Egyptian who recently caused a stir and led the four thousand men into the desert?' [53 CE]
§ A54 Around this time, Claudius drained the Fucine lake, which took 30,000 men working for 11 years without intermission.
Claudius constructed the port of Ostia, with two branches, as it were, projecting on the left and the right sides.
Three suns appeared at the same time and immediately united in the same circle.
Dionysius the Areopagite, once a distinguished philosopher, is famous.
Philip, the apostle of Christ to the people in Hierapolis, a city of Asia, while preaching the Gospel, is nailed to a cross and stoned to death.
Claudius dies in the palace, in the 64th year of his life. [54 CE]
§ A56 While Felix was governing Judaea, a revolt broke out in Caesarea of Palestine which resulted in the deaths of a great multitude of Jews.
Festus succeeds Felix in the government (of the province), before whom, in the presence of Agrippa the king, Paul the apostle explains the rationale of his religion, and is sent to Rome in chains. [56 CE]
§ A57 Probus of Berytus, most erudite of grammarians, is well known at Rome.
209th Olympiad; Statius Surculus Tholosanus celebratedly taught rhetoric in Gaul.
Earthquake at Rome and eclipse of the sun. [57 CE]
§ A59 Nero was given to such excessive luxury that he used to bathe with both hot and cold ointments, and fish with golden nets which he set using purple for the rigging. [59 CE]
§ A61 210th Olympiad; At Rome Nero competes with the cithara and wins.
Albinus succeeds Festus in the magistracy of Judaea.
James, the brother of the Lord, whom everyone used to call the Just, is stoned to death by the Jews.
Simeon, also called Simon, is the second to be placed in his throne. [61 CE]
§ A62 Lightning struck in front of Nero's table. [62 CE]
§ A63 The first bishop of the church of Alexandria ordained after Mark the Evangelist was Annianus, who presided for twenty two years.
Persius dies at the age of 29.
Baths built by Nero, which he called the Neronian Baths. [63 CE]
§ A64 In Rome, Nero takes part in a competition of cithara-players, and defeats everyone.
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, the Corduban poet, caught in the Pisonian conspiracy, presented the veins of his arms to a physician for cutting.
Nero set the greatest part of Rome on fire, so that he might get a look at something like the burning of Troy. [64 CE]
§ A65 In Asia, three cities were ruined in an earthquake; Laodicea, Hierapolis and Colossae.
Cestius Florus succeeds Albinus as procurator of Judaea, in whose time the Jews rebelled against the Romans.
Junius Annaeus Gallio, the brother of Seneca the outstanding declaimer, killed himself with his own hand.
211th Olympiad. It was not held, Nero deferring it until he could be present.
Only two provinces added under Nero, Pontus Polemoniacus, and the Cottian Alps after king Cottius had died. [65 CE]
§ A66 Many nobles killed by Nero at Rome.
In the Olympics, Nero is crowned, defeating heralds, citharists, tragedians, and various charioteers in competition.
L. Annaeus Seneca of Corduba, teacher of Nero, and uncle of the poet Lucan, perished by an incision of the veins and by a draught of poison. [66 CE]
§ A67 Celebrating the Isthmian, Pythian and Actian games, Nero is again crowned among the heralds, tragedians and citharists.
By decree of the Senate a hundred times one hundred thousand (sesterces) are furnished to Nero as an annual allowance for expenses. [67 CE]
§ A68 Nero killed his wife Octavia, along with other notable men, and he drove the philosopher Cornutus, teacher of Persius, into exile.
The philosophers Musonius and Plutarch are considered distinguished. [68 CE]
§ A69 L. Annaeus Mella, brother of Seneca and Gallio, was awarded by Nero the property of the poet Lucan, his son.
1st persecution, by Nero;
Over all his other crimes, Nero also is the first to carry out a persecution against the Christians, in which Peter and Paul gloriously died at Rome.
Vespasian is made Master of Soldiers by Nero against the Jews, who were rebelling because they could not bear the avarice of Cestius Florus.
Vespasian captures many cities of Judaea.
Flavius Josephus the historical writer, a leader of the Jews in the war, when he was about to be killed by the Romans, he predicted the death of Nero to Vespasian, and his own (rise to) power; for which reason he received his life as a reward.
After Peter, Linus first held the church of Rome for 11 years.
Nero, when he was being sought out for punishment by the Senate, fleeing from the palace as far as the fourth milestone of the city, kills himself in the garden of his freedman between Salaria and Nomentana, in the 32nd year of his life, and in him the whole family of Augustus ended.
After Nero, Galba seized power in Spain, Vitellius in Germany and Otho in Rome.
Marcus Fabius Quinctilianus is brought to Rome by Galba.
212th Olympiad; In the seventh month of his reign, Galba is beheaded, in the middle of the forum of the city of the Romans.
Vespasian drove the Jews, who had been defeated in two battles, to the city walls.
In the third month of his reign, Otho lay dead at Bebriacum by his own hand.
Ignatius is ordained as the second bishop of Antioch.
Vitellius, slain in the eighth month of his reign by Vespasian's generals, is thrown into the Tiber.
7th of the Romans, Vespasian reigned for 9 years, 11 months, 22 days.
Vespasian, proclaimed emperor in Judaea by his army, and entrusting the war to his son Titus, sets out for Rome by means of Alexandria. [69 CE]
§ A70 The temple of Jupiter at Rome burned down.
After Judaea had been captured and Jerusalem demolished, Titus had six hundred thousand men put to death. But Josephus writes that one million one hundred thousand perished through hunger or by the sword, and that another one hundred thousand of the captives were publicly offered for sale. Now it was because of the feast of unleavened bread that such a great number was to be found in Jerusalem.
When the Jews flocked to the temple from every nation on account of this feast, they were shut up in the city as if in a prison. For it was fitting that they should be killed during the same days of Pascha on which they had crucified the Saviour. [70 CE]
§ A72 The entire length of time to the 2nd year of Vespasian and the most recent destruction of Jerusalem, is reckoned to be:
from the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar and from the beginning of the preaching of the Gospel, 42 years;
however from the captivity which was endured under Antiochus, 239 years;
again from the 2nd year of Darius, in whose reign the temple was rebuilt, 590 years;
however from the first building of the temple under Solomon until its final destruction, which happened under Vespasian, 1102 years. [72 CE]
§ A74 In Alexandria a revolt occurred.
Achaia, Lycia, Rhodes, Byzantium, Samos, Thrace, Cilicia, and Commagene, which were free before and were ruled by friendly kings, turned into Roman provinces. [74 CE]
§ A75 [Rome] A colossal statue erected, having a height of 107 feet. [75 CE]
§ A76 Q. Asconius Pedianus, the historical writer, is considered important, who having become known in the 73rd year of his life, comes to the end of his life 12 years later in the highest honour. [76 CE]
§ A78 A massive plague happened at Rome, so that for many days about 10,000 men were listed in the daily register of the dead.
Vespasian planted colonies, and he died from an issue from his stomach in his own villa among the Sabines, aged 69. [78 CE]
§ A79 8th of the Romans, Titus reigned 2 years and 2 months.
Titus, the son of Vespasian, was an expert in both languages and of such goodness that once when he recalled at a meal that he had been of no service to anyone on that day, he said: 'Friends, today I have wasted a day.'
Mount Vesuvius having erupted, it blasted upwards from itself such a great amount of fire that the neighbouring regions and cities were consumed in the fire, together with the people in them.
Titus recalls Musonius Rufus the philosopher from exile.
Titus builds the amphitheatre in Rome, and at its dedication he sacrifices 5000 wild beasts. [79 CE]
§ A80 Cletus [also called Anencletus] is appointed second bishop of the Roman church for 12 years. [80 CE]
§ A81 In Rome many buildings are burned to the ground in a fire.
Titus died from an illness at the same country-house where his father died, on the day before the Ides of September, at the age of 42. [81 CE]
§ A82 215th Olympiad
9th of the Romans, Domitian reigned for 15 years and 5 months.
Domitian was the younger brother of Titus.
The wife of Domitian is named as Augusta.
By a decree of the senate Titus is enrolled among the gods. [82 CE]
§ A86 Domitian was the first to order himself to be called lord and god. [86 CE]
§ A89 217th Olympiad; Domitian sends very many of the nobility into exile and slays them.
Domitian expels astrologers and philosophers from the city of Rome.
Many building works carried out at Rome, among them the Capitol, the Forum Transitorium, the Portico of the gods, the temple of Isis, the Serapeum, the Stadium, the pepper granaries, the temple of Vespasian, the temple of Minerva Chalcidica, the Odeum, Trajan's Forum, the Baths of Trajan and of Titus, the Senate House, the Ludus Matutinus, the Mica Aurea, the Meta Sudans fountain and the Pantheon. [89 CE]
§ A91 Domitian celebrates a triumph over the Dacians and the Germans.
Domitian had so much arrogance that he commanded golden and silver statues of himself to be placed on the Capitol. He marked those and all the others with his title, without any respect for the original builder. [91 CE]
§ A94 Domitian put many of the nobles to death, but some he sent into exile.
Second to do so after Nero, Domitian persecutes the Christians, and under him the apostle John having been exiled to the island of Patmos, saw the Apocalypse, which Irenaeus explains. [94 CE]
§ A97 Domitian orders those who were of the race of David to be killed, so that no-one might remain of the kingship of the Jews. Brutius writes that there were made very many Christian martyrs under Domitian, among whom were Flavia Domitilla, granddaughter of the sister of Flavius Clemens the consul; she was exiled to the island of Pontia, because she bore witness that she was a Christian.
Many signs and portents happened at Rome and in the whole world.
Domitian murdered in the palace aged 45, and ignobly buried by the pauper-undertakers
10th of the Romans, Nerva, reigned for 1 year and 4 months.
Cerdo presided as the 3rd bishop of the Church of Alexandria, for eleven years.
The senate decreed that all the things which Domitian had set up should be made void. And so many, whom he had unjustly ejected, returned from exile: some recovered their own goods. It is said also that when the apostle John was released at this time from exile, he withdrew to Ephesus, in which city he found both hospitality and very dear friends. [97 CE]
§ A98 Justus from Tiberias, the writer of the Jews, is well known.
Nerva died from an illness in the gardens of Sallust at the age of 72, after he had already adopted Trajan as his son.
Trajan, made emperor at Agrippina in Gaul, was born in Italica in Hispania.
11th of the Romans, Trajan, reigned for 19 years and 6 months.
By a decree of the senate Nerva enrolled among the gods. [98 CE]
§ A99 Evaristus received the 4th episcopate of the Roman church. [99 CE]
§ A100 Bishop Irenaeus writes that John the Apostle survived all the way to the time of Trajan: after whom his notable disciples were Papias, Bishop of Hieropolis, Polycarp of Smyrna, and Ignatius of Antioch. [100 CE]
§ A102 Trajan defeated King Decebalus and made Dacia a province: he made a treaty with the Iberians, Sauromatians, Osroenians, Arabs, Bosphorans and Colchians: he occupied and held Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Babylon: he instituted a fleet in the Red Sea so that he could lay waste the outskirts of India. [102 CE]
§ A104 At Rome, the Domus Aurea burned down in a fire. [104 CE]
§ A106 The fourth bishop of the church of Alexandria, by name Primus, is ordained, for twelve years. [106 CE]
§ A108 3rd persecution, by Trajan. Ignatius also, bishop of the church of Antioch, sent to Rome, is given to the beasts: after him Hero is appointed as the third bishop.
When Pliny the Younger was ruling a certain province and had put to death many Christians in his capacity as governor, he became frightened by their great numbers and sought from Trajan what he should do, reporting to him that, except for their stubborn refusal to sacrifice and their predawn gatherings to sing to a certain Christ as to a god, there was nothing (unusual) to be found among them. Furthermore, in order to be united in a common way of life, they forbid themselves to commit murder, theft, adultery, robbery, and the like. Disturbed by these things, Trajan wrote back: "This kind of people should not be sought out, but when they are brought before you, it is fitting for them to be punished." Tertullian refers to all this in his Apology. [108 CE]
§ A109 222nd Olympiad; Alexander holds the fifth episcopate of the city of Rome for ten years.
Pliny the Younger of New Como, of whom many works of ingenuity are extant, is considered a notable orator and historian. [109 CE]
§ A111 After Justus, Zachaeus received the 4th episcopate of the Church of Jerusalem. After him, 5th is Tobias, to whom succeeds 6th Benjamin, and then 7th John and 8th Matthias, into whose place Philip is appointed 9th. [111 CE]
§ A114 The Jews, who were in Libya, fight against their foreign-born neighbors. Likewise in Egypt, in Alexandria, and even Cyrene and the Thebaid, they struggle with great rebellion; but a portion of the gentiles defeat (them) in Alexandria. [114 CE]
§ A115 The Emperor Trajan ordered Quietus of Lysia to banish the rebellious Jews of Mesopotamia from the province: Quietus, drawing up an army against them, killed countless thousands of them, and for this he is appointed procurator of Judea by the emperor.
After the gentiles there had been killed, the Jews overthrew Salamis, a city of Cyprus. [115 CE]
§ A117 Trajan perishes in an illness at Selinus, or as I discover in someone else's text, he died at Isaurian Seleucia, the result of dysentery, in the sixty-third year, ninth month, and fourth day of his age. His bones were collected in a golden urn and placed in the Forum at the base of (his) column: and alone of all (the emperors) was he interred within the City.
12th of the Romans, Hadrian ruled for 21 years;
Hadrian, born at Italica in Spain, was the son of Trajan's female cousin. [117 CE]
§ A118 Hadrian restored Alexandria, which had been sacked by the Romans, from public funds.
Hadrian, envious of Trajan's glory, recalled the army from those provinces created by him, namely, Assyria, Mesopotomia, and Armenia.
Hadrian makes captives of the Jews, who were rebelling against Rome for a second time.
The senate declares Trajan to be among the gods.
Hadrian was most erudite in both languages, but he was inadequately restrained in his lust for boys.
Hadrian freed the rest of the cities from tribute, having burned the records in public: he also discharged many free-men from these same tributes. [118 CE]
§ A121 After an earthquake had happened, Nicomedia lay in ruins, and many things were overturned in the city of Nicaea: for the reconstruction of which, Hadrian generously gave funds from the public treasury.
225th Olympiad; Euphrates the Stoic philosopher dies. [121 CE]
§ A122 Hadrian plants colonies in Libya, which had been devastated by the Jews.
In response to the Athenians who had petitioned him for laws, Hadrian composed a legal code drawn from the books of Draco, Solon, and the rest [122 CE]
§ A124 After Philip, Seneca is appointed as the 10th bishop of Jerusalem; after whom, Justius as the 11th, to whom succeeded Levi the 12th, after whom Ephres 13th, Joses 14th, Judas 15th. All these bishops that presided down to the destruction of Jerusalem, that was carried through by Hadrian, were from the circumcision. [124 CE]
§ A126 Quadratus the disciple of the apostles, and Aristides of Athens, our philosopher, composed books on behalf of the Christian religion to give to Hadrian. And the legate Serenus Granius, a man most noble, sends letters to the emperor, saying that it is unjust to allow the blood of innocent men guilty of no crime (to be shed) at the clamour of the mob, and to be made guilty of a crime only because of a name and a sect. Having been so moved, Hadrian wrote to Minucius Fundanus, proconsul of Asia, that the Christians should not be condemned without evidence of a crime. An exemplar of these letters has remained until our own time. [126 CE]
§ A128 The emperor Hadrian is called Father of his Country and his wife Augusta.
Telesphorus received the seventh episcopate of the Roman church for 11 years.
Cornelius is appointed as the fourth bishop of Antioch. [128 CE]
§ A129 227th Olympiad; Nicopolis and Caesarea were ruined in an earthquake.
Antinous, a boy noted for his exceptional beauty, dies in Egypt. After Hadrian attentively carries out his funeral rites — for the boy had been a favourite of his — , he declares him to be among the gods; a city was also named after him. [129 CE]
§ A132 Salvius Julianus composed the Perpetual Edict.
While Hadrian is spending the winter at Athens, he visits Eleusis.
Hadrian, when he had constructed many notable buildings in Athens, held games and erected a library of wondrous construction.
The Jews turned to arms and laid waste Palestine, while Tynius Rufus was in control of the province. Hadrian sent an army to him for the purpose of putting down the rebels.
Favorinus and Polemon are considered notable rhetoricians. [132 CE]
§ A133 228th Olympiad; Basilides the heresiarch lingers in Alexandria, from whom come the Gnostics.
Barcocheba, leader of a party of the Jews, because the Christians are not willing to help him against the Roman army, murders them with every sort of torture. [133 CE]
§ A134 The Jewish War, which took place in Palestine, came to an end with the complete suppression of the Jews. From that time permission for them even to enter Jerusalem was revoked, first by the will of God, as the prophets had foretold, then by the prohibitions of the Romans. [134 CE]
§ A136 Aelia founded by Aelius Hadrian; on the front of that gate, by which we go out to Bethlehem, a sow was sculpted in marble, denoting that the Jews were subject to the Roman authority. Some think it was constructed by Titus Aelius, the son of Vespasian. [136 CE]
§ A138 13th of the Romans, T. Antoninus, surnamed Pius, reigned with his children Aurelius and Lucius for 22 years, 3 months.
Hyginus receives the 8th episcopate of the Roman church for four years. [138 CE]
§ A139 Antoninus is named Father of his Country. [139 CE]
§ A142 Pius is ordained as the ninth bishop of the Roman church, for 15 years. [142 CE]
§ A154 Crescens the Cynic is well known, who promoted a prosecution against our Justin the Philosopher, learned in the (Christian) teachings, because he (Justin) was arguing him (Crescens) to be gluttonous and a corrupter of philosophy. By result of which he (Justin) gloriously poured out his blood for Christ. [154 CE]
§ A159 235th Olympiad; After Marcus, Cassianus received the 17th episcopate of Jerusalem, after him the 18th was Publius, whom Maximus, the 19th, succeeded, the 20th was Julianus, the 21st Gaianus, the 22nd Symmachus, the 23rd Caius, the 24th Julianus, and the 25th was Captio. [159 CE]
§ A161 Antoninus Pius dies aged 77 at his villa at Lorium near the 12th milestone from the City. 14th of the Romans, Marcus Antoninus, also called Verus, and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, reigned for 19 years and 1 month.
These men were the first to have run the empire jointly by law, since until this time, there had been individual Augusti. [161 CE]
§ A165 Seleucia in Assyria captured together with 300,000 men by the Romans.
236th Olympiad; At Pisa, the philosopher Peregrinus, after a funeral pyre that he had built from timber had been lit, threw himself on it. [165 CE]
§ A168 Many people in Gaul died gloriously for the name of Christ; their contests have survived until the present day preserved in books.
The plague overtook numerous provinces, Rome having been troubled from there. [168 CE]
§ A169 The Romans fight against the Germans, Marcomannis,Quadi, Sarmatians, and Dacians.
237th Olympiad; Soter received the 11th episcopate of the Roman church for 8 years.
Theophilus is ordained as the 6th bishop of Antioch, of whom many works of ingenuity are still extant. [169 CE]
§ A174 The emperor Lucius, while sitting with his brother in a carriage, died of apoplexy in the ninth, or, as some think, in the eleventh year of his reign between Concordia and Altinum.
Melito, bishop of Sardis in Asia, handed over an Apology for the Christians to the emperor Antoninus.
Apollinaris, bishop of Asian Hierapolis, is considered notable.
Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, is considered important, and Pinytus of Crete, a most eloquent man.
The false prophecy, which is called the Cataphrygian, had its beginning, from its founder Montanus, with Priscilla and Maximilla the insane seers.
Tatian the heretic is well known, from whom come the Encratites.
Bardaisan, the leader of another heresy, becomes well-known.
Oppianus Cilex the poet, who composed the Halieutica with wonderful splendour, is recognised.
So great was the pestilence throughout the entire world, that that the Roman army was slaughtered almost to extinction. [174 CE]
§ A175 238th Olympiad; The emperor Antoninus sometimes personally participated in many of the wars that arose against him, sometimes he appointed very noble commanders. Among them, a rainstorm of the Divinity once was sent for Pertinax and his army while he was fighting with the emperor in the land of the Quadi and was oppressed with thirst; while on the other hand, thunderbolts fell upon the Germans and Sarmatians, and slew most of them.
There is extant a letter of Marcus Aurelius, a most serious emperor, in which it is witnessed that a drought of Germany was finished, perhaps by the prayers of the Christian soldiers, rain having been obtained. [175 CE]
§ A178 Maximinus is appointed as 7th bishop of Antioch.
Antoninus makes his son Commodus his colleague in power.
Antoninus with his son celebrated a triumph over the enemy, whom he had devastated by having a permanent camp at Carnuntum for three years.
The emperors granted much to many, and when they had forgiven the provinces the money that was owed to the exchequer, they instructed that the titles of the debtors should be burned in the middle of the forum of Rome, and, lest anything of goodness should be lacking, they tempered some rather severe laws with new regulations. [178 CE]
§ A179 Antoninus, after a victory, was so splendid in the presentation of the games that a hundred lions were exhibited at the same time.
Commodus is named 'Augustus' by the Senate.
Smyrna, a city of Asia, was destroyed by an earthquake; for the reconstruction of which, a ten-year moratorium on its tribute was granted.
Antoninus died in an illness in Pannonia.
Julian is chosen by lot as the tenth bishop of the Alexandrian church for ten years. [179 CE]
§ A184 Commodus named the month of September after himself. [184 CE]
§ A186 241st Olympiad; Maximus is ordained the 26th bishop of Jerusalem. After him, the 27th is Antoninus, the 28th Valens, the 29th Dulchianus, the 30th Narcissus, the 31st Dius, the 32nd Germanio, the 33rd Gordius, and the 34th is Narcissus again. So many bishops having been appointed at Jerusalem, we could not discern the dates of each. Because of this these dates were not recorded much from this point until the present day. [186 CE]
§ A188 Lightning destroys the Capitol and a great fire having been caused, the library and also nearby buildings were consumed. [188 CE]
§ A191 Commodus kills many of the nobles, and provides the Roman people with notable games.
After a fire had happened at Rome, the palace and temple of the Vestals, together with the larger part of the City, are levelled to the ground. [191 CE]
§ A192 Commodus is strangled in the Vectilian House. [192 CE]
§ A193 243rd Olympiad
16th of the Romans, Aelius Pertinax reigned for 6 months.
Though he was more than seventy years old, Pertinax, while he was holding the prefecture of the City, was ordered by a decree of the senate to govern the empire. [193 CE]
§ A194 Victor receives the 13th episcopate of Rome for 10 years, whose modest volumes On Religion are extant.
Pertinax refused the pleas of the Senate to call his wife 'Augusta' and his son Caesar, which suffices to show that he himself reigned unwillingly.
Pertinax is slain in the palace, by the wickedness of Julian the jurist: whom Severus afterwards killed at the Milvian Bridge.
17th of the Romans, Severus reigned for 18 years.
Severus was from the town of Leptis in the Province of Tripolitana, and remains to this day the only Emperor the Romans had from Africa. In honor of Pertinax, whom Julianus had slain, he commanded that he be surnamed Pertinax.
Severus reigned for 6 months of the preceding year. [194 CE]
§ A195 Clement, a presbyter in the Church at Alexandria, and Pantaenus, a Stoic philosopher, are considered our most learned in disputes about doctrine.
Narcissus, Bishop of Jerusalem and Theophilus of Caesarea, with Polycrates and Bacchylus, bishops of the Asian Province are considered notable. [195 CE]
§ A196 A question having arisen among the bishops of Asia whether, according to the Law of Moses, Easter ought to be observed on the 14th of the month, Victor, bishop of the City of Rome and Narcissus of Jerusalem, together with Polycrates and many pastors of the churches, issued a letter stating what seemed likely to them, of which a record survives down to our time. [196 CE]
§ A198 Severus defeated the Parthians and the Adiabeni, and slaughtered the Inner Arabs to such an extent that he could make their land into a Roman province. On that account, he was given the surnames Parthicus, Arabicus, and Adiabenicus. [198 CE]
§ A201 While Severus was reigning, Severian Baths were built at Antioch and Rome, and the Septizonium constructed.
245th Olympiad; Zephyrinus received the 14th episcopate of the Roman Church, for 17 years. [201 CE]
§ A204 Alexander is considered notable on account of his confession of the name of the Lord.
In this year we find a jubilee observed by most, i.e. in the 12th year of Severus and 251st of the city of Antioch.
Clement composes many and various works.
Musanus the writer, of our philosophy, is well known.
§ A205 246th Olympiad; After Clodius Albinus, who had made himself Caesar in Gaul, had been killed at Lugdunum, Severus carried the war over to the British provinces: where, so as to make the recovered provinces more secure from barbarian invasions, he drew an earthwork along a 132 mile stretch from sea to sea. [205 CE]
§ A219 Philetus is appointed 10th bishop of Antioch.
The amphitheatre at Rome burned down during the Vulcanalian Games.
Abgar, a holy man, reigned at Edessa, as Africanus maintains.
Macrinus is slain in Archelais (Khirbet-El-Arakah).
20th of the Romans, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus reigned for 4 years.
Marcus Aurelius, thought to be the son of Antoninus Caracalla, and priest of the temple of Heliogabalus, during his reign lived shamelessly to such a degree, that he overlooked no kind of obscenity. [219 CE]
§ A220 Callistus received the 15th episcopate of the Roman church for five years. [220 CE]
§ A221 The temple of Heliogabalus built at Rome.
250th Olympiad; In Palestine Nicopolis, which previously used to be called Emmaus, was founded as a city, the labour of the embassy on its behalf being undertaken by Julius Africanus, the writer of the Chronicle. [221 CE]
§ A223 21st of the Romans, Alexander, son of Mamaea, reigned for 13 years.
Alexander most gloriously defeated Xerxes, king of the Persians, and he was such a strict reformer of military discipline that he dismissed certain entire legions that were disorderly. [223 CE]
§ A225 251st Olympiad; Urbanus is ordained as 16th bishop of the Roman church, for nine years. [225 CE]
§ A227 Alexandrian baths built at Rome. [227 CE]
§ A231 Heraclas is ordained as the 12th bishop of the Alexandrian church for 16 years. [231 CE]
§ A232 Alexander was uniquely pious towards his mother, and because of this was pleasant to everyone. [232 CE]
§ A234 Pontianus received the 17th episcopate of the Roman church for five years. [234 CE]
§ A241 255th Olympiad; Gordian, while very much a young man, having defeated the Parthian nation, when he was returning home a victor, he was killed by a stratagem of the praetorian prefect Philip not far from Roman soil. [241 CE]
§ A246 While the Philips were reigning, the millennium of the city of Rome was completed, because of which solemnity innumerable beasts were killed in the great circus and theatrical games celebrated in the Campus Martius, the people staying awake for three days and nights. [246 CE]
§ A247 The theatre of Pompey and the Hecatonstylon burned down. [247 CE]
§ A252 25th of the Romans, Decius reigned for 1 year, 3 months.
Decius, from Pannonia Inferior, was born at Budalia.
7th persecution: After Decius had killed the Philips, father and son, from hatred of them he launches a persecution against the Christians.
Anthony the monk is born in Egypt.
At Rome the amphitheatre burned down.
After Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, had been killed as a martyr at Caesarea of Palestine and Babylas at Antioch, Mazabanus and Fabius are appointed bishops.
Decius along with his son is murdered in Abritto.
26th of the Romans, Gallus and Volusianus son of Gallus reigned for two years, four months.
Cornelius received the 20th episcopate of the Roman church, after the glorious death of Fabianus, for 2 years and was himself also crowned with martyrdom. Eight letters of Cyprian to him are extant. [252 CE]
§ A253 258th Olympiad; A pestilential sickness seized many provinces of the whole world, and especially at Alexandria and in Egypt, as Dionysius writes, and the book On Mortality by Cyprian is a witness. [253 CE]
§ A254 Novatus a presbyter of Cyprian's, coming to Rome, unites Novatian and other confessors to himself, because Cornelius had received penitent apostates.
Demetrianus is appointed as the 13th bishop of Antioch.
Lucius holds the 21st episcopacy of the Roman Church for 8 months. After which Stephen is the
22nd for 3 years. There are extant some letters of Cyprian to both of them.
A jubilee, according to most of our people.
Gallus and Volusianus, when they set out from the City against Aemilianus, who was causing a revolt in Moesia, were killed in Forum Flaminii or, as some believe, at Interamna.
Aemilian died in the third month of his usurpation. [254 CE]
§ A257 259th Olympiad; Xystus held the episcopate of the Roman church 23rd for 8 years.
Cyprian, first a rhetorician, then a priest, and finally bishop of Carthage, is crowned with martyrdom. [257 CE]
§ A262 After the Gallic provinces had been devastated, the Alamanni crossed into Italy.
Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, and Asia laid waste by the Goths. The Quadi and the Sarmatae seized Pannonian provinces. [262 CE]
§ A269 The Gallic provinces recovered by Postumus, Victorinus and Tetricus.
262nd Olympiad; Gallienus is murdered at Milan.
28th of the Romans, Claudius reigned for 1 year, 9 months.
In Alexandria, Bruchium, which had been blockaded for many years, is at last destroyed.
Claudius defeats the Goths ravaging Illyricum and Macedonia; because of them, in the Curia a gold medallion, and in the Capitol a gold statue, were set up for him. [269 CE]
§ A274 Zenobia is conquered at Immae, not far distant from Antioch. After her husband had been slain, she was holding the rule of the East. In this struggle, the general Pompeianus — whose cognomen was 'the Frank' — fought very vigorously against her. Even today his family persists at Antioch, and Evagrius, very dear to us, is descended from his line.
Eusebius, bishop of Laodicaea, is considered notable.
Tetricus and Zenobia preceded the chariot of Aurelian in a triumph at Rome; after which Tetricus was Corrector of Lucania, and Zenobia grew old in the city with great esteem, and from her today there is a family in Rome that is named 'of Zenobia'. [274 CE]
§ A276 The first games of the sun established by Aurelian.
After Aurelian had initiated a persecution against us, a thunderbolt falls next to him and his companions; and not long after, he is slain at Caenophrurium on the old road between Constantinople and Heraclea. [276 CE]
§ A277 264th Olympiad: 30th of the Romans, Tacitus reigned for 6 months.
After he had been slain at Pontus, Florian obtained power for 88 days. After he too had been killed at Tarsus,
31st of the Romans, Probus reigned for 6 years, 4 months. [277 CE]
§ A278 Felix received the 25th episcopate of the Roman church for 5 years. [278 CE]
§ A279 Probus with great energy restored the Gallic provinces occupied by the barbarians.
Start of the 86th jubilee according to the Hebrews;
Anatolius, bishop of Laodicea, learned in the teachings of the philosophers, is celebrated for his superlative eloquence. [279 CE]
§ A280 The second year of Probus was year 325 according to the people of Antioch; 402 according to the Tyrians; 324 according to the Laodiceans; 588 according to the Edessans; 380 according to the Ascalonians.
The insane heresy of the Manichaeans appeared, to the general harm of the human race. [280 CE]
§ A281 Probus permitted the Gauls and Pannonians to have vines, and he gave the Alma and Aureus hills, planted by the army, to be harvested by the provincials.
265th Olympiad: Cyrillus is appointed 18th bishop of Antioch. [281 CE]
§ A282 Saturninus, the master of the army, began to refound a new city at Antioch: who afterwards is slain at Apamea attempting to take possession of the empire.
Eutychianus received the 26th episcopate of the Church of Rome for 8 months, after which Gaius was 27th for 15 years. [282 CE]
§ A285 266th Olympiad: Carus, from Narbo, when he had taken Cochis and Ctesiphon, the most important cities of the enemy, after all the region of the Parthians had been devastated, while setting up camp besides the Tigris, died by a flash of lightning.
Numerian, as he was being carried along in a litter due to a pain in his eye, was slain by a plot of his father-in-law Aper. The wickedness was only discovered several days later due to the stench of the corpse. [285 CE]
§ A286 Carinus, defeated in battle at the Margus, is slain.
33rd of the Romans, Diocletian reigned for 20 years.
Diocletian from Dalmatia, the son of a scribe, after being elected emperor immediately struck Aper in the assembly of the soldiers, swearing that Numerian had been killed without his being involved. [286 CE]
§ A287 Diocletian adopted as co-ruler Maximianus Herculius who, after suppressing a multitude of peasants, to whose faction he gave the name of Bacaudae, restored peace to the Gallic provinces. [287 CE]
§ A289 267th Olympiad: After assuming the purple, Carausius occupied Britain. Narsaeus made war in the East. [289 CE]
§ A292 The Quinquegentani infested Africa.
Achilleus seized Egypt.
For these reasons Constantius and Galerius Maximianus were adopted into the royal power as Caesars. Constantius was the nephew of Claudius through his daughter, and Galerius was born in Dacia not far from Serdica . And so that Diocletian might be connected to them by marriage, Constantius married Theodora the stepdaughter of Herculius, from whom afterwards he had six children, the brothers of Constantine; Galerius married Valeria the daughter of Diocletian, after both being obliged to divorce the wives they had. [292 CE]
§ A295 The nations of the Carpi and Basternae were resettled on Roman soil. [295 CE]
§ A296 While all the emperors before him were hailed in the manner of a magistrate, and they had nothing more than a purple mantle in addition to a normal dress, Diocletian was the first to order that he should be hailed as a god, and gems to be sewn into his robes and shoes. [296 CE]
§ A297 269th Olympiad: Marcellianus received the 28th episcopate of the Roman church. [297 CE]
§ A298 Alexandria, with the rest of Egypt, cut itself off from Roman authority through the leadership of Achilleus; after a siege of eight months, it was retaken by Diocletian.
Therefore, many throughout the whole of Egypt were troubled with heavy proscriptions and exile after those who had emerged as the cause of the revolt had been killed. [298 CE]
§ A300 Zabdas is ordained 37th bishop of the church of Jerusalem. [300 CE]
§ A301 After ten years Britain recovered by Asclepiodotus, the praetorian prefect.
270th Olympiad: Near Langres, 60,000 Alamanni slaughtered by Constantius Caesar.
Galerius Maximian, defeated by Narses, ran before Diocletian's carriage wearing his purple robes. [301 CE]
§ A302 Veturius, Master of the Soldiers, persecutes the Christian soldiers, the persecution against us beginning little by little from just that time.
Galerius Maximian, after he had defeated Narses, and captured his wives, children and sisters, is received by Diocletian with great honour. [302 CE]
§ A304 Tyrannus is appointed as the 19th bishop of Antioch.
After Theonus, Peter is ordained the 21st bishop of the Church of Alexandria, who later in the ninth year of the persecution accomplished a glorious martyrdom. [304 CE]
§ A305 Diocletian and Maximian Augusti celebrated a triumph at Rome with notable pomp. Before their chariot went the wife, sisters and children of Narses, and all the booty, which they had looted from the Parthians.
In a horrible earthquake at Tyre and Sidon, many edifices were ruined and an immense number of people were crushed.
In the nineteenth year of Diocletian, during the month of March, in the days of Easter, the churches were destroyed. However in the 4th year of the persecution, Constantine began to reign.
According to the Antiochenes, year 350.
1st year of the persecution
271st Olympiad: In the second year of the persecution, Diocletian at Nicomedia, and Maximianus at Milan, laid down the purple. [305 CE]
§ A306 Eusebius is appointed as the 29th bishop at Rome for a period of seven months, after him Miltiades as the 30th bishop holds the church for four years.
Maximinus and Severus made Caesars by Galerius Maximian. [306 CE]
§ A307 In the 16th year of his reign Constantius died in Britain at Eburacum; after him his son Constantine, born from the concubine Helena, takes possession of the empire.
34th of the Romans, Constantine reigned for 30 years, 10 months.
Year of the persecution: 4 [307 CE]
§ A308 Maxentius, the son of Maximianus Herculius, is named Augustus at Rome by the Praetorian Guard.
Severus Caesar, sent against Maxentius by Galerius Maximianus, is killed at Ravenna in the second year of his reign.
Licinius made emperor at Carnuntum by Galerius. [308 CE]
§ A309 Maximianus Herculius, detected by his daughter Fausta, because he was preparing a swindle against his son-in-law Constantine, in flight is slain at Marseilles.
Quirinus, bishop of Siscia, is gloriously killed for Christ: for the top of a household quern fastened to his neck, and thrown headlong into a river, he floated for a very long time and while he was being remarked upon by the spectators, lest by his example they should be frightened, praying hard that he should sink, he obtained it.
272nd Olympiad: Galerius Maximianus dies. [309 CE]
§ A310 Silvester is ordained as the 31st bishop of the Church of Rome for 22 years. [310 CE]
§ A317 274th Olympiad: Crispus and Constantine, sons of Constantine, and Licinius, the adolescent son of Licinius Augustus, the offspring of Constantine's sister, are appointed Caesars; of these, Lactantius, the most eloquent man of his time, educated Crispus in Latin literature; but he (Lactantius) was in fact a pauper in this life, as he generally lacked even the necessities. [317 CE]
§ A321 275th Olympiad: Licinius expels the Christians from his palace.
Basileus bishop of Amasia of Pontus is crowned with martyrdom under Licinius.
Alexander is ordained the 18th bishop of the Alexandrian church: it was he who excommunicated Arius the priest from the Church. Arius unites many people to his impiety;
synod of 318 bishops having gathered in the city of Nicaea to refute their perfidy, put and end to all the machinations of the heretics in opposition to the homoousion. [321 CE]
§ A327 Until this point Eusebius Pamphili, companion to the martyrs, writes this history, to which we ourselves have appended these things following.
In Africa, Arnobius the rhetor is considered important, who when he was in Sicca teaching the youths to declaim, and, being still a pagan, was compelled by dreams to believe, although he had not obtained from the bishop by asking the faith that he had always attacked, he composed the most splendid books against the former religion, and finally, as if with these as offerings, he requested and obtained the covenant of faith. [327 CE]
§ A328 Constantine, restoring the city of Drepana in Bithynia in honor of the martyr Lucian, who was buried there, named it Helenopolis, from the name of his mother.
In Antioch the construction of the Dominicum which is called Aureum begun.
Constantine kills his wife Fausta. [328 CE]
§ A329 Donatus is well known, from whom come the Donatists throughout Africa.
277th Olympiad: At Antioch following Tyrannum, Vitalis is ordained as the 20th bishop, after whom as 21st Philogonius, to whom succeeded as 22nd Paulinus, after whom as 23rd Eustathius, from whom, when he was forced into exile for the Faith, the Arians got the church (and hold it) until the present day, that is, Eulalius, Eusebius, Euphronius, Placillus, Stephanus, Leontius, Eudoxius, Meletius, Euzoius, Dorotheus, and Meletius again. But I have not sorted out their dates, insofar as I would judge them enemies of Christ rather than bishops. [329 CE]
§ A330 Juvencus the presbyter, by nation Spanish, sets forth the Gospels in heroic verse.
Porphyrius, having sent a notable book to Constantine is released from exile.
Athanasius is ordained as 19th bishop of Alexandria. [330 CE]
§ A331 Constantinople is dedicated by denuding nearly every other city.
Metrodorus the philosopher is well known.
Marcus held the 32nd episcopacy of the Church of Rome for 8 months, after whom, Julius was ordained
33rd, for 16 years, 4 months. [331 CE]
§ A334 An innumerable multitude perish from pestilence and famine in Syria and Cilicia.
The Limigantes Sarmatians, having gathered a force, expelled their masters, who are now called the Argaragantes, onto Roman soil. [334 CE]
§ A336 On the Tricennalia of Constantine, Dalmatius is named a Caesar.
The rhetor Pater teaches at Rome with great success.
The daughter of the rhetor Nazarius equals her father in eloquence.
The praetorian prefect Tiberian, an eloquent man, rules the Gallic provinces.
The presbyter Eustathius of Constantinople is well known; by whose industry in Jerusalem, a church dedicated to the martyrs was constructed. [336 CE]
§ A337 279th Olympiad: Constantine, baptized by Eusebius of Nicomedia at the very end of his life, falls into the dogma of Arius, and from that time until now seizures of churches and discord of the whole world have followed. [337 CE]
§ A338 While preparing for war against the Persians, Constantine dies at Ancyra in a public villa near Nicomedia at the age of 66; after him his three sons are hailed Augusti from being Caesars.
35th of the Romans, Constantine, Constantius, and Constans reigned for 24 years, 5 months, and 13 days.
Ablabius the Praetorian Prefect and many of the nobles slaughtered. [338 CE]
§ A339 Sapor, king of Persia, after Mesopotamia had been devastated, besieged Nisibis for almost two months.
Dalmatius Caesar, whom his uncle Constantine had left as a colleague in the power of his sons, is murdered by a plot of his cousin Constantius and in a military disturbance.
James, bishop of Nisibis, is well known, by whose prayers his city was often saved from crisis.
From this point the Arian impiety, propped up by the support of the ruler, Constantius, with exiles and imprisonments and various types of affliction first persecuted Athanasius and then all bishops not of their party. [339 CE]
§ A341 280th Olympiad: Constans fights against the Franks with mixed fortune. [341 CE]
§ A342 Many cities of the east collapsed in a horrible earthquake.
Audeus is considered important in Coele-Syria, from whom comes the Audian heresy.
The Franks subdued by Constans and peace made with them. [342 CE]