Malalas, Chronography Bks 10-11

Ioannis Malalas, Chronicle, Books 10 and 11, hasty, unedited translation by Brady Kiesling from the Dindorf Greek text but lifting large sections (the Christian passages) from the translation from the Church Slavonic version, by Matthew Spinka, Ph. D. in collaboration with Glanville Downey, Ph.D. (University of Chicago Press 1940). This text has 239 tagged references to 73 ancient places.

§ 10.227  In the forty-second year and the fourth month of the reign of Augustus, our Lord Jesus Christ was born, eight (days) before the calends of January, in the month of Apellaios, which is December, on the twenty-fifth, at the seventh hour of the day, in a city of Judaea, Bethlehem by name, near Jerusalem; it was the forty-second year according to the Antiochenes, while Quirinius (Cyrenius) Consul was governing Syria, during the consulship of Octavianus and Silvanus [2BCE, Imp. Caesar Divi f. Augustus XIII; M. Plautius Silvanus], while the Toparch, that is King, of Judaea was Herod the Great. There elapsed from Adam until Peleg, the son of Eber, to the forty-second year of the reign of Augustus Caesar, two thousand and sixty-seven years;

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§ 10.228  From Adam the first-created to the bodily birth of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the forty-second year of the same Augustus Caesar, five thousand nine hundred and sixty-seven years. Our Lord remained on earth with men thirty-three years. Accordingly, from Adam the first-created until the bodily birth of our Lord Jesus Christ and the crucifixion and the: ascension there are fully six thousand years. Peleg, [according to] the voice of the Prophet Moses, marks one half of the time of the advent of the Lord, for man was created in six days, and Moses the Great said in his writing that for the Lord one day is as a thousand years.
On the sixth day God created man, and man fell into sin. Accordingly, it is clear that in the sixth day of thousands he will appear on earth and save man by his crucifixion and resurrection. Thus also write the chroniclers Clement, Theophilus, and Timothy, agreeing among themselves. Eusebius of Pamphilus also asserts the appearance of the Savior Christ in the sixth millennium in accordance with the six days of Adam’s creation.

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§ 10.229  He said that before the ending of the sixth year, our Lord and God, Christ, appeared on earth in order to redeem the human race. He was born and became man, he said, in the five thousand and five hundredth year, and suffered, rose from the dead and ascended into heaven in the five thousandth five hundredth and 35th year. They all agree in affirming that the Lord would appear in the 6000th year, whether more or less. Nevertheless, he appeared in the year 6000 according to the prophetic voice, even if they do not agree in regard to the laying down of the number of years; he shall appear in the last years according to the divine books.
In the reign of the same pious Augustus Octavianus Caesar, a city of Palestine, Salamine by name, fell by the wrath of God. Augustus rebuilt the town and named it Diospolis (city of Zeus).
Herod, the Toparch, that is, the King of Judaea, was informed in that year that magicians from Persia had arrived and had entered the Judaean country (and ordered them seized) The magicians came from Persia, having been instructed by an announcement which they had received, for a star had appeared to them, which had announced to them that in the East Christ the Savior had become god-man. They brought him gifts as to a great victorious king.

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§ 10.230  Having come to Jerusalem, they inquired: “Where is the newborn Jewish king?” (And) the Jews became excited. The magicians having been sighted, and having been seized, (and) were taken to the king. He inquired of them, saying: “Why have you come to the Judaean country, what do you seek?” The magicians confessed to him about the starry miracle, “that a great king is born to the world, and we came (bringing) him gifts as to a great king and God. For we have seen his star in the East.” Herod heard them and being astonished, thought to himself, saying: after Augustus Caesar, how strong will the newborn king be? For the magicians came to Jerusalem during the consulship of Vindicius and Varius [2CE, P. Vinicius; P. Alfenus Varus]. Having inquired of them concerning the time of the star, he said to the magicians: “If you return," come and tell me, so that I also might go and bow before him.” The magicians having left, were led by the star which they had seen in the East. They found Jesus and his mother in the city of Bethlehem. And falling to the ground, they bowed before Christ the Savior. They spoke among themselves, (saying) “that the star had shown us a greater god than itself, which we worship as a god.”

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§ 10.231  And bringing gifts to him as to God, gold, — frankincense, and myrrh, — and having seen in a dream — that they should not return to Herod, — they returned by another route to the Persian country, disobeying Herod. As having been insulted by the magicians, Herod [became angry, and having inquired of the Jewish high priests where Christ should be born, they taught him. And dispatching soldiers, he killed all infants in Bethlehem, the city of Judaea, as the divine books relate.
And Herod immediately fell into an incurable illness, and having been eaten by worms, died. And Archelaus, his son, became king, that is, tetrarch, of the Jewish people, for nine years, during the consulship of Lamia and Servilianus [3CE, L. Aelius Lamia; M. Servilius], as Clement the chronicler has written. Augustus Caesar Octavianus in the fifty-fifth year of his reign, in the month of October, which is Hyperberetaios, went to the oracle and having offered a sacrifice of a hecatomb, he inquired: “Who shall reign after me in the city of Rome?” But no answer was vouchsafed him by the Pythia. He offered another sacrifice and inquired of the Pythia why no answer had been vouchsafed him, and why the magic had been silent. And the Pythia answered him as follows: “A Jewish boy, who rules the blessed gods, commands me to leave this house, and to depart to Hades.

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§ 10.232  Therefore, ye shall leave your houses.” And Augustus Caesar left the oracle and went to the Capitolium. He built there a great and high altar, upon which he wrote in Roman letters: “This altar is (dedicated) to the firstborn God.” This altar is in the Capitolium to this day, as the wise Timothy wrote. Octavianus Caesar fell into illness and died in Rome, being seventy-five years old, childless, and free from carnal sin. For the king was a mystagogue high priest.
After — the reign of Augustus Octavianus Caesar — who had reigned — fifty-seven years, six months, and two days, — reigned Tiberius, twenty-two and a half years, during the consulship of Sextus and Secticianus (14CE Sex. Pompeius; Sex. Appuleius). He was of middle stature, old, slim, of good eyes, dark, with short, curly hair, benevolent, and industrious. He mobilized the army against the Persians, but did not fight them, because they asked him for and were granted a peace treaty. And coming to Antioch he built outside the city two great colonnaded streets (εμβολοι) toward the mountain called Silpios, having a dimension of four miles, roofed and very magnificent. At each street (?) he built tetrapyla with arches, and beautified them with gilt and marble, and decorating the main square with bronze works and statues; and building walls he enclosed these porticoes and the mountain inside;

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§ 10.233  he joined the new wall to the old wall of the city build by Seleucus, closing off by this same wall both the acropolis and Iopolis. And the council and people of Antioch erected to Tiberius Caesar a bronze stele above a great Theban column in the middle of the colonnaded streets built by him. This place is called the eye of the city. It has a sculpted imprint of an omphalos in stone. This stele stands until now. Tiberius Caesar, learning that king Seleucus feared the flows of water descending from the mountain in winter and stagnating, avoiding the mountain built the city in the plain, and placed a stone coffer on his stele, in which he made a talisman, through Ablakkonos the mystic and priest, regarding the flows of the Parmenios torrent and the descending rivulets from the mountain, so they would not harm this part of the city or breach the two great streets build by him. The Antiochene citizens say this stone coffer is the ransom of their city, because this part of the city was purchased through the security of the wall built by him against invasion and conquest by the barbarian Saracens and Persians. For the part of the city by the mountain,

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§ 10.234  built by king Antiochus Epiphanes, was formerly without a wall. He also built the bouleuterion and other sanctuaries. And king Antiochus the so-called Philadelphus had built many things outside the city. He built two sanctuaries in the grove at Daphne, of Apollo and Artemis, standing two gold statues in them, providing privileges to those who took refuge there so they could not be expelled from these shrines. These were built during the Macedonian kingdom. Tiberius Caesar built in Antioch a great sanctuary of Zeus Capitolinus. This king likewise built a public bath near the spring of Olympias, which had been built by Alexander the Macedonian in the name of his mother. For Alexander drank water there when he came there and said: “I drank my mother’s milk.” The spring is beside the mountain, and Tiberius enclosed in within the wall. King Tiberius also build a sanctuary to Dionysos toward the mountain, and erected two great steles outside the temple in honor of the Dioscuri born to Antiope, Amphion and Zethos. The river of the city, formerly known as Dracon, he called Orontes, which means “Eastern” in the Roman language.

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§ 10.235  He also built the theater, adding another zone toward the mountain, and sacrificing a virgin girl named Antigone; whence he did not carry the theater to completion. He stood above the eastern gate, which he built, a stone stele with the she-wolf nursing Romus and Remus, meaning that the building of the added wall for Antioch was Roman. He also built the sanctuary of Pan behind the theater. The wise Domninus the chronographer recounted this.
He also built in Judaea a city in the lake which he called Tiberias. Warm springs having been found there, he built for the city a public bath without a hypocaust, instead using the hot springs. He placed Cappadocia under the Romans after the death of Archelaus its toparch. In the years of Tiberius arson occurred in Antioch of Syria in the 72nd year of its autonomy, during the night, burning the greater part of the agora and the bouleuterion and the sanctuary of the Muses build by Antiochus Philopator from the money left in his will by Maron of Antioch, who moved to Athens and ordered then that from this money should be built the sanctuary and library of the Muses.

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§ 10.236  Tiberius also built another city in Thrace, which he called Tiberia.
In the fifteenth year of Tiberius, during the consulship of Alvanus and Nerva [28CE, Ap. Junius Silanus ; P. Silius Nerva] John the Precursor began to preach the baptism of repentance, baptizing in accordance with the prophetic voice, and the whole Judaean country came to him. And from this the beginning- was made of the saving preaching. Our Lord Jesus Christ was baptized by John the Precursor, being about thirty years of age and performing miracles. He was baptized in the Jordan river of Palestine in the month of Audynaios, which is January, on the sixth day and at the tenth hour of the night, during the consulship of Rufus and Rubellion [29CE, C. Fufius Geminus; L. Rubellius Geminus]. From that time John the Baptist was known to men. And Herod son of Philip, the King, who was Toparch or king of the Trachonitis region, beheaded him in the city of Sebaste eight days before the calends of July during the consulship of Flaccus and Rufinus [?] on account of Herodias, his wife. For John had said to him: “It is not proper for you to have the wife of your brother, just as is written in the divine books."

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§ 10.237  The same King Herod the second, the son of Philip, sorrowing on John's account, left the city of Sebaste for Paneas, a city of Judaea. And a rich woman came to him, desiring to set up an image of Christ, having been healed by him. But not daring to do [so] without the King’s permission, she told it to the same Herod, begging that she set up a copper image of the Savior Jesus Christ in that city. Her prayer was written as follows: “To the honored Herod, the world-ruler and the law-giver of the Jews and the Greeks of the territory of Trachonitis, a petition and prayer from the noblewoman Veronica of the city of Paneas. The truth of philanthropy [other beneficence]” guard your sacred head. Therefore, I am confident with good hopes to obtain that for which I petition. What is the sense of the present petition, is expressed by the previous” word.” Having fallen since childhood into the suffering of blood issue, I have spent all my property and wealth, but have not found healing.

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§ 10.238  Having heard of the miraculous healing of Christ, how he restored the dead and brought them to light again, and drove demons out of men, and healed those who were all rotting with wounds, to him as to God I hastened. And approaching him when he stood among the people, I was afraid to confess to him my chronic disease, lest perchance he might be repelled by my filthy disorder, and might be angry with me, and the pain of the disease might be increased. I thought to myself that if I could but touch the hem of his robe, I should be healed. And pushing secretly through the crowd, I stole the healing, having touched the hem of his robe. And the flow of blood stopped, and thenceforth I have been well. But he, as if reading the thoughts of my heart, inquired: ‘Who touched me? For power has gone from me. And I astounded and groaning, thinking” that a worse disease would befall me, fell before him, my tears filling the earth, and confessed my daring. He, like God, observing the signs of healing, said: ‘Hope, daughter, your faith has saved you. Go in peace.

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§ 10.239  Likewise you, your honor, grant this urgent prayer.” King Herod, hearing this prayer of hers, marveled at the marvels. And fearing the mysterious healing, [he said to her: “The (healing) of you, O woman, is more important than your petition for the statue. Go then and set up an image for him as you wish, praising with love him who had healed you.”]" And straightway she set up in the midst of her city an image to the Lord our God Jesus Christ, (made) of copper mixed with a certain portion of gold and silver. That image stands to this day in the city of Paneas, having been carried many years ago in the place where it had stood in the midst of the town to a holy church. Its history is to be found written by a certain Bassus, a former Jew become a Christian, in that city of Paneas, who recorded the lives of all those who had reigned in the territory of Judaea.
And this King Herod Antipas, by reason of much suffering fell into a disease for over eight months, was killed in his bedroom after eight months, with his wife’s knowledge, as Clement wrote.

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§ 10.240  In the eighteenth year of the reign of this Tiberius Caesar, in the seventh month, when Jesus Christ our God was thirty-three years (old), he was betrayed by Judas Iscariot, his disciple — this Lord the Savior — in the month of Dystros, which is March, on the twenty-third, the moon having twenty days day, at the fifth hour of the night. He had been led to Caiaphas, the high priest, and hence, in the morning he was turned over to Pilate of Pontus, the governor. And straightway his wife, Procla, sent to him, saying; “Have nothing to do with this righteous man. For I have suffered much on his account today in a dream.” Having learned of it, the Jews rioted, saying: “Take, take, crucify!” Our Lord Jesus Christ was crucified eight days before the calends of April, the month of Dystros, which is March, the twenty-fourth, the moon having fourteen days, on Friday, at the sixth hour of the day. And the sun was beclouded and there was darkness over all the world from the sixth till the ninth hour. The most wise Phlegon, the Athenian, a Greek, has written regarding this darkness in his work as follows: “in the eighteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar there occurred a great beclouding of the sun, greater than ever before. The hour became night so that even the stars appeared.”

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§ 10.241  Jesus Christ gave up the spirit on Friday at the ninth hour of the day. Straightway there was seen all over the world a great earthquake and graves were opened and stones were burst asunder and the dead arose, as it all is truly described in the divine [books, as it was spoken to the Jews; “Of a truth this was the son of God whom we have crucified.” The Lord Jesus was laid in the grave at the tenth hour of that Friday, [in] the consulship of Sulpicius and Sylla [33CE, Ser. Sulpicius Galba; L. Cornelius Sulla Felix], in the seventy-ninth year of the (era) of Antioch the Great. Cassius ruled in Syria at the time, having been appointed that Tiberius the King. Our Lord God Jesus Christ rose from the dead in the month of Dystros, which is March, on the twenty-fifth, at the sixth hour of the night, at the dawn of Sunday. On the twenty-sixth of the month March, on the sixteenth day of the moon, [and] he appeared to the apostles and many other saints and remained with them after the resurrection forty days. He ascended into heaven in the month of Artemisios, which is May, on the fourth day, the second hour of the day, on Thursday having been seen by the holy apostles and a multitude of others as he went up into the clouds, and by the holy angels, saying: “Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking up to heaven That is Jesus.”

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§ 10.242  And the holy and life-creating Spirit descended upon the holy apostles in the month of Artemisios, which is May, on the fourteenth day, a Sunday, the first hour of the day. It was during the reign of Pilate of Pontus over Judaea, who had been appointed to rule this race by the same Tiberius Caesar who had abolished the kingdom of Judaea and had set up a prince for them whom he himself had chosen. In those years the high-priestly office of the Jewish race was held by Annas and Caiaphas.
After the ascension of our Savior God during the reign of Tiberius Caesar, St. Paul left Antioch the Great, having first preached with Barnabas the word of truth in the street named for Singon near the Pantheon. And he left for Cilicia. Peter came to Antioch from Jerusalem and taught the Word. And having received the laying on of hands to the episcopate there, he called himself the teacher of the believing Jewish Christians. But he did not receive nor love the Gentile believers, but leaving them, went out hence. St. Paul returned afterwards to Antioch the Great, and having learned this about St. Peter, he removed the stumbling block, and received and loved all equally, and brought all to the faith, as the most wise [chroniclers] Clement and Tatian, have written.

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§ 10.243  King Tiberius died a natural death in the palace, being seventy years of age. After the reign of Tiberius Caesar reigned Aelius Gaius also {called) Caligula, who had (spread) great fear among all barbarian races before his reign. It was on that account that the nobles had appointed him king. He reigned during the consulship of Gallus and Nonnianus [35CE, C. Cestius Gallus; M. Servilius Nonianus] and held the rule for four years and seven months. He was tall, handsome, with a thin face, ruddy, capable, with long hair, small eyes, quick in speech, irascible, and magnanimous. During the first year of his reign Antioch the Great suffered earthquake (theomenia) in the month Dystros or March 23, about dawn, its second suffering after the Macedonians, in the year 85 according to the Antiochenes. Part of Daphne also suffered. And king Gaius provided much money to the city and its surviving citizens. And he built there a public bath near the mountain, having sent Salianus as governor to build it. This man also built a large conduit from Daphne, carving the mountain and bringing the water to the public bath built by him. He also built sanctuaries. Gaius Caesar also sent two other senators from Rome, very rich ones, whose names were Pontoos and Varios,

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§ 10.244  to guard the city and build it, from among those honored by the king, so that they would provide for the city from their own resources and live in it. They built many houses with their own money. By the houses these senators built many other things in Antioch with their own money, and a large public bath, the so-called Varion, below by the wall near the river, where they also built their houses near the public (bath), and a very distinguished Trinymphon which they ornamented with statues to dress for their marriage all the virgin female citizens.
From the (first) year of the reign of Caesar Gaius, the faction of the Greens, emboldened by him, ruled in Rome and city by city for three years and a half. For he favored them. In the third year of his reign those who belonged to the Blues in Antioch of Syria raised a cry against the Greens in the theatre: “Time raises up and time deposes, Fight Greens", while Pronoios the consular governor looked on.” And there arose in the city a great popular riot, and disaster in the city. For the Greeks of Antioch engaged in public battle with the Judaeans there and killed many Jews and burned their synagogues.

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§ 10.245  Hearing of it in Palestine, the priest of the Jews there, whose name was Phineas, gathered a multitude of Galileans and Jewish, who were citizens, about thirty thousand, and suddenly came to Antioch from the city of Tiberias. And he killed many, having entered suddenly with armed men. Phineas then returned to Tiberias. King Gaius Caesar learning this, became angry with the nobles who were in Antioch, Pontoos and Varius, and confiscated all their property and converted their estates in Antioch into imperial (property); whence the houses are called "royal" (basilika). And he brought them bound in chains, because they had failed to prevent the municipal riot and had not resisted the priest Phineas when he stormed the city. Having sent to Tiberias, the city of Palestine, he seized that Phineas, the Jewish priest, and decapitated him as a tyrant and put to death many Jews and Galileans. They put the head of the priest Phineas on a stake outside the city of Antioch, across river Orontes. He rebuilt the burned (parts) in the city, having sent money.

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§ 10.246  In the same year this King Gaius was killed in the palace while he was washing in the morning, by the spatharii and cubicular eunuchs, by the order of the senate. He was thirty-nine years old.
After the reign of King Gaius reigned Claudius Caesar Germanicus, during the consulship of Cassius and Solon [41CE, C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus IV; Cn. Sentius Saturninus ?]. This Claudius Caesar reigned fourteen years and nine months. He was short, stout, of bluish-grey (eyes), graying white, with a long face, taciturn. He built a city which he called after his own name, Claudiopolis. He also built a city Bretannia near the Ocean. This King Claudius gave popular control to the Greens. During his reign Ephesus and Smyrna fell by the wrath of God, and many cities of Asia, to which he sent much for the restoration. Antioch the great was shaken then as well, and the temple of Artemis and of Ares and of Herakles collapsed, and prominent houses fell. Claudius relieved the Antiochenes of the duty that they paid for smoke, for the restoration of Antioch’s roofed colonnades, which had been built by Tiberius Caesar.
At the beginning of his reign, ten years after the ascension of our Lord Jesus Christ, Evodius became first patriarch after the establishment of the episcopacy in Antioch by Apostle Peter.

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§ 10.247  And under bishop Evodius, who called them this and assigned them the name, they were named Christians. Formerly, Christians had been called Nazarenes and Galileans. In the eighth year of the reign of Claudius, the Jews stirred up a great persecution against the apostles and their disciples, and plotted revolution against the Romans. The first to be sent against them was a Chiliarch, Festus by name. He brought destruction upon them. Claudius appointed their prince, Felix by name. They rioted. Eighteen years after the ascension of the Lord, on the festival of the Pentecost, Jewish priests heard a human voice speaking from the inmost altar which is called the holy of holies: “Let us depart hence.” This voice was heard crying three times, that the priests shall become the sacrifice, (and) it is to be seen with you all. Since then began the Jewish destruction, as Josephus wrote. For ever since Jews had crucified Jesus,

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§ 10.248  who was a pious and righteous man, if one may speak of one who performed signs as a man rather than God, troubles have not ceased in the Jewish territory. Thus has this Josephus expressed it in his Jewish written, writing up to that time. During the reign of Claudius, the city fathers and citizens of Antioch sent a memorandum asking that it be permitted by his divine ordinance to purchase the Olympic games from the Pisaeans of the Hellas region from the yearly revenues of the money left to them by a certain senator Sosibios, their fellow citizen. And king Claudius permitted them to buy the Olympics in the year called by the Syrians of Antioch 92 [45CE ?]. The Antiochenes did this, being aggrieved at their politicians regarding the aforementioned revenues left to the city by Sosibios. Regarding this Sosibios the wise chronographer Pausanias reported that when he died a certain Sosibios left to the great city of the Antiochenes a yearly income of 15 talents of gold, in his will which was published in the times of Octavianus Augustus. The revenues left were for carrying out for his fellow citizens every five years a varied spectacle for 30 days in the month Hyperberetaios or October, with dramatic musical, tragic, athletic, horse racing and gladiatorial events.

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§ 10.249  These politicians carried them out at first, but afterwards, profiting from the revenues, they kept putting them off. By divine command the politicians of Antioch together with the city fathers bought the Olympics from the Pisaeans. And these council-members asked the whole city if they were ready to allow them to carry out the Olympic festival in the former [place?]. And the city fathers and the whole demos and the priests having been persuaded, it was granted to them. And these politicians carried out in accordance with the old custom the contest of music and tragedy and horsemanship and the rest for 30 days from the first of Hyperberetaios month on a five-year basis, until the occasion of the five-year period arrived. And again these politicians found a reasonable excuse, with various wars under way in the east, and nothing less than the city of Antioch being taken by enemies, and calamities and various earthquakes and fires, they postponed performance of the five-year spectacular games but chose other different periods for the festival, 15 or 20 years, until they decided the city of the Antiochenes had been freed of ills and was at peace.

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§ 10.250  In the thirteenth year of Claudius' reign the whole island of Crete suffered an earthquake (theomenia). In those same years was found in the tomb of Diktys, in a box of lead, a description of the Trojan war, authentically written by him. It lay near the head of Diktys' body. Thinking that the box was of gold, they brought it to Claudius. He ordered it opened, to see what it was, and having copied it, to deposit in the public library. And Claudius died, having sent much to Crete for restoration. He died a natural death in the palace, having been ill for two days. He was sixty-five and a half years old.
After the reign of Claudius reigned his son, Nero, during the consulship of Silvanus and Antoninus [53CE, D. Junius Silanus Torquatus; Q. Haterius Antoninus]. He reigned thirteen years and two months. He was tall and thin, gray, with a heavy beard, able. As soon as he began to reign, he began to inquire about Christ, not knowing that he had been crucified. He sought him, desiring to bring him to Rome as a great philosopher and miracle-worker. For he had heard of him prior to his reign. He did not wish to question him about anything, he sought him.” This Nero was of the faith of the so-called Epicureans, who say that all things are without design.

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§ 10.251  Having learned that many years before the Jews had crucified him (Jesus) solely on account of jealousy, although he was without guilt, Nero was angry. And having sent (for them), he brought Annas and Caiaphas in bonds to Rome; Pilate, who lived in Palestine after his deposition, was also brought bound. For Annas and Caiaphas had said many evil things against Pilate, clearing themselves, as having acted the law and tradition. And having given much (money), Annas and Caiaphas extricated themselves, and were released. But Pilate remained in prison. During the years of the reign of his Nero, St. Paul came to Athens, a city of Greece, and found there a philosopher, Dionysius the Areopagite by name, who was an Athenian, agitated about philosophical teaching which he wrote about the sun as being an emanation of the divine light; he said other things about the creation. Seeing him, St. Paul spoke with him. And St. Dionysius asked Paul: "Whose God do you preach, O empty-worded one?” And Dionysius heard Paul while he was teaching and adhered to him, praying that he might be sanctified by baptism.

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§ 10.252  Paul seeing Dionysius’ fervent faith, made him bishop in that region. This Dionysius wrote books [for the Hellenes.] Paul then returned to Jerusalem.
During the reign of this Nero arrived a certain Simon, an Egyptian magician, practicing magic, illusions, and calling himself Christ. Apostle Peter having heard of him, came to Rome. As he was passing on his way to Rome through Antioch the Great, it happened that Evodius, the Bishop and Patriarch of the city of Antioch, died. Ignatius assumed the office of episcopacy, having been appointed by St. Peter. It happened in those years that St. Mark the Apostle died in Alexandria the Great, having been Bishop and Patriarch there. And John,‘ his disciple, received the episcopacy from him, as Theophilus wrote. Hastening on to Rome, and learning where Simon the magician resided. Apostle Peter went to him where he lived. He found a large dog tied with chains at his gate, whom Simon tied there on Peter’s account and for those who came to him. And he (Simon) told him (the dog) not to permit anyone to enter except such as Simon should permit.

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§ 10.253  There occurred a miracle when he (Peter) wished to come to him (Simon) Peter, seeing such a great and terrible dog, and seeing from those who stood before the gate that unless Simon ordered the dog, the dog would not let anyone enter, but jumping on the one entering, would kill him, Peter seized the dog by the chains, shook him and said to him: “Go to Simon and tell him with human voice: Peter, a servant of the highest God, wishes to enter!” The dog went running. And since he had been taught certain magical tricks, standing in the midst, he said with human voice to Simon: “Peter, a servant of the highest God, wishes to come to you.” Those hearing the dog speak with human voice, were amazed and said: “What is this Peter or his power, of whom the dog has spoken, that he endows the dog with human, making him a messenger?” And Simon said to the people who stood and were amazed at Peter: “Let that frighten you today.” For I will likewise command that dog to return him answers” with human voice.” [And Simon said to the dog: “I command you, go] and tell Peter with human voice: ‘Simon bids you come!'” And Peter came to Simon and Peter encountered Simon the Egyptian, performing other miracles, and vanquished Simon the magician by effecting cures. Many believed Peter and were baptized.

Event Date: 59

§ 10.254  A great disturbance and outcry arose in Rome on account of Simon and Peter, because they were performed miracles against each other. And hearing of the disturbance, Agrippa the Eparch informed King Nero, saying: “There are, O King, certain men in the capital city who are performing miracles against each other. One calls himself the Christ, and the other says: "He is not the Christ, but a magician; but I am a disciple of the Christ.” And King Nero commanded that Simon and Peter be brought before him, and Pilate to be brought from prison. And they were taken before the King. And King Nero asked Simon: “Are you the Christ?”” And Peter said: “He is not. For I am his disciple, and he ascended into the heavens in my presence.” And he (Nero) called Pilate and asked him about Simon: “Is this the one that you gave to be crucified?” And Pilate approached and said: “This is not he. This one is long-haired and stout.” And he inquired from him (Pilate) about Peter: “Do you know whether this one is his disciple?” He then said: “Indeed! The Jews who came to me (thought him) to be his disciple, and questioned him; but he denied it, saying: I am not his disciple. And I released him.”

Event Date: 59

§ 10.255  And straightway Nero ordered — since Simon had lied calling himself the Christ, although he was not, and since Peter had been accused by Pilate that he had denied Christ — that they be driven out of the palace. They remained in Rome, performing miracles one against the other. A great bull was brought to Simon, and he spoke a word into its ear. The marvel of it was that instantly the bull died. Peter, having offered a prayer in the sight of all, brought the bull back to life; this was a greater miracle! And many other (deeds) they performed against each other, as it is written in the acts of the holy apostles.
Apostle Peter by his prayer put to death Simon the magician, who wished to ascend. For Simon said to Peter: “You say that the Christ, your God, ascended up into the heavens. I will also ascend!” And Peter seeing the magician in the air in the midst of the city of Rome, Peter prayed, and Simon the magician fell into the middle of the road on the ground and was crushed. His bones are to this day to be found where he fell, and his grave is surrounded by a stone wall. Accordingly, that place is called the Simonion. King Nero having heard that Simon was killed by Peter, became angry, and ordered him seized and killed.

Event Date: 59

§ 10.256  But as soon as St. Peter was seized, he gave the clothing of the bishop of Rome to Linus, his disciple, who was following him when he was seized. Peter himself was old and short, of high forehead, had short hair, all grey, with head and beard white, pallid, with swollen eyes, a good chin, a long nose, with heavy brows, prudent, rash, easily pacified, of clear discourse by the holy Spirit, a miracle-worker.
The bishop in Rome succeeding Peter was Linus, as Eusebius of Pamphilus writes. Apostle Peter received martyrdom by being crucified head downwards, as the Apostle himself had requested of the Eparch, “that I should not be crucified as was my Lord.” St. Peter died there in the consulship of Apronianus and Capito [59CE C. Vipstanus Apronianus; C. Fonteius Capito].
Nero also became angry with Pilate and ordered him cut down, saying; “Why did he surrender the so-called Christ to the Jews, a blameless man, performing wonders If even his disciple performs such miracles, how much more powerful would he have been?”

Event Date: 59

§ 10.257  During his reign, St. Paul arrived in Rome, sent from the Judaean land to appear in court. And he was martyred, with his head cut off on the 3rd day before the calends of July in the consulship of Nero and Lentulus [60CE Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus IV; Cossus Cornelius Lentulus]. And King Nero ordered that the bodies of the holy apostles not be handed over but left unburied. Paul was, at the age when he was traveling, short, balding, partly gray in pate and beard, with a fine nose, gray-eyed, eyebrows close-knit, pale-complexioned, ruddy-faced, well-bearded, with a smiling character, wise, moral, eloquent, sweet, inspired by the Holy Spirit and making cures.
The same king Nero sent to Judaea and Jerusalem and treated everyone badly, killing many in a military engagement, because they considered him a tyrant and shouted insults against Nero, because he beheaded Pilate to avenge Christ. And he came to him because they, having done nothing else but usurp authority from the governor, had crucified Christ. For this he was annoyed at them as at tyrants, and Annas and Caiaphas were killed by soldiers in the engagement. This Nero incorporated in his domain another region in Pontus, sending Polemon as its general. And he made it a province, calling it Polemonian Pontus. Nero favored the Blues greatly. In the years of his reign the very wise Lucan was great and praised by the Romans.

Event Date: 60

§ 10.258  In the consulship of Itoricus and Tolpillianus or Trochelos [68CE, Ti. Catius Asconius Silius Italicus; P. Galerius Trachalus], king Nero disappeared and died, the Hellenic priests contrived for him a dose of potion, and the one who took power after him was of the doctrine of Epicurus, and coming to see the invalid, stabbed him in the palace, and Nero died at age 69.
After the reign of Nero, Galba Augustus ruled for 7 months. He was tall, brave, white-skinned, somewhat squinty, hook-nosed, partly gray, manic. During Galba's reign, the bodies of the holy apostles were handed over for burial by the command of the king himself. For he was commanded in a dream to give the bodies of the holy apostles for burial. Galba died a spontaneous death suddenly, after being bled, at age 49.
After the reign of Galba, Lucius Othon ruled for three months. He was short, wide, brave, straight-haired, small-eyed, somewhat flat-nosed, with a speech defect. In his reign St. Jacob the apostle died, the bishop of Jerusalem and patriarch, whom St. Peter had enthroned in place of himself when he left for Rome.

Event Date: 68

§ 10.259  Symeon, also known as Simon, received the form of bishop and became patriarch.
This Othon died age 53 after falling ill.
After the reign of Othon, Vitellius Augustus ruled for (9 years and [sic]) 8 months. He was very short, broad-chested, blue-eyed, red-haired, rough-bearded, fair-sighted, cowardly. During his rule Nikomedeia a great city, the metropolis of Bithynia, suffered a catastrophic earthquake (theomenia), and the king granted the survivors and the city many things for their restoration. For it had suffered before from earthquake and been destroyed. And he rebuilt it.
In the reign of Vitellius Caesar the Judaeans seized power and killed Quirinius their governor, stoning him. In the 35th year after the ascension of our savior and god, Vitellius the king sent an expedition against them, sending Vespasian as his general and Titus his son. And they settled down to fight in Judaea and Jerusalem, and while they were fighting Vitellius died in Rome, struck down by illness, at 48 years of age. And after him, the divine Vespasian was proclaimed king, and the army crowned him in the consulship of Rufus and Capitianus. He was short, bald, with a protruding stomach, gray hair, ruddy, with wine-colored eyes, flat-faced, quick to anger.

Event Date: 69

§ 10.260  And leaving Titus his son to wage war in Judaea he came to Rome and ruled 9 years and 10 months. In his reign occurred a great persecution of Christians in the consulship of Decius and Rusticius [?]. In the 28th year after the death of Christ the Savior Titus took Judaea and Jerusalem in the consulship of Commodus and Rufus, while his father Vespasian was reigning. And he sacked Jerusalem and all Palestine and destroyed the holy place of the Jews on the same day that he took the city, and killed 1,100,000 souls, cutting them down with swords. Another 150,000 he sold, young captives and male children and virgin girls, as the very wise Josephus has written. For he was a Jew and present at the war. And Titus destroyed the whole eparchy of Judaea. The wise Eusebius of Pamphilus has thus recorded, that on the same feast day when the Jews crucified Christ all were destroyed, the Savior having been avenged on them. There are three subsequent sackings of Jerusalem, as the very wise Eusebius has recorded. Titus returned to Rome in triumph.

Event Date: 71

§ 10.261  Vespasian built from the Judaean spoils in Antioch the great the so-called Cherubim before the city gate. For there he set up the bronze Cherubim that were affixed in the temple of Solomon, and when he destroyed the temple he took them from there and took them to Antioch along with the Seraphim, in triumph at the victory over the Jews during his reign, and he set up a bronze stele in honor of the moon with four bulls jutting toward Jerusalem; for he took the city by night with the moon shining. He also built the theater of Daphne, inscribing it, "From the spoils of Judaea". The site of this theater was previously a synagogue of the Jews. And as an insult to them he destroyed their synagogue and made a theater, standing a marble statue of himself there, where it stands until today. Vespasian also built a very large odeion in Caesareia of Palestine from the same Judaean spoils, having the large dimension of a theater, likewise on the site of a former synagogue of the Jews. He created a second Macedonian eparchy, dividing it from the first. During his reign Corinth the metropolis of Hellas suffered an earthquake (theomenia), in the month June or Daisios 20, in the depth of the evening. And he granted much to the survivors and to the city. He also built many things in the eparchies of Pannonia and Commagene.

Event Date: 75

§ 10.262  And he separated Europe from Thrace, building Herakleia city, which was formerly called Perinthos, making it a metropolis and giving it a governor. He also built in Antioch the great the sanctuary near the theater, called of the Winds. Struck by disease and having become paralyzed, he died at age 71. After him Titus his son ruled the kingdom for 2 years. He was tall, thin, fair, well-complexioned, with short, straight, sparse hair and small eyes. Struck by an incurable disease, he died at the age of 42. After the reign of Titus, the divine Domitian ruled for 15 years and two months. He was tall, slender, white-skinned, with short blond hair, gray eyes, a little stooped, an acute philosopher. In his reign a persecution of Christians took place. He brought St. John the Theologian to Rome and examined him. Admiring the wisdom of this apostle he quietly allowed him to leave for Ephesus, telling him "Go away and be quiet where you came from." And he was mocked. And so he exiled him to Patmos. He used to punish many other Christians, causing a multitude of them to flee to Pontus, as Bottios the wise chronographer reported. The same king Domitian loved the dancer of the Green faction in Rome, called Paris.

Event Date: 79

§ 10.263  He was mocked by the Senate of Rome and by Juvenal the Roman poet regarding him, on the grounds that he favored the Greens. The king exiled this Juvenal the poet to the Pentapolis of Libya, and after making the dancer wealthy he sent him to Antioch the great to live there outside the city. The said dancer Paris went there and lived outside the city, where he built a suburban mansion for himself, and a bath, which is known to the present day as Paradise, along with the house. He died there and lies in a tomb in the gardens behind the house. Domitian built in Antioch the Great a public bath called Medeia's, because a marvelous statue of Medeia stood in it. Therefore the citizens called the public bath this, rather than the Domitian bath. This public building was built by the mountain near the arena (monomachia) and the shrine of Aphrodite. The same king built there a sanctuary of Asklepios. It was in the time of the reign of this Domitian that the most wise Apollonius of Tyana was at his peak, traveling everywhere and making talismans for cities and regions. Leaving Rome he reached Byzantium, and entering Byzoupolis, which is now by good fortune called Constantinople,

Event Date: 90

§ 10.264  he made there many talismans at the request of the Byzantines, one for the storks, and one for the Lykos river that flows through the middle of the city, and one for the tortoise, and one for the horses, and many other marvelous things. So then, after leaving Byzantium Apollonius made talismans in the other cities. And from Tyana he came to Syria and entered Antioch the great. And the city-fathers of Antioch asked him to make talismans there as well, for what was needed. So he made one for the north wind, putting the talisman near the east gate; he likewise made a talisman in this city for scorpions, so they wouldn't dare approach the region. And he put this talisman in the middle of the city, making a bronze scorpion and burying it, and affixing a small column above. And scorpions disappeared from the whole district of Antioch. He did many other things there. The citizens asked him to make a talisman for mosquitoes, so that the city of Antioch wouldn't have mosquitoes. So he made it, and directed them on the seventh day of the month of Daisios or June to carry out in Antioch of Syria the cavalry contest from Graste of that same month. But on the first of Daisios he set up the talisman, permitting everyone on the 7th of the same month, the day of the hippodrome of Graste, to carry on canes a sculpted lead bust having the face of Ares,

Event Date: 90

§ 10.265  and below the cane a shield hanging by a red thong, and from there from the cane a dagger hanging thus, tied with linen thread, and told them to shout as they marched, saying "mosquitoless (ακώνοπα) for the city, and after the horse-racing disbanded, for each to place it in his own home. And mosquitoes no longer appeared in Antioch the great. When Apollonius of Tyana was walking around to investigate the topography of Antioch with the city-fathers, he saw in the middle of the city a purple column standing with nothing on top of it, because it had been consumed by hellfire. Inquiring about it, he learned from them that, "After the calamity the city suffered under Gaius Caesar, a certain philosopher mystic named Debborios made this talisman so that when the city was shaken by earthquake it would not collapse. He stood up the column and placed a marble bust on it, and on its chest wrote 'unshaken, unfallen'. But from the typhonic fire of a lightning strike, the top of the column was burned and the bust fell, and we feared lest our city suffer the same again. Intervene for us, make a talisman so that the city, still topsy-turvy, not suffer the same again."

Event Date: 90

§ 10.266  Apollonius, sighing, rejected making another talisman against earthquakes. And when they saw him sighing, they insisted, beseeching him. Taking a diptych he wrote the following: "And you, miserable Antioch, would suffer twofold; but again will come a time when earthquakes will be piled on calamity. Twice beside Orontes' shores it would be burned by fire, if you would not suffer it again." And he gave the diptych to the Antiochene city-fathers, and setting out from the city of Antiochus he went to Seleuceia of Syria. And he sailed to Egypt. And Apollonius lived 34 years and eight months, as Domninos the very wise chronographer reported. The divine Domitian built a city in Isauria called Domitianoupolis. Domitian became annoyed at the famous Asklepion, who said to him "you will end up murdered," and killed him. Soon afterwards, by the contrivance of the Senate,

Event Date: 90

§ 10.267  as Domitian entered the sanctuary of Zeus to sacrifice, he became invisible and died, age 45. Everyone said that he was lifted up from earth to the air as a philosopher. But he was killed, murdered in the very sanctuary of Zeus by the Senate, because he was proud and insulted them. The senators caused the purple chlamys he was wearing to be hung on the chain of one of the candelabra in the sanctuary. And everyone who entered the sanctuary was deceived, believing he had been lifted into the air. It became known afterwards that he had been slaughtered.
After the reign of Domitian, Nerva Augustus reigned one year and one month. He was a very short (διμοιριαιος) old man, keen-sighted, long-nosed, portly, half-grey, dark-complected, curly-haired, shaggy-bearded, good. During his reign Diokaisareia of Cilicia suffered a theomenia (earthquake) for the third time, along with Nikoupolis and its region. And the king immediately sent a member of the Roman senate named Zarbos to rebuild it, giving him 8 hundredweights (centenaria, of silver?). And Senator Zarbos reached Cilicia and having inspected the damage he renewed the city with great zeal, making it better than before; hence the city was called by his name by the grateful citizens. For the senator called the city Nerva in the name of king Nerva.

Event Date: 96

§ 10.268  But it happened that the King died before it was fulfilled; and they renamed it Anazarbos, allowing the notaries to style it thus. For it was said that from the beginning this city was Kyinda. And it suffered the first time under the consuls of Rome, and was renewed and renamed Kiskos polis. And again it suffered under Julius Caesar for the second time, and it was renewed and renamed Diokaisareia. And suffering again, as mentioned above, under King Nerva it was renamed Anazarbos. Zarbos sacrificed a local girl named Kepara, and made for her a bronze stele for the fortune (Tyche) of the city. Zarbos reported to the king about the citizens, and the king, eager for honor, granted the surviving citizens many favors. This Nerva recalled the holy apostle John, who came back to Ephesus from Patmos. During his reign Manes appeared, who made ordinances, taught, and manipulated the masses. So in the course of his reign gladiatorial fights and spectacles were banned. The king fell ill and wasted away, dying at age 71.

Event Date: 98

§ 11.269  BOOK 11
After the reign of Nerva, the divine Trajan reigned nineteen years and six months. He was tall, dry in body, dark-complected, fine-featured, short-haired, graying, having deep-set eyes. Until the second year of his reign, St. John the apostle and theologian was visible teaching in Ephesos as bishop and patriarch. Then, making himself invisible he was no longer seen by anyone and no one knew what happened to him up to now, as Africanus and Eirenaios recorded. Under King Trajan there was a great persecution of Christians and many were punished.

Event Date: 100

§ 11.270  In that year was mobilized a great force against Romania by the king of the Persians, of the Parthian race, the brother of Osdroes king of the Armenians. And he took cities and despoiled many regions, having with him his son Sanatroukios. And while Meerdotes the king was despoiling the Euphratesian region he charged and was thrown from his horse and was broken up badly and died. While about to die he made his son Sanatroukios the Arsakes, which means king, in his place. In Persian, Torkim means king. and this Sanatroukios as king of the Persians kept on despoiling Romania. Osdroes, king of the Armenians, the brother of Meerdotes, hearing of his death, sent his own son Parthemaspates from Armenia with a large army to help his nephew Sanatroukios, the king of the Persians, against the Romans. And hearing this the divine Trajan immediately mobilized in the 12th year of his rule, departing against them from Rome in October or Hyperberetaios. And since they had arrived first, he sailed east, attacking with a large force of soldiers and senators. Among them was Hadrian his son in law through his sister. And they arrived in Seleuceia of Syria in Apellaios or December in a dromon from the so-called Bytyllion naval station, a natural harbor near Syrian Seleuceia.

Event Date: 116

§ 11.271  The Persians were in the process of taking over Antioch the great without a fight through a friendly arrangement and pact, and they occupied the city and guarded it for Sanatroukios the king of the Persians, after the Antiochene officers by their own choice had made a pact of peace and subjection through an embassy to the king of the Persians. The king of the Persians agreed and sent two varzamarates, whose names were Fourton and Gargaris, with much Persian help, 3000. King Trajan, as soon as he reached Seleuceia of Syria by dromon (light vessel), wrote secretly to the Antiochene officers and the citizens noting his own presence and saying: "We know that your city has a large number of men not counting the military numbers stationed there. The enemy Persians in your city are few compared to your numbers. Each of you kill the Persians in your own house, taking confidence from our presence, because we have come to avenge Rome. On reading this the Antiochenes launched a night attack against the Persians in their city, and by staying awake they killed them all. They arrested the two Persian generals called varsamanates and killed them and dragged the remains of Fourton and Gargaris through the city,

Event Date: 116

§ 11.272  shouting the following: To the Victory of Lord Trajan, Behold Fourton and Gargaris are being dragged! Go, Go, Gargaris, Fourton!" Those Persians who were able to escape did so while the two were being dragged. While escaping, they set a fire and burned a small part of the city at the Skepine neighborhood. King Trajan heard this and praised the courage of the Antiochene citizens. And when the ships of his army arrived from Seleuceia, they went up to holy Daphne to pray and sacrifice in the sanctuary of Apollo. And he told the Antiochenes, commanding from Daphne, to remove the remains of the slain Persians and burn them at a distance from the city, and to purify the whole city, and to have pyres of laurel trees at places and gates of the city and to throw into the laurel fire much incense and in the whole city to beat bullskin drums to drive out the spirits of the slaughtered Persians. And so it happened. And King Trajan descended from Daphne and entered Antioch of Syria through the so-called Golden or Daphnetic [gate] wearing a crown of olive branches on his head, in the month Audenaios or January, the 7th day, fourth hour of the day.

Event Date: 116

§ 11.273  He commanded them to continue the drums for 30 days each night, and commanded this, that it happen each year at this time in memory of the destruction of the Persians, as Domninus the chronographer records. While King Trajan was spending time in Antioch of Syria considering war-related issues, Tiberianus the leader of the first race of Palestinians sent him this message: To the divine emperor victor Caesar Trajan: I have grown weary of punishing and killing the Galilaeans of the dogma of the so-called Christians in accordance with your edicts. And they do not stop indicting themselves to be executed, so I took pains exhorting them and threatening them not to dare to indict themselves to me for being of the said dogma. And being chased away they do not stop. Deign to decree for me, therefore, ...to your trophy-holding power.
And Trajan commanded him to stop killing the Christians, and ordered the same to the other magistrates, henceforth not to kill the Christians. And there was a small alleviation for the Christians. And Trajan left Antioch the great to wage war on the Persians. And he defeated them by force in this manner. Learning that Parthemaspates the nephew of Sanatroukios the king of the Persians was discontented,

Event Date: 116

§ 11.274  king Trajan sent to suborn him, offering to give him the kingship of the Persians if he would be his ally. And having been suborned, he came to him by night. And the Divine Trajan took him to the same place with his crowd, he launched an attack against Sanatroukios, the king of the Persians. And after many Persians had fallen he captured Sanatroukios the king while he was fleeing, and killed him. And Trajan in accordance with the agreement replaced him as king of the remainder with Parthemaspates, the son of Osdroes, and wrote to the Senate in Rome that we could not manage to administer so much limitless land so immeasurably far from Rome, but we would provide them with a king subjugated to Roman power. And the Senate wrote back from Rome for him to do what he wished, and look to the advantage of Romania. And Parthemaspates ruled over the Persians. The very wise Areianos the chronicler recorded the war and victory of the Divine Trajan, researching and writing everything accurately. The king made Amida a metropolis, calling the province Mesopotamia, dividing it off from Osdroene, giving it a governor and the rights of a metropolis.

Event Date: 116

§ 11.275  And he created another province on the Danube river, which he call Dacia Ripensis (parapotamia). During the reign of the Divine Trajan, Antioch the great by Daphne suffered for the third time, in the month Apellaios or December 13, the first hour after cockcrow, in the year called 164 by the Antiochenes, after the second year of the presence of the divine king Trajan in the east. The remaining and surviving Antiochenes built a sanctuary then in Daphne, with an inscription: "The survivors dedicated this to Zeus Soter." In the same night that Antioch the great suffered, Rhodes the island city of the Hexapolis also suffered from earthquake (theomenia) for the second time.
The most pious Trajan built in Antioch the great, beginning first with the so-called middle gateway near the sanctuary of Ares, where the Parmenios torrent descends, very near what is now called the Macellum, and he carved above it the statue of a she-wolf nursing Romus and Remus, so that it would be known that the construction was Roman. He sacrificed there a virgin girl, a distinguished citizen named Kalliope for the redemption and cleansing of the city, making a bridal procession for her. And he straightaway erected the two great colonnaded streets, and built many other things in the city of Antioch, both a

Event Date: 116

§ 11.276  public [bath] [δημοσιον] and an aqueduct that diverted the water flowing from the springs of Daphne into the so-called Agriai, adding the same name to the public [bath] and the aqueduct. And he completed the unfinished theater of Antioch, and erected four columns in the middle of the nymphaion of the proskenion with a gilt bronze stele of the girl who had been slaughtered by him, seated atop the Orontes river, as the Fortune of the city, being crowned by kings Seleucus and Antiochus.
King Trajan was in the city when the earthquake [theomenia] happened. St. Ignatios the bishop of the city of Antioch was martyred under him. For Trajan was annoyed because he had insulted him. He gathered five names of Christian women of Antioch and examined them, saying, "What is this hope of yours, that makes you expose yourself to death?" They answered that "Killed by you we will rise up again in the body to eternal life." He ordered them to be cremated and mixed the dust from their bones with bronze and made the bronze for the caldrons of the public bath. And when the public bath began to function, if anyone bathed in it, his sight was darkened and he fell and was in torment. Learning this, king Trajan changed the caldrons and made others from clean bronze,

Event Date: 116

§ 11.277  and said: I did well when I mixed the dust of their bodies and shared the hot water." He said this, since the Christians were annoying the Greeks by boasting. Melting down the first caldrons he made five bronze stelai with the five women, saying "Behold, they have been raised up again, as they said, but by me and not their god." These stelai still stand in the public bath until now. He also made a firing chamber and commanded those Christians who desired to throw themselves in, and many threw themselves in and were martyred. St. Drosine was martyred then, and many other virgins.
He build in Daphne a sanctuary of Artemis in the middle of the grove. The king also made two provinces across the Danube river in the western part. He called them First and Second Dacia. Immediately afterwards, struck by illness, he died at the age of sixty-six. After Trajan reigned Aelius Hadrianus in the consulate of Apronianus and Nigrus [117CE, Q. Aquilius Niger ; M. Rebilus Apronianus]. He reigned twenty-five years and five months. He was short, stout, white-skinned, partly gray-haired, handsome, thick-bearded, blue-eyed, calm, eloquent, priestly. In Antioch the great, he too built

Event Date: 117

§ 11.278  a public bath and an aqueduct with his name. And he made the theater of the springs of Daphne and diverted the water flowing in the so-called Agriai Gorges, making pilings and building very expensive retaining walls to defeat the onrush of the water and lead it through the aqueduct he built into the city of Antioch for the city's abundance. He built the temple of these springs, out of which emerge the rivulets in Daphne, and set up in this temple of the Nymphs a large seated statue of Zeus holding a foal (?) in honor of the Naiads, in gratitude that he had completed such a fearsome labor. He made the bubbling waters of the so-called Saramanna spring to emerge through a conduit and flow in this conduit in the little theater outside the temple, into five different basins, which he called the five-modion, four-modion, three-modion, two-modion, and modion. Hadrian conducted a festival of the springs in the month Daisios or June 23. And the sacrifices still occur in this way. The spring in Agriai called the spring of Pallas, which had been destroyed, he enclosed and made into an aqueduct for the residents of sacred Daphne. This king Hadrian, before reigning after king Trajan, as the latter's son in law was a senator when Antioch the great suffered the earthquake. There were many senators from Rome in Antioch,

Event Date: 125

§ 11.279  who by his command built many houses and baths in Antioch. In the reign of the Divine Hadrian, Cyzicus, great metropolis of the Hellespont province, suffered an earthquake on November 10 at night. He granted many favors to the city and rebuilt it. And to the surviving citizens he granted money and valuables. Hadrian built in Cyzicus a very large temple, one of the wonders, standing a marble stele with a very large bust of himself on the roof of the temple, inscribed "of Divine Hadrian," which is still there. This Hadrian, angry at the Judaeans, ordered Jerusalem to be settled with Greeks, and renamed the city Aelius. In his reign, Hadrian reerected the Colossus of Rhodes, which had fallen during an earthquake Rhodes suffered in earlier times, and lay on the ground for 312 years, with nothing having been lost. He spent to restore and erect it in the same place, for machines and ropes and artisans, 3 hundredweight, as he inscribed the year and expenses below it.
During the reign of Hadrian a certain Marcion by name spread the detestable faith of the Manichaeans, preaching that the earthly creation came from some evil one.

Event Date: 125

§ 11.280  And many Hellenes and Jews and Christians were led astray, as the most wise Clement described.
This same King Hadrian built a city in Thrace, which he called Hadrianoupolis, and another which he called Hadrianou Therai. He built a city in Egypt, which he called Antino. He died at the age of sixty-five of dropsy in Baiae.
After Hadrian reigned Aelius Antoninus Pius Eusebes 23 years. He was dexterous, well-dressed, white-skinned, with gray head and beard, a shapely nose, flat face, wine-colored eyes, ruddy, always smiling, very generous. He built in Heliopolis of Phoenicia of Lebanon a great temple, one of the wonders. He also built in Laodikeia of Syria the forum, a sight to behold, and the Antonine baths. He waged war on the Egyptians who had rebelled and murdered the Augustalis Deinarchus. And after his vengeance and victory he built in Alexandria the great the Heliac Gate and the Seleniac Gate and the dromos. Coming to Antioch the great he paved the square (plateia) of the great colonnaded streets built by Tiberius,

Event Date: 138

§ 11.281  and the whole city, paving it with millstone, from his own resources, stones from Thebais, and generously defraying the remaining expenses from his own, inscribing this munificence (φιλοτιμία) on a stone plaque he erected at the gate of the Cherubim, which he started out from. This stele is still there, a sign of the greatness of his munificence. He also built a bath in Caesareia of Palestine and in Nikomedeia of Bithynia and Ephesus of Asia. These public baths were called by his name. And returning to Rome he built a great aqueduct. And he burnt the documents of the Treasury on which the Senate had agreed in writing under Gaius Julius Caesar, at his command, not to allow those of senatorial rank to make a will unless they bequeathed half their property to the king at the time. The most pious Antoninus said that through his divine imprint each could enjoy his own and take council as he wished. This Antoninus fell ill in Lorium and died in a few days, at age 77.
After him reigned Marcus Antoninus, his son, the philosopher, eighteen years and nine months. He was short, slender, partly gray, short-haired, keen-eyed, well-bearded, fine-featured, long-nosed.

Event Date: 161

§ 11.282  This king Marcus pronounced the most just law whereby the children would inherit from the father who died intestate, and a quarter share would be given from the paternal property to a child who had fallen from favor. In his reign the German nation was subjugated. In the years of his reign the teachings of Julianus the Chaldaean the great were admired. King Marcus built or restored in Antioch the great to public bath called Centenarion. For in the time of Trajan it had collapsed in the earthquake. He built the mouseion and its so-called Ocean nymphaion. King Marcus Antoninus favored the Green faction. Going to Pannonia he died of disease. After King Marcus Antoninus, Antoninus Verus, his son, ruled for 8 years. He was tall, thick, crook-nosed, keen-eyed, dark, with short, curly hair, bearded, much given to women. He fought a nation of the Huns and defeated them and subjugated many other nations without war. He was munificent. He was murdered in Proconnesus at age 39. [books 12-18 not translated]

Event Date: 180
END
Event Date: 2019

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