Aelian, Varia Historia

Aelian's Various Histories, translated by Thomas Stanley (d.1700) edition of 1665, a text in the public domain, nobly digitized by the University of Chicago This text has 822 tagged references to 243 ancient places.
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§ 1.1  The octopodes are so ravenous that they devour all they light on; so that many times they abstain not even from one another. The lesser taken by the greater, and falling into his stronger nets, (which are usually called the hairs or grasps of the fish) becomes his prey. They also betray fishes in this manner; lurking under the rocks they change themselves to their colour, and seem to be all one with the rock itself. When therefore the fishes swim to the rocks, and so to the octopus, they entangle them in their nets, or grasps.

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§ 1.2  The art of weaving and the gifts of the goddess Ergane, spiders neither know nor require: for what should such a creature do with woven garments? The web is only spread as a net for such things as fall into it, whilst she standing still, immovable, keeps watch: whatsoever falls in she eats; it being as much as the web can hold, is enough to satisfy her hunger.

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§ 1.3  The Egyptian kind of frogs hath a peculiar wisdom, and far excells all other: For if a frog meets a serpent bred in Nilus, she bits off a piece of reed and holds it as fast as she can cross-wise, and will not let it go. The serpent is not able to swallow the reed, because his mouth is not so wide as the reed. Thus the frog by wisdom overcomes and masters the strength of the serpents.

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§ 1.4  This also is wise in the Egyptian dogs: they drink of the river not greedily or freely, stooping and lapping till they have at the same time satisfied their thirst, for they are afraid of the creatures in it; but run along the bank, and catch up drink by stealth at times, till at last they have allayed their thirst by snatches without receiving harm.

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§ 1.5  The fox, not only the land-beast is wily, but the sea-fox very cunning: for she scruples not the bait, neither, being greedy, refrains from it, but contemns the hook; for before the fisher can pluck up the reed, she leaps up, and gnawing the line asunder, swims away. So that many times she swallows two or three hooks, yet the fisherman cannot get her for his supper.

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§ 1.6  The sea-tortoises lay upon land, and having laid, they immediately bury their eggs in the ground, and returning to their usual abode, swim there: They are so good accomptants, that having reckoned forty days, (in which time the eggs are hardened and become living creatures) they returning to the place where they hid what they laid, and digging up the earth which they had cast upon them, lead their young away, now able to follow them.

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§ 1.7  Wild swine are not wholly ignorant of physick and medicine; for if unwittingly they have eaten henbane, whereby their hinder parts are contracted with a kind of palsy, though thus shrunk up, they make to the waters, where they get crabs and eat them with all haste. These afford remedy of their ill, and make them sound again.

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§ 1.8  The phalangium is as hurtful to deer as to men: If they bite the deer, they are in danger of dying quickly after it; yet if they taste ivy, the bite will not harm them. But it must be wild ivy.

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§ 1.9  When a lion is sick, nothing will cure him but to eat an ape.

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§ 1.10  The Cretans are excellent archers; they shoot the goats which feed on the tops of mountains, which being hurt, immediately eat of the herb dittany, which as soon as they have tasted, the arrow drops out.

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§ 1.11  Mice also are to be reckoned among creatures of greatest prescience; for when a house decays and is ready to fall, they first perceive it, and leaving their holes and former dwellings, run away as fast as they can, and remove to new.

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§ 1.12  Pismires also, as I am informed, have some kind of prescience; for when there shall be a famine, they take pains extraordinarily to carry in provision, and lay up corn and other grain on which they feed.

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§ 1.13  Gelon the Syracusian dreaming that he was thunder-struck, cried out, not with a soft or low voice, as is usual in dreams, but aloud, being exceedingly affrighted. The dog which lay asleep by him, wakened with the cry, went round about him, and fell a barking fiercely and eagerly: By which means Gelon was at once delivered from sleep and fear.

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§ 1.14  Aristotle saith that the swan begets a fair and numerous offspring; but that they are prone to anger, fighting and killing one another. He also affirms the swans warre with the eagles, but so as that they resist only, not begin the assault. It is commonly reported they sing sweetly, but I never heard a swan sing, nor perhaps any man else: yet it is believed she sings, and then especially (as is said) she sings most sweetly and pleasantly when she draws near her end. They cross the sea and fly too over it, yet their wings never are tired.

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§ 1.15  They report that pigeons (the male and the female) sit upon their eggs by turns; which being hatched, the male bedews them with a kind of spittle to avert envy, and (as it is said) that they may not be liable to fascination. The female lays two eggs, of which the first always proveth a male, the second a female. They lay all the year long, so that they bring forth young ten times in the year. Of Egypt it is reported, that pigeons lay twelve times [a year ] in that country. Aristotle asserts that wood-pigeons are different from house-pigeons, these being bigger, those lesser: besides, house-pigeons are tame, wood-pigeons wild. He also affirms that the male couples not with the female till he hath kissed her, for she will not admit his society without a kiss. [] But if we credit Callimachus, the phassa, the pyrallis, the house-pigeon and the turtle are nothing alike. The Indian Relations tell us that in India there are yellowish pigeons: Charon of Lampsacus affirms that about Athos there were seen white pigeons when the Persian gallies coasting about Athos were defeated there. At Eryx in Sicily is the renowned and sacred temple of Aphrodite; where when the Erycinians celebrate the [Feast ] Anagogia, (at which time they say Aphrodite removes from Sicily to Libya) all the pigeons disappear, as if they went along with the goddess. At all times else it is certain that a great number of these birds are about the temple. Moreover the Achaeans report that Zeus falling in love with a virgin named Phthia, turned himself to a pigeon: Phthia lived at Aegium.

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§ 1.16  When the ship returned from Delos, and Socrates was now to die, Apollodorus (a friend of Socrates) coming to him in prison brought him a vest of fine cloth and rich, with a gown of the same, desiring him that he would put on that vest and gown when he was to drink the poison; since he should not fail of handsome funeral robes if he died in them. "For it is not unfit that a dead body should be covered with decent ornaments." Thus Apollodorus to Socrates. But he would not permit it, saying to Crito, Simmias and Phaedo, "How high an opinion hath Apollodorus of us, if he believe that after I have pledged the Athenians, and taken the potion, he shall see Socrates any more? For if he thinks that he which shall shortly lie at your feet extended on the ground is Socrates, it is certain he knows me not."

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§ 1.17  The admired little works of Myrmecides a Milesian, and Callicrates a Lacedemonian. They made chariots with four horses which a fly might cover; They writ an elegiac Distich in golden letters in a sesammum: Neither of which a wise man (I think) will praise; for what are these but a vain waste of time?

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§ 1.18  Were not many women [among the ancients ] luxurious in apparel? They wore on their heads a high coronet, on their feet chiappines: They had also long ear-rings hanging at their ears. That part of their gowns which reacheth from the shoulder to the hand was not sowed together, but fastned all along with buttons of gold and silver. Thus did the women among the ancients: The vanity of Athenian women let Aristophanes relate.

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§ 1.19  It is a common saying and known to all, that to the Sybarites and the city Sybaris the cause of destruction was their great luxury. But I will relate what is not commonly known: They say that the Colophonians also were ruined by excessive luxury; for they also went proudly attired, were lavish at their tables far beyond need, and apt to affront others. Likewise the reign of the Bacchiadae at Corinth (when they had arrived to great power) was destroyed by immoderate luxury.

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§ 1.20  Dionysius plundered all the temples of Syracuse of their treasure. From the statue of Zeus he took the robe and ornaments, valued at fourscore and five talents of gold. The public artificers not being able to touch the statue, he first laid hands upon it. He likewise robbed Apollo's image of a golden periwig, which he commanded to be cut off. Sailing thence to Troezene, he impiously took away all the treasure of Apollo and Leucothea. He also having drank a grace-cup, commanded a silver table which stood by Apollo to be taken away.

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§ 1.21  I cannot omit the wise and truly Grecian action of Ismenias a Theban: Being by his country sent ambassador to the King of Persia, he went thither, and would have spoken himself to the Persian about his business; but the captain whose office it was to report business to the king, and to conduct such as were admitted to his presence, told him, "Theban, (he spake this merrily[] by an interpreter, the captain's name Tithraustes) "the law of the Persians is, that he who cometh into the King's presence, shall not speak with him till he hath first adored him. If therefore you will go in person to him, you must do what the law requires; otherwise your business may be done by us, though you adore not." "Conduct me," said Ismenias. When he came into the King's presence, he pluckt off a ring which he had upon his finger, and letting it secretly drop, stooped down as if he had adored, and took it up again, making the King believe that he adored; yet he did nothing that might dishonour the Greeks. By this means he obtained all that he requested, and was not denied any thing by the Persian.

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§ 1.22  The gifts which the King gave to ambassadors who came to him either from Greece or elsewhere were these: To every one a Babylonian talent of finest silver; two silver cups, each weighing a talent. The Babylonian talent makes seventy two Attic minas. He gave them also a scimitar and bracelets, and a chain, all which were valued at a thousand darics. Likewise a Median vest which they called a dorophoric.

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§ 1.23  Among the ancient Greeks, Gorgias the Leontine son of Philolaus, and Protagoras son of Democritus, were famous as to rhetorical opinion; yet were they as far short of others in wisdom as boys are of men. For opinion neither hears nor sees clearly: whence it oftentimes erres, overprizing some things, undervaluing others.

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§ 1.24  Glaucon [or Caucon ] son of Poseidon had by Astydamia, daughter of Phorbas, a son named Lepreas, who counselled Augeas to cast Hercules in bonds, when he came to demand the reward of his labours. Hereupon, as it seems, Lepreas was hated by Hercules for this advice. Afterwards the son of Zeus [Hercules ] went to Caucon; but at the intercession of Astydamia laid aside all enmity towards Lepreas. Then there happened a youthful emulation between them, and they challenged one another at the discus, and to draw water, and which of them could first eat an ox. In all which Lepreas was overcome.
Hereupon another contention arose, which of them could drink most, in which also Lepreas was worsted. At last, moved with anger and indignation, he challenged Hercules to single combate. Thus he received punishment for his counsel to Augeas, for he was slain in the fight.

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§ 1.25  Alexander the son of Philip, (or, if any one likes it better, of Zeus, for to me it is all one) to Phocion the Athenian captain only began his letters with the usual form of salutation, hail, so much had Phocion won upon the Macedonian. He also sent him a hundred talents of silver, and named four cities, of which he might chuse any one to receive the revenues and profits thereof for his own use. These cities were Cius, Elaea, Mylasa, Patara: thus did Alexander liberally and magnificently. But Phocion far more, who accepted neither the city nor the silver; yet that he might not seem to dis-esteem and contemn the offers of Alexander, he expressed his respect to him thus: He requested that they who were kept prisoners in the tower of Sardis might be set at liberty; Echecratides the Sophist, Athenodorus of Himera, Demaratus and Sparto: these two were brethren and Rhodians.

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§ 1.26  I have heard of a woman that could sound a trumpet, which art was her way of living, by name Aglais, daughter of Megacles; she wore a periwig and a plume on her head, as Posidippus relates. At one meal she did devour twelve pounds of flesh, and four choenixes of bread, and drank a congius of wine.

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§ 1.27  These are reported to have been extraordinary great eaters: Pityreus a Phrygian, Cambletes a Libyan, Thius a Paphlagonian, Charidas, Cleonymus, Pisander, Charippus, Mithridates of Pontus, Calamodorus of Cyzicus, Timocreon a Rhodian, both a wrestler and poet, Cantibaris a Persian, Erysichthon son of Myrmidon, who for that reason was nick-named Aethon. It is said also that there is a temple in Sicily dedicated to Gluttony, and an image of Ceres the corn-giver.[] Likewise Alcman the poet attests of himself that he was a great eater. And Anaxilas the comic poet saith that there was one Ctesias an extraordinary Glutton.

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§ 1.28  I will tell you a Rhodian opinion. In Rhodes, they say that if a man looks upon fish with a great liking, and loves fish above all other meat, they esteem him an extraordinary person: But such as like the diet of flesh better are reproched by the Rhodians as clownish and gluttonous, whether justly or wrongfully, I not examine.

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§ 1.29  The Coans report than an ewe in the pastures of Nicippus the tyrant did bear not a lamb, but a lion. By which sign it was portended to Nicippus (as yet but a private person) that he should be king.

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§ 1.30  King Ptolemy loved a youth named Galetes: he was very beautiful, but of a mind transcending his form; which Ptolemy frequently testified of him, saying, "Oh thou sweet of disposition, thou never wert author of harm to any, but on the contrary, hast done several good offices to many." On a time this youth rode forth with the king, and beholding far off some malefactors led to execution, he readily said, (speaking to Ptolemy) "O King, since it is our chance to be on horse-back according to some good genius of those wretches, come, if you please, let us spur on and overtake them, that we may appear to the unhappy men as the Dioscuri, preservers and succourers": (so those gods are called.) Ptolemy much pleased with his sweet disposition and proneness to mercy, embraced him, and not only saved the malefactors, but confirmed and increased the affection he bare him.

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§ 1.31  The Persians have a custom which they observe most strictly; When the King rides abroad in Persia, all the Persians make him presents according to their several abilities. They who live by the labour of their hands in husbandry and tillage, give one neither too mean, nor too rich or too magnificent, but either oxen or sheep; some also corn or wine. These are presented to him by every one as he rides along, and are called presents, by which name he also accepts them. The poorer sort bring milk, palms, cheese, ripe fruits, and other delicacies which grow in that country.

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§ 1.32  This also is a Persian story. They report that a Persian called Sinetes, being far from home, met Artaxerxes surnamed Mnemon; being thus surprised, he was much perplexed with fear of the law and respect of the King. Having nothing at that time to give him, and being much troubled to be exceeded in duty by the rest of the Persians, unwilling that he alone should be infamous for not making a present, they say that with all speed he ran to the river hard by, which was named Cyrus, and hastily lying down took up water in both his hands. "O King Artaxerxes, (said he) reign for ever. I make you at this time such a present as I can get, and in such a manner as I can, that as far as lies in me you may not pass by unpresented. I pay you homage in the water of Cyrus. But when you shall come at night to your station, I will bring from my house, and present you, the best and richest things that I have, according to my ability: I shall not come behind any of those who now offer you gifts." Artaxerxes was much pleased herewith. "Man, (saith he) I accept thy present kindly, and reckon it amongst the most precious, declaring that it is of equal value with them; first, because water is the best of all things; next, because it bears the name of Cyrus: And I will that you come to me where I shall lodge to night." This said, he commanded the eunuchs to take the gift from him; who instantly running to him, received the water out of his hand into a golden cup. The King, as soon as he came to his lodging, sent him a Persian vest, a golden cup, and a thousand daricks; withall, gave the bearer order to say thus; "The King commands you to delight your mind with this, because you have delighted his, in not suffering him to pass by unpresented and without homage, but paid him such respect as necessity would then allow. He wills also that you drink water from that river in this cup."

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§ 1.33  Nisus presented an extraordinary great pomegranate in a basket to Artaxerxes as he was riding in Persia. The King admiring the largeness of it, "From what Paradise, (said he) did you take this gift which you bring me?" He answered, out of his own grounds, and that it was of his own grafting. The King was exceedingly pleased, and sent him royal gifts, saying, "By Mithra, this man by like care and diligence might also in my opinion make a little city great." This speech implies, that by continual industry and labour all things may be made better then nature hath produced them.

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§ 1.34  A certain man, by country Mardian, by name Rhacoces, had seven sons, the youngest of which, named Cartomes, did many harms to the Magi. His father first tried to reform his madness by admonition and instruction: but he not obeying, and the judges coming to the place where this young man's father lived, he taking his son, and binding his hands behind him, brought him before the judges, where he accused his son of all the several outrages which he had committed, and desired the judges to put the young man to death. They amazed hereat, would not condemn him, but brought them both before Artaxerxes; where the Mardian persisting in his plea, the King interrupting him said, "Then you can endure that your son should be put to death before your eies." He answered, "Most willingly: For when in my garden I prune and cut off the lower branches which grow about the lettuce, the mother and root of them is so far from being grieved thereat, that she flourishes the better, and becometh both fairer and sweeter. In like manner, O King, when I shall see him who wronged my family, and consumeth the means of his brothers, lose his life, and be prevented from doing them farther injury, I shall thrive the better, and behold the rest of my family thrive with my self." Which Artaxerxes hearing, praised Rhacoces, and made him one of the Royal Judges, saying to those who were present, that he who had determined so justly concerning his own children, would towards all others be an upright judge. He dismissed the young man without punishment, threatning to put him to a most cruel death if he should offend again for the time to come.

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§ 2.1  SOCRATES discoursed thus to Alcibiades. The young man was much perplexed and abashed, being to appear before a public assembly. But Socrates encouraging and exciting him, do you not despise (saith he) that shoe-maker? (naming him.) Alcibiades assenting: and so likewise (continueth Socrates) that public crier? and that tent-maker? [Alcibiades ] the son of Clinias granting this; And doth not, said Socrates, the Athenian commonwealth consist of these? If you contemn them single, fear them not in an assembly. Thus [Socrates ] son of Sophroniscus and Phenareta prudently instructed [Alcibiades ] son of Clinias and Dinomache.

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§ 2.2  Megabyzus highly commending some pictures that were meanly and ignorantly painted, and finding fault with others that were made with great art, the boys of Zeuxis that were grinding colours laughed at him; whereupon Zeuxis said, when you hold your peace, Megabyzus, these boys admire you, for they look on your rich garments and attendants; but as soon as you say any thing concerning this art, they laugh at you: therefore preserve your self in esteem by holding your peace, and censure not the work or skill of any which is not in your way.

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§ 2.3  Alexander beholding his own picture at Ephesus drawn by Apelles, did not give it such praise as it deserved; but a horse which was brought in neighed to the painted horse, as if it had been a true one. King, said Apelles, this horse seems to understand painting much better than you.

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§ 2.4  I will relate to you an action of Phalaris not agreeing with his disposition: for it expresseth a great humanity, and therefore seemeth not to suit with him. Chariton an Agrigentine loved Melanippus passionately, who was also an Agrigentine, of a sweet disposition and excellent form. Phalaris had injured this Melanippus in a certain business; for he having brought an action against a favourite of Phalaris, the tyrant commanded him to surcease the suit: He not obeying, the tyrant threatned him with death unless he submitted. So being compelled he gave over the cause, and the judges under Phalaris nulled the proceedings; which the young man taking ill, said he was wronged, and discovered his resentment thereof to his friend, praying him to joyn with him in a plot against the tyrant, intending also to ingage some other young men, whom he knew proper and ready for such an attempt. Chariton seeing him inraged and inflamed with fury, and knowing that none of the citizens would joyn in the design through fear of the tyrant, said that he also had formerly the same intention, and should ever be ready above all things to free his country from slavery; but it was dangerous to communicate such things to many persons: wherefore he intreated Melanippus to consider it more deliberately, and to permit him to find out an opportunity proper for the attempt. The young man yielded. Chariton thereupon undertook the whole business himself, not willing to engage his friend in it; that if he were taken and discovered, he alone might bear the punishment, and his friend not share in the danger. He provided himself of a falchion to assault the tyrant when he should see a fit occasion. This could not be carried so privately, but that he was apprehended by the guard, watchful of such things. Being carried to prison, and tortured to make discovery of his complices, he couragiously endured the torment. But this continuing a long time, Melanippus went to Phalaris, and confessed that he was not only a conspirator, but author of the treason. The King demanding the cause that moved him to it, he declared the whole business from the beginning; how he was obstructed in his suit, and that this was it which provoked him. The tyrant wondering hereat set them both at liberty; but commanded them immediately to depart, not only out of all cities belonging to the Agrigentines, but quite out of Sicily. Yet he allowed them to receive the full benefit of their estates. These and their friendships Pythia afterwards commended in these verses:
To men, true patterns of celestial love
Blest Chariton and Melanippus prove. The God calling this love of theirs a divine friendship.

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§ 2.5  The Lacedemonians conceived that time above all things ought to be husbanded, employing it diligently in serious business, not allowing any of the citizens to wast it in idleness or play; that it might not be thrown away upon things of no virtue. A testimony hereof amongst the rest is this: The Lacedemonian ephori hearing that they who had taken Decelia used to walk in the afternoon, sent this command to them, walk not: (As if they did it for recreation rather then exercise of the body). It behoveth the Lacedemonians to get and preserve health not by walking, but by exercise.

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§ 2.6  Hippomachus, (they say,) one that taught to wrestle, when the people that stood about as one of his scholars was wrastling gave a great shout, struck him with a wand, saying, "You did amiss and not as you ought, it should have been done better. For if you had done according to art, these men would not have applauded you." Implying, that they who perform every thing well and handsomely, must not please the multitude, but those who are understanding in the art. Socrates also seems to contemn the common people in his discourse with Crito, who came to him in the prison, and counselled him to make an escape, and avoid the sentence of the Athenians against him.

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§ 2.7  This is a Theban law most just and humane; that no Theban might expose his child or leave it in a wilderness, upon pain of death. But if the father were extremely poor, whether it were male or female, the law requires that as soon as it is born it be brought in the swadling-clouts to the magistrate, who receiving it, delivers it to some other for some small reward, conditioning with him that he shall bring up the child, and when it is grown up take it into his service, man or maid, and have the benefit of its labour in requital for its education.

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§ 2.8  In the ninety first Olympiad, wherein Exenetus won the race, Xenocles and Euripides contended. Xenocles (whosoever he was) got the first victory by these tragedies, Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae, and Athamas a Satyre. It is ridiculous that Xenocles should not be worsted, and Euripides get the better, especially in those tragedies. One of these two must have been the reason, either that they who gave the votes were ignorant and void of clear judgement, or corrupt. But both are dishonourable, and unworthy the Athenians.

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§ 2.9  What decrees did the Athenians make, and those in a democracy? That every one of the Aeginetans should have his thumb cut off from his right hand, so that he might for ever after be disabled from holding a spear, yet might handle an oar. That all the young men of Mitylene should be put to death: Which decree was made at the instigation of Cleon son of Cleaenetus. That such as had been taken prisoners of the Samians should be branded in the face with the mark of an owl. This also was an Athenian decree. I wish, O Athena, Guardian of the city, and Zeus Eleutherius, and all the gods of the Grecians, that the Athenians had never done these things, and that it might never have been said of them.

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§ 2.10  I have heard that Timotheus (son of Conon) general of the Athenians, when he was in height of felicity, and took cities with great ease, so as the Athenians knew not how they should honour him sufficiently, met accidentally with Plato son of Aristo, as he was walking with some scholars without the city wall, and seeing his reverend presence, his proper person and graceful aspect, hearing him also discourse, not of contributions, gallies, naval affairs, supplies, reliefs, confederates, islanders, and the like matters, but of those things which he professed, and in which he employed his studies, said, "O this life and true felicity!" Whence it appears, that Timotheus did not conceive himself absolutely happy, as not enjoying this, though otherwise in highest honour and esteem with the Athenians.

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§ 2.11  Socrates seeing that the Thirty Tyrants put many eminent persons to death, and betrayed the rich to excessive punishments, said to Antisthenes, "Doth it repent thee that we have done nothing in our whole lives great and remarkable, as those monarchs who are described in tragedies, Atreus's, Thyestes's, Agamemnons, and Aegisthus's? They are in those plays beheaded, feasted with their own flesh, and generally destroyed: But no poet was ever so bold or impudent as to represent a poor man killed upon the stage. "

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§ 2.12  I know not whether this speech of Themistocles son of Neocles be commendable or not. After that his father had cast him off, giving over prodigality, he began to live temperately, and to refrain from courtesans, being taken with another affection, that of governing the Athenian state; and contested eagerly with the magistrates, endeavouring to make himself the chief. He said (as is reported) to his friends, "What will you give me, who never yet was envied?" He that loves to be envied, hastens, according to Euripides, to harm himself: But that this is folly, Euripides himself declares.

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§ 2.13  Anytus and his companions studied to do Socrates a mischief, for those reasons which are related by many; but feared the Athenians, doubting, if they should accuse Socrates, how they would take it, his name being in high esteem for many respects, but chiefly for opposing the sophists, who neither taught nor knew any solid learning. Wherefore they began, by making trial in less things, to sound how the Athenians would entertain a charge against his life: for to have accused him upon the very first, he conceived unsafe, as well as for the reason already mentioned, as lest the friends and followers of Socrates should divert the anger of the judges upon them, for falsly accusing a person so far from being guilty of any wrong to the state, that he was the only ornament of Athens. What then do they contrive? They suborn Aristophanes a comic poet, whose only business was to raise mirth, to bring Socrates upon the stage, taxing him with crimes which most men knew him free from impertinent discourse, making an ill cause by argument seem good, introducing new and strange deities, whilst himself believed and reverenced none: hereby to insinuate an ill opinion of him even into those who most frequented him. Aristophanes taking this theme, interweaves it with much abusive mirth and pleasant verses; taking for his subject the best man of the Grecians. The argument of his play was not against Cleon; he did not abuse the Lacedemonians, the Thebans, or Pericles himself; but a person dear to all the Gods, especially to Apollo. At first (by reason of the novelty of the thing, the unusual personating of Socrates upon the stage) the Athenians, who expected nothing less, were struck with wonder: Then (being naturally envious, apt to detract from the best persons, not only such as bore office in the commonwealth, but any that were eminent for learning or virtue) they begun to be taken with the CLOUDS,[so was the play named] and cried up the poet with more applause then ever any before, giving him with many shouts the victory, and sending word to the judges to set the name of Aristophanes in the highest place. Socrates came seldom to the theatre, unless when Euripides the Tragic poet contested with any new tragedian, then he used to go: And when Euripides contended in the Piraeus, he went thither also, for he loved the man as well for his wisdom, as the sweetness of his verse. Sometimes Alcibiades son of Clinias and Critias son of Callaeschrus would invite him to a comedy, and in a manner compell him: for he was so far from esteeming, that he did greatly condemn those persons that were abusive and scurrilous in their language, (being himself a temperate, just, good and discreet person) which hugely troubled the comedians. And this was the ground (as well as other things suggested by Antyus and Melitus) of Aristophanes his comedy; who, it is likely too, got a great sum of money by it, they being eager in prosecution of their design, and he prepared by want and malice to receive their impression: But this he best knows. In fine, the play got extraordinary credit, that of Cratinus being verified,
The theatre was then
filled with malicious men.
It being at that time the feast of Dionysus, a multitude of Grecians went to see the play. Socrates being personated on the stage, and often named, (nor was it much the players should represent him, for the potters frequently did it upon their stone jugs) the strangers that were present (not knowing whom the comedy abused) raised a hum and whisper, every one asking who that Socrates was. Which he observing, (for he came not thither by chance, but because he knew himself should be abused in the play, had chosen the most conspicuous seat in the theatre) to put the strangers out of doubt, he rose up, and all the while the play lasted continued in that posture. So much did Socrates despise the comedy and the Athenians themselves.

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§ 2.14  Xerxes deserves justly to be laughed at, who after he had contemned the works of Zeus, and made himself new ways to travel by land and water, fell in love with a plane, and doted upon the tree: for seeing (as it is reported) in Lydia a tall plane-tree, there he stayed a whole day, no necessity requiring, and pitched his tents in the wilderness about the plane-tree: he also hung upon it many rich ornaments, honouring the boughs with chains and bracelets, and left it a keeper, as the guardian and protectour of a mistress. But what did this profit the tree? the apposititious ornament nothing suiting with it, hung there in vain, not adding any thing to the beauty of the tree. For to the beauty of a tree are requisite fair branches, leaves thick, a body strong, roots deep and pliant, yielding to the winds, wideness of shadow, the successive seasons of the year, the nourishment of the water by chanels and rains. But the robes of Xerxes, the gold of the barbarian, and his other gifts, contribute nothing to the plane, or any other tree.

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§ 2.15  Certain Clazomenians coming to Sparta, through abuse and insolence besmeared with soot the seats of the ephori, in which they used to give judgement, and determine public affairs. This being known, the ephori were not incensed, but calling the public crier, commanded him to make this strange proclamation openly throughout the City, "Let it be lawful for the Clazomenians to do unhandsome things."

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§ 2.16  I esteem this action of Phocion (the son of Phocus) commendable also. Coming before a public assembly of Athenians, after he had reproved them for some ingratitude, he said, both wisely and sharply, "I had rather receive ill from you, then do ill to you."

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§ 2.17  The wisdom of the Persian magi was (besides other things proper to them) conversant in prediction: They foretold the cruelty of Ochus towards his subjects, and his bloody disposition, which they collected from some secret signs. For when Ochus, upon the death of his father Artaxerxes, came to the crown, the Magi charged one of the eunuchs that were next him to observe upon what things, when the table was set before him, he first laid hands; who watching intentively, Ochus reached forth both his hands, and with his right laid hold of a knife that lay by, with the other took a great loaf, which he laid upon the meat, and did cut and eat greedily. The Magi, hearing this, foretold that there would be plenty during his reign, and much blood shed. In which they erred not.

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§ 2.18  Timotheus (son of Conon) general of the Athenians, on a time retiring from magnificent suppers and military entertainments, was invited by Plato to a treat in the Academy; where being entertained with a frugal supper and with music, when he returned to his friends, he said, "they who sup with Plato are better for the next day also." From thence forward Timotheus dispraised sumptuous and chargeable suppers, of which there is no benefit the next day. There is a speech much to the same purpose reported of him, that Timotheus meeting Plato on the morrow said to him, "You, O Plato, sup better the next morning then over night."

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§ 2.19  Alexander, when he had vanquished Darius, and was possessed of the Persian Empire, being high-conceited of himself, and puffed up with his success, writ to the Grecians, that they should decree him to be a god: Ridiculously; what he had not by nature, he thought to obtain by requiring it of men. Hereupon several people made several decrees; the Lacedemonians this; "Forasmuch as Alexander would be a god, let him be a god." Thus with Laconic brevity, according to the manner of their country, the Lacedemonians reprehended the pride of Alexander.

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§ 2.20  It is reported that King Antigonus was popular and meek. He that hath leisure to make enquiry after him and his actions, may satisfie himself elsewhere. I shall relate only one act of his full of clemency and void of pride. This Antigonus, perceiving that his son behaved himself rigidly and severely towards his subjects, "Do you not know, son, said he, that our reign is but a glorious servitude?" This speech of Antigonus to his son expressed much mildness and humanity. He who conceiveth otherwise of it, seems in my opinion not to understand either what belonged to a king or a subject, but rather to have lived under some tyrant.

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§ 2.21  There was great friendship betwixt Pausanias a Ceramean and Agatho the poet: This is generally known; but I will relate what is less common. On a time the two friends came before Archelaus: he oberving the frequent differences betwixt Pausanias and Agatho, and thinking that one friend despited the other, asked Agatho what was the reason that he had such frequent quarrels with him who loved him so well. He answered, "O King, I will tell you: It is not that I am froward towards him, neither do I this through rusticity; but if I understand any thing of behaviour, as well by poetry as other things, I find that the greatest pleasure of friends is, after some falling out to be reconciled and I am of opinion that nothing can happen to them more delightful: Therefore I make him partake often of this pleasure, by falling out with him frequently. For he is over-joyed when I end the difference and am reconciled; whereas if I should use him always alike, he would not understand the difference." Archelaus (as they say) commended this answer. It is reported that Euripides also the poet exceedingly loved this Agatho, and in favour of him composed his tragedy intituled Chrysippus. But this I cannot certainly affirm, yet know it to be attested by many.

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§ 2.22  I am told that the Mantineans were just law-givers, no less then the Locrians and Cretans, and the Lacedemonians themselves, and the Athenians. For though the laws of Solon were most excellent, yet the Athenians soon after his death abrogated the laws which they received from him.

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§ 2.23  Nicodorus, an excellent and famous wrestler among the Mantineans, in his later years giving over wrestling, became a law-giver to them, benefitting his country far more in civil affairs, then when he was publicly proclaimed victor in the lists. Some say that Diagoras the Melian, who loved him much, composed those laws for him. I have more to say of Nicodorus, but lest I should seem to intermix any commendations of Diagoras, let this suffice: For Diagoras was a hater of the gods; neither do I take any pleasure in making farther mention of him.

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§ 2.24  Some have undervalued the famed strength of Milo the Crotonian, relating thus of him; None of Milo's antagonists were able to force away a pomegranate which he held in his hand; but his mistress, with whom he had frequent differences, was too hard for him. Whence it is manifest, that Milo was of a strong body, but an effeminate mind.

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§ 2.25  It is observed, that on the sixth day of the month Thargelion many good fortunes have befallen not only the Athenians, but divers others. Socrates was born on this day, the Persians vanquished on this day; and the Athenians sacrifice three hundred goats to Agrotera upon this day in pursuit of Miltiades his vow: On the same day of this month was the fight of Plataeae, in which the Grecians had the better: (for the former fight which I mentioned was at Artemisium) neither was the victory which the Greeks obtained at Mycale on any other day; seeing that the victory at Plataeae and Mycale happened on the self-same day. Likewise Alexander the Macedonian, son of Philip, vanquished many myriads of the barbarians on the sixth day, when he took Darius Prisoner. All which is observed to have happened on this moneth. It is likewise reported that Alexander was born and died on the same day.

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§ 2.26  Aristotle saith that Pythagoras was called by the Crotonians Hyperborean Apollo. The son of Nicomachus [Aristotle] farther says, that he was at the same hour of the same day seen by many at Metapontium and at Croton, where he stood up at the games. There also he shewed one of his thighs, which was of gold. The same author says, that as he was passing over the river Nessus it called him, and that many heard the call.

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§ 2.27  Anniceris the Cyrenian was proud of his horseman-ship and chariot-driving. He on a time desired to let Plato see his skill: wherefore having made ready his chariot, he drove many courses round the Academy, keeping his track so exactly, that the wheels never went out of it. All who were present admired it much. But Plato reprehended his too much industry, saying, That it was impossible that he who imployed so much pains about things of no value, could bend his study to things of greater concernment. For being wholly taken up with those things, he must necessarily neglect such as are truly worth admiration.

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§ 2.28  After their victory over the Persians, the Athenians made a law that cocks should one day in the year be brought to fight in the theatre. The occasion of which law was this: When Themistocles went forth with an army of the citizens against the barbarians, he saw some cocks fighting; neither did he behold it slightly, but turning to the whole army, "These (saith he) undertake this danger, neither for their country, nor for their country Gods, nor for the monuments of their ancestours, nor for fame, liberty, or children; but that they may not be worsted, or yield one to the other." With which words he encouraged the Athenians. This therefore was at that time an occasion of inciting them to valour, he would have to be ever after had in remembrance.

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§ 2.29  Pittacus at Mitylene made stairs to the temples, which served for no use, but as a dedicated gift; hereby signifying the ascent and descent of Fortune: those whom Fortune favours ascending, the unfortunate descending.

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§ 2.30  Plato son of Aristo was at first extremely addicted to poetry, and wrote heroical verses; which afterwards he burnt, perceiving them to be far inferiour to Homer's. Then he betook himself to writing tragedies, composing a tetralogy; which poems he gave to the players, intending to contest at the games. But before the Bacchanalian Feast he heard Socrates discourse, and was so much taken with that Siren, that he not only forbore his design of contending, but from thence forward wholly gave off writing tragedies, and addicted himself to philosophy.

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§ 2.31  And who extolls not the wisdom of the barbarians, since none of them have fallen into any atheism, or question whether there are gods or not, and whether they take care of us or not? None of them ever held such opinions as Euemerus the Messenian, or Diogenes the Phrygian, or Hippo, or Diagoras, or Sosias, or Epicurus; not any Indian,Celt, or Egyptian. For these barbarians which I have named attest that there are gods, and that they have a providential care of us, and that they pre-signify events by birds, omens, entrails, and by other observations and rules, which do teach men the providence of the Gods towards them. They say also that many things are signified before-hand by dreams and by the stars. Being firmly setled in this belief, they sacrifice purely, live holily, perform divine rites, observe the rules of the orgia and all the rest: whence it must be acknowledged that they worship and reverence the Gods firmly.

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§ 2.32  Some Pythian relations affirm that Hercules, son of Zeus and Alcmena, was at his birth named Heraclides; but that afterwards coming to Delphi to consult the oracle about some business, he obtained that for which he came, and received farther privately from the God this oracle concerning himself,
Thee Hercules doth Phoebus name,
For thou shalt gain immortal fame.

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§ 2.33  We behold the nature of rivers, and their channels; but they who worship them and make images of them give some the shape of men, others of oxen. In the shape of oxen the Stymphalians represented Erasinus and Metopus; the Lacedemonians, Eurotas; the Sicyonians and Phliasians, Asopus; the Argives, Cephissus: but in the shape of men the Psophidians represented Erymanthus; the Heraeans, Alpheus; so likewise the Cherronesians that came from Cnidus, represent the river Cnidus. The Athenians worship Cephissus as a horned man. In Sicily the Syracusans represent Anapus in the shape of a man, and Cyane a fountain as a woman. The Aegestaeans worship Porpax, Crimissus and Telmissus under the figures of men. The Agrigentines represent the river which beareth the same name with their city by the image of a beautiful boy, to which they sacrifice. They likewise dedicated an ivory statue at Delphi, and inscribed the name of the river upon it, which statue was of a boy.

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§ 2.34  They say that Epicharmus being very old, sitting and discoursing with some of like age, and every one of them saying, one, I could be content to live but five years longer; another, three years; a third, four; he interposing said, "O good men, why do you contest and wrangle about a few days? All we that are here met tend by some fate or other to our end. Therefore it is time for us all to die with the soonest, before we feel any of the miseries which attend old age."

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§ 2.35  Gorgias the Leontine being at his latter end, and being of a great age and surprised by sickness, fell by degrees asleep: and when one of his friend coming to visit him asked him how he did; "Just now, saith he, sleep is going to deliver me up to his brother."

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§ 2.36  Socrates being very old fell sick; and one asking him how he did, "Well, saith he, both ways: for if I live longer, I shall have more emulators; if I die, more praisers."

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§ 2.37  Zaleucus the Locrian made many excellent and convenient laws, of which this was not the worst. If any of the Epizephyrian Locrians, being sick, drank pure wine, unless by prescription of the physician, though he returned to his former health, yet he was to be put to death for drinking it without leave.

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§ 2.38  This was also a law of the Massilians, that no women should tast wine, but of what age soever they should drink water. Theophrastus affirms that this law was of force also among the Milesians, which not only the Ionian but Milesian wives observed. But why should we not speak of the law of the Romans? Or how can I avoid being reprochd of neglect, if having mentioned the Locrians, Massilians and Milesians, I omit to speak of my own country? Amongst the Romans this law was strictly observed, that no free woman or she slave should drink wine; nor any of noble birth, from their childhood till five and thirty years of age.

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§ 2.39  The Cretans commanded all free-born children to learn the laws with a kind of melody, that their minds might be inticed by their music, and they get them by heart the more easily: so that if they committed any thing contrary to law, they could not plead ignorance. The second thing which they were appointed was, to learn the hymns of the Gods: The third, encomiums of good men.

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§ 2.40  Every irrational creature naturally abhorreth wine, especially those who being over-fed with grapes become drunk. Crows if they eat the herb oenutta, as also dogs, run mad. If the ape and the elephant drink wine, the one forgets his strength, the other his subtilty, and both are eaily taken.

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§ 2.41  Lovers of drink were Dionysius in Sicily, and Nisaeus a tyrant also, Apollocrates son of Dionysius the tyrant, Hipparinus kinsman of Dionysius, Timolaus a Theban, Charidemus an Orithean, Arcadion, Erasixenus, Alcetas a Macedonian, and Diotimus an Athenian. This last was called a funnel, because putting a funnel into his mouth, he could drink wine poured into it without taking breath. They relate of Cleomenes the Lacedemonian, that he was not only a great drinker, but that he also used the ill custom of the Scythians to drink wine unallayed. They say also that Io of Chios, the poet, was an immoderate drinker of wine. Likewise Alexander the Macedonian, in honour of Calanus the Brahman, an Indian sophist, that burned himself, instituting games of music, horse-racing and wrestling; to gratifie the Indians, he added another part proper to that country, which was drinking. To him that should be the victor he appointed a talent for his reward, to the next thirty minae, to the third ten. Promachus got the victory. Moreover Dionysius, at the feast which they call Choae, proposed a golden crown as a reward to him that drank most. Xenocrates the Chalcedonian was victor, and taking the crown when he went away after supper, put it upon a statue of Mercury which stood at the door, according to his custom: for he used to lay there garlands of flowers, myrrhe, ivy, and laurel, and leave them. Also Anacharsis, as it is said, drank much at Periander's house. He brought this custom from his own country, for it is proper for the Scythians to drink pure wine. Lacydes and Timon, philosophers, are said to have drank much. Likewise Mycerinus an Egyptian, a prophecy being brought him from Buta, foretelling that he should live but a little while, to delude the oracle by doubling the time, turning nights into days, watched and drank continually. To these add Amasis the Egyptian, of whom Herodotus attests enough. And Nicoteles a Corinthian must not be severed from these. And they say also that Scopas the son of Creon and Antiochus the King were much addicted to wine: for which reason he put the whole government of his kingdom into the hands of Aristaeus and Themisto, Cyprians, whilest he, given over to drunkenness, bare only the title of king. Likewise Antiochus Epiphanes, delivered as pledge to the Romans, used to drink wine immoderately. As also his name-sake Antiochus, who waging war with the Medians against Arsaces, was a slave to drunkenness. Amongst these may be reckoned Antiochus the great. Immoderate drinking cast Agro King of the Illyrians into a pleurisie, and killed him. Likewise Gentius another King of the Illyrians was a great drinker. What shall we say of Orophernes King of Cappadocia, who was also a great drinker? And if we must mention women, (in whom to love drink is a great vice, to drink much a greater) Clio, as they say, contended in drinking, not with women only, but with men; for she was a great drinker, and had the better of every one, carrying in my opinion a shameful victory.

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§ 2.42  The fame of Plato and renown of his virtue came to the Arcadians and Thebans, who thereupon sent ambassadors earnestly to request him to come over to them, not only to instruct their young men in philosophy, but, which was a higher concernment, to ordain laws. They were ready to have obtained what they desired of him; for the son of Aristo was pleased with the invitation, and intended to yield to them. He asked the ambassadors how they stood affected to equality of estates: when understanding by them that they were so averse from it, as not to be by any means induced thereto, he refused to goe.

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§ 2.43  There were most excellent persons among the Grecians who lived in extreme poverty. Aristides son of Nicomachus, and Phocion son of Phocus, Epaminondas son of Polymatis, Pelopidas a Theban, Lamachus an Athenian, Socrates son of Sophroniscus, and Ephialtes son of Sophonides.

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§ 2.44  Amongst other things which witness the excellent art of Theon the painter was this picture: An armed man ready to charge the enemy, who had made an incursion and wasted the country. The young man seemed ready to fall on with sprightliness and courage: you would have said he were transported with rage and the fury of Mars. His eyes seemed to sparkle fiercely. Having taken up his arms he appeared snatching, as if eager to assault the enemy with all speed. He held forth his shield, and waved as it were his sword, as ready to fight, with a killing look, his posture expressing that he meant not to spare any. Theon painted not any thing more, no common soldier, no centurion, no company, no horseman, no archer; this armed man only being sufficient to compleat the excellence of the piece. But before he would discover this picture to public view, he got a trumpeter, and bade him to sound a charge as loudly and fiercely as he could, and to give it all possible spirit of encouragement to fight. Assoon as this shrill and dreadful noise was heard, the trumpet sounding as if there were a sudden incursion of the enemy, he discovered his picture, and the armed man appeared, after that the sound of the trumpet had excited the fancy of the beholders.

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§ 3.1  LET US NOW describe and paint out in discourse the Thessalian Tempe: for it is acknowledged that speech, where the faculty is free, can represent whatsoever it pleaseth as fully to the life, as men that are excellent in handy-work. It is a place situated betwixt Olympus and Ossa. These are mountains of extraordinary height, and disjoyned as it were by providence. They include a plain whose length extends to forty stadia; its breadth in some places is a plethrum, in others somewhat more. Through the middle runs the river Peneus, into which other rivers flow, and by communicating their water make Peneus great. It affords various places of delight of all kinds, not wrought by the hand of man, but spontaneous works of nature, which contributed much to the beauty and glory of the place from its first beginning. For ivy full of down abounds and flourisheth there, which like generous vines creepeth up the high trees and groweth with them. There is also plenty of smallage, which climbing up the hill shadoweth the rock, so that it lies hid under it, nothing being seen but the green herb, which yields a pleasant entertainment to the eye. In this plain there are divers groves and large cupbords, which in the summer afford grateful shelter to travellers and refreshment. It is full of little brooks and springs of water, cool and pleasant to the tast. These waters, they say, benefit such as wash in them, and conduce much to health. Birds are dispersed about every-where, especially the musical, which yield extraordinary pleasure to the ear, and by continual warbling invite and delight the very passenger. On each side of the river are those pleasantnesses which I mentioned before, and places fit for repose and diversion. Through the middle of the Tempe runneth the river Peneus gently and smoothly like oil. This is much shaded by the thick branches of the adjoining trees, which for the greatest part of the day keep off the sun's beams, and afford to those that sail a cool passage. All the neighbouring people meet with one another there, and offer sacrifice, converse, and feast. Whence there being many that sacrifice and perform divine rites continually, it happeneth that such as travel thither either on foot or by water perceive very sweet odours. This unintermitted worship of the gods makes the place sacred. Here the Thessalians say that Apollo Pythius, having slain Pytho with his arrows at that time possessed of Delphi when the goddess Earth held the oracles, was by Zeus's command purified; and that then the son of Zeus and Latona crowned with this Tempian laurel, and bearing a branch thereof in his hand, came to Delphi and took possession of the oracle. There is also an altar in that place where he was crowned, and took away the branch. Whereupon even to this time the Delphians every ninth year send youths of noble birth with an Architheorus, who is one of their own. These coming to Tempe sacrifice magnificently, and having made garlands of that laurel which the god then so loved as to crown himself with it, depart. They pass that way which is called Pythias, and goeth through Thessaly, Pelagonia, Oeta, and the countries of the Aenians, Melians, Dorians, and Hesperian Locrians. They carry these youths thither with no less respect and reverence, then those who with sacred presents from the Hyperboreans pay homage to the same God. Likewise at the Pythian Games the victors are presented with a crown of the same laurel. Thus much concerning the Thessalian Tempe.

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§ 3.2  When one coming to Anaxagoras the Clazomenian (as he was discoursing with his friends) told him that his two only sons were dead; He nothing troubled or disordered at the news, answered, "I knew that they were born mortal."

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§ 3.3  A messenger from Mantinea told Xenophon (as he was sacrificing) that his son Grillus was slain. He taking only his garland off, continued to sacrifice. But when the messenger added that he died victoriously, he took again the garland to put it on his head. This is generally known.

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§ 3.4  As Dio son of Hipparinus, a disciple of Plato, was treating about public affairs, his son was killed with a fall from the house top into the court. Dio was nothing troubled at it, but proceeded in what he was about before.

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§ 3.5  They say that Antigonus the second, when his son was brought home slain in battel, did behold him without changing colour, or shedding a tear: but having commended him for dying as a stout soldier, gave order that he should be buried.

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§ 3.6  Crates the Theban is known to have been a magnanimous person, as well by other things, as by his despising what the vulgar admire, as also his wealth and country. That he gave the Thebans his estate is generally known. But this other action perhaps is less notorious. He quitted Thebes newly restored, saying, "I have no need of a city which Alexander or some other may subvert."

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§ 3.7  Demochares nephew to Demosthenes, to shew that he nothing valued the dispraises of the vulgar, seeing certain detractors together sitting in a physician's shop, and wholly bent upon calumniating others, "What do you say (said he) you Dysmenidae?" discovering their disposition by that compellation.

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§ 3.8  The Athenians made Phrynichus General, not out of favour, nor for nobleness of birth, or for being rich; for which men are commonly esteemed at Athens, and preferred above others: But he having in a certain tragedy composed verses suitable to armed dancers, did win so much upon the theatre, and please the spectators, that they immediately chose him general; believing that he would behave himself excellently and advantageously in martial affairs, who had in a play composed verses and songs so proper for armed men.

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§ 3.9  Who is able to fight with a lover, that is not a lover himself, when the business is to be decided by the sword? For he who loves not, always shunneth and declineth a lover, as being himself prophane and uninitiated with the god: he dares as much as the courage of his soul and strength of his body will bear; yet fears the other as one transported with divine fury; animated not by Mars only, which is common to both, but likewise by Love. For they who are excited with other of the gods, whereof one (as Homer saith) raged equal with Mars; they, I say, which are possessed only with one, fight with as much courage as one God inspireth: But the servants of Love being inflamed with Mars and Love, serving both deities, have according to the opinion of the Cretans a double share of courage. But none therefore find fault if a soldier who fights only by instigation of one God, refuse to encounter with him who is assisted both by Mars and Love.

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§ 3.10  Of the Lacedemonian ephori I could relate many excellent things said and done; at present I shall only tell you you this: If amongst them any man preferred in friendship a rich man before another that was poor and virtuous, they fined him, punishing his avarice with loss of money. If any other that were a virtuous person profest particular friendship to none, they fined him also, beause being virtuous he would not make choice of a friend; whereas he might render him he loved like himself, and perhaps divers; for affection of friends conduceth much to the advancement of virtue in those whom they love, if they be temperate and virtuous. There was also this law among the Lacedemonians; If any young man transgressed, they pardoned him, imputing it to want of years and experience; yet punished his friend, as conscious and overseer of his actions.

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§ 3.11  The Peripatetics assert that the Soul in the day-time is inslaved and involved in the body, so that she cannot behold Truth; but in the night, being freed from this servitude, and gathered together, as it were, in a round about the parts that are in the breast, she is more prophetick, whence proceed Dreams.

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§ 3.12  Friendship among the Spartans was truly innocent: if any thing unlawful happened, both persons must either forsake their country or their lives.

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§ 3.13  The nation of the Tapyrians is so addicted to wine, that they live in wine, and bestow the greatest part of their life and conversation upon it. Neither do they abuse it by drinking only, but by anointing themselves therewith, as others do with oil.

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§ 3.14  The Byzantines (as is reported) live in taverns, quitting their own houses, and letting them to strangers. Nor leave they their houses only to them, but their wives also. Thus they by one act are guilty of two crimes, drunkenness and prostitution. Moreover, flowing in wine and drunkenness, they delight to hear the pipe, and make piping their chiefest business. But they cannot endure to hear the least sound of a trumpet; whence it is manifest that the Byzantines are wholly averse from Arms and war. Wherefore Leonides their general, in a strict siege, seeing that when the enemy was assaulting the walls they left the works, and went to their usual entertainments, commanded that taverns should be set up for them upon the walls. This Damon relates of them, which Menander seems to confirm, saying Byzantium makes the merchants drunkards; they drank all night long.

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§ 3.15  The Argives also and Corinthians have been reproched in Comedies for being intemperately addicted to wine. Of the Thracians it is at this time reported for certain, that they are great drinkers. Neither are the Illyrians at present free from this vice. To which they add another dishonesty, inasmuch as at a Feast they permit the Guests to drink to their wives, every one as he pleaseth, though nothing related to them.

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§ 3.16  Which of these two was the better general, Demetrius Poliorcetes, or Timotheus the Athenian? I will tell you the nature of both, and then you may judge which deserves to be preferred. Demetrius by force and avarice, and oppressing many, and committing injustice, took cities, battering their walls with engines, and undermining them: but Timotheus by discourse, persuading them it was most to their advantage to obey the Athenians.

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§ 3.17  Some philosophers have governed states, though studying only the good of their own minds they lived privately. Of those who managed public affairs were Zaleucus, who reformed the state of the Locrians, Charandas that of Catana, and of Rhegium when he was banished from Catana. Archytas much benefited the Tarentines, Solon the Athenians; Bias and Thales greatly profited Ionia, Chilon the Lacedemonians, Pittacus the Mitylenaeans, Cleobulus the Rhodians, and Anaximander brought a colony from Miletus to Apollonia. Xenophon also was an excellent soldier, and proved the best general when he went up along with Cyrus, at what time Cyrus and many others with him was slain. Necessity then requiring a person that might bring the Greeks off and conduct them safe home, he was the man. Plato son of Aristo brought Dio back to Sicily, whom he counselled and taught how to subvert the tyranny of Dionysius. But Socrates would not meddle with the Athenian state, because the Democracy of the Athenians did at that time more resemble a tyrannical and monarchic Government. Neither would he join in sentencing the ten commanders to death, nor partake of the injustices committed by the thirty tyrants. But when occasion called him forth, he was a soldier. He fought at Delium, and at Amphipolis and Potidea. Aristotle, when his country was not declining, but quite dejected, raised her up again. Demetrius Phalereus governed the Athenian commonwealth with much honour, until envy, customary with the Athenians, threw him out. In Egypt also, living with Ptolemy, he was chief in making laws. And who will deny that Pericles son of Xanthippus was a philosopher? Or Epaminondas son of Polymnis, and Phocion son of Phocus, and Aristides son of Lysimachus, and Ephialtes son of Sophonidas; and long after these Carneades and Critolaus? For they were sent by the Athenians Ambassadors to Rome, and procured a Peace; so much did they prevail with the Senate, that they said, "The Athenians have sent Ambassadors, that not persuade, but compel us to do what they please." I must instance also the skill of Perseus in politics, for he taught Antigonus: and of Aristotle, who instructed Alexander son of Philip from his youth in philosophy: And Lysis disciple of Pythagoras taught Epaminondas. Therefore if any shall say philosophers are unpractical, he speaks inconsiderately and ignorantly, though, for my own part, I should much more willingly embrace the contemplative life.

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§ 3.18  Theopompus relates a discourse between Midas the Phrygian and Silenus. This Silenus was son of a Nymph, inferior by nature to the Gods only, superior to men and Death. Amongst other things, Silenus told Midas that Europe, Asia and Africa were Islands surrounded by the Ocean: That there was but one Continent only, which was beyond this world, and that as to magnitude it was infinite: That in it were bred, besides other very great creatures, men twice as big as those here, and they lived double our age: That many great cities are there, and peculiar manners of life; and that they have laws wholly different from those amongst us: That there are two cities far greater then the rest, nothing to like each other; one named Machimus, warlike, the other Eusebes, Pious: That the Pious people live in peace, abounding in wealth, and reap the fruits of the Earth without ploughs or oxen, having no need of tillage or sowing. They live, as he said, free from sickness, and die laughing, and with great pleasure: They are so exactly just, that the Gods many times vouchsafe to converse with them. The inhabitants of the city Machimus are very warlike, continually armed and fighting: They subdue their neighbours, and this one city predominates over many. The inhabitants are not fewer then two hundred myriads: they die sometimes of sickness, but this happens very rarely, for most commonly they are killed in the wars by stones or wood, for they are invulnerable by steel. They have vast plenty of gold and silver, insomuch that gold is of less value with them then iron with us. He said that they once designed a voyage to these our Islands, and sailed upon the Ocean, being in number a thousand myriads of men, till they came to the Hyperboreans; but understanding that they were the happiest men amongst us, they contemned us as persons that led a mean inglorious life, and therefore thought it not worth their going farther. He added what is yet more wonderful, that there are men living amongst them called Meropes, who inhabit many great cities; and that at the farthest end of their country there is a place named Anostus, (from whence there is no return) which resembles a Gulf; it is neither very light nor very dark, the air being dusky intermingled with a kind of red: That there are two rivers in this place, one of pleasure, the other of grief; and that along each river grow trees of the bigness of a plane-tree. Those which grow up by the river of grief bear fruit of this nature; If any one eat of them, he shall spend all the rest of his life in tears and grief, and so die. The other trees which grow by the river of pleasure produce fruit of a contrary nature, for who tasts thereof shall be eased from all his former desires: If he loved any thing, he shall quite forget it; and in a short time shall become younger, and live over again his former years: he shall cast off old age, and return to the prime of his strength, becoming first a young man, then a child, lastly, an infant, and so die. This, if any man think the Chian worthy credit, he may believe. To me he appears an egregious Romancer as well in this as other things.

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§ 3.19  The first dissension betwixt Aristotle and Plato is said to be thus occasioned: Plato did not approve of his life and habit, for Aristotle wore rich garments and shoes, and cut his hair after a manner not used by Plato: He also wore many rings for ornaments; he had a deriding kind of look, and was peremptory in discourse: all which mis-became a philosopher. Plato seeing this rejected him, and preferred before him Xenocrates, Speusippus, Amyclas, and others; to whom he shewed respect, and admitted them to his conversation. On a time, Xenocrates being gone into his country, Aristotle came to Plato, accompanied with a great many of his disciples, of whom was Mnason the Phocian, and the like: Speusippus was then sick and unable to be with Plato: Plato was fourscore years old, and through his age his memory much impaired. Aristotle assaulting and circumventing him by propounding arrogantly some questions, and arguing with him, discovered himself injurious and ungrateful. Hereupon Plato retiring from his outward walk, walked privately with his friends. After three months Xenocrates returned from his journey, and found Aristotle walking where he had left Plato, and seeing that he and his disciples went not from the walk to Plato, but directly to the city, he asked one of the walk where Plato was, doubting that he was sick. He answered, He is not sick, but Aristotle troubling him hath made him quit the walk, and now he teacheth philosophy privately in his own garden. Xenocrates hearing this went presently to Plato, whom he found discoursing with such as were present, who were young men of eminent quality, and some of the noblest. When he had ended his discourse, he saluted Xenocrates kindly, according to his usual manner, and Xenocrates did the like to him. When the company was dismist, Xenocrates, without speaking a word to Plato, or acquainting him with it, got his friends together, and sharply reproved Speusippus for having yielded the walk to Aristotle. Then to his utmost he opposed the Stagirite, and so far proceeded the contention, that at last Aristotle was thrown out, and Plato restored to his former place.

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§ 3.20  To Lysander the Spartan going to Ionia, some of his acquaintance there sent, amongst many other presents, an ox and a cake. He looking upon the cake, asked what dainty it was. To which he that brought it answered, "It was made of honey, cheese, and some other things." "Give this then, said Lysander, to the Helots, for it is not meat for a free person." But the ox he commanded to be sacrificed, killed, and drest according to the fashion of his country, and did eat of it with delight.

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§ 3.21  On a time Themistocles, yet a boy, returning from school, his master bade him, meeting Pisistratus the tyrant, to go a little out of the way. Whereto he generously answered, "Is not here way way enough for him?" So much did something ingenious and generous appear in Themistocles at those years.

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§ 3.22  When Troy was taken, the Grecians (as it becomes Greeks) commiserating the condition of the captives, made proclamation by a herald, that every free citizen might carry away with him any one thing he pleased. Hereupon Aeneas, neglecting all other things, carried out his houshold Gods. The Grecians pleased with the piety of the man, gave him leave to take something else. He then took up his father of a very great age upon his shoulders, and bore him away. They not a little astonished hereat, gave him back all that was his; confessing that to such men as were pious towards the gods, and honoured their parents, even those who were by nature their enemies became merciful.

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§ 3.23  Great were the actions of Alexander at Granicus and Issus, and the fight at Arbela, and Darius subdued, and the Persians subjected to the Macedonians; all Asia conquered, and the Indies reduced under his power. Great were those things which he did at Tyre, and among the oxydracae, and many others. Why should we endeavour to comprehend within the narrow expression of words the unlimited courage of this person in war? Or if any detractor will rather impute these things to the Fortune which attended on him, so let it be. But he was doubtless excellent in that he was never worsted by Fortune, nor at any time deserted by her. Other things there are not commendable in him. That on the fifth day of the month he drank excessively at Eumaeus his house, on the sixth day he slept after his debauch, and recovered so well as to rise and give orders to his captains for the expedition of the next day, saying that they should set forth very early. On the seventh he feasted with Perdiccas, and again drank freely. On the eighth he slept. On the fifteenth day of the same month he made another debauch, and the next day slept. On the four and twentieth he supped with Bagoas. (The house of Bagoas was from the palace ten stadia.) The day following he slept. One of these two therefore must needs have been; Either that Alexander did prejudice himself exceedingly by imploying so many days of the month in drinking, or that they who write these things have belied him. We may likewise imagine that they who relate other things of the same kind concerning him, wrong him also, of whom is Eumenes the Cardian.

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§ 3.24  Xenophon amongst other things took great delight to have rich arms. For he said that if he should overcome the enemy, the best ornaments would suit with him: If he died in fight, he should be laid out decently in a rich suit of arms: this being the proper winding-sheet for a man of courage, and which best adorns him. They say therefore of this son of Gryllus, that his shield was Argolic, his breast-plate Attic, his helmet wrought in Boeotia, his horse Epidaurian. I must needs say he was a person delighted in bravery, and merited it.

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§ 3.25  Leonides the Lacedemonian, and three hundred more with him, voluntarily underwent the death at Pylae which was prophesied of them: and fighting stoutly and gallantly for Greece, obtained a glorious end, leaving a deathless renown and eternal fame behind them.

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§ 3.26  Pindarus, son of Melas, grandson of Alyattes the Lydian by his daughter, being tyrant of the Ephesians, was severe in punishments and inexorable, but otherwise courteous and wise. He took great care that his country might not be brought into servitude by the barbarians, of which this is a testimony. When Croesus his Uncle by the mother's side invaded Ionia, he sent an ambassador to Pindarus, requiring the Ephesians to be subjected to him: to which Pindarus not yielding, Croesus besieged the city. But one of the towers being undermined (which was afterwards called the Traitor) and destruction appearing before their eyes, Pindarus advised the Ephesians to fasten ropes from the gates and walls to the pillars of the temple of Artemis, by that means making the whole city an offering to her, thereby to preserve it secure. Farther he advised them to go forth and make suit to the Lydian. Upon the Ephesians declaring the case and their suit, it is said that Croesus laughed, and was pleased with the stratagem, granting the Ephesians liberty, on condition that Pindarus should be banished the city: which he opposed not, but taking along such friends as would go with him, left his son and the greatest part of his estate in the city, committing them both to the care of Pasicles one of his friends. He departed to Peloponnesus, preferring banishment before regal power, that his country might not be subjected to the Lydians.

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§ 3.27  This also I have heard, but whether it be true or not I know not: They say that Plato son of Aristo was driven by poverty to betake himself to the wars; but intercepted by Socrates, while he was buying his arms, and instructed in that which concerns mankind, he through his persuasion addicted himself to philosophy.

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§ 3.28  Socrates perceiving Alcibiades to be exceeding proud of his riches and lands, he shewed him a map of the world, and bid him find Attica therein; which done, he desired that he would shew him his own lands. He answered, "They were not there." "Do you boast, replies Socrates, of that which you see is no (considerable) part of the Earth?"

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§ 3.29  Diogenes the Sinopean used to say of himself, that he fulfilled and suffered the imprecations mentioned in the Tragedy, being a vagabond, destitute of a house, deprived of his country, a beggar, ill clothed, having his livelihood only from day to day: And yet he was more pleased with this condition, then Alexander with the command of the whole world, when having conquered the Indians he returned to Babylon.

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§ 3.30  Amoebas the lutenist was extremely continent, insomuch that having a very beautiful wife, he never lay with her. So likewise Diogenes the tragedian player. Clitomachus, one that had been victour in all exercises, was extraordinary modest. At feasts, if there were any loose discourse, immediately he arose and departed.

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§ 3.31  Nicias the picture-drawer was so intent upon painting, that he many times forgot to eat, his thoughts being wholly taken up with his employment.

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§ 3.32  Alexander son of Philip, whilest yet a boy, not of mans estate, learnt to play on the lute. His master bidding him strike such a string as suited with the tune, and the air required; "And what imports it, said he, if I strike this?" pointing to another. He answered, "It imports nothing to him that shall be a King, but to him that would be a lutenist it doth." Doubtless he feared, that if behaved himself not discreetly he might suffer as Linus; for Linus taught Hercules (yet a boy) to play on the lute, who touching the instrument unmusically, Linus rebuked him; whereat Hercules struck Linus with the lute and killed him.

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§ 3.33  Satyrus a player on the flute heard many times Aristo the philosopher, and being much taken with his discourse, said,
Into the fire my glittering bow
Why do I not as useless throw?
So mean did he esteem his own Art in comparison of philosophy.

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§ 3.34  The Lacedemonians and Romans had a law, That no man might eat of whatsoever things, or as much as he pleased. They reduced the citizens to temperance, besides other ways, principally by diet.

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§ 3.35  There is a general report amongst the Athenians, which saith, that it was not permitted to laugh in the Academy: for they endeavoured to preserve that place free from contumely and levity.

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§ 3.36  When Aristotle left Athens, fearing to be attainted, to one that asked him What kind of city is Athens? he answered, "Very beautiful; but in it pears upon pears and figs on figs do grow: meaning sycophants. And to one who asked him why he left Athens, he answered, "Because he would not the Athenians should sin twice against philosophy"; reflecting on the death of Socrates, and his own danger.

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§ 3.37  It is a custom of the Ceans, That all such amongst them as are very old, as if they invited one another to a feast or some solemn sacrifice, should meet together, and being crowned drink hemlock; because they are no longer fit to do their country service, their minds now doting by reason of age.

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§ 3.38  They say that at Athens were first found out the olive and fig-trees; which the Earth also first brought forth. Also that the Athenians invented judiciary pleas, and first instituted corporal exercises, and uncloathed and anointed themselves. And Erichthonius first harnessed horses together.

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§ 3.39  The Arcadians fed on acorns, the Argives on pears, the Athenians on figs, the Tyrinthians on wild figs, the Indians on canes, the Carmans on dates, the Maeotians and Sauromatians on millet, the Persians on turpentine and cardamum.

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§ 3.40  The Satyrs companions of Dionysus in dancing are by some named Tityri; which name they had from Teretisms (wanton Dances) in which Satyrs delight: Satyrs, from the wideness of their mouths; Silenes, from Sillos, which is a scoff with an unpleasing jest. The Silenes were cloathed in coats with sleeves, hairy on both sides; which robe signified the planting of vines by Dionysus, and the downy thickness of the leaves.

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§ 3.41  The Ancients called to bring forth fruit plentifully Phluin, whence they named Dionysus Phleon, as also Protryges, and Staphylites, and Omphacites, with divers other names.

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§ 3.42  Elege and Celane were daughters of Proetus. The Queen of Cyprus worked them to prostitute themselves, insomuch as in some parts of Peloponnesus they ran up and down, as it is said, naked and raging. They roved also mad into other parts of Greece, transported with this distemper. It is likewise reported that the wives of the Lacedemonians were transported with Bacchanalian fury; as also those of the Chians: And that those of the Boeotians were transported with divine frenzies, the very Tragedy manifests. They say that only the Minyades, Leucippe, Aristippe, and Alcithoe declined the Dance of Dionysus: the cause whereof was, that they desired to have husbands, and therefore would not be Maenades to the God; whereat he was incensed. And when they were working at their looms, and very busie in weaving, on a sudden branches of ivy and of vines twined about their looms, and dragons made nests in their baskets, and from the roof distilled drops of milk and wine. But when by all this they could not be persuaded to serve the Deity, then fury possessed them, and they committed a foul crime out of Cithaeron, no less then that in Cithaeron: for the Minyades, seised with frenzy, tore in pieces a young infant of Leucippe's, thinking it a kid; then went to the rest of the Minyades, who persecuted them for this mischief, when they were turned into birds. One was changed into a crow, the other into a bat, and the third into an owl.

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§ 3.43  At Sybaris a lutenist singing at a festival which they celebrated in honour of Juno, and the Sybarites falling together by the ears about him, and taking up weapons to assault one another, the lutenist afraid fled with his long robe to the Altar of Juno: But they spared him not even there. A little while after blood was seen to spout up in the temple of Juno, as if it had been from a spring. The Sybarites sent to Delphi; Pythia said,
Go from my Tripods, for thy hands profane
Distilling blood my sacred pavements stain:
From me expect no answer, who didst slay
The Muses son; Thou for his death must pay.
None that transgresseth, vengeance can decline,
Not though descended from Jove's mighty line.
He and his children, and their children must
Expect due vengeance for that act unjust.

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§ 3.44  Three young men of the same city being sent to Delphi to consult the oracle, fell among thieves: One of them ran away and escaped; the second having killed all the thieves but one, missed the last, and ran his sword through his companion. To him that ran away Pythia gave this oracle:
Thou sufferedst they companion to be slain:
I will not answer thee, go from my Fane.
To the other demanding an answer Pythia gave this:
Thou slew'st thy friend by chance in his defence:
Clearer then ever is thy innocence.

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§ 3.45  They say that Philip received an oracle in Boeotia at the Trophonian cave, That he should take heed of a chariot. Fearing therefore because of the oracle, it is reported he would never go in a chariot. The success is related two ways. Some say that the sword of Pausanias wherewith he killed Philip had a chariot carved in ivory upon the hilt: Others, that he was slain as he went round the Thebaean lake named Harma (chariot). The first report is more generally received, the other is less frequent.

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§ 3.46  This was a law of the Stagirites, truly becoming the Greeks; What you laid not down, take not away.

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§ 3.47  The Athenians first magnified Timotheus; but afterwards when he was thought to have offended, neither did his own merits avail him in the least, nor those of his ancestors. Themistocles was nothing benefited either by the sea-fight at Salamis, or his embassy to Sparta: I mean that embassy by which he gave the Athenians means to build up their walls again. For he was banished not only from Athens, but quite out of Greece. Pausanias the Lacedemonian was nothing helped by his victory at Plataea; for when affairs were new-modelled at Byzantium, and they were sick of the Persian disease, he lost that favour which he formerly had. Phocion was not saved by the general title of Phocion the Good, nor by his age of seventy five years, in which time he never injured any Athenian in the least; for the Athenians imagining that he would have betrayed the Piraeus to Antipater, condemned him to death.

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§ 4.1  A CERTAIN LAW of the Lucanians saith, That if after sun-set a stranger come and request to lodge under the roof of any one, if he entertain not the man, let him be punished, and pay the penalties of inhospitality. As I conceive both to the person that came to him, and to hospitable Zeus.
I am informed that the Dardanians in Illyria wash but thrice in their whole life; at birth, at marriage, and at death.
The Indians do not let out money to use, neither do they receive any: Neither is it lawful for an Indian to give or take wrong. Hence they neither make bonds, or give pawns.
It is a Sardinian law, That when parents grow very old, their sons should by beating them with clubs kill them, and then bury them; they conceiving it unfit that a man at an extraordinary age should live any longer, he frequently failing by reason of his body's being opprest with old age. There was also this law amongst them, They punished idleness; and he who lived slothfully was to be arraigned, and to give an account of his manner of life, and to shew where were his means of subsistence.
The Assyrians gathered together in a certain city such virgins as were fit for marriage, proclaiming a fair of them; and whoever buys one carries her away as his Bride.
The Byblians, if they light upon any thing by chance in the way, take not up what they laid not down; for such a thing is not esteemed the right of the finder, but a theft.
The Derbiccans put all persons to death that are above threescore and ten years old; the men by sword, the women by halter.
The Colchians entomb their dead in skins, in which they sow them, and hang them up on trees.
It was a custom of the Lydians to prostitute their women before marriage: but being once married they must live continently; and she who transgressed was not capable of pardon.

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§ 4.2  It is reported that Nicostratus a fidler, arguing with Laodocus a lutenist about music, said, That he in a great art was little, but that himself in a little art was great. It is therefore a commendable thing not only to improve a family and estate, but an art also, if we believe Nicostratus, who in this said excellently.

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§ 4.3  Polygnotus a Thasian and Dionysius a Colophonian were two painters. Polygnotus wrought to the full bigness, and most commonly descriptions of games: Dionysius copied the same things in little, alike exactly in every thing but their bigness; as the spirit, air, posture, habit, and the like.

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§ 4.4  I am told there is a law at Thebes, which commands artificers, both painters and potters, to make the figures as good as may be. This law menaceth to those who mould or paint them not well a pecuniary mulct.

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§ 4.5  Persons that were mindful of benefits received, and gratefully requited them. Theseus to Hercules: for Aidoneus King of the Molossians having cast Theseus into bonds because he came along with Pirithous, to steal away his wife, (not intending to marry her himself, but doing this only for the sake of Pirithous) Hercules coming to the Molossians set Theseus at liberty, for which Theseus erected an altar to him. And those seven captains that besieged Thebes were grateful to Pronax, for Pronax being killed in their cause, they instituted games in memory of him; which most think were celebrated for the captain Archemorus.
And Hercules was grateful to Nestor: for when Neleus would not entertain him, and the rest of his sons were of Neleus his mind, Nestor only dissented; for which reason Hercules, having taken the city, put Neleus and the rest of his sons to death, but not only spared Nestor, but bestowed on him the kingdom of his ancestours. And the Athenians expressed a public gratitude to the children of Hercules; for because their progenitour had deserved well of Theseus, the Athenians did therefore conduct them to Peloponnesus. And Hercules was grateful to the three hundred and three-score Cleonians: For they having aided him against the Molionidae, and dying generously and honourably, he transferred to them the honours which the Nemeans bestowed on him for subduing the Lion which over-ran and wasted their country.
And Menestheus son of Peteus was not ungrateful to the Tyndaridae: for they having cast out the sons of Theseus, and taken Aethra the mother of Theseus prisoner, they bestowed the kingdom upon Menestheus; for which reason Menestheus named them Kings and Preservers.
And Darius son of Hystaspes having (whilest he was yet a private person) received in gift a garment from Syloson, when he was possessed of the Empire, bestowed on him the government of his own country Samos, gold, as we may say, for dross.

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§ 4.6  When the Lacedemonians would have utterly destroyed the city of the Athenians, consulting the oracle, they brought answer in this manner; "Do not remove the common altar of Greece."

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§ 4.7  Not death it self benefits wicked persons, since even then they cannot rest: But either they are wholly destitute of sepulchres; or, if buried, yet fail of the latest honor, and common port of all bodies. So when Pausanias took part with the Medes, the Lacedemonians not only famished him, but threw his carcase out beyond their borders, as Epitimedes reports.

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§ 4.8  Who knows not the sudden and swift changes of Fortune? The Lacedemonians, when they were masters of the Thebans, were again so subdued by them, that the Thebans came not only into Peloponnesus, but passed Eurotas, and wasted the country of the Lacedemonians, and had taken the city, if Epaminondas has not feared that all the Peloponnesians should conspire and fight for Sparta.
Dionysius the tyrant being besieged by the Carthaginians, having no hope of relief, did quite despair, and intended to run away; but one of his friends, named Ellopides, coming to him, said, "O Dionysius, the title of King is an excellent funeral ornament." Hereat ashamed, he took heart, and with a few overcame many myriads, and enlarged his empire.
Amyntas the Macedonian being worsted by his neighbouring barbarians, and losing his kingdom, took his resolution to quit the country wholly, thinking he did enough if he saved himself. Whilest he was in these thoughts, one told him of the saying of Ellopides: whereupon seizing a little place, and gathering many soldiers together, he recovered the kingdom.
The Egyptians in their own language called Ochus an ass, reproching his sloth by the dullness of that beast. For which he seizing Apis sacrificed him to an ass.
Dio son of Hipparinus being banished by Dionysius, with three thousand soldiers conquered him, and reduced him to his own estate, a banished person.
The Syracusans with nine gallies assaulting an hundred and twenty of the Carthaginians, overcame them.

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§ 4.9  Plato, son of Aristo, at the Olympic games fell into company with some strangers who knew him not, upon whose affections he gained much by his affable conversation; dining and spending the whole day with them, not mentioning either the Academy or Socrates, only saying his name was Plato. When they came to Athens, he entertained them courteously. "Come, Plato, said the strangers, shew us your name-sake, Socrates his disciple, bring us to the Academy, recommend us to him, that we may know him." He smiling a little, as he used, said, "I am the man": whereat they were much amazed, having conversed so familiarly with a person of that note, and not knowing him, who used no boasting or ostentation. Whence it appears, that besides his philosophical discourse, his ordinary conversation was extremely winning.
Plato called Aristotle a colt: What is meant by that name is manifest: a colt as soon as it is satisfied with the milk of the dam kicks at her. Plato therefore hereby signified some ingratitude of Aristotle; for he having received the greatest seeds of philosophy from him, and introduction thereto, as soon as he was replenished and satisfied with the best things thereof, revolted from him, and, getting his friends together, set up against him Peripateticism, professing himself Plato's adversary.

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§ 4.10  Did not Pericles, son of Xanthippus, bear a great respect to the Athenian people? to me it appears so; for as often as he was to speak in public, he wished that no word might fall from him which might exasperate the people, as being contrary to them or their opinion.

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§ 4.11  Diogenes said that Socrates himself was luxurious: for he was too curious in his little house, and in his little bed, and in the sandals which he used to wear.

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§ 4.12  Zeuxis the Heracleote having drawn Helena, got much money for the picture; for he admitted not every one that came accidentally, or out of a desire to see it, but made them first pay money before they saw it. Hereupon the Heracleote gaining much money by the picture, the Grecians of that time called this Helena a courtesan.

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§ 4.13  Epicurus the Gargettian said, that to whom a little is not sufficient, nothing is sufficient. The same said, that he was ready to contend with Zeus in felicity when he had bread and water. This being the opinion of Epicurus, what he meant when he praised pleasure we shall know elsewhere.

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§ 4.14  Many times riches gathered together penny by penny, with much labour, as Archilochus saith, are poured into the lap of a courtesan. For money is as the sea hedgehog, easier to be taken then kept. Anaxagoras also in his Book of Kingly government saith, It is hard to get money, but much harder to keep it.

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§ 4.15  Hiero tyrant of Sicily is said to have been first a private person, and of all men the most averse from learning music, and nothing inferiour to his brother Gelo in rusticity. But falling sick he became extraordinary learned, imploying the leisure of his infirmity in hearing learned Discourses. Hiero therefore recovering heard Simonides the Cean, Pindarus the Theban, and Bacchylides of Ioulis; but Gelo was illiterate to the last.
They say also that Ptolemy the second falling sick became very learned. And Plato affirms that Theages studied philosophy upon no other occasion then the leisure of sickness, which hindering him from civic affairs forced him to the love of learning. What man of understanding wisheth not that sickness had befallen Alcibiades, Critias, Pausanias the Lacedemonian, and others? To Alcibiades and Critias, that they might not have revolted from Socrates. One becoming insolent, and sometimes taking part with the Boeotians, sometimes with the Thessalians, the Medes and Persians, adhering to Pharnabazus. But Critias became most tyrannical and bloody, and much opprest his country, and led a hated life.
And Straton son of Corrhagus seems to have fallen sick advantageously. For being of an old family and rich, he used no exercise; but falling ill of the spleen, and exercise being requisite for his cure, he addicted himself to it, and making progress therein, he in one day at the Olympic games was victor in wrestling and the pancratium, as also in the following Olympic and Nemean and Isthmian and Pythian games.
Likewise Democrates the wrestler, having a pain in his feet, went to the games, and standing in the stadium made a circle about himself, and challenged his antagonists to force him beyond the line; which they not able to do, were worsted: And he, for continuing firmly in his station, went away crowned.

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§ 4.16  If any man imitate Callias, he will make him a great drinker; if Ismenias, a player on the flute; a Boaster, if Alcibiades; a maker of Broths, if Crobylus; an excellent orator, if Demosthenes; warlike, if Epaminondas; Magnanimous, if Agesilaus; Good, if Phocion; just, if Aristides; and wise, if Socrates.

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§ 4.17  Pythagoras taught men that he was begotten of a better kind then mortal nature. For on the same day, and at the same hour, he was seen at Metapontium and in Crotona. Likewise at Olympia he shewed one of his thighs which was of gold; and did make Myllias the Crotonian call to mind that he had been Midas son of Cordius a Phrygian. He also stroked a white Eagle which came to him of her own accord, and as he passed over the river Cosa, the river saluted him, saying "Hail Pythagoras."
He affirmed the leaf of mallows to be most sacred. He said that Arithmetic is the wisest of all things: Next, he who imposed names on things. And that earthquakes were nothing else but conventions of the dead: And that the rainbow is the beams of the Sun: And that the sound which frequently strikes the ear is the voice of Daemons. It was not lawful to doubt of any thing he said or question about it, but to acquiesce in what he said as in a divine oracle. And when he came to cities, a report was spread that he came not to teach, but to heal.
The same Pythagoras commanded to abstain from the heart, and from a white cock, and from all things that died of themselves, and not to use baths, nor to go in the common road; it being doubtful whether these things were pure.

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§ 4.18  When Plato, invited by the frequent letters of Dionysius, came to Sicily, the young Dionysius placed him in a chariot, whilest he himself played the coachman: whereupon a facetious Syracusan well versed in Homer, pleased with the sight, spake these verses out of the Iliad, with a little alteration:
The chariot groaned beneath the weight,
Proud that the best of men there sat.
Whereas Dionysius was jealous of all others, he had so great respect for Plato, that he suffered him only to come to him unsearched (though he knew him to be Dio's intimate friend).

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§ 4.19  Philip the Macedonian is not only said to have been a good soldier, and an excellent orator; but he likewise honoured learning exceedingly. Wherefore supplying Aristotle with much money, he was the cause of his great and various Experience, and of his knowledge in living creatures. Whose History the son of Nicomachus acquired through the wealth of Philip. He honoured Plato also and Theophrastus.

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§ 4.20  It is reported that Democritus the Abderite was wise, besides other things, in desiring to live unknown, and that he wholly endeavoured it. In pursuit whereof he travelled to many Countries; he went to the Chaldaeans, and to Babylon, and to the Magi, and to the Indian Sophists. When the estate of his father Damasippus was to be divided into three parts amongst the three Brothers, he took only so much as might serve for his travel, and left the rest to his Brethren. For this Theophrastus commends him, that by travelling he had gained better things then Menelaus and Ulysses. For they wandred up and down not otherwise then Phoenician merchants, for they gathered money, which was the occasion of their travel by sea and Land. The Abderites called Democritus, philosophy; but Protagoraas, Discourse.
Democritus laughed at all people, and said they were mad; when his countrymen called him Gelasinus. They likewise say, that Hippocrates at his first meeting with Democritus thought him mad: But after they had conversed together, admired the man. They say that Hippocrates, though he were Dorick, yet for the sake of Democritus he composed his writings in the Ionic Dialect.

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§ 4.21  Alcibiades was beloved of Socrates, Dio of Plato. But Dio received advantage by the love of his friend.

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§ 4.22  The ancient Athenians wore purple garments, and various coloured vests. They likewise tied their hair in knots, to which they put golden grass-hoppers, and other ornaments of gold. When they went abroad, their servants carried folding-stools, that when they pleased they might sit down. It is certain also, that their tables and diet were very luxurious; and yet whilest they did this, they were victors at Marathon.

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§ 4.23  Prodigality and voluptuous life reduced Pericles, and Callias son of Hipponicus, and Nicias of Pergase to indigence. When money failed them, these three drank hemlock, their last draught, to one another, and died as at a feast.

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§ 4.24  Leoprepes the Cean, father of Simonides, chanced on a time to sit in the wrestling-place: Two young men, intire Friends, came to him, and asked him how their friendship might best be preserved. He said, "If you yield to one anothers anger, and not by opposition provoke each other."

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§ 4.25  Thrasyllus the Aexonian fell into a strange and new kind of madness; he left the city and went to Piraeus (the port) and dwelling there, he fansied that all the ships which came in were his, and registered them, and so dismissed them. When any came safe into the haven, he rejoiced exceedingly. This infirmity held him many years. At length his brother, coming from Sicily, put him to a physician to be cured, and so his madness ceased. He many times mentioned his actions during his madness, and said that he never had so much joy, as when he was pleased with seeing ships come in safe which nothing belonged to him.

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§ 4.26  Xanthus a Lyric poet (he was ancienter then Stesichorus the Himeran) saith that Electra daughter of Agamemnon was not named so at first, but Laodice. Afterwards when Agamemnon was slain, and Aegisthus marrying Clytemnestra reigned, she lived unacquainted with the marriage-bed, and grew old a virgin: for which reason the Grecians called her Electra, as having never had a husband, and living unacquainted with the marriage-bed.

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§ 4.27  Pamphaes a Prienian gave to Croesus, whilest his father was yet living, thirty Minae, who coming to the crown sent him a great chariot filled with silver.
Diogenes receiving a little money of Diotimus the Carystian said,
The Gods immortal grant
To thee what thou dost want,
A man and house.
It seems that this Diotimus was effeminate.

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§ 4.28  Pherecydes the Syrian ended his life the most miserable of men: his whole body being consumed by vermine, and his countenance becoming loathsome, he declined the conversation of his acquaintance. And whensoever any one coming to visit him demanded how he did, putting out his finger though the hole in the door, the flesh whereof was quite eaten off, he said, that his whole body was such. The Delians affirm, that the God in Delos displeased with him wrought this: for as he sate in Delos with his disciples, he spoke many things concerning himself, amongst the rest this, That he had sacrificed to none of the Gods, and yet led a life no less pleasant and void of grief then they who offered Hecatombs. For this vain speech he suffered severe punishment.

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§ 4.29  XXIX.
That Alexander ridiculously believed there are infinite worlds.
I cannot forbear to laugh at Alexander the son of Philip, who seeing that Democritus in his writings asserted that there are infinite worlds, was troubled that he had not quite subdued one. How much Democritus himself would have laughed at him, what need I say? whose custom that was.

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§ 5.1  TACHOS THE AEGYPTIAN, whilest he used the diet of his country, and lived sparingly, was the most healthful of men; but when he went to the Persians, and fell into their luxury, not able to bear their unaccustomed diet, he ended his life by a Dysentery, and changed luxury for death.

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§ 5.2  Pherecydes, master of Pythagoras, falling sick, first had a very hot sweat, viscous-like phlegm, afterwards like that of beasts; then little vermin grew in him: and his flesh corrupting into them, he wasted away, and so ended his life.

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§ 5.3  Aristotle affirms that those Pillars which are now called of Hercules, were first called the Pillars of Briareus; but after that Hercules had cleared the sea and Land, and beyond all question shewed much kindness to men, they in honour of him, not esteeming the memory of Briareus, called them Heraclean.

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§ 5.4  It is reported that in Delos there groweth an olive and a palm, which Latona touching was immediately brought to bed; whereas until then she could not.

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§ 5.5  Epaminondas had but one vest, and that sordid, so that whenoever he sent it to the Fuller, he was forced to stay at home for want of another. Whilest he was thus indigent, the Persian King sending him a great summe of money, he would not accept it. And, if I mistake not, he that refused the gift was more Magnanimous then he that offered it.

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§ 5.6  Likewise the end of Calanus the Indian is worthy to be praised, another would say to be admired. It was on this manner; Calanus the Indian Sophist, having bid a long farewell to Alexander and the Macedonians, and to life, when he would free himself from the Fetters of the body, caused a Pyre to be made in the fairest Suburb of Babylon; the wood thereof was dry, and chosen for fragrancy, cedar, Thyum, Cypress, Myrtle and laurel. He having performed his accustomed exercise (which was to run a course) came and stood in the middle of the Pyre, crowned with reeds. The Sun shone upon him, and he worshipped him, which was the sign he had given the Macedonians, that they should kindle the Pyre, which they did; and continued standing upright in the flame, and fell not till he was quite consumed. Hereat Alexander (as is reported) much astonished, said, that Calanus had vanquished greater enemies then he. For he warred with Porus, and taxiles, and Darius; but Calanus with Pains and death.

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§ 5.7  The Scythians wander up and down their own country; but Anacharsis, being a wise man, extended his travels farther: for he came into Greece, and Solon admired him.

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§ 5.8  Scoffs and reproaches to me seem of no force: for if they meet with a solid mind, they are shattered in pieces; but if with a mean and low, they have power, and many times occasion not only grief, but death: whereof take this instance; Socrates being derided in a Comedy, laughed; but Poliagras hanged himself.

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§ 5.9  Aristotle having prodigally consumed his patrimony, went to the wars; which succeeding ill with him also, he then traded as an Apothecary. But coming by chance into the Peripatus, and hearing the discourses there, being of better natural parts then most of them, he acquired that habit which he afterwards put in execution.

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§ 5.10  The Athenians were diligent in taking care for their Navy. Sometimes having the better, and sometimes being worsted, they lost in Egypt two hundred galleys, with all that belonged to them; at Cyprus a hundred and fifty; in Sicily two hundred and forty; in the Hellespont two hundred. Of compleatly-armed soldiers there were slain in Sicily forty thousand, and at Chaeronea a thousand.

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§ 5.11  A King of Thrace, (his name let some other tell) when Xerxes warred against Greece, fled to the Mountain Rhodope, and advised his six sons not to fight against Greece. But they not obeying him, when he returned, he put out the eyes of them all; an act unlike a Grecian.

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§ 5.12  I cannot but love this act of the Athenians; In a public Assembly of the Athenians, Demades rising up decreed that Alexander should be the thirteenth Deity. But the people not enduring his excessive impiety, fined him a hundred Talents, for enrolling Alexander, who was a mortal, amongst the Celestial Gods.

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§ 5.13  The Athenians were very changeable as to government, and exceedingly inclined to alteration. They patiently suffered kingly government under Cecrops, Erechtheus and Theseus, and afterwards under the Codridae; they experimented tyranny under the Pisistratidae; they used aristocracy four hundred years; after which they chose yearly ten citizens which governed the city. At last there happened an anarchy by the sedition of the Thirty Tyrants. This ready change of customs, whether it should be commended or not, I know not.

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§ 5.14  This was an Attic law; Whosoever happens to light upon the carcase of any man, he must throw earth all over it, and bury it as looking towards the west.
This also was observed by them; A ploughing ox, that laboureth under the yoke, either with plough or cart, sacrifice not. For he also is a tiller of the earth, and partakes with men of their labour.

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§ 5.15  Attic courts of judicature, for wilfull murders in the Areopagus, for involuntary in the Palladium; for those who confessed the murder, but pleaded the lawfulness of it, in the Delphinium.

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§ 5.16  A little boy carried away a plate of gold which fell from the crown of Artemis. It was discovered. The judged caused playthings and dice to be set before him, as also the plate. He again laid hold of the plate: whereupon they put him to death for sacrilege, not sparing his age, but punishing the act.

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§ 5.17  The Athenians were so superstitious, that if any one felled a little oak out of the Heroes Grove, they put him to death. And Atarbes, for that he killed the sparrow sacred to Aesculapius, they spared not, but executed him: Not pardoning either his ignorance or madness, but preferring the concernment of the God before both these. For some said he did it by chance, others, through fury.

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§ 5.18  The court of Areopagus having tried a woman poisoner, and it being judged she should die, they would not put her to death until she were delivered of the infant wherewith she was great. Then saving the innocent child, they executed the guilty person.

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§ 5.19  Aeschylus the Tragic poet was by reason of some play condemned for impiety. Whereupon the Athenians being ready to stone him, Amynias his younger brother, throwing back his vest, shewed his arm without a hand. Amynias had the reward for fighting best at Salamis, where he lost his hand, and was the first of the Athenians that was rewarded. The judges seeing the trouble of the man, called to mind his actions, and dismist Aeschylus.

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§ 5.20  The Tarentines being besieged by the Romans, and ready to surrender through famine, the Rhegians ordered a fast to be kept every ten days; and with the allowance of that food supplied the Tarentines. Hereupon the Romans raised their siege; and the Tarentines, in memory of their distress, kept a feast, which they called The Fast.

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§ 5.21  Some say that the relation concerning Medea is false, and that she did not kill her children, but the Corinthians. This fable concerning Colchis, and the Tragedy (Medea) they say Euripides made at the request of the Corinthians. The falsity prevailed above the truth, by reason of the excellency of the poet. But for the Murther of the children, they say that even to this day the Corinthians offer expiatory sacrifices to them; which they render as a kind of Tribute.

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§ 6.1  THE ATHENIANS having overcome the Chalcidenses, distributed that part of their country which is called Hippobotus into forty lots; but meddled not with the ground consecrated to Athena in the place named Lelantus. The rest of the country they let out, and brought away the pillars which now stand at the Royal Stoa, on which they set up the bills of sale. The prisoners that they took they cast into fetters: neither did this satisfy their rage against the Chalcidenses.
The Lacedemonians having overcome the Messenians, took to themselves the half of every thing in Messenia. and compelled the free-women to go to funerals, and to bewail the dead, such as were strangers, and nothing related to them. Of the men, they employed some in husbandry, some they sold, some they slew.
likewise the Athenians were insolent in this manner. Having good success, they used not their good fortune moderately: For they compelled the foreign virgins that inhabited their country, to carry umbrellas in public solemnities before their own virgins, and the women before their women; and the men to carry spades.
The Sicyonians having taken Pellene, prostituted publicly the wives and daughters of the Pellenians. This was most savage, O you Grecian Gods, and unseemly, I think, even in barbarians.
Philip having gained the victory at Chaeronaea, was exalted with the success, as were also all the Macedonians. The Grecians, fearing him exceedingly, surrendered themselves according to their several cities, as fast as possible to him. The same did the Thebans, and the Megarians, the Corinthians, Achaeans, Eleians, and the Euboeans, that dwelt upon the sea-side. Philip kept not the agreement he had made with them, but subjected them all to servitude, contrary to right and equity.

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§ 6.2  The son of Harmatidias the Thespian, going with others of his country to aid the Athenians, fought at first stoutly and gallantly; then having lost his arms, fought with his bare hands against the armed men, and so died honourably. I have named the father of the young man, and celebrated him after the manner of Homer. His own name, if any is inquisitive to know, let some other tell.

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§ 6.3  The Lacedemonians crowned Isadas, yet but a boy, and not obliged by the law to take arms, for leaving the Gymnasium, and behaving himself gallantly in a fight. Yet because he engaged with the enemy before his age required it, and before he had received arms from his country, they fined him.

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§ 6.4  Lysander dying, one that was betrothed to his daughter in his life-time, because she was fatherless, and that Lysander at his decease proved poor, cast her off, and said he would not have her to wife; hereupon the Ephori fined him: not like a Lacedemonian or Grecian, to forget his friend dead, and to prefer wealth before a contract.

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§ 6.5  The Athenians, because the ambassadors which they sent to Arcadia took another way, and not that which they appointed, though they performed their charge well, put them to death.

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§ 6.6  Are not these Laconic? There is a law amongst the Spartans, That he who hath had three sons should be exempt from watch and ward; he who five, should be discharged from all public offices and taxes. That marriages should be contracted without Portions. No Lacedemonian might learn a Trade. They must go to war clothed in scarlet: For besides that the colour had something of awfulness in it self; the blood which was spilt upon it from wounds did much more daunt the enemy, appearing more sharp to the sight and more dreadful.
It was not lawful for a Lacedemonian to strip a slain enemy. They who died fighting stoutly, were carried crowned with olive and other branches. But they who had fought best, had a scarlet robe thrown over them, and so were buried honourably.

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§ 6.7  When the Lacedemonians had treacherously expelled the Taenarian servants (these servants were of the race of the Helotes) through the anger of Poseidon there happened an earthquake at Sparta, which threw down the city, so that there were but five houses left standing of the whole city.

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§ 6.8  They say that Artaxerxes surnamed Ochus, being by Bagoas the eunuch, who was an Egyptian, slain and cut to pieces, was thrown to cats, and some other buried in his stead was laid in the regal monuments. The Sacrileges which are reported of Ochus are many, especially those committed in Egypt. Neither was Bagoas satisfied with killing Ochus, but he also made hilts for swords of the bones of his thighs: thereby signifying his bloody disposition. He hated him, because when he came into Egypt he slew Apis, as Cambyses had done before.

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§ 6.9  There coming a report to Delphi, that the temple of Apollo was anciently very rich (grounded upon these verses of Homer,
Not so much wealth as Phoebus marble Fane
Founded in rocky Pytho doth contain,)
They say that hereupon the Delphians began to dig about the altar, and the tripod; but there happening violent earthquakes about the seat of the oracles, they gave over the attempt.

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§ 6.10  Pericles general of the Athenians made a law, that he whose parents on both sides were not citizens, might not enjoy the privileges of a citizen. From this law there happened a revenge upon himself; for his two legitimate sons, Paralus and Xanthippus, died of the common pestilence. There remained only to him his natural issue, who by their father's law were deprived of interest in the state.

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§ 6.11  Gelo having overcome the Carthaginians at Himera, reduced all Sicily to his obedience. Then coming into the Market-place unarmed, he declared that he would resign the Govenment to the citizens. But they refused, knowing him to be more loving to the people, then desirous of monarchic power. Hence in the temple of Sicilian Juno there is an Image representing him unarmed; which pictures this action.

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§ 6.12  Dionysius the second had an empire excellently fortified after this manner. He possessed ships no less then four hundred, of five rows and six rows of Oars. His power of foot-soldiers was a hundred thousand, horse-men nine thousand. The city of Syracusa was adorned with exceeding great Havens, and encompassed with a very high wall. He had store for five hundred ships more. His provision of corn which was laid up was a hundred myriads of Medimnae. His Magazine was furnished with shields, swords, and Spears, many Legg-Arms, breast-plates, and Slings. The Sling was Dionysius his own invention.
He had also many Auxiliaries; and confiding in these Dionysius thought he possessed an empire bound with Adamant. But he first put his Brothers to death; then saw his sons cruelly murthered, and daughters first ravished, then killed. Not one of those that descended from him had the rite of sepulture: for some were burned alive, others cut in pieces and cast into the sea. This happened to him, when Dio son of Hipparinus invaded his kingdom. He himself died old in extreme poverty.
Theopompus saith, that through excessive drinking he had so great an infirmity in his Eyes, that he grew blind; and that he sat in barbers shops, and talked jestingly to move laughter; and that in the midst of Greece he led a dishonourable and wretched life.
No light argument to persuade men to moderation and temper, is the change of Dionysius his fortune, from so high, to so low a condition.

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§ 6.13  It is excellently ordered by Providence, that tyrannical governments last not to the third Generation; but either the tyrants are rooted out like Pitch-trees, or their children devested of power. But amongst the Greeks these tyrannical governments are known to have lasted so long; that of Gelo in Sicily, of the Leucanians in Bosphorus, and of the Cypselidae at Corinth.

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§ 6.14  I am told an extraordinary meek act of Darius son of Hystaspes. Aribazus the Hyrcanian, with many other persons, not inconsiderable, in Persia, conspired against him. The Plot was laid at a Hunting: which Darius understanding, was not daunted, but commanded them to betake themselves to their weapons and horses, and to fix their arms. And looking sternly upon them, "Why then do you not that, said he, which you designed?" But they seeing the undaunted look of the man, gave over the attempt. And so great fear seized them, that they threw away their Spears, leaped from their horses, adored Darius, and delivered themselves up to do with them as he pleased.
He separated them from one another, and sent some to the confines of India, others to the borders of Scythia; and they continued ever afterwards faithful to him, being mindful of this favour.

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§ 7.1  OF SEMIRAMIS the Assyrian several things are related. She was the fairest of women, yet neglected her Beauty. When she came to the King of Assyria, whether she was summoned through the renown of her Beauty, as soon as he saw her, he fell in love with her. She requested of the King that he would grant her a Royal robe, and that she might have the command of Asia five days, and the ordering of all things during that time. She failed not of her request. But as soon as the King had seated her upon the Throne, and that she knew all things were at her power and disposal, she commanded the Guard to kill the King, and so possessed herself of the Assyrian empire. Dinon relates this.

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§ 7.2  Strato the Sidonian is said to have studied to exceed all men in luxury and Magnificence. Theopompus the Chian compares his life to the feasting of the Phaeacians, to which Homer according to his great wit, as he useth to doe, highly magnified. This man had not a single Musician at his feast to delight him, but there waited many women-Musicians, and players on the flute, and beautiful courtesans, and women-dancers. He emulated exceedingly Nicocles the Cyprian, and Nicocles him. This emulation was about nothing serious, but concerning the things we spoke of. For each of them hearing from those who came from the other what was done there, emulated and endeavoured to exceed the other. But this lasted not always, for both died violent deaths.

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§ 7.3  Aristippus, to some of his friends being exceedingly afflicted, besides many other Consolatory speeches, said thus at first to them; "I come to you not as to condole with you, but to suppress your grief."

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§ 7.4  Pittacus exceedingly commended a mill, making an Encomium upon it, for that many persons may exercise themselves in a little compass. There was a common Song hence called the mill-Song.

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§ 7.5  Even Laertes was by his son surprized labouring with his hands, and pruning a tree when he was very old. Ulysses likewise confesseth that he knew many things and how to do them with his own hands.
There is not any man alive so good
At making fires, and cleaving out the wood.
He also quickly made a little ship by his own labour, without any ship-wright. And Achilles himself, who was the third from Zeus, did cut the meat and dress the supper for the ambassadors that came from the Achaeans.

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§ 7.6  On a time there falling a great snow, the King of the Scythians asked one whom he saw walk naked, whether he were not frozen. He again asked the King whether his Forehead were not frozen. To which he answering, No; the other replied, "Neither am I, for I am Forehead all over."

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§ 7.7  Pytheas scoffed at Demosthenes son of Demosthenes, saying that his Arguments smelt of the Lamp, because he sat up all the night, meditating and considering what he should say when he was to come before the Athenians.

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§ 7.8  When Hephaestion died, Alexander cast into the pyre his arms, and gold and silver, to be burnt with the dead body; as also a vest of great esteem amongst the Persians. He likewise caused all the chief soldiers to be shaved, himself acting an Homerical passion, and imitating his Achilles. But he did more eagerly and fiercely, laying waste the castle of the city Ecbatana, and throwing down the wall. As to the shaving of his hair, he did in my opinion like a Greek: but in throwing down the walls, he exprest his mourning like a barbarian. He also changed his vest, giving all over to grief, love and tears.
Hephaestion died at Ecbatana. It is reported that these things were intended for the Burial of Hephaestion, but that Alexander used them dying, before the mourning was over for the young man.

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§ 7.9  Was this not a singular token of Modesty? To me it seems such. The wife of Phocion wore Phocion's vest, and required not a Crocotum, or Tarentine, or Cloak, or Mantle, or veil, or Hood, or coloured robes. But she first put on Modesty, and then such things as were at hand.

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§ 7.10  Xanthippe, wife of Socrates, refusing to put on his vest, so to go to a public Spectacle, he said, "Do you not perceive that you go not to see, but rather to be seen?"

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§ 7.11  Of the Roman women many have used to wear the same Shoes as men.

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§ 7.12  Children must be cheated by Dice, men by Oaths. Some ascribe this Saying to Lysander, others to Philip the Macedonian. But which soever it was, it is not well said, in my opinion. Neither is it perhaps strange that Lysander and I differ in our opinions, for he was a tyrant: but my mind may be guessed by this, that I have declared that this Saying pleaseth me not.

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§ 7.13  Agesilaus a Lacedemonian, now an old man, very often went forth without Shoes and Coat, in his Mantle, and that in the winter mornings. And when a certain person reprehended him, that he did more youthfully then became his age, he answered, "But the young citizens cast their eyes on me, as colts on their Sires."

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§ 7.14  Were not the philosophers skilful in warlike affairs? To me they seem such. For the Tarentines chose Archytas their general six times. Melissus was their Admiral. Socrates fought thrice, and Plato himself at Tanagra, and at Corinth. The warlike actions and generalship of Xenophon many celebrate; and he himself acknowledgeth, in his Discourses concerning Cyrus. Dio son of Hipparinus subverted the tyranny of Dionysius: and Epaminondas, being made chief commander of the Boeotians, at Leuctra overcame the Lacedemonians, and was chief among the Romans and Grecians. Zeno much advantaged the Athenian state, whilest he was with Antigonus. For there is no difference if a man benefits others, whether it be by his wisdom or arms.

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§ 7.15  The Mitylenaeans being absolute masters of the sea, imposed as a punishment upon their Confederates which had revolted from them, That they should not teach their children to read, nor suffer them to be instructed in any learning; conceiving that to be bred Ignorantly and Illiterately was of all punishments the greatest.

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§ 7.16  Rome was built by Remus and Romulus, sons of Mars and Servia. She was of the Race of Aeneas.

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§ 7.17  When Eudoxus came to Sicily, Dionysius largely congratulated his arrival. But he neither flattering nor concealing anything said, "I come as to a good Host with whom Plato liveth." Declaring that he came not for his sake, but for the others.

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§ 7.18  They say that the Egyptians behave themselves stoutly in Torments. And that an Egyptian being put to torture, will sooner die then confess the truth. Amongst the Indians, the wives resolutely go to the same fire with their dead husbands. The wives of the man contest ambitiously about it; and she to whom the Lot falls is burned with him.

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§ 7.19  Solon was made general in the war concerning Salamis. Having taken two Megarean ships, he manned them with Athenian soldiers, and caused them to put on the enemies armour, and passing undiscovered slew many of the Megareans unarmed.
He also overcame them by Reason; not by specious words, but weight of Argument. For causing some monuments of the dead to be opened, he shewed that they were all Athenians, being laid towards the west, according to the manner of their country; for the Megareans used to be buried disorderly, and as it happened. The Lacedemonians judged the Controversie.

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§ 7.20  There came to Lacedemon a Cean, an old man, conceited of himself and ashamed of his age: For which reason he endeavoured to conceal the grayness of his hair by Dying it. Coming in this manner before the Lacedemonians in public, he declared his business. But Archidamus King of the Lacedemonians rising up, "What truth, said he, can this man speak, who doth not only lie in his Heart, but in his hair?" So he rejected what he had alleged, from his outward appearance arguing the unsoundness of his mind.

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§ 7.21  Caesar disdained not to frequent the school of Aristo, and Pompey that of Cratippus. For their great power did not make them despise those persons that might most advantage them; and of these they had need notwithstanding their great Dignities. For, as it seems, they desired not so much to command, as to command well.

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§ 8.1  SOCRATES SAID of his Daemon to Theages, Demodocus, and many others, that he many times perceived a voice warning him by Divine instinct, which, saith he, when it comes, signifieth a dissuasion from that which I am going to doe, but never persuades to do any thing. And when any of my friends (saith he) impart their business to me, if this voice happens, it dissuades also, giving me the like counsel: Whereupon I dehort him who adviseth with me, and suffer him not to proceed in what he was about, following the divine admonition. He alledged as witness hereof Charmides son of Glauco, who asking his advice, whether he should exercise at the Nemean games; as soon as he began to speak, the voice gave the accustomed sigh. Whereupon Socrates endeavoured to divert Charmides from his purpose, telling him the reason: But he not following the advice, it succeeded ill with him.

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§ 8.2  Hipparchus, eldest son of Pisistratus, was the wisest person among the Athenians. He first brought Homer's Poems to Athens, and caused the Rhapsodists to sing them at the Panathenaic feast. He sent also a gally of fifty Oars to Anacreon the Teian [Poet] that he might come to him. To Simonides the Cean [Poet] he was very kind, and kept him always with him, obliging him (as is probable) by great gifts and rewards: for that Simonides was a great lover of money, none will deny. This Hipparchas made it his business to favour learned men, and endeavoured by his authority to reduce the Athenians to learning, and to better his subjects; conceiving that no man ought to envy wisdom, who himself is just and honest. This Plato relates, if Hipparchus be truly his.

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§ 8.3  This is an Athenian custom when an ox is killed: By proclamation they acquit all severally of Murther, only they condemn the knife, and say that killed him. The day on which they do this they call the Diipolian and Buphonian festival.

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§ 8.4  They say that Poliarchus the Athenian arrived at so great a height of luxury, that he caused those dogs and cocks which he had loved, being dead, to be carried out solemnly, and invited friends to their funerals, and buried them splendidly, erecting Columns over them, on which were engraved Epitaphs.

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§ 8.5  Neleus son of Codrus, being deposed from the regal government, left Athens, (for the Pythian oracle assigned the kingdom to Medon) and intending to settle a colony came to Naxus, not by design, but driven thither by tempest: willing to depart thence, he was hindered by contrary winds. Whereupon being in suspence what to doe, the Soothsayers told him that his company must be expiated, there being amongst those who came along with him many persons whose hands were defiled with blood. Hereupon he pretended that he had killed some servant, and needed expiation; whereby he induced such as were conscious of ill to the same. Which done, having now discovered who were the profane persons, he left them. They continued at Naxus; but Neleus came to Ionia, and first settled at Miletus, having turned out the Carians, the Mygdonians, the Leleges, and the rest of the barbarians, who built the twelve cities in Ionia. The cities are these; Miletus, Ephesus, Erythrae, Clazomenae, Priene, Lesbos, Teos, Colophon, Myus, Phocaea, Samos, and Chios. He also built many other cities in Epirus.

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§ 8.6  They say that none of the ancient Thracians knew any thing of learning. Even all the barbarians that inhabited Europe thought it dishonourable to understand Literature. But those in Asia (as is said) used it more. Whence some forbear not to affirm, That not Orpheus himself, being a Thracian, was wise; but that his writings are false and fabulous. This Androtion asserts, if he be credible, concerning the ignorance of learning and institute amongst the Thracians.

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§ 8.7  Alexander having taken Darius, solemnized marriages of himself and friends. The men that were married were ninety, and the marriage-beds as many. The hall in which they were entertained had a hundred Couches, such as they used to lie on at meals: The feet of every Couch were of silver; but of that on which he lay, they were of gold. They were all covered with various-coloured Carpets of rich barbarian work. He admitted to the feast some particular Friends, whom he caused to sit over against him. In the court were feasted the foot-soldiers, mariners, horsemen, Ambassadors, and foreign Greeks. Before supper the trumpets sounded, to give notice that it was time to come to the table; and again when supper was ended, that they should rise to depart. He solemnized these nuptials five days together. Very many musicians, and players, tragedians and comedians came thither. There came also many jugglers out of India, of which kind those of that country exceed all others.

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§ 8.8  Conon the Cleonaean (as is said) perfected the art of painting, which until then was but rude, and very indifferent, and as it were in its infancy. For which reason he also received a greater reward then the painters that were before.

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§ 8.9  Archelaus, tyrant of Macedonia, (for so Plato calls him, not King) loved Crateuas exceedingly, who no less loved the supreme command, and therefore killed his Friend Archelaus, hoping thereby to obtain the tyranny, and make himself happy. But having possest the tyranny three or four days, he was also betraied by others and slain. To this Macedonic Tragedy aptly suit these verses.
Who snares for others lays,
Himself at last betrays.
They say that Archelaus had betrothed one of his daughters to him: but marrying her to another, he out of indignation slew Archelaus.

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§ 8.10  The Athenians chose Solon their Archon; for that office was not conferred by lot. After he was chosen, he beautified the city, besides other things, with laws which he writ for them, and are observed to this day. Then the Athenians gave over using the laws of Draco, which were called Thesmi, retaining only those which concerned Homicides.

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§ 8.11  It is not to be wondred at, that Humane Nature being mortal and transitory, necessitates them to perish, if we look upon rivers that fail, and consider that even the highest Mountains diminish. Travellers say that Aetna appears to be much less then it was formerly. They relate the same of Parnassus, and Olympus the Pierican Mountain. And they who seem to understand the nature of the Universe, assert that the world it self shall be dissolved.

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§ 8.12  It is a strange thing, if true, that Demosthenes failing of Rhetoric in Macedonia, Aeschines the Cothocidean, son of Atromitus, flourished amongst the Macedonians, and far transcended the rest of the Ambassadors in wit. The cause whereby this happened to Aeschines, was the friendship of Philip and his gifts; and because Philip heard him patiently and pleasingly, and looked upon him with a mild and benevolent aspect, thereby discovering the good will he had for him; all which were great incitements to Aeschines of confidence and fluent Language. This happened not only to Demosthenes in Macedonia, though a most excellent orator, but also to Theophrastus the Eresian; for he likewise was at a loss before the Council of the Areopagus, for which he alleged this excuse, That he was daunted with the grave presence of the Senate. To which speech Demochares answered bitterly and readily thus, "Theophrastus, the judges were Athenians, not the twelve Gods."

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§ 8.13  They say that Anaxagoras the Clazomenian never laughed, nor so much as smiled. They say also that Aristoxenus was a great enemy to Laughter. And that Heraclitus bewailed all things in life.

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§ 8.14  Diogenes the Sinopean, being sick to death, and scarce able to goe, cast himself from a Bridge which was near the place of exercise, and charged the Keeper of the place that as soon as he was quite dead, he should throw him into the [River] Ilissus; so little did Diogenes value death or Burial.

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§ 8.15  Philip, when he had vanquished the Athenians at Chaeronea, though exalted with his success, yet subdued his passion, and behaved himself not insolently. Therefore he thought it requisite to be put in mind by one of his servants that he was a man: wherefore he appointed this office to a servant; neither did he go forth before that, as is said; nor was any that came to speak with him admitted before the servant had cried aloud thrice to him, which he did daily. He said to him, "Philip, thou art a man."

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§ 8.16  Solon son of Execestides now grown old, began to suspect Pisistratus as aiming at tyranny, when he came before a public Convention of the Athenians, and required a Guard of the people. But seeing the Athenians, not regarding his speeches, went to Pisistratus, he said that he was wiser then some, and more valiant then others: wiser then those who perceived not that as soon as he had gotten a Guard, he would become tyrant; more valiant then those who perceived it, but held their peace. Pisistratus having gotten this power made himself tyrant. Then Solon hanging out his shield and Spear before his gate, said, That he had taken arms and defended his country whilst he was able; and now, though no longer fit by reason of his age to be a soldier, he still was in mind a well-wisher. Notwithstanding Pisistratus, whether respecting the man and his wisdom, or mindful of their acquaintance in his youth, did no harm to Solon.
Not long after Solon being very old died, leaving behind him a great renown of wisdom and Fortitude. They set up his Image of Brass in the Agora, and buried him publicly near the gates of the wall on the right hand as you come in. His monument was encompassed with a wall.

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§ 8.17  Oenycinus a Scythian, monarch of the Zanaclaeans, came up into Asia to King Darius, and was esteemed by him more just then all the persons that had come up out of Greece to him: For having obtained leave of the King, he went into Sicily, and came back again from thence to the King. This Democedes the Crotonian did not; and therefore Darius much reproached him, calling him a Deceiver, and a most wicked man. But the Scythian lived very happily in Persia till he was old, and died there.

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§ 8.18  Euthymus a Locrian, of those in Italy, was an eminent wrestler, and reported to have been of admirable strength. For the Locrians shew an extraordinary great stone which he carried and set before his gates. He quelled the Hero in Temese, who exacted Tribute of all that lived thereabout; for coming into his temple, which to most persons was inaccessible, he fought with him, and compelled him to give up much more then he had plundered: whence arose a proverb of those who get any thing whereby they receive no benefit, that the Hero in Temese is come to them. They say that Euthymus going down to the river Caecis, which runs by the city of the Locrians, was never after seen.

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§ 8.19  Here lies, who through truest ways did pass
O' th' world Celestial, Anaxagoras.
There was a double altar erected to him; one inscribed of the mind, the other of Truth.

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§ 9.1  THEY SAY THAT Hiero the Syracusian was a lover of the Grecians, and esteemed learning exceedingly. They affirm also that he was most ready to confer benefits; for he was more forward to bestow them, then the suiters to receive them. His soul likewise was of great courage, and he lived together with his brothers, who were three, without any jealousie, loving them, and beloved in like manner of them exceedingly. With him lived Simonides and Pindar; neither did Simonides, though of extraordinary age, decline coming to him. For the Cean was naturally very covetous, and that which chiefly allured him was (as they say) the liberality of Hiero.

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§ 9.2  To Aegina from Olympia on the same day news of the victory of Taurosthenes was brought to his father, some say by an Apparition; others reports that he carried along with him a pigeon taken from her young (not yet fledged,) and as soon as he gained the victory, let her loose, having tied a little purple about her, and then she came back to her young the same day from Pisa to Aegina.

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§ 9.3  Alexander made his Companions effeminate by allowing them to be luxurious. For Agno wore golden nails in his shoes. Clitus, when any came to ask counsel of him, came out to his Clients clothed in purple. Perdiccas and Craterus, who loved exercise, had always brought after them lifts made of skin of the length of a stadium, which upon occasion they pitched on the ground, and exercised within them. They were attended with a continual cloud of dust raised by the beasts that brought these carriages. Leonnatus and Menelaus, who were addicted to hunting, had hangings brought after them which reached the length of a hundred stadia. Alexander himself had a tent that held a hundred couches; the partitions made by fifty pillars of gold which upheld the roof: the roof itself was of gold curiously wrought. Within it round about were placed first five hundred Persians, called Melophori, clothed in purple and yellow coats. Next those a thousand archers in flame-colour and light red. Withall a hundred Macedonian squires with silver shields. In the middle of the tent was placed a golden throne, upon which Alexander sat and heard suits, encompassed round about with this guard. The tent itself was surrounded with a thousand Macedonians, and ten thousand Persians. Neither might any man without much difficulty get access to him, for he was much dreaded, being raised by Fortune and exalted with pride to so large a tyranny.

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§ 9.4  Polycrates the Samian was addicted to the Muses, and much respected Anacreon the Teian, and took delight as well in his verses as Company: but I cannot commend his intemperate life. Anacreon made an Encomium of Smerdias.

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§ 9.5  Themistocles, when Hiero brought horses to the Olympic Games, forbad him the Solemnity, saying, It was not fit that he that would not share in their greatest danger, should partake of their festivals. For which Themistocles was commended.

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§ 9.6  Pericles, when his sons were taken away by the Pestilence, bore their death with great fortitude: By whose example the rest of the Athenians were encouraged to suffer patiently the loss of their nearest friends.

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§ 9.7  Xanthippe used to say, that when the state was oppressed with a thousand miseries, yet Socrates always went abroad and came home with the same look. For he bore a mind smooth and chearful upon all occasions, far remote from grief, and above all Fear.

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§ 9.8  Dionysius the younger coming to the city of the Locrians, (for Doris his mother was a Locrian) took possession of the fairest houses of the city, and caused the floors to be strewed with roses, marjoram, and other flowers. He also sent for the daughters of the Locrians, with whom he conversed lasciviously. But he was punished for this; for when his tyranny was subverted by Dio, the Locrians seized on his daughters, and prostituted them publicly to all persons, especially to such as were of kin to the virgins whom Dionysius had abused: This done, they pricked their fingers under their nails, and so killed them; then they pounded their bones in a Mortar, and whosoever tasted not of the flesh that was taken from them, they cursed. What remained they cast into the sea. As for Dionysius, he suffered the vicissitude of Fortune at Corinth, in extreme poverty, becoming a Metragyrta, and begging Alms, beating a Tabour and playing on a pipe till he died.

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§ 9.9  Demetrius Poliorcetes, having taken cities, abused them to maintain his luxury, exacting of them yearly one thousand and two hundred Talents. Of which sum, the least part was employed for the army, the rest expended upon his own disorders: for not only himself, but the floors of his house were anointed with sweet unguents; and according to the season of the year, flowers strewed for him to tread on. He was lascivious also; he studied to appear handsome, and dyed his hair yellow, and used paint.

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§ 9.10  Plato, when it was told him that the Academy was an unhealthful place, and the physicians advised him to remove to the Lyceum, refused, saying, "I would not, to prolong my life, go live on the top of Athos."

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§ 9.11  That Parrhasius the painter wore a purple vest and crown of gold, besides others, the epigrams on many of his images attest. On a time he contested at Samos, and met with an adversary not much inferiour to himself; he was worsted: the subject was Ajax contending with Ulysses for the arms of Achilles. Parrhasius being thus overcome, said to a friend who bewailed the misfortune, that for his own being worsted he valued it not, but he was sorry for the son of Telamon, that in the same contest had been twice overcome by his adversary. He carried a staff full of golden nails: His shoes were fastened on the top with golden Buckles. They say he wrought freely and without trouble, and chearfully, singing softly all the while to divert himself. This is related by Theophrastus.

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§ 9.12  The Romans expelled Alcaeus and Philiscus out of the city, because they taught the young men many dishonest pleasures. Likewise the Messenians expelled the Epicureans.

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§ 9.13  I am informed that Dionysius the Heracleote, son of Clearchus the tyrant, through daily gluttony and intemperance, increased to an extraordinary degree of Corpulency and Fatness, by reason whereof he had much ado to take breath. The physicians ordered for remedy of this inconvenience, that Needles should be made very long and small, which when he fell into sound sleep should be thrust through his sides into his belly. Which office his Attendants performed, and till the Needle had passed quite through the fat, and came to the flesh itself, he lay like a stone; but when it came to the firm flesh, he felt it and awaked. When he had any business, when any came to speak with him for advice or orders, he set a chest before him, (some say it as not a chest, but a little kind of Turret) which hid all of him but his face, which was seen out of the top, and so talked with them: an excellent garment, far fitter for a beast then a man.

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§ 9.14  They say that Philetas the Coan was extremely lean; insomuch that being apt to be thrown down upon the least occasion, he was fain, as they report, to put Lead within the soles of his shoes, lest the wind, if it blew hard, should ovirturn him. But if he were so feeble that he could not resist the wind, how was he able to draw such a weight after him? To me it seems improbable. I only relate what I have heard.

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§ 9.15  The Argives give the first palm of all poetry to Homer, making all others second to him. When they sacrificed, they invoked Apollo and Homer to be present with them. Moreover they say, that not being able to give a portion with his daughter, he bestowed on her his Cyprian Poems, as Pindar attests.

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§ 9.16  The Ausonians first inhabited Italy, being Natives of the place. They say that in old time a man lived there named Mares, before like a man, behind like a horse, his name signifying as much as Hippomiges in Greek, Half-horse. My opinion is, that he first backed and managed a horse; whence he was believed to have both Natures. They fable that he lived a hundred twenty three years; and that he died thrice, and was restored thrice to life: which I conceive incredible. They that more several nations inhabited Italy then any other Land, by reason of the temperateness of the country and goodness of the Soil, it being well watered, fruitful, and full of rivers, and having all along convenient Havens to harbour ships. Moreover, the humanity and civility of the inhabitants allured many to remove thither. And that there were in Italy one thousand one hundred and ninety seven cities.

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§ 9.17  Demosthenes seems to be argued of pride by this relation, which saith, that the water-bearers raised a pride in him, when they said something of him softly to one another as he passed by. For he who was puffed up by them, and proud of such commendations, what must he be when the whole public Assembly applauded him?

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§ 9.18  Themistocles son of Neocles likened him self to Oaks, saying that men come to them for shelter, when they have need of them, in rain, and desire to be protected by their boughs; but when it is fair, they come to them to strip and peel them. He also said, "If any one should shew me two ways, one leading to the Grave, the other to the Tribunal, I should think it more pleasant to take that which leads to the Grave."

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§ 9.19  As on a time Diogenes was at dinner in a cook's shop, he called to Demosthenes who passed by. But he taking no notice, "Do you think it a disparagement, Demosthenes, (said he) to come into a cook's shop? your master comes hither every day"; meaning the Common people, and implying that orators and lawyers are servants of the Vulgar.

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§ 9.20  Aristippus being in a great storm at sea, one of those who were aboard with him said, "Are you afraid too, Aristippus, as well as we of the ordinary sort?" "Yes, answered he, and with reason; for you shall only lose a wicked life, but I, Felicity."

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§ 9.21  It happened that as soon as Theramenes came out of an house, that house fell down immediately: The Athenians flocked to him from every side to congratulate his escape; but he contrary to all their expectations, said, "O Zeus, to what opportunity do you reserve me?" And not long after he was put to death by the Thirty tyrants, drinking hemlock.

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§ 9.22  They say that Pythagoras was much addicted to the art of Medicine. Plato also studied it much. So did Aristotle son of Nicomachus, and many others.

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§ 9.23  Aristotle on a time falling sick, the physician prescribed him something. "Cure me not as if I were an ox-driver, (saith he) but shew me first a reason, and then I will obey": Implying, that nothing is to be done but upon good grounds.

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§ 9.24  Smindyrides the Sybarite advanced to so high degree of luxury, that though the Sybarites themselves were very luxurious, yet he far out-went them. On a time being laid to sleep on a bed of roses, as soon as he awaked he said, That the hardness of the bed had raised Blisters on him. How would he have done to lie on the ground, or on a carpet, or on the Grass, or on a bulls' skin, as Diomedes? a bed befitting a soldier.
And underneath him a bull's skin they spread.

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§ 9.25  Pisistratus having obtained the government, sent for such as passed their time idlely in the Agora, and asked them the reason why they walked up and down unemployed, adding, "If your yoke of oxen be dead, take of mine, and go your ways and work; if you want corn for feed, you shall have some of me." He feared lest being idle, they might contrive some treason against him.

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§ 9.26  Antigonus the King loved and respected Zeno the Cittian exceedingly. It happened, that on a time being full of wine, he met Zeno, and like a drunken man embraced and kissed him, and bade him ask something of him, binding himself by an Oath to grant it. Zeno said to him, "Go then and sleep"; gravely and discreetly reproving his drunkenness, and consulting his Health.

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§ 9.27  One reprehended a Lacedemonian Rustic for grieving immoderately. He answered with great simplicity, "What should I do? It is not I that am the cause, but Nature."

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§ 9.28  A Spartan commending this verse of Hesiod,
Not so much as an ox can die,
Unless a neighbour ill be by;
and Diogenes hearing him, "But, saith he, the Messenians and their oxen were destroyed, and you are their neighbours."

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§ 9.29  Socrates coming home late one night from a feast, some wild young men knowing of his return, lay in wait for him, attired like Furies, with Vizards and Torches, whereby they used to fright such as they met. Socrates as soon as he saw them, nothing troubled, made a stand, and fell to question them, as he used to do to others in the Lyceum, or Academy.
Alcibiades, ambitiously munificent, sent many Presents to Socrates. Xanthippe admiring their value, desired him to accept them, "We (answered Socrates) will contest in liberality with Alcibiades, not accepting by a kind of munificence what he hath sent us."
Also when one said to him, "It is a great thing to enjoy what we desire"; He answered, "But a greater not to desire at all."

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§ 9.30  Anaxarchus when he accompanied Alexander in the wars, the winter coming on, foreseeing that Alexander would encamp in a place destitute of wood, buried all his vessels and other utensils in his tent, and laded his carriages with wood. When they came to the Rendezvous, there being want of wood, Alexander was forced to make use of his bedsteds for fuel. But being told that Anaxarchus had gotten fire, he went to him and anointed himself in his tent. And having understood his Providence, commended it; bestowing on him utensils and garments double in value to those he had thrown away, for the use of his fire.

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§ 9.31  A wrestler of Crotona having gained the victory at the Olympic games, going to the judges to receive the crown, was suddenly seized with an Epileptic fit, and died with the fall.

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§ 9.32  The Grecians erected a statue of Phryne the courtesan at Delphi upon a highpillar: I say not simply the Grecians, lest I seem to involve all in that crime whom I chiefly love, but those of the Grecians who were most addicted to intemperance. The statue was of gold. There were also at Athens statues of the Mares of Cimon in Brass proportioned to the life.

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§ 9.33  A young man of Eretria, having heard Zeno a long time, returning home, his father asked him what wisdom he had learnt. He answered that he would shew him. His father being angry, and beating him, he bore it humbly. "This (saith he) I have learnt, To bear with the anger of a father."

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§ 9.34  Diogenes coming to Olympia, and seeing at the Solemnity some young men, Rhodians, richly attired, laughing said, "This is pride." The meeting with some Lacedemonians clad in coats coarse and sordid, "This (said he) is another pride."

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§ 9.35  Socrates seeing that Antisthenes always exposed to view the torn part of his Cloak, "Will you not (saith he) lay aside Ostentation amongst us?"

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§ 9.36  A lutenist shewed his skill before Antigonus, who often saying to him, "Screw the Treble"; and again, "Screw up the Tenor": The lutenist angrily said, "The Gods divert such a mischief from you, O King, as for you to be more skilful herein then I am."

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§ 9.37  Anaxarchus, surnamed Endaemonicus, laughed at Alexander for making himself a God. Alexander on a time falling sick, the physician prescribed a broth for him. Anaxarchus laughing, said, "The hopes of our God are in a porringer of broth."

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§ 9.38  Alexander went to Troy, and making there a curious Scrutiny, one of the Trojans came to him, and shewed him the Harp of Paris. He said, "I had much rather see that of Achilles then this of Paris." For he desired to see that which belonged to the excellent soldier, and to which he sung the praises of great persons. But to that of Paris, what were sung but adulterous airs to take and entice women?

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§ 9.39  Who can say that these affections were not ridiculous and extravagant? That of Xerxes, when he fell in love with a plane-tree. Likewise a young man at Athens, of a good family, fell desperately in love with the statue of good Fortune, which stood before the Prytaneum. He often would embrace and kiss it; at last transported with mad desire, he came to the Senate, and desired that he might purchase it at any rate. But not obtaining his suit, he crowned it with many Garlands and Ribbons, offered sacrifice, put upon it a very rich garment, and, after he had shed innumerable tears, killed himself.

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§ 9.40  The Carthaginians appointed two Pilots for every ship, saying, that it was not fit a ship should have two Rudders; and he who did chiefly benefit the Passengers, and had command of the ship, should be desolate and alone without an assistant.

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§ 9.41  Simonides the Cean and Pausanias the Lacedemonian (they say) were at a feast together. Pausanias bade Simonides speak some wise thing. But the Cean laughing, said, "Remember you are a man." At that present Pausanias slighted this, and valued it not; siding then with the Medes, and proud of the Hospitality which the King shewed him; perhaps also transported with wine: But when he was in the temple of Athena Chalcioecus, and struggled with famine, and was ready to die the most miserable of men, he then remembered Simonides, and cried out thrice, "O Cean guest, thy speech imported much, though I ignorantly undervalued it."

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§ 9.42  Artaxerxes having put his eldest son Darius to death for conspiring against him; the second, his father commanding, drew his Scimitar and slew himself before the palace.

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§ 10.1  PHERENICE brought her son to contend at the Olympic games: the judges forbidding her to behold the Spectacle, she went and argued with them, alledging she had a father who had been victor at the Olympics, as also three brothers, and she had now brought a son to be one of the Contendours. Thus she prevailed with the people contrary to the law, which forbids women the Spectacle, and beheld the Olympic games.

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§ 10.2  Lais seeing Eubatas the Cyrenaean, fell deeply in love with him, and made a proposal of marriage to him: which he (fearing some treachery from her) promised to do; but forbare her company, and lived continently. It was agreed they should be married assoon as the games were over. Assoon as he had won, that he might not seem to break his contract with her, he caused her picture to be drawn, and carried it along with him to Cyrene, saying he had taken Lais, and not broken the Agreement. For which she that should have married him caused a great statue to be erected for him in Cyrene, to requite this Continence.

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§ 10.3  Young Partridges, assoon as their feet are at liberty, can run nimbly. Young Ducks, assoon as fledged, swim. And the whelps of Lions, before they are brought forth, scratch their dam with their claws, eager to come into the light.

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§ 10.4  Alexander son of Philip marched in his arms thrice four hundred furlongs, and before he rested fought the enemy, and overcame them.

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§ 10.5  This is a Phrygian saying, for it is Aesop's the Phrygian. The sow when any one takes her, makes a great cry, and not without cause, for she hath no wooll or the like, and therefore presently dreams of death, knowing that so she may benefit those who make use of her. Tyrants are like Aesop's sow, mistrusting and fearing every thing, for they know, as swine, that their life is owing to every one.

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§ 10.6  For Leanness were derided Sannyrio the Comic poet, and Melitus the Tragic poet, and Cinesias who made songs for round dances, and Philetas the poet that wrote hexameters. Archestratus the prophet, being taken by the enemy, and put in a pair of scales, was found to weigh but one obolus. Panaretus also was very lean, yet lived free from sickness. They report likewise that Hipponax the poet was not only low of person and deformed, but very slender. Moreover Philippides, against whom is extant an oration of Hyperides, was very lean. So that to be of a very spare constitution, they commonly called to be Philippised. Witness Alexis.

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§ 10.7  Oenopides the Chian, an astronomer, set up a brass table at the Olympics, having written thereon the astronomy of fifty nine years, affirming this to be the Great year.
Meton the Laconian, an astronomer, erected pillars on which he inscribed the tropics of the Sun, and found out as he said the Great year, which he affirmed to consist of nineteen years.

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§ 10.8  Aristotle the Cyrenaean said, that we ought not to receive a benefit from any; for either you must take pains to requite it, or seem ungrateful if you requite it not.

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§ 10.9  Philoxenus was gluttonous, and a slave to his belly. Seeing a pot boiling in a cook's shop, he pleased himself all the while with the smell; at last his appetite increased, and nature prevailed (O Gods, a beastly nature) so that he was not able to forbear any longer, he commanded his boy to buy the pot. Who answering that the cook valued it at a great rate; he replies, "It will be so much the sweeter, the more I pay for it." Such things ought to be remembred, not that we may imitate, but avoid them.

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§ 10.10  When painting first began, and was as it were in its infancy, they drew creatures so rudely, that the painters were fain to write upon them, This is an ox, That is a horse, This a tree.

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§ 10.11  Diogenes had a pain in his shoulder by some hurt, as I conceive, or from some other cause: and seeming to be much troubled, one that was present being vexed at him, derided him, saying, "Why then do you not die, Diogenes, and free your self from ills?" He answered, "It was fit those persons who knew what was to be done and said in life, (of which he professed himself one) should live. Wherefore for you (saith he) who know neither what is fit to be said or done, it is convenient to die; but me, who know these things, it behoveth to live."

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§ 10.12  Archytas said, that as it is hard to find a fish without sharp bones, so is it to find a man who hath not something of deceit and sharpness.

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§ 10.13  Critias accused Archilochus for defaming himself: For (saith he) if he himself had not brought this report of himself into Greece, we could never have known either that he was son of Enipo a woman-servant; or that he left Parus through want and penury, and came to Thasus; how that after he came thither he bore them enmity; nor that he spake ill of friends and foes alike: nor (said he) had we known that he was an adulterer, if we had not been told it by himself; nor that he was luxurious and insolent; nor (which was the basest of all) that he threw away his shield. Wherefore he was no good witness of himself, leaving so bad a Record behind him. This is laid to his charge, not by me, but by Critias.

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§ 10.14  Socrates said that idleness is the sifter of liberty, alledging in testimony hereof the Indians and Persians, people most valiant and most free, but as to work most slothful: The Phrygians and Lydians very laborious, and servile.

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§ 10.15  Some of the most eminent of the Grecians betrothed themselves to the daughters of Aristides, whilest he was yet living; but they looked not upon the life of Aristides, nor admired his justice. For if they had been emulators of these, they would not afterward have broken their contract. But as soon as he was dead, they disengaged themselves from the virgins; because at his death it was known that the son of Lysimachus was poor, which deterred those miserable men from so worthy (in my opinion) and honourable a match. The like happened to Lysander, for when they knew that he was poor, they shunned his alliance.

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§ 10.16  Antisthenes invited many to learn philosophy of him, but none came. At last, growing angry, he would admit none at all, and therefore bade Diogenes be gone also. Diogenes continuing to come frequently, he chided and threatened him, and at last struck him with his staff. Diogenes would not go back, but persisting still in desire of hearing him, said, "Strike if you will, here is my head, you cannot find a staff hard enough to drive me from you, until you have instructed me." Antisthenes, overcome with his perseverance, admitted him, and made him his intimate friend.

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§ 10.17  Critias saith that Themistocles son of Neocles, before he had a public command, was heir to no more then three talents: But having had a charge in the commonwealth, and happening afterwards to be banished, his estate being exposed to public sale, was valued at more then a hundred talents. Likewise Cleon, before he came to be engaged in public affairs, had not means enough for a free person; but afterwards left an estate of fifty talents.

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§ 10.18  Some say that Daphnis the neatherd was Mercury's friend, others, his son; and that he had this name from an accident: For he was born of a nymph, and as soon as born exposed under a laurel-tree. The cows which he kept (they say) were sisters to those in the Sun, mentioned by Homer in the Odyssey. Whilst Daphnis kept cows in Sicily, being very beautiful, a Nymph fell in love with him, whom he enjoyed, being in his blooming years, at which time (as Homer saith) the gracefulness of Youth appeareth most attractive. They agreed that he should not enjoy any other; but if he transgressed, she threatened him, that it was decreed by fate he should lose his sight. Hereupon they plighted troth mutually. Afterwards the King's daughter falling in love with him, he being drunk violated the agreement, and lay with her. This was the first occasion of the Bucolic verses, the subject whereof was to bewail the misfortune of Daphnis, and the loss of his eyes. Stesichorus the Himeraean first used this kind of verse.

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§ 10.19  Eurydamus the Cyrenaean gained the victory at the Caestus: His teeth being beaten out by his Antagonist, he swallowed them down, that his adversary might not perceive it.

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§ 10.20  The Persian emperor sent word to Agesilaus, that he would be his friend. Agesilaus returned answer, That he could not be a friend particularly to Agesilaus: but if he were friend to all the Lacedemonians, he must consequently be his also, for he had a share in each of them.

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§ 10.21  Perictione carried Plato in her arms. Aristo sacrificing in Hymettus to the Muses or the Nymphs, whilest they were performing the divine rites, she laid Plato down among certain thick and shady Myrtle-trees that grew near to the place. A swarm of Hymettian bees lighted about his mouth as he slept, thereby signifying the future sweetness of Plato's tongue.

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§ 10.22  Dioxippus in the presence of Alexander and the Macedonians, laying hold of a club, challenged Corrhagus a Macedonian armed to single combat; and having broken his spear closed with the man in armour, and casting him down, set his foot upon his neck, and drawing forth the sword that was girt to him, slew the armed man. Alexander hated him for this. He perceiving that Alexander hated him, died of grief.

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§ 11.1  Oricadmus gave rules for wrestling, and invented that manner of wrestling which is called Sicilian.

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§ 11.2  II.: The Poems of Oroebantius the Troezenian were before Homer, as the Troezenian relations affirm. They say also that Dares the Phrygian, whose Phrygian Iliad I know to be yet extant, was before Homer. Melisander the Milesian writ the battel betwixt the Lapithae and the Centaurs.

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§ 11.3  Icchus the Tarentine used wrestling, and in the time of his exercise continued most temperate, using spare diet, and living continently all his time.

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§ 11.4  They saw that Agathocles tyrant of Sicily was bald-headed even to derision; his hair by degrees falling off, he ashamed made a Myrtle Garland to cover his head and hide the baldness. The Syracusans were not ignorant of his want of hair, but they took no notice of it, by reason of his fierce spirit and tyrannical demeanour.

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§ 11.5  Some persons sacrificed at Delphi; the Delphians conspiring against them, privately put consecrated monies into the baskets wherein was their frankincense and cakes for sacrifice. Hereupon apprehending them as sacrilegious persons, they led them to the top of the rock, and according to the Delphian law, threw them down.

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§ 11.6  It happened that an adulterer was taken in Thespiae, and as he was led fettered through the market-place, his friends rescued him. This occasioned an insurrection, wherein many men were slain.

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§ 11.7  Eteocles the Lacedemonian said that Sparta could not suffer two Lysanders: And Archestratus the Athenian said that Athens could not suffer two Alcibiades. So intolerable were they both in their countries.

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§ 11.8  Hipparchus was murthered by Harmodius and Aristogiton, because he would not suffer the sister of Harmodius to carry the basket to the Goddess, according to the custom of the country, in the Panathenian Solemnity, she perhaps deserving it.

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§ 11.9  The most excellent persons among the Greeks lived in extreme penury all their lives. Let some then still praise riches above the best Grecians, to whom penury was allotted as long as they lived. Of those was Aristides son of Lysimachus, a man of excellent conduct in war, who also imposed tribute on the Grecians: Yet this so great a person did not leave enough to buy him funeral ornaments.
Phocion also was very poor, who when Alexander sent him a hundred Talents, asked, "For what reason doth he give me this?" They answering, Because he conceives you to be the only just and good person amongst the Athenians; he replied, "Then let him suffer me to be such."
Epaminondas also son of Polymius was poor. When Jason sent him five hundred crowns, "You begin (saith he) to do me wrong." He borrowed of a citizen five hundred Drachms for the charges of his journey to Peloponnesus; but hearing that his squire had got money of a prisoner, "Give me, saith he, the shield back, and purchase for your self a cook's shop to live in: For now you are grown rich, you will no longer fight."
Pelopidas being reproved by his friends for neglecting riches, a thing necessary to live; "Yes, by Jove, saith he, necessary for that Nicomedes indeed"; pointing to one lame and maimed.
Scipio lived fifty four years, and neither bought nor sold any thing, with so little was he contented. One shewing him a shield richly adorned, he said, "But it behoves a Roman to place his hope on his right hand, not on his left."
Ephialtes son of Sophonides was exceeding poor: his friends offering to give him ten talents, he would not accept them, saying, "These will either make me, through respect of you, to do something unjustly in favour; or if I shew no particular favour or respect to you, I shall seem ungrateful."

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§ 11.10  Zoilus the Amphipolitan, who wrote against Homer, Plato and others, was disciple of Polycrates. This Polycrates wrote an Accusation against Socrates. Zoilus was called the rhetorical dog; his character this, He wore a long beard, he shaved his head close, his gown reached not to his knees, his whole employment was to speak ill and sow dissension; this unhappy man was wholly given to detraction. A learned person asked him why he spoke ill of all: he answered, "Because I would do them hurt, but cannot."

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§ 11.11  Dionysius the Sicilian practised physick, and did Cures himself, lancing, cauterizing, and the like.

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§ 11.12  Alcibiades sent to Socrates a large marchpane fairly wrought. Xanthippe grew angry hereat, after her manner, threw it out of the basket, and trod upon it: whereat Socrates laughing said, "And you then will have no share in it your self."
If any one think that in relating these things I speak trifles, he knows not that even in such a wise man is proved, despising those things which the vulgar esteem as the ornament of a table, and crown of a feast.

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§ 11.13  They say there was a Sicilian of so sharp sight, that extending his view from Lilybaeum to Carthage he erred not: They say he could tell the number of the ships riding at Carthage without missing.

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§ 12.1  Aspasia, a Phocian, daughter of Hermotimus, was brought up an orphan, her mother dying in the pains of child-birth. She was bred up in poverty, but modestly and virtuously. She had many times a dream which foretold her that she should be married to an excellent person. Whilest she was yet young, she chanced to have a swelling under her chin, loathsome to sight, whereat both the father and the maid were much afflicted. Her father brought her to a physician: he offered to undertake the cure for three staters; the other said he had not the money. The physician replied, he had then no physick for him. Hereupon Aspasia departed weeping; and holding a looking-glass on her knee, beheld her face in it, which much increased her grief. Going to rest without supping, by the reason of the trouble she was in, she had an opportune dream; a dove seemed to appear to her as she slept, which being changed to a woman, said, "Be of good courage, and big a long farewell to physicians and their medicines: Take of the dried rose of Aphrodite Garlands, which being pounded apply to the swelling." After the Maid had understood and made trial of this, the tumor was wholly assuaged; and Aspasia recovering her beauty by means of the most beautiful goddess, did once again appear the fairest amongst her virgin-companions, enriched with Graces far above any of the rest. Of hair yellow, locks a little curling, she had great eyes, somewhat hawk-nosed, ears short, skin delicate, complexion like roses; whence the Phocians, whilest she was yet a child, called her Milto. Her lips were red, teeth whiter then snow, small insteps, such as of those women whom Homer calls καλλισφύρους. Her voice was sweet and smooth, that whosoever heard her might justly say he heard the voice of a Siren. She was averse from womanish curiosity in dressing: Such things are to be supplied by wealth. She being poor, and bred up under a poor father, used nothing superfluous or extravagant to advantage for her Beauty. On a time Aspasia came to Cyrus, son of Darius and Parysatis, brother of Artaxerxes, not willingly nor with the consent of her father, but by compulsion, as it often happens upon the taking of cities, or the violence of tyrants and their officers. One of the officers of Cyrus brought her with other virgins to Cyrus, who immediately preferred her before all his concubines, for simplicity of behaviour, and modesty; whereto also contributed her beauty without artifice, and her extraordinary discretion, which was such, that Cyrus many times asked her advice in affairs, which he never repented to have followed. When Aspasia came first to Cyrus, it happened that he was newly risen from supper, and was going to drink after the Persian manner: for after they have done eating, they betake themselves to wine, and fall to their cups freely, encountring drink as an adversary. Whilest they were in the midst of their drinking, four Grecian virgins were brought to Cyrus, amongst whom was Aspasia the Phocian. They were finely attired; three of them had their heads neatly drest by their own women which came along with them, and had painted their faces. They had been also instructed by their governesses how to behave themselves towards Cyrus, to gain his favour; not to turn away when he came to them, not to be coy when he touched them, to permit him to kiss them, and many other amatory instructions practised by women who exposed their beauty to sale. Each contended to outvie the other in handsomeness. only Aspasia would not endure to be clothed with a rich robe, nor to put on a various-coloured vest, nor to be washed; but calling upon the Grecian and Eleutherian Gods, she cried out upon her father's name, execrating herself to her father. She thought the robe which she should put on was a manifest sign of bondage. At last being compelled with blows she put it on, and was necessitated to behave herself with greater liberty then beseemed a virgin. When they came to Cyrus, the rest smiled, and expressed chearfulness in their looks. But Aspasia looking on the ground, her eyes full of tears, did every way express an extraordinary bashfulness. When he commanded them to sit down by him, the rest instantly obeyed; but the Phocian refused, until the officer caused her to sit down by force. When Cyrus looked upon or touched their eyes, cheeks and fingers, the rest freely permitted him; but she would not suffer it: For if Cyrus did but offer to touch her, she cried out, saying, he should not go unpunished for such actions. Cyrus was herewith extremely pleased; and when upon his offering to touch her breast, she rose up, and would have run away, Cyrus much taken with her native ingenuity, which was not like the Persians, turning to him that bought [sic] them, "This Maid only, saith he, of those which you have brought me is free and pure; the rest are adulterate in face, but much more in behaviour." Hereupon Cyrus loved her above all the women he ever had. Afterwards there grew a mutual love between them, and their friendship proceeded to such a height that it almost arrived at parity, not differing from the concord and modesty of Grecian marriage. Hereupon the fame of his affection to Aspasia was spread to Ionia and throughout Greece; Peloponnesus also was filled with discourses of the love betwixt Cyrus and her. The report went even to the great King [of Persia,] for it was conceived that Cyrus, after his acquaintance with her, kept company with no other woman. From these things Aspasia recollected the remembrance of her old apparition, and of the dove, and her words, and what the Goddess foretold her. Hence she conceived that she was from the very beginning particularly regarded by her. She therefore offered sacrifice of thanks to Aphrodite. And first caused a great image of gold to be erected to her, which she called the image of Aphrodite, and by it placed the picture of a dove beset with jewels, and every day implored the favour of the Goddess with sacrifice and prayer. She sent to Hermotimus her father many rich presents, and made him wealthy. She lived continently all her life, as both the Grecian and Persian women affirm. On a time a necklace was sent as a present to Cyrus from Scopas the younger, which had been sent to Scopas out of Sicily. The necklace was of extraordinary workmanship, and variety. All therefore to whom Cyrus shewed it admiring it, he was much taken with the jewel, and went immediately to Aspasia, it being about noon. Finding her asleep, he lay down gently by her, watching quietly whilest she slept. As soon as she awaked, and saw Cyrus, she embraced him after her usual manner. He taking the necklace out of a box, said, "This is a worthy either the daughter or the mother of a King." To which she assenting; "I will give it you, said he, for your own use, let me see your neck adorned with it." But she received not the gift, prudently and discreetly answering, "How will Parysatis your mother take it, this being a gift fit for her that bare you? Send it to her, Cyrus, I will shew you a neck handsome enough without it." Aspasia from the greatness of her mind acted contrary to other royal queens, who are excessively desirous of rich ornaments. Cyrus being pleased with this answer, kissed Aspasia. All these actions and speeches Cyrus writ in a Letter which he sent together with the chain to his mother; and Parysatis receiving the present was no less delighted with the news then with the gold, for which she requited Aspasia with great and royal gifts; for this pleased her above all things, that though Aspasia were chiefly affected by her son, yet in the love of Cyrus she desired to be placed beneath his mother. Aspasia praised the gifts, but said she had no need of them; (for there was much money sent with the presents) but sent them to Cyrus, saying, "To you who maintain many men this may be useful: For me it is enough that you love me and are my ornament." With these things, as it seemeth, she much astonished Cyrus. And indeed the woman was without dispute admirable for her personal beauty, but much more for the nobleness of her mind. When Cyrus was slain in the fight against his brother, and his army taken prisoners, with the rest of the prey she was taken; not falling accidentally into the enemies hands, but sought for with much diligence by King Artaxerxes, for he had heard her fame and virtue. When they brought her bound, he was angry, and cast those that did it into prison. He commanded that a rich robe should be given her: which she hearing, entreated with tears and lamentation that she might not put on the garment the King appointed, for she mourned exceedingly for Cyrus. But when she had put it on, she appeared the fairest of all women, and Artaxerxes was immediately surprised and inflamed with love of her. He valued her beyond all the rest of his women, respecting her infinitely. He endeavoured to ingratiate himself into her favour, hoping to make her forget Cyrus, and to love him no less then she had done his brother; but it was long before he could compass it. For the affection of Aspasia to Cyrus had taken so deep impression, that it could not easily be rooted out. Long after this, Teridates the eunuch died, who was the most beautiful youth in Asia. He had full surpassed his childhood, and was reckoned among the youths. The King was said to have loved him exceedingly: he was infinitely grieved and troubled at his death, and there was an universal mourning throughout Asia, every one endeavouring to gratify the King herein; and none durst venture to come to him and comfort him, for they thought his passion would not admit any consolation. Three days being past, Aspasia taking a mourning robe as the King was going to the bath, stood weeping, her eyes cast on the ground. He seeing her, wondered, and demanded the reason of her coming. She said, "I come, O King, to comfort your grief and affliction, if you so please; otherwise I shall go back." The Persian pleased with this care, commanded that she should retire to her chamber, and wait his coming. As soon as he returned, he put the vest of the eunuch upon Aspasia, which did in a manner fit her: And by this means her beauty appeared with greater splendour to the King's eye, who much affected the youth. And being once pleased herewith, he desired her to come always to him in that dress, until the height of his grief were allayed: which to please him she did. Thus more then all his other women, or his own son and kindred, she comforted Artaxerxes, and relieved his sorrow; the King being pleased with her care, and prudently admitting her consolation.

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§ 12.2  No sculptor or painter did ever represent the daughters of Zeus armed. This signifies that the life which is devoted to the Muses ought to be peaceable and meek.

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§ 12.3  Epaminondas having received a mortal wound at Mantinea, and being brought (yet alive) to the tents, called for Daiphantus, that he might declare him general. When they told him that he was slain, he called to Iolaidas. When they said that he also was dead, he counselled them to make peace and friendship with their enemies, because the Thebans had no longer any general.

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§ 12.4  The Egyptians say that Sesostris received learning and counsel from Mercury.

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§ 12.5  Lais the courtesan was called (as Aristophanes the Byzantine reports) Axine, [ ... ] which surname impleads the cruelty of her disposition.

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§ 12.6  They deserve to be laughed at who are proud of their ancestors, since among the Romans we know not the father of Marius, yet admire him for his parts. To know the father of Cato the elder would require much scrutiny.

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§ 12.7  Alexander crowned the tomb of Achilles, and Hephaestion that of Patroclus; signifying that he was as dear to Alexander as Patroclus to Achilles.

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§ 12.8  Cleomenes the Lacedemonian taking to him Archonides one of his friends, made him partaker of his design; whereupon he swore to him that if he accomplished it he would do all things by his head. Being possessed of the government, he killed his friend, and cutting off his head put it into a vessel of honey. And whensoever he went to do any thing, he stooped down to the vessel, and said what he intended to do; affirming that he had not broken his promise, nor was forsworn, for he advised with the head of Archonides.

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§ 12.9  Timesias the Clazomenian governed the Clazomenians uprightly; for he was a good man: but Envy, which useth to oppugn such persons, assaulted him also. At first he little valued the envy of the common people, but at last forsook his country upon this occasion. On a time he passed by the school just as the boys were dismissed of their master to play. Two boys fell out about a line. One of them swore, "So may I break the head of Timesias." Hearing this, and imagining that he was much envied and hated of the citizens, and that if the boys hated him, the men did much more, he voluntarily forsook his country.

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§ 12.10  The Aeginetae were once most powerful among the Greeks, having a great advantage and opportunity; for they had a great command at sea, and were very powerful. They also behaved themselves valiantly in the Persian war, whereby they gained the chief prize of valour. Moreover, they first stamped money, and from them it was called Aeginetan money.

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§ 12.11  The Romans erected a temple and altar to Fever under the Pallantian Hill.

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§ 12.12  An adulterer being apprehended at Gortyne in Crete, was brought to Trial, and being convicted, was crowned with wool. This kind of crowning argued that he was unmanly, effeminate, studious to please women. He was by the general vote fined fifty staters, degraded from honour, and made incapable of public office.

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§ 12.13  A Lover came from Hellespont to Gnathaena the Athenian courtesan, invited by her fame. He talked much in his drink, and was impertinent. Gnathaena hereupon interposing, said, "Did you not affirm you came from Hellespont?" He assenting; "And how then, said she, happens it that you know not the chief city there?" He asking which that was, she answered, Sigeum. By which name she ingeniously silenced him.

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§ 12.14  They say that the most amiable and beautiful amongst the Greeks was Alcibiades; amongst the Romans, Scipio. It is reported also that Demetrius Poliorcetes contended in Beauty. They affirm likewise that Alexander son of Philip was of a neglectful handsomness: For his hair curled naturally, and was yellow; yet they say there was something stern in his countenance. Homer speaking of handsome persons, compares them to trees,
— - he shoots up like a plant.

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§ 12.15  They say that Hercules alleviated the trouble of his Labours by play. The son of Zeus and Alcmena sported much with children; which Euripides hints to us, making the God say,
I play to intermit my Toils:
this he speaks holding a child. And Socrates was on a time surprised by Alcibiades, playing with Lamprocles, as yet a child.
Agesilaus bestriding a reed, rid with his son a child, and to one that laughed at him, said, "At this time hold your peace; when you shall be a father your self, then you may give counsel to fathers." Moreover Archytas the Tarentine, a great states-man and philosopher, having many servants, took great delight in their children, and played with them, chiefly delighting to sport with them at feasts.

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§ 12.16  Alexander hated Perdiccas because he was Martial; Lysimachus, because he was excellent in commanding an army; Seleucus, because he was Valiant. The liberality of Antigonus displeased him, the Conduct of Attalus, the Fortune of Ptolemy.

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§ 12.17  Demetrius, Lord over so many nations, went to the house of Lamia a courtesan in his armour, and wearing his Diadem. To have sent for her home had been very dishonourable, [much more was it that] he went amorously to her. I preferre Theodorus the player on the flute before Demetrius; for Lamia invited Theodorus, but he contemned her invitation.

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§ 12.18  Phaon, being the most beautiful of all men, was by Aphrodite hid among Lettices. Another says he was a Ferry-man, and exercised that employment. On a time Aphrodite came to him, desiring to pass over: he received her courteously, not knowing who she was, and with much care conveyed her whither she desired; for which the Goddess gave him an Alabaster Box of Ointment, which Phaon using, became the most beautiful of men, and the wives of the Mitylenaeans fell in love with him. At last being taken in adultery he was killed.

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§ 12.19  Sappho the poetress, daughter of Scamandronymus, is (by Plato son of Aristo) reckoned among the Sages. I am informed that there was another Sappho in Lesbos, a courtesan, not a poetress.

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§ 12.20  Hesiod saith that the Nightingale above all birds cares not for sleep, but wakes continually; and that the swallow wakes not always, but half the night only. This punishment they suffer for the horrid actions committed in Thrace at the abominable supper.

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§ 12.21  The Lacedemonian Matrons, as many as heard that their sons were slain in fight, went themselves to look upon the wounds they had received before and behind: and if of the wounds they had received the greater number were before, triumphing and looking proudly, they attended their sons to the sepulchres of their parents; but if they received wounds otherwise, they were ashamed and lamented, and hastened away as privately as they could, leaving the dead to be buried in the common sepulchre, or caused them to be brought away secretly, and buried at home.

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§ 12.22  They say that Milo the Crotonian, proud of his strength, happened to meet Titormus a neatherd; and seeing that Titormus was of an extraordinary bigness, would make a trial of strength with him. Titormus pleaded that he was not very strong; but going down to Euenus, and putting off his garment, he laid hold of an extraordinary great stone, and first drew it to him, then thrust it from him; this he did two or three times: After which he lifted it up to his knees; and lastly, lifting it up upon his shoulders, carried it eight paces, and then threw it down. But Milo the Crotonian could hardly stirre the stone. The second trial of Titormus was this; He went to his herd, and standing in the midst of them, took hold of the greatest bull amongst them by the leg, who endeavored to get away, but could not. Another passing by, he catched him by the leg with the other hand, and held him also. Milo beholding this, and stretching forth his hands to heaven, said, "O Zeus, hast thou not begotten another Hercules?" Whence they say came this proverb, "He is another Hercules."

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§ 12.23  I am informed that the Celtae are of all men most addicted to engage themselves in dangers. Such person as die gallantly in fight, they make the subjects of songs. They fight crowned, and erect trophies, triumphing in their actions, and leaving monuments of their valour, after the Greek manner. They esteem it so dishonourable to fly, that many times they will not go out of their houses when they are falling or burning, though they see themsevles surrounded with fire. Many also oppose themselves to inundations of the sea. There are also who taking their arms fall upon the waves, and resist their force with naked swords, and brandishing their lances, as if able to terrify or wound them.

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§ 12.24  They say that Smindyrides the Sybarite was so luxurious in diet, that when he went to Sicyon, as a suitor to Agarista daughter of Cleisthenes, he carried with him a thousand cooks, and as many fowlers, and a thousand fishermen.

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§ 12.25  Ulysses was improved by Alcinous, Achilles by Chiron, Patroclus by Achilles, Agamemnon by Nestor, Telemachus by Menelaus, and Hector by Polydamas; the Trojans, as far as they followed him, by Antenor; the Pythagorean disciples by Pythagoras, the Democriteans by Democritus. If the Athenians had followed Socrates, they had been every way happy and skilful in philosophy. Hiero son of Dinomenes was delighted in Simonides the Cean, Polycrates in Anacreon, Proxenus in Xenophon, Antigonus in Zeno. And to mention those also who concern me no less then the Greeks, inasmuch as I am a Roman; Lucullus profited by Antiochus the Ascalonite, Mecaenas by Arius, Cicero by Apollodorus, Augustus by Athenodorus. But Plato, who far exceeded me in wisdom, saith that Zeus himself had a Counsellor; but whom and how, we learn from him.

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§ 12.26  Persons, as 'tis said, most addicted to drink were Xenagoras the Rhodian, whom they called Amphoreus, and Heraclides the wrestler, and Proteas the son of Lanica, who was brought up with Alexander the King; even Alexander himself is said to have drunk more then any man.

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§ 12.27  They say that Hercules was extraordinary mild towards his adversaries, for he is the first we know of who without any mediation freely gave back the bodies of the dead to be buried, the slain being at those times neglected, and left to be a feast for dogs, for, as Homer saith,
He made them unto dogs a prey; and, A feast to dogs they were. -

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§ 12.28  The Leocorium so called at Athens was a temenos of the daughters of Leos, Praxithea, Theope, and Eubule. These, as is reported, were put to death for the city of Athens, Leos delivering them up according to the Delphian oracle, which said, that the city could be no other way preserved then by putting them to death.

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§ 12.29  Plato son of Aristo, seeing that the Agrigentines built magnificently and feasted highly, said, that the Agrigentines build as if they were to live for ever, and feast as if they were to live no longer. Timaeus affirms that the oil pitchers and scrapers were of silver, and that they had beds all of ivory.

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§ 12.30  The Tarentines used to fall a-drinking as soon as they rose, and to be drunk by that time the people met in the agora. The Cyrenaeans arrived at so great a height of luxury, that when they invited Plato to be their law-giver, he would not vouchsafe it, as they say, by reason of their habitual dissoluteness. Eupolis also mentioneth in his comedy entitled Maricas, that the meanest of them had seals of the value of ten minae. Their rings also were carved to admiration.

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§ 12.31  I will reckon to you the names of Greek wines much esteemed by the ancients. One sort they called Pramnian, which was sacred to Ceres; another Chian, from the island; another Thasian and Lesbian: besides these, there was one sort called glycys, sweet, the name agreeing with the taste; another Cretan, and at Syracuse a sort named Polian, from a King of the country. They drunk also Coan wine, and so called it, as also Rhodian, from the place.
Are not these demonstrations of the Greek luxury? They mixed perfumes with their wine, and so drank it by a forced composition, which wine was called Myrrhinites. Philippides the Comic poet mentions it.

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§ 12.32  Pythagoras the Samian wore a white vest, and a golden crown and drawers. Empedocles the Agrigentine used a sea-green vest, and shoes of brass. Hippias and Gorgias, as is reported, went abroad in purple vests.

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§ 12.33  They say that Nicias, physician to Pyrrhus, writ privately to the Roman Senate, and demanded a sum of money for which he would undertake to poison Pyrrhus; but they accepted not his offer (for the Romans know how to overcome by valour, not by art and treachery to circumvent their enemies,) but discovered the design of Nicias to Pyrrhus.

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§ 12.34  Many affections among the ancients are remembered, these not the least. Pausanias loved his wife extraordinarily; Apelles the concubine of Alexander, by name Pancaste, by country a Larissaean. She is said to be the first whom Alexander ever enjoyed.

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§ 12.35  There were two Perianders, the one a philosopher, the other a tyrant: Three Miltiades; one who built Chersonesus, another the son of Cypsellus, the third a son of Cimon: Four Sibyls; the Erythraean, the Samian, the Egyptian, and the Sardinian. Others add six more, making them in all ten; among which they reckon the Cumaean and the Jewish. There were three Bacides; one of Hellas, another of Athens, and the third of Arcadia.

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§ 12.36  The ancients seem not to agree with one another concerning the number of the children of Niobe. Homer saith there were six sons and as many daughters; Lasus twice seven; Hesiod nineteen, if those verses are Hesiod's, and not rather, as many others, falsly ascribed to him. Alcman reckons them ten, Mimnermus twenty, and Pindar as many.

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§ 12.37  Alexander in pursuit of Bessus was reduced to extreme want of victual, insomuch that they were forced to feed on their camels, and other beasts of carriage; and, being destitute of wood, did eat the flesh raw. But much silphium growing there, it did much avail them towards the digesting their diet.
In Bactriana the soldiers took several towns, conjecturing by the smoke that they were inhabited, taking away the snow from their doors.

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§ 12.38  The horses of the Sacae have this quality, that if one of them casts his rider, he stands still till he gets up again. If any of them intends to marry a virgin, he fights with her; and if she gets the better, she carries him away captive, and commands and has dominion over him. They fight for victory, not to death. The Sacae, when they mourn, hide themselves in caves and shady places.

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§ 12.39  Perdiccas the Macedonian, who fought under Alexander, was so bold, that on a time he went alone into a cave where a lioness had whelped, and seized not on the lioness, but brought away her whelps: for which action he deserved to be much admired. The lioness is believed to be the most strong and most couragious of all creatures, not only by Grecians, but by the barbarians also. They say that Semiramis the Assyrian [Queen] was very proud, not if she took a lion, or killed a leopard, or the like beasts, but if she overcame a lioness.

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§ 12.40  Amongst the provisions full of magnificence and ostentation which were carried after Xerxes, was some water of the river Choaspes. When they wanted drink in a desert place, and had nothing to allay their thirst, proclamation was made in the army, that if any one had some water of Choaspes, he should give it to the King to drink. There was found one who had a little, and that putrid. Xerxes drank it, and esteemed the giver as his Benefactor; for he should have died of thirst if this had not been found.

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§ 12.41  Protogenes the painter, as is said, bestowed seven years in drawing Ialysus, at last perfected the Piece: which Apelles seeing, at first stood mute, struck with admiration of the wonderful sight; then looking off from it, said, "Great is the work and the workman; but the grace is not equal to the pains bestowed upon it; which if this man could have given it, the work would have reached to Heaven."

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§ 12.42  It is said that a bitch gave suck to Cyrus, son of Mandale; a hind to Telephus, son to Agave and Hercules; a mare to Pelias, son of Poseidon and Tyro; a Bear to Paris, son of Alope and Priam; a Goat to Aegisthus, son of Thyestes and Pelopia.

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§ 12.43  I am informed that Darius son of Hystapes was quiver-bearer to Cyrus: The last Darius, who was vanquished by Alexander, was the son of a woman-slave; Archelaus King of the Macedonians was son of Simicha, a woman-slave: Menelaus grandfather of Philip was registred among the bastards; his son Amyntas was servant to Aerope, and believed to be a slave: Perseus, whom Paulus the Roman conquer'd, was by country Argive, the son of some obscure person: Eumenes is believed to have been son of a poor man, a piper at funerals: Antigonus, son of Philip, who had but one eye, whence surnamed Cyclops, was servant to Polysperchus and a robber: Themistocles, who overcame the barbarians at sea, and who alone understood the meaning of the oracle of the Gods, was son of a Thracian woman, his mother was called Abrotonos: Phocion, surnamed the Good, had for father a poor mechanick. They say that Demetrius Phalereus was a household-servant belonging to the families of Timotheus and Conon. Though Hyperbolus, Cleophon and Demades were chief men in the commonwealth of the Athenians, yet no man can easily say who were their fathers. In Lacedemonia, Callicratidas, Gylippus and Lysander were called mothaces, a name proper to the servants of rich men, whom they sent along with their sons to the places of exercise to be educated with them. Lycurgus, who instituted this, granted, that such of them as continued in the discipline of the young men should be free of the Lacedemonian commonwealth. The father of Epaminondas was an obscure person. Cleon tyrant of the Sicyonians was a pirate.

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§ 12.44  The quarries of Sicily were near the surface of the ground, in length a Furlong, in breadth two acres; there were in them some men who lived so long there, as to be married and have children, and some of their children never saw the city, so that when they came to Syracuse, and beheld horses in chariots, they ran away crying out, being much affrighted. The fairest of those caves did bear the name of Philoxenus the poet, in which they say he dwelt when he composed his Cyclops, the best of his Poems, not valuing the punishment imposed upon him by Dionysius, but in that calamity he exercised poetry.

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§ 12.45  The Phrygian Stories say thus; Whilest Midas the Phrygian, yet an infant, lay asleep, Ants crept into his mouth, and with much industry and pain brought thither some corn. These wrought a honey-comb in the mouth of Plato. Likewise Pindar being exposed from his father's house, Bees became his Nurses, and gave him honey instead of milk.

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§ 12.46  They say that Dionysius, son of Hermocrates, crossing a river on horse-back, his horse stuck in the mire; he leaped, and gained the bank, going away, and giving his horse for lost. But the horse following, and neighing after him, he went back, and as he was laying hold of his mane to get up, a swarm of bees setled on his hand. To Dionysius consulting what this portended, the Galetae answered, that this signified monarchy.

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§ 12.47  Dionyius banished Dio out of Sicily, but his wife Aristomache and his son by her he kept in custody: Afterwards he gave the woman in marriage against her will to Polycrates one of his guard, in whom he most confided. He was by birth a Syracusian. When Dio took Syracuse, and Dionysius fled to the Locrians, Arete sister of Dio saluted him; but Aristomache followed aloof off through shame being veiled, and not daring to salute him as her husband, because by constraint she had not kept the Matrimonial contract: but after Arete had pleaded for her, and declare the violence used to her by Dionysius, Dio received his wife and his son, and sent them to his own house.

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§ 12.48  The Indians sing the verses of Homer translated into their own language; and not only they, but the Persian Kings also, if we may believe those who relate it.

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§ 12.49  Phocion, son of Phocus, who had been often general, was condemned to die; and being in prison ready to drink hemlock, when the Executioner gave him the Cup, his Kinsmen asked him if he would say any thing to his son. He answered, "I charge him that he bear no ill will to the Athenians for this Cup which I now drink." He who does not extol and admire the man, is, in my judgement, of little understanding.

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§ 12.50  The Lacedemonians were ignorant of learning, they studied only exercise and arms; if at any time they needed the help of learning, either in Sickness or Madness, or some other public Calamity, they sent for Foreiners, as physicians; according to the oracle of Apollo, they sent for Terpander, and Thales, and Tyrtaeus, Nymphaeus the Sidoniate, and Alcman, for he was a player on the flute. Thucydides implies that they were nothing addicted to learning, in that which he delivers concerning Brasidas, for he saith that he was no good orator, as being a Lacedemonian; as if he had said, he was wholly illiterate.

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§ 12.51  Menecrates the physician grew so extremely proud, that he called himself Zeus. On a time he sent a Letter to Philip King of the Macedonians on this manner; "To Philip, menecrates Zeus well to doe": Philip writ back, "Philip to menecrates, Health; I advise you to betake your self to the places about Anticyra": hereby implying that the man was mad.
On a time Philip made a magnificent feast, and invited him to it, and commanded a bed to be prepared apart for him alone; and when he was laid down, a Censer was brought before him, and they burnt Incense to him. The rest feasted highly, and the Entertainment was magnificent. Menecrates held out a while, and rejoyced in the honour: but soon after hunger came upon him, and convinced him that he was a man, and foolish. He arose and went away, saying he was affronted; Philip having most ingeniously discovered his folly.

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§ 12.52  Isocrates the orator said of Athens, that it resembled courtesans: All that were taken with their beauty desired to enjoy them, but none would so much undervalue himself as to marry them. So Athens was pleasant to travel to, and excelled all the rest of Greece, but not secure to live in. He reflected on the many Sychophants there, and the danger from those who affected popularity.

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§ 12.53  I am not ignorant that the greatest wars have sprung from very slight occasions. They say that the Persian [War] began upon the falling out of Maeander the Samian with the Athenians; The Peloponnesian war from a tablet [or picture] of the Megareans; The war which was called Sacred, for the exacting the mulcts adjudged by the Amphictyones; The war at Chaeronea from the dispute between Philip and the Athenians, they not willing to accept of the place by way of gift [but of Restitution].

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§ 12.54  Aristotle willing to appease Alexander's Anger, and to quiet him being much incensed, wrote thus to him; "Rage and anger is not towards equals, but towards superiors; but to you no man is equal."
Aristotle advising Alexander in such things as were fit to be done, did benefit many persons; by this means he re-edified his own city, which had been razed by Philip.

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§ 12.55  Those who were slain by Elephants either in hunting or in war, the Libyans bury honourably, and sing certain Hymns. The subject of the Hymns is this, That they were brave persons that durst oppose such a beast: adding, That an honourable death was a monument to the buried.

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§ 12.56  Diogenes the Sinopean said many things in the reproof of the ignorance and want of discipline of the Megareans, and would rather chuse to be a Ram belonging to a Megarean, then his son. He implied that the Megareans had great care of their flocks, but none of their children.

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§ 12.57  When Alexander son of Philip brought his forces against Thebes, the Gods sent them many signs and prodigies, fore-shewing misfortunes greater then ever had happened; (but they, thinking that Alexander died in Illyria, gave out many reproachful speeches against him.) For the lake in Onchestus made a dreadful and continual noise, like the bellowing of a bull. The Fountain which floweth by Ismenus and the walls thereof, named Dirce, which ever until that time had run with clear and sweet water, was then unexpectedly full of blood. The Thebans believed that the Gods threatened the Macedonians. In the temple of Ceres, within the city, a spider made her web over the face of the image, working there as she useth to do. The image of Athena, surnamed Alalcomeneis, was burnt of it self, no fire being put to it: and divers other things.

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§ 12.58  Dioxippus the Athenian, an Olympic victor in wrestling, was brought [ in a chariot] in Athens, according to the custom of wrestlers. The multitude flocked together, and crowded to behold him. Amongst these a woman of extraordinary beauty came to see the show. Dioxippus beholding her, was immediately overcome with her beauty, and looked fixedly upon her, and turned his head back, often changing colour, whereby he was plainly detected by the People to be taken extraordinarily with the woman. But Diogenes the Sinopeanan did chiefly reprehend his passion thus; A gold tablet of Corinthian work being set to sale, "Behold, said he, your great wrestler with his neck writhed about by a Girl."

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§ 12.59  Pythagoras said that these two most excellent things are given by the Gods to men; To speak Truth, and to do Good [to others :] He added, that each of these resembled the actions of the Gods.

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§ 12.60  On a time Dionysius the Second and Philip son of Amyntas conversed together. Besides many other discourses which (as is probable) happened between them, was this; Philip asked Dionysius how it came to pass, that having so great a kingdom left him by his father, he did not keep it. He answered not improperly, "My father indeed left me all the rest; but the Fortune by which he obtained and kept them, he did not leave me."

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§ 12.61  Dionysius set out a Fleet against the Thurians, consisting of three hundred ships full of armed men: But, Boreas blowing contrary, broke the vessels, and destroyed all his sea-Forces. Hereupon the Thurians sacrificed to Boreas, and by a public Decree made the wind free of their city, and allotted him an house and estate, and every year performed sacred rites to him. Therefore not the Athenians only declared him their Patron, but the Thurians also registered him their benefactor. Pausanias saith that the Megalopolites did so likewise.

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§ 12.62  This was also a Persian law; If any one would give advice to the King in difficult and ambiguous affairs, he stood upon a golden Brick; and if it was conceived that his advice was good, he took the Brick in reward of his counsel, but was scourged for contradicting the King. To a free person, in my judgement, the reward did not countervalue the dishonour.

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§ 12.63  One fell in love with Archedice a courtesan at Naucratis; but she was proud and covetous, and demanded a great price; which having received, she complied a little with the giver, and then cast him off. The young man who loved her, yet could not obtain her, because he was not very rich, dreamed that he embraced her, and was immediately quit of his affection.

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§ 12.64  Alexander, son of Philip and Olympias, ending his days at Babylon, lay there dead, who had said that he was the son of Zeus. And whilst they who were about him contested for the kingdom, he remained without burial, which the poorest persons enjoy, common Nature requiring that the dead should be interred; but he was left thirty days unburied, until Aristander the Telmissian, either through divine instinct, or some other motive, came into the midst of the Macedonians, and said to them, "That Alexander was the most fortunate king of all ages, both living and dead; and that the Gods had told him, that the land which should receive the body in which his Soul first dwelt, should be absolutely happy and unvanquishable for ever." Hearing this, there arose a great emulation amongst them, every one desiring to send this carriage to his own country, that he might have this Rarity the Pledge of a firm undeclinable kingdom. But Ptolemy, if we may credit Report, stole away the body, and with all speed conveyed it to the city of Alexander in Egypt. The rest of the Macedonians were quiet, only Perdiccas pursued him; not so much moved by love of Alexander, or pious care of the dead body, as enflamed by the predictions of Aristander. As soon as he overtook Ptolemy there was a very sharp fight about the dead body, in a manner akin to that which happened concerning the image in Troy, celebrated by Homer, who saith that Apollo in defence of Aeneas engaged amidst the Heroes; for Ptolemy having made an image like to Alexander clothed it with the Royal robe, and with noble funeral ornaments, then placing it in one of the Persian chariots, adorned the Bier magnificently with silver, gold, and ivory; but the true body of Alexander he sent meanly ordered by obscure and private ways. Perdiccas seizing the image of the dead man, and the richly-adorned chariot, gave over the pursuit, thinking he had gained the prize. But too late he found that he was cozened, for he had not got that at which he aimed.

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§ 13.1  THE ARCADIAN relation concerning Atalanta daughter of Jasion is this; Her father exposed her as soon as born, for he said he had not need of daughters but sons. But he to whom she was given to be exposed did not kill her, but going into the Mountain Parthenius laid her down by a spring, where there was a rock with a cave, over which there was a place full of oaks; thus the infant was destined to death, but not deserted by Fortune: For soon after a she-bear robbed by huntsmen of her whelps, her udder swollen and opprest with fulness of milk, came by a certain divine providence, taking delight in the child gave it suck; whereby at once the beast eased her own pain, and nourished the infant: and came again, being opprest with milk; and being no longer mother of her own, became nurse to one that nothing belonged to her. The same huntsmen who before had taken her whelps watched her, and searching every part of the thicket, when the Bear according to her custom was gone to the pastures to get food, stole away Atalanta, not yet so called (for they gave her that name afterwards) and she was bred up amongst them with wild food: And by degrees her stature increased with her years, and she affected virginity, and shunned the conversation of men, and delighted in the desert, making choice of the highest of the Arcadian Mountains, where there was a valley well furnished with water and tall oaks, as also fresh gales and a thick wood. Why should it seem tedious to hear the description of Atalanta's cave, more then that of Calypso in Homer? In the hollow of the cliff there was a cave very deep fortified at the entrance with a great precipice; along it crept ivy, and twined about the young trees, upon which it climbed. Saffron also grew about the place in a young thick Grove, with which also sprung up the Hyacinths, and many other flowers of various colours, which not only feasted the eye, but the odours which they exhaled round about into the air, did afford a banquet also to the smell. Likewise there were many laurels, which being ever verdant were very delightful to the sight; vines also growing thick and full of Bunches before the cave, attested the industry of Atalanta, springs ever running clear and cool to the touch and taste flowed there abundantly. These contributed much benefit to the trees we speak of, watering them and enlivening them continually. In fine, the place was full of beauty and majesty, such as argued the prudence of the virgin.
The skins of beasts were Atalanta's bed, their flesh her food, her drink water. She wore a careless vest, such as Artemis not disdained. For she said that she imitated her as well in this as in determining to live always a virgin. She was exceeding swift of foot, so that not any beast could run away from her, nor any man that layed wait for her, was able (if she would run away) to overtake her. She was beloved, not only of all those who saw her, but also of those who heard the report of her. If therefore it be not tedious we will describe her person. But tedious it cannot be, since hereby we may arrive at some degree of skill in Rhetorick. Whilest she was yet a child, she exceeded in stature those who were women grown; for Beauty she went beyond all other of the Peloponnesian virgins of that time. Her look was masculine and fierce, occasioned partly by eating the flesh of wild beasts, (for she was very couragious) partly by her exercise on the Mountains. She had nothing of an effeminate loose disposition, neither did she come out of the Thalamus [where virgins are educated] nor was one of those who are brought up by mothers or nurses. She was not corpulent; for by hunting and other exercise she preserved herself in a good Constitution. Her hair was yellow, not by any womanish art or dye, but by nature. Her face was of a ruddy Complexion, somewhat tanned by the Sun. What flower is so beautiful as the countenance of a modest virgin? She had two admirable properties, an irresistible Beauty, and an awfulness. No timid person could fall in love with her, for such durst not look upon her, so much did her splendour dazle the beholders. That which caused her to be admired, besides other things, was her reservedness. For she exposed not her self to view, unless accidentally in following the chase, or defending herself from some man; in which action she broke forth like lightning, then immediately hid herself in the thickest of the wood. On a time it happened that two bold young-men of the neighbouring country, Centaurs, Hyleus and Rhecus, in love with her, came in a frolic to her. They had no players on the flute in this frolick, nor such things as the young men use in cities upon the like occasion, but took with them lighted Torches, the sight whereof might have frighted a multitude, much more a lone Maiden. Then breaking boughs from the Pine trees, they twined them about them, and made themselves Garlands of them, and with continual clashing of weapons as they went along the Mountains, set fire on the trees in their way to her, presenting her with injuries instead of Nuptial gifts. She was aware of their Plot, for she beheld the fire from her cave, and knowing who those revellers were, was nothing terrified with the sight: but drawing her bow, and letting fly an arrow, chanced to kill the first, who falling down, the other assaulted her, not in mirth, but as an enemy to revenge his friend and satisfie his passion. But he met with another vindictive arrow from her hand. Thus much of Atalanta daughter of Jasion.

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§ 13.2  A Mitylenaean, by name Macareus, Priest of Dionysus, was of a mild and good look, but the most impious of all men. A stranger coming to him, and giving him a great sum of money to lay up, in the inner part of the temple; Macareus digging a hole, hid the gold in the ground. Afterwards the stranger returning, demanded his money; he leading him in as if he meant to restore it murdered him, digging up the gold buried the man in the place, thinking that what he did was hid as well from God as from men; but it proved otherwise, for not long after, within a few days came the triennial solemnity. Whilest he was busied in the celebrating the Rites of Dionysus in much state, his two sons that were left at home, imitating their father's sacrificing, went to the altar, where the brands were yet burning. The younger held out his neck, the elder finding a knife left there by accident, slew his brother as a victim. They of the family seeing this cried out. The mother hearing the cry, rushed forth, and seeing one of her sons slain, the other standing by with a bloody sword, snatched a brand from the altar, and killed her surviving son. The news was brought to Macareus, who giving over sacrifice, with all speed and eagerness ran to his own house, and with the Thyrsus which he had in his hand, killed his wife. This wickedness was publicly known: Macareus was taken, and being tortured, confessed what he had perpetrated in the temple. In the midst of these tortures he gave up the ghost. But the other who was murdered unjustly, had public honour, and was interred by the appointment of God. Thus Macareus suffered due revenge, as the poet saith, with his own head, and his wives, and his childrens.

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§ 13.3  Xerxes son of Darius, breaking up the monument of ancient Belus, found an urn of glass in which his dead body lay in oil; but the urn was not full, it wanted a hand-breadth of the top: Next the urn there was a little pillar, on which it was written, "That whosoever should open the sepulchre, and not fill up the urn, should have ill fortune." Which Xerxes reading, grew afraid, and commanded that they should pour oil into it with all speed; notwithstanding, it was not filled: Then he commanded to pour into it the second time, but neither did it increase at all thereby; so that at last failing of success, he gave over; and shutting up the monument departed very sad. Nor did the event foretold by the pillar deceive him; for he had an army of fifty myriads against Greece, where he received a great defeat, and returning home, died miserably, being murthered in his bed by his own son, in the night time.

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§ 13.4  King Archelaus made a great entertainment for his friends. And when they fell to drink, Euripides took off unmixt wine so freely, that by degrees he became drunk. Then embracing Agathon the tragic poet, who lay on the couch next him, he kissed him, who was at that time forty years of age. Archelaus asking him whether he seemed amiable at those years, "Yes, said he, of the beautiful not the spring only, but even the autumn also is fair."

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§ 13.5  They say that Laius fell in love with Chrysippus son of Pelops.

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§ 13.6  At Heraea in Arcadia, I am informed there are vines from which is made wine, which bereaveth men of the use of reason, and maketh the Arcadians mad, but causeth fruitfulness in the women.
It is said that in Thasos there are two sorts of wines; one being drunk procureth sleep, profound, and consequently sweet; the other is an enemy to life, and causeth wakefulness and disturbance.
In Achaea about Cerynia there is a kind of wine, which causeth women to miscarry.

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§ 13.7  When Alexander took Thebes, he sold all the freemen except the priests. And those who had formerly entertained his father as their guest, he set at liberty (for Philip, when a child lived there in hostage) and such as were akin to them. He also respected those who were descended from Pindar, and permitted his house only to stand. He slew of the Thebans ninety thousand, the captives were thirty thousand.

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§ 13.8  They say that Lysander the Lacedemonian living in Ionia, and rejecting the laws of Lycurgus as burthensome, led a luxurious life.

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§ 13.9  Lamia the Attic courtesan said, "The Lions of Greece coming to Ephesus become Foxs."

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§ 13.10  In one day Dionysius married two wives, Doris the Locrian, and Aristaeneta daughter of Hipparinus, sister of Dio, and bedded them by turns: One accompanied him in the army, the other entertained him when he came home.

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§ 13.11  It was related to me that Isocrates the orator was occasion of the conquest of the Persians, whom the Macedonians subdued. For the fame of the Panegyric oration which Isocrates made to the Grecians, coming to Macedonia, first excited Philip against Asia, and he dying, it also instigated Alexander his son and heir to prosecute the design of his father.

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§ 13.12  Meton the Astronomer, when the Athenian soldiers were upon an expedition against Sicily, was registered amongst them in the catalogue. But clearly foreseeing the future disasters, he through fear shunned the voyage, endeavouring to be quit of the expedition. But when that nothing availed, he counterfeited madness, and amongst other things, to procure a belief of his infirmity, fired his own house which was next the Poecile. Hereupon the Archons dismissed him, and in my opinion, Meton much better counterfeited madness then Ulysses the Ithacan; for Palamedes discovered him, but none of the Athenians Meton.

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§ 13.13  They say that Ptolemy son of Lagus took great delight in making his friends rich; for he said, "'Tis better to enrich others, then be rich our selves."

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§ 13.14  The Ancients sung the verses of Homer, divided into several parts, to which they gave particular names; as the fight at the ships, and the Dolonia, and the victory of Agamemnon, and the Catalogue of the ships. Moreover the Patroclea, and the Lytra, [or redemption of Hector's body] and the games instituted for Patroclus, and the breach of vows. Thus much of the Iliad. As concerning the other, [the Odyssey] the actions at Pytas, and the actions at Lacedemon, and the cave of Calypso, and the Boat, the Discourses of Alcinous, the Cyclopias, the Necuia and the washings of Circe, the death of the wooers, the actions in the Field, and concerning Laertes.
But long after Lycurgus the Lacedemonian brought all Homer's poetry first into Greece from Ionia whether he travelled. Last of all Pisistratus compiling them, formed the Iliad and Odyssey.

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§ 13.15  The Comic poets say that one Polydorus, had a very gross understanding, and a skin scarce penetrable: also that there was another by name Caecylian, who, through excessive folly endeavoured to number the waves. There is a report that there was one Sannyrion like these, who sought Ladder-rounds in a glass. They say also that Coroebus and Meltitides were very blockish.

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§ 13.16  The Apolloniats inhabit a city next Epidamnum in the Ionian sea: In the places next them, there is a vein of Brimstone, which springeth out of the ground as fountains cast up water. Not far off there is shewed a continual fire. The Hill which burneth is but little, reacheth not farre, and hath but a small circumference, but smelleth of Sulphur and Alum. About it there are many trees green and flourishing, nothing injured by the neighbouring fire, either as to the shooting out young ones, or to their own growth. The fire burns night and day, and never intermitted, as the Apolloniats affirm, until the war which they waged with the Illyrians.
The Apolloniats according to the Lacedemonian law prohibited foreigners. But the Epidamnians allowed any one that would to come and live amongst them.

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§ 13.17  Phrynichus feareth a swarm of wasps like a cock. It is proverbially said of persons that are worsted; for Phrynichus the Tragic poet acting the taking of Miletus, the Athenians weeping made him quit the Stage, afraid and daunted.

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§ 13.18  Dionysius tyrant of Sicily, affected and commended Tragedy, and made Tragedies: but he was averse from Comedy, for he loved not laughter.

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§ 13.19  Cleomenes said Laconically according to the manner of his country, that Homer was the poet of the Lacedemonians, declaring how men should fight; but Hesiod of the Slaves, declaring how men should till the ground.

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§ 13.20  A Megalipolitan of Arcadia named Cercidas, dying, said to his friends that he parted with his life willingly, for that he hoped to converse with Pythagoras of the wise; with Hecataeus of the Historians; with Olympus of the Musicians; and with Homer of the poets, and as soon as he had said this, died.

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§ 13.21  If at Celene any one play on the flute before the skin of the Phrygian [Marsyas] the skin moves, but if any tune or Hymn of Apollo, it stirs not.

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§ 13.22  Ptolemaeus Philopator having built a temple to Homer, erected a fair image of him, and placed about the image those cities which contended for Homer. Galaton the painter drew Homer vomiting, and the rest of the poets gathering it up.

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§ 13.23  Lycurgus the Lacedemonian, son of Eunomus, willing to teach the Lacedemonians justice, was not duly requited. For one of his eyes were put out by Alcander, as some think by a stone cast from an ambush, or as others, by a blow with a stick. This is said to those who aim at one thing and receive another. Ephorus saith that he died of hunger in banishment.

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§ 13.24  Lycurgus the orator made a law, that women should not go in chariots at the festival solemnities called Mysteries, and that she who did so should be fined at his pleasure. The first that transgressed this law was his own wife, who being convicted, payed the fine.
Pericles also made a law, that none should be a free Athenian, but he whose parents were both Athenians. Afterwards Pericles, losing his legitimate children, had only one natural son left him. It is manifest that he designed one thing, and that the contrary befell him.
Clisthenes the Athenian first brought in [the] way of banishment by Ostracism, and first felt the punishment of it.
Zaleucus, the law-giver of the Locrians ordained, that whosoever was taken in adultery should lose both his eyes. It fell out contrary to his expectation, for his son being surprized in adultery, was to suffer the punishment decreed by his father. Hereupon, lest what was confirmed by general Votes should be violated, he suffered one of his own eyes to be put out, and one of his sons, that the young man might not be quite blind.

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§ 13.25  Pindar the poet contending at Thebes, lighting upon ignorant Auditors, was worsted by Corinna five times.

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§ 13.26  Diogenes the Sinopean was left alone deserted by all men, not being able by reason of his indigence to entertain any man, nor would any one entertain him, all avoiding him because of his sower way of reprehension, and because he was morose in all his actions and sayings. Hereupon he became troubled, and did feed on the tops of leaves; for this food was ready for him. But a Mouse coming thither, fed upon some crums of Bread which she found scattered there; which Diogenes diligently observing, smiled, and becoming more chearful and pleasant to himself said; "This Mouse requires not the plentiful diet of the Athenians, and art thou Diogenes troubled that thou dost not feast with them?" By this means he acquired tranquillity to himself.

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§ 13.27  It is reported that Socrates was very temperate and continent, insomuch that when the Athenians part died, the rest were sick almost to death, Socrates alone escaped the disease. Now he whose body was so well tempered, what an excellent soul must he have!

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§ 13.28  When Diogenes left his country, one of his servants followed him; who not brooking his conversation run away. Some persuading Diogenes to make enquiry after him, he said, "Is it not a shame that Manes should not need Diogenes, and that Diogenes should need Manes?" But this servant wandring to Delphi, was torn in pieces by dogs, paying to his masters name [Cynic] the punishment of his running away.

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§ 13.29  Plato said, That Hope is the Dream of men that are awake.

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§ 13.30  Olympias, mother of Alexander, understanding that her son lay long unburied,, grieving and lamenting exceedingly, said, "O son, thou wouldest have had a share in Heaven, and didst endeavour it eagerly; now thou canst not enjoy that which is equally common to all men, earth and burial." Thus she, bewailing her own misfortune, and reproving the pride of her son.

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§ 13.31  Xenocrates the Chalcedonian was not only kind to men, but often to irrational creatures also. On a time a sparrow, pursued by a hawk, flew to his bosom, he took it, much pleased, and hid it till the enemy was out of sight; and when he thought it was out of fear and danger, opening his bosom, he let it go, saying, that he had not betrayed a suppliant.

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§ 13.32  Xenophon relates that Socrates disputed with Theodota a courtesan, a woman of extraordinary beauty. He also argued with Calisto, who said, "I (o son of Sophroniscus) excel you, for you cannot draw away any of my followers, but I can whensoever I please draw away all yours." He answered, "Very likely, for you draw them down a precipice, but I drive them to virtue, which is a steep and difficult ascent."

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§ 13.33  The Egyptians relations affirm that Rhodopis was a most beautiful courtesan; and that on a time as she was bathing her self, Fortune, who loveth to do extravagant and unexpected things, gave her a reward: suitable, not to her mind, but her beauty. For whilest she was washing, and her Maids looked to her clothes, an eagle stooping down, snatched up one of her shoes, and carried it away to Memphis, where Psammetichus was sitting in judgement, and let the shoe fall into his lap. Psammetichus wondring at the shape of the shoe, and neatness of the work, and the action of the bird, sent throughout Egypt to find out the woman to whom the shoe belonged; and having found her out, married her.

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§ 13.34  Dionysius having given order that Leon should be put to death, did three times bid the officers carry him away, and three times changed his mind. Every time that he sent for him back he kissed him, weeping, and execrating himself for that when he took the sword to put him to death, he was overcome with fear. At last he commanded him to be slain, saying, "Leon, you must not live."

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§ 13.35  Naturalists affirm that the hart, when he would purge himself, eateth the herb seselis: and being bitten by phalangies he eats Crabs.

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§ 13.36  Olympias to Eurydice, daughter of Philip by an Illyrian wife, sent hemlock, a rope and a sword; but she made choice of the rope.

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§ 13.37  Gelo tyrant of the Syracusans, behaved himself in the government very mildly, yet some seditious persons conspired against him, which Gelo understanding, convocated all the Syracusans, and coming amongst them armed, declared what good things he had done for them, and revealed the conspiracy. Then putting off his armour, he said to them all, "Behold me now in my coat, I stand unarmed before you, and give my self up to be disposed as you will." The Syracusans admiring his courage, delivered the conspirators into his hands, and gave the regal power again to him. But Gelo remitted them to the people to be punished. Hereupon the Syracusans erected his statue in a coat ungirt, [unarmed] in memory of his oration to the people, and for the instruction of those should reign after him.

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§ 13.38  Alcibiades admired Homer exceedingly. On a time coming to a school of boys, he asked for the rhapsody of the Iliads. The schoolmaster answering, that he had nothing of Homer, he gave him a sound box on the ear, and went away, shewing that he was ignorant himself, and made his scholars such.
The same person being sent for by the Athenians out of Sicily to answer a capital indictment, refused to appear, saying, "It is a foolish thing for a man that is accused, if he can escape, to go to a place whence he cannot escape." One saying to him, "Will you not trust your cause to your own country?" "No, saith he, not to my own master; for I should fear lest through ignorance or mistake of the truth, he should cast in a black stone instead of a white." Hearing then that he was sentenced to death by the citizens, "But we will shew, said he, that we are alive": and going speedily to the Lacedemonians, he set on foot the Decelian war against the Athenians.
He said, that it was nothing strange the Lacedemonians died fearless in war; for so they escaped the severity of their laws, and chearfully exchanged labours for death.
He used to say of his own actions, that he led the life of the Dioscuri, dying one day and reviving the next: for whilest he was favoured of the people, he was thought equal to the Gods, but losing their favour, he differed nothing from the dead.

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§ 13.39  Ephialtes, a certain commander reproching him for poverty, said, "Why do you not add the other thing, That I am just."

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§ 13.40  A golden Persian chain lying by chance on the ground, Themistocles standing by, said to a servant, "Boy, why dost thou not take up this foundling," pointing to the chain; "for thou art not Themistocles."
The Athenians having on a time dishonoured him, afterwards invited him to the generalship. But he said, "I commend not those men who make use of the same vessel for the meanest, and for the best offices."
To Eurybiades he had said something unpleasing, who thereupon held up his staff. But he, strike so you hear; for he knew what he was about to say was advantageous for the commonwealth.

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§ 13.41  They who are to die with Phocion making lamentation; Phocion said, "Then you are not proud, o Thudippus, of dying with Phocion."

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§ 13.42  Epaminondas returning from Lacedemonia, was arraigned for a capital offence, for having continued the office of Boeotarch four months longer then the law allowed. He bad his partners lay the blame on him, as if they had been compelled thereto against their wills. Then coming into the court, he said that he had not any arguments better then his actions, which if they approved not, he required that they would put him to death. But withall, that they should write upon a pillar, that Epaminondas had forced the Thebans against their wills to lay Laconia waste, what had continued five hundred years unviolated by enemies. And to restore Messenia, which had been three hundred and thirty years possessed by the Spartans. And that he had made the Arcadians their Allies, and restored to the Greeks their liberty. The judges reverencing him for these things, acquitted him. At his going out of the court, a little Melitean dog fawned upon him; whereupon he said to the standers-by, "This thanks me gratefully for the good I have done it, but the Thebans, to whom I have often done good, arraigned me for my life."

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§ 13.43  Timotheus general of the Athenians, is reported to have been very successful; he said that Fortune was the cause of all these, but Timotheus of none. Hereupon the painters, abusing him, drew him sleeping in a tent, and over his head stood Fortune drawing cities into a net.
Themistocles being asked, with what in his whole life he was most pleased, answered, "To see the whole theatre at the Olympic games turn their eyes upon me as I passed into the stadium."

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§ 13.44  Themistocles, and Aristides son of Lysimachus, had the same governors, they were also brought up together, and taught by one master, but whilest yet boys, they were always at variance; and this emulation continued from their childhood, to extreme old age.

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§ 13.45  Dionysius [the Younger] put his mother to death by poison. His brother Leptines, whom in a sea-fight he might have saved, he suffered to be slain.

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§ 13.46  Patrae is a city in Achaia. A boy there had bought a young dragon, and brought it up with care, and when it was grown bigger, used to talk to it as to one that understood him, and played, and slept with it. At last the dragon growing to an extraordinary bigness, the citizens turned it loose into the wilderness. Afterwards the boy being grown to a youth, returning from some show with other youths his companions, fell among thieves, and crying out, behold, the dragon came and slew them; which stung some, slew others, but preserved him.

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§ 14.1  ARISTOTLE SON OF Nicomachus, a person that really was, as well as esteemed wise, when one took away from him the honours decreed to him at Delphi, writing hereupon to Antipater, said, "As to those things that were decreed for me at Delphi, and of which I am now deprived, I am so affected, as that I neither much care for them, nor care nothing for them." This he said, not through love of glory; neither can I accuse Aristotle (who was so great a person) thereof. But he wisely considered that there was a great deal of difference betwixt not receiving an honour, and after having received it, to be deprived of it. For it is no great trouble not to obtain it, but a great vexation having obtained it, afterwards to be bereaved of it.

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§ 14.2  Agesilaus used to commend the barbarians who broke their Oaths, because, by perjury they made the Gods their enemies, but Friends and Assistants to him.

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§ 14.3  Timotheus inveighing bitterly against Aristophontes for being prodigal, said, "To whom nothing is sufficient, nothing is dishonest."

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§ 14.4  Aristides the Locrian being bit by a Tartesian weasel, and dying, said, That it would have pleased him much better to have died by the biting of a Lion or Leopard, (since he must have died by something) then by such a beast. He brooked in my opinion the ignomy of the biting much worse then the death it self.

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§ 14.5  The Athenians conferred offices Civil and Military, not only on native citizens, but also often preferred strangers before citizens, and put them in authority over the commonwealth, if they knew them to be truly good and honest men, and proper for such things. They often created Apollodorus the Cyzicene their general, though a stranger, so likewise Heraclides the Clazomenian; for having behaved themselves worthily, they were esteemed not unworthy to govern the Athenians. And for this thing the city is to be commended, which betrayed not truth to gratifie the citizens, but not seldom bestowed the chief dignity even on those who were nothing allied to them, yet in regard of their virtue most worthy of honour.

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§ 14.6  Aristippus by strong Arguments advised that we should not be sollicitious about things past or future; arguing, that not to be troubled at such things, is a sign of a constant clear spirit. He also advised to take care only for the present day, and in that day, only of the present part thereof, wherein something was done or thought; for he said, the present only is in our power, not the past or future; the one being gone, the other uncertain whether ever it will come.

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§ 14.7  There is a Lacedemonian law which saith thus; That no Lacedemonian shall be of an unmanly Complexion, or of greater weight then is fit for the exercises; for this seemeth to argue laziness, that, effeminacy. It was likewise ordered by law, that every tenth day the young men should shew themselves naked before the Ephors; If they were of a solid strong Constitution, and molded as it were for exercise, they were commended; but if any Limb was found to be soft and tender by reason of fatness accrued by idleness, they were beaten and punished. Moreover the Ephori took particular care every day that their garments should be looked into, that they should be no otherwise then exact and fit to the body. The cooks at Lacedemon might not dress any thing but flesh. He who was skilled in any other kind of cookery was cast out of Sparta. Nauclidas son of Polybiades, for being grown too fat and heavy through luxury and idleness, they took out of the public Assembly, and threatned to punish him by banishment, unless he alter that blameable and rather Ionic then Laconic of life: For his shape and habit of body was a shame to Lacedemon and our laws.

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§ 14.8  Polycletus made two images at the same time; one at the pleasure of the people, the other according to the rule of art. He gratified the common people in this manner; As often as any one came in, he altered the picture as he would have it, following his direction. He exposed them both together to public view, one was admired by all, the other laughed at. Hereupon Polycletus said, "Yet this which you find fault with, you yourselves made, this which you admire, I."
Hippomachus a player on the flute, when one of his scholars missed in playing, yet was nevertheless commended by the standers by, struck him with a stick, saying, "You played false, otherwise these would not have commended you."

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§ 14.9  Xenocrates the Chalcedonian, being reproved by Plato for his want of gratefulness, was nothing angry thereat, as is reported, but prudently silenced one who pressed him to answer Plato, saying, This benefits me.

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§ 14.10  The Athenians preferred Demades to be their general before Phocion; who being thus advanced grew high in his own esteem, and coming to Phocion, "Lend me, said he, that sordid Cloak which you used to wear in your generalship." He answered, "You will never want any thing that is sordid, whilest you continue what you are."

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§ 14.11  Philiscus on a time said to Alexander, Study glory, yet be not a pestilence or great sickness, but peace and Health: Affirming that to govern tyranically and severely, and to take cities and depopulate Countries is a Pestilence; but to consult the preservation of subjects, is Health; these are the benefits of peace.

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§ 14.12  The Persian King whilest he travelled had (to divert the tediousness of his journey) a little stick, which they call Philyrium, and a knife to cut it. Thus were the Kings hands employed. They never had any Books, wherein they might read of something great, memorable, and worthy of Discourse.

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§ 14.13  Agatho used many Antitheses. Whereupon a person that would have corrected his writings, told him, that all those should be put out of his play. He answered, "But you observed not, excellent Sir, that by this means you blot Agatho quite out of Agatho." So much was he pleased with these, and thought these Tragedies upheld by them.

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§ 14.14  A certain person received Stratonicus the lutenist very civilly. He was much pleased with the invitation; for he had not any friend to entertain him, being come into a strange country. Hereupon he returned great thanks to the man, who so readily had received him under his roof. But when he saw another come in, and after him another, and perceived that he had made his house free for all that would come; "Let us get away, boy, said he to his servant, for we have got a wood-pigeon instead of a dove, we have not lighted upon a friends house, but upon an inn."

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§ 14.15  It is a saying that the Discourses of Socrates are like the pictures of Pauson. For Pauson the painter being desired to make the picture of a horse tumbling on his back, drew him running. And when he who had bespoke the picture, was angry that he had not drawn it according to his directions, the painter said, "Turn it the other way, and the horse which now runneth, will then roll upon his back." So Socrates did not discourse downright, but if his discourses were turned, they appeared very right. For he was unwilling to gain the hatred of those to whom he discoursed, and for that reason delivered things enigmatically and obliquely.

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§ 14.16  Hipponicus son of Callias would erect a statue as a gift to his country. One advised him that the statue should be made by Polycletus. He answered, "I will not have such a statue, the glory whereof will redound not to the giver, but to the carver. For it is certain that all who see the art, will admire Polycletus and not me."

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§ 14.17  Socrates said that Archelaus had bestowed forty Minae upon his house, having hired Zeuxis the Heracleote to adorn it with pictures, but upon himself nothing. For what cause many came from far out of curiosity to see the house, but none came to Macedonia for the sake of Archelaus himself, unless he allured and invited any by money, with which a virtuous person is not taken.

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§ 14.18  A Chian being angry with his servant, "I, saith he, will not put you into the mill, but will carry you to Olympia." He thought, it seems, that it was a far greater punishment to be spectator of the Olympic game, in the excessive heat of the sun, then to be put to work in a mill.

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§ 14.19  Archytas was very modest, as in all other things, so in speech, avoiding all obscenity of Language. There happened a necessity of speaking something unseemly, he held his peace, and wrote it on a wall; shewing that what he was forced to speak, though forced, he would not speak.

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§ 14.20  A Sybarite a Pedagogue (which kind of people were addicted to luxury as well as the rest of the Sybarites,) when a boy that went along with him found a fig by the way, and took it up, chid him for so doing; but most ridiculously took it away from the boy, and eat it himself. When I read this in the Sybaritic Histories, I laughed, and committed it to memory, not envying others the pleasure of laughing at it too.

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§ 14.21  There was a poet named Syagrus, after Orpheus and Musaeus, who is said first to have sung the Trojan war, daring to undertake this which was the greatest subject.

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§ 14.22  Tryzus a tyrant, that he might prevent conspiracies and treasons against him, commanded the inhabitants that they should not speak together, either in public or private; which thing was most grievous and intolerable. Hereupon they eluded the tyrant's command, and signified their minds to one another by actions of the eyes, of the hand, and of the head. Sometimes they beheld one another with a melancholly brow, sometimes with a serene and chearful. But from the looks of every one it was evident, that they brooked ill their oppressed intolerable condition. And this also troubled the tyrant who conceived that even their silence, by various gestures and looks, contrived some ill against him. Wherefore he prohibited even this likewise by law. Hereupon one of them, much troubled at this disconsolate manner of life, and instigated with a desire of dissolving the tyranny, went into the market-place where standing he wept bitterly; the people came and stood all round about him, bursting also into tears. The news hereof was brought to the tyrant, that they used not any signs, but went grievously; who making hast to prohibit this also, and not only to enslave their tongues and gestures, but even to debarre their eyes of natural freedome, he went on foot with his guard to prohibit their weeping. But as soon as ever they saw him, they snatched weapons out of the hands of his guard, and killed the tyrant.

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§ 14.23  Clinias was a virtuous person; as to his opinion, a Pythagorean. He whensoever he grew angry, and perceived his mind ready to be transported with passion, immediately before anger took absolute possession of him, tuned his lute and played upon it. To those who asked him the reason, he answered, "It allayeth my anger."
Achilles also in the Iliad, singing to the lute, and commemorating in song the glories of former persons, seems to me to have thereby assuaged his indignation; and being musically given, the first thing of the spoils which he seized, was a lute.

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§ 14.24  Of those who despised money, and declared their own greatness of mind, seeing that whilest they themselves abounded with wealth, their countrymen were oppressed with extreme poverty were, at Corinth Theocles and Thrasonides; at Mitylene, Praxis. These also advised others to relieve such as lay under great want. But the rest refusing, they released such debts as were due to themselves, and thereby received great advantage, not as to wealth but the mind. For they whose debts were not forgiven rose up in arms against their creditors, and excited by rage, invincible poverty, and necessity, slew them.

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§ 14.25  On a time the Chians were exceedingly at variance among themselves, and generally infected with that disease. Hereupon, one amongst them, who was naturally a lover of his country, said to those of his friends, who would that all the adverse party should be cast out of the city, "By no means, said he, but when have obtained the victory, let us leave some of them, lest hereafter wanting adversaries, we should war with one another." By which words he appeased them, it seeming to all that he spoke discreetly.

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§ 14.26  Antagoras the poet meeting Arcesilaus the philosopher in the Forum, railed at him. But he with an unmoved courage went to that place where he saw there were most men, and discoursed with them, that the Railer might make a public discovery of his folly. They hearing Antagoras, turned away from him, blaming him as mad.

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§ 14.27  I commend those above all who suppress rising ills, and cut them off before they grow to a head. Agesilaus advised that they should be arraigned and put to death, who had made a Conspiracy privately by night to assault the Thebans.

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§ 14.28  One reproched Pytheas an orator that he was wicked; he denied it not, being convinced by his conscience; but answered, he had been wicked the shortest time of any that ever had an interest in the Athenian government. It seems he pleased himself, in that he had not always been bad, and thought it no disparagement to him, so that he were not reckoned amongst the worst. But this of Pytheas was foolish; for not only he who doth wrong is wicked, but he also in my opinion that hath an intention to do wrong.

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§ 14.29  Lysander brought wealth into Lacedemon, and taught the Lacedemonians to transgress the law of God, who charged that Sparta should have no way accessible for gold or silver. Hereupon some wise persons, who still retained the Laconic integrity: worthy Lycurgus and Pythius opposed him, others who gave way were branded with infamy. And their virtue, which had flourished from the beginning until then, perished.

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§ 14.30  Hanno the Carthaginian through pride would not be contained within the bounds of Mankind, but designed to spread a fame of himself transcending that Nature which was allotted to him. For having bought many singing birds, he brought them up in the dark, teaching them one song, Hanno is a God. They hearing no other sound, learned this perfectly, and then he let them loose several ways, conceiving that they would disperse this song concerning him. But flying abroad, and enjoying their liberty, and returning to their accustomed diet, they sung the notes proper to their kinds, bidding a long farewel to Hanno, and to the song, which he had taught them when they were kept up prisoners.

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§ 14.31  Ptolemy Tryphon, (for so he was called from his manner of living) when a beautiful woman came to speak with him, said, "My sister advised me not to admit discourse with a fair woman." She confidently and readily replied, "You may receive it then from a fair man"; which he hearing commended her.

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§ 14.32  A Lacedemonian named Pimandridas, being to take a journey, committed the management of his estate to his son. At his return finding his means encreased much beyond what he had left, he told his son that he had wronged the Gods, and those of his family and Guests: For whatsoever abounds in our estates, should by such as are free persons be bestowed upon them. But to seem whilest we live, indigent, and being dead, to be found to have been rich, is the most dishonourable thing amongst men.

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§ 14.33  Diogenes being present at a discourse of Plato's, would not mind it, whereat Plato angry said, "Thou dog, why mindest thou not? Diogenes unmoved, answered, "Yet I never return to the place where I was sold, as dogs doe"; alluding to Plato's Voyage to Sicily.
It is reported that Plato used to say of Diogenes, "This man is Socrates mad."

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§ 14.34  The Egyptians affirm that they learnt their law of Hermes. Thus all people magnify what belongs to themselves. The judges amongst the Egyptians were of old the same with their Priests. Of these the eldest was the Chief, and judged all; he must be the most just, and upright of men. He had a sculpture about his neck of sapphire, which sculpture was named Truth: but, as I conceive, a judge should wear Truth not engraved in a stone, but in his mind.

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§ 14.35  Lais was called also Axine [An Axe;] which name implies the cruelty of her disposition, and that she extorted much, especially of Strangers, who were to depart suddenly.

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§ 14.36  They are to be laughed at who think highly of themselves because of their parents and ancestors; for we know not the father of Marius, but admire him for his own actions. As likewise Cato, Servilius, Hostilius, and Romulus.

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§ 14.37  Statues which the art of Carving affords us, and images I use to look upon not carelessly; for there is much wisdom observable in this art: which may be argued, besides many other things, from this, that no Carver or painter did ever represent to us the Muses, in shape feigned, or misbecoming the daughters of Zeus: neither was there ever any Artist so mad as to represent them in armour. Which demonstrateth, that the life of those who are addicted to the Muses, ought to be peaceful, quiet, and worthy of them.

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§ 14.38  I have been told many excellent sayings of Epaminondas the Theban, amongst the rest this; He said to Pelopidas that he never went out of the forum every day, until he had gained a new friend to add to the number of his old.

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§ 14.39  A King of Persia, (for I will relate to you somthing pleasant) dipping a Garland which was woven of roses, in sweet Unguents, sent it to Antalcidas who came to him on an Embassy for peace. But he, "I receive saith he, the gift, and commend the civility; but you have spoiled the native odour of the roses with the adulteration of art."

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§ 14.40  Alexander tyrant of the Pheraeans was thought to be extremely cruel. But when Theodorus the Tragic poet did with much passion act the Tragedy Aerope, he burst forth into tears, and rising up went out of the theater: He made an Apology to Theodorus, that he went not away through any slighting or disrespect of him, but that he was ashamed to discover compassion at a play, not shewing any to his subjects.

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§ 14.41  Apollodorus drinking wine more then any man, did not conceal his Vice, or endeavour to hide his drunkenness, and the ill consequence thereof, but being enflamed and enraged with wine, shewed himself more bloody, increasing the cruelty of his nature by this corporeal vice.

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§ 14.42  Xenocrates friend of Plato used to say, That it is all one whether we put our feet or our eyes in the house of another man: for he sins as much who looks upon those places which he ought not, as he who enters upon them.

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§ 14.43  They say that Ptolemy used to pass his time at Dice. In the mean time one standing by, read the names of condemned persons, and the crimes for which they were condemned, that he might decree who of them should be put to death. Berenice his wife taking the Book from the servant, would not suffer him to reade any farther, saying, That when the lives of men were in question, it should not be so slightly considered, but seriously and not at play: for there is no comparison betwixt Dice and men. Ptolemy was pleased herewith, and would never after hear judicial affairs whilest he was playing at Dice.

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§ 14.44  A young man a Lacedemonian having bought Land at an under-rate, was cited before the Magistrates and fined. The reason why he was thought worthy punishment, was this; That being a young-man, he was eagerly bent upon gain. Amongst other things of the Lacedemonians this was very manly, to oppose not only enemies but Covetousness.

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§ 14.45  We extol of the Grecian women: Penelope, Alcestis, and the wife of Protesilaus: Of Roman, Cornelia, Porcia, and Cestilia. I could reckon many more, but I will not, having alledged so few of the Grecians, overwhelm them with Roman names, lest any one should think I gratify my own country.

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§ 14.46  The Magnetes who border upon Maeander warring against the Ephesians, every horseman took along with him a hound, and a servant that served as an archer. As soon as they came near, the dogs falling fiercely upon the enemy, disordered them, and the servants advancing before their masters, shot. The dogs first routed them, then the servants did them much harm; and lastly, they themselves fell upon them.

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§ 14.47  When Zeuxis the Heracleote had drawn Helen, Nicostratus a painter was astonished at the sight of the picture. One coming to him, asked what was the reason he so much admired the workmanship; He answered, "If you had my eyes you would not ask me." I may say the same of an oration, if a man hath not learned ears, as an artist skilful eyes.

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§ 14.48  Alexander was jealous of Ptolemy's good fortune, of Arrhius his turbulency, and of Pytho's study of innovation.

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§ 14.49  Philip taking the sons of the noblest in Macedonia, made them wait upon his person, not in contempt of them, or to affront them, but that he might make them ready and expedite for action. To such of them as were addicted to luxury, or performed his commands remissly, he is said to have been very severe. Thus he did beat Aphthonetus, because upon a march, being thirsty, he left his rank, and went out of the way to an inn. Archedamus he put to death for putting off his arms, when he had commanded him to keep them on.

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END
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