Hesiod, Fragments

Fragments, Hesiod, Works and Days, Theogony, Shield of Heracles, Miscellany, and Fragments, translated by Hugh Gerard Evelyn-White (1874-1924), from the Loeb edition of 1914, now in the public domain, with thanks to www.theoi.com for making the text available on line. This text has 161 tagged references to 99 ancient places.
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§ CW.F3  CATALOGUES OF WOMEN
MAGNES AND MACEDON The district Macedonia took its name from Macedon the son of Zeus and Thyia, Deucalion's daughter, as Hesiod says: 'And she conceived and bare to Zeus who delights in the thunderbolt two sons, Magnes and Macedon, rejoicing in horses, who dwell round about Pieria and Olympus ((lacuna)) . . . And Magnes again (begot) Dictys and godlike Polydectes.'

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§ CW.F4  DEUCALIONIDES: And from Hellen the war-loving king sprang Dorus and Xuthus and Aeolus delighting in horses. And the sons of Aeolus, kings dealing justice, were Cretheus, and Athamas, and clever Sisyphus, and wicked Salmoneus and overbold Perieres.'

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§ CW.F5  DEUCALIONIDES Those who were descended from Deucalion used to rule over Thessaly as Hecataeus and Hesiod say.

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§ CW.F6  ALOADAE Aloiadae. Hesiod said that they were sons of Aloeus, — called so after him, — and of Iphimedea, but in reality sons of Poseidon and Iphimedea, and that Alus a city of Aitolia was founded by their father.

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§ CW.F7  BELLEROPHON Eurynome the daughter of Nisus, Pandion's son, to whom Pallas Athene taught all her art, both wit and wisdom too; for she was as wise as the gods. A marvellous scent rose from her silvern raiment as she moved, and beauty was wafted from her eyes. Her, then, Glaucus sought to win by Athena's advising, and he drove oxen for her. But he knew not at all the intent of Zeus who holds the aegis. So Glaucus came seeking her to wife with gifts; but cloud-driving Zeus, king of the deathless gods, bent his head in oath that the . . . son of Sisyphus should never have children born of one father. So she lay in the arms of Poseidon and bare in the house of Glaucus blameless Bellerophon, surpassing all men in . . . over the boundless sea. And when he began to roam, his father gave him Pegasus who would bear him most swiftly on his wings, and flew unwearying everywhere over the earth, for like the gales he would course along. With him Bellerophon caught and slew the fire-breathing Chimera. And he wedded the dear child of the great-hearted Iobates, the worshipful king . . . lord (of) . . . and she bare . . '

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§ CW.F8  ENDYMION Hesiod says that Endymion was the son of Aethlius the son of Zeus and Calyce, and received the gift from Zeus: '(To be) keeper of death for his own self when he was ready to die.'

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§ CW.F9  MOLIONIDES The two sons of Actor and Molione... Hesiod has given their descent by calling them after Actor and Molione; but their father was Poseidon. But Aristarchus is informed that they were twins, not . . . such as were the Dioscuri, but, on Hesiod's testimony, double in form and with two bodies and joined to one another.

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§ CW.F10  PERICLYMENUS But Hesiod says that he changed himself in one of his wonted shapes and perched on the yoke-boss of Heracles' horses, meaning to fight with the hero; but that Heracles, secretly instructed by Athena, wounded him mortally with an arrow. And he says as follows: ' . . . and lordly Periclymenus. Happy he! For earth-shaking Poseidon gave him all manner of gifts. At one time he would appear among birds, an eagle; and again at another he would be an ant, a marvel to see; and then a shining swarm of bees; and again at another time a dread relentless snake. And he possessed all manner of gifts which cannot he told, and these then ensnared him through the devising of Athene.'

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§ CW.F11  NESTOR: '(Heracles) slew the noble sons of steadfast Neleus, eleven of them; but the twelfth, the horsemen Gerenian Nestor chanced to be staying with the horse-taming Gerenians ((lacuna)) . . . Nestor alone escaped in flowery Gerenon.'

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§ CW.F12  TELEMACHUS 'So well-girded Polycaste, the youngest daughter of Nestor, Neleus' son, was joined in love with Telemachus through golden Aphrodite and bare Persepolis.'

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§ CW.F13  JASON: Tyro the daughter of Salmoneus, having two sons by Poseidon, Neleus and Pelias, married Cretheus, and had by him three sons, Aeson, Pheres and Amythaon. And of Aeson and Polymede, according to Hesiod, Iason was born: 'Aeson, who begot a son Iason, shepherd of the people, whom Chiron brought up in woody Pelion.'

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§ CW.F14  . . . of the glorious lord . . . fair Atalanta, swift of foot, the daughter of Schoeneus, who had the beaming eyes of the Graces, though she was ripe for wedlock rejected the company of her equals and sought to avoid marriage with men who eat bread.' Hesiod is therefore later in date than Homer since he represents Hippomenes as stripped when contending with Atalanta. "Then straightway there rose up against him the trim-ankled maiden (Atalanta), peerless in beauty: a great throng stood round about her as she gazed fiercely, and wonder held all men as they looked upon her. As she moved, the breath of the west wind stirred the shining garment about her tender bosom; but Hippomenes stood where he was: and much people was gathered together. All these kept silence; but Schoeneus cried and said: 'Hear me all, both young and old, while I speak as my spirit within my breast bids me. Hippomenes seeks my coy-eyed daughter to wife; but let him now hear my wholesome speech. He shall not win her without contest; yet, if he be victorious and escape death, and if the deathless gods who dwell on Olympus grant him to win renown, verily he shall return to his dear native land, and I will give him my dear child and strong, swift- footed horses besides which he shall lead home to be cherished possessions; and may he rejoice in heart possessing these, and ever remember with gladness the painful contest. May the father of men and of gods (grant that splendid children may be born to him) ((lacuna)) . . . ' 'on the right . . . and he, rushing upon her . . . drawing back slightly towards the left. And on them was laid an unenviable struggle: for she, even fair, swift-footed Atalanta, ran scorning the gifts of golden Aphrodite; but with him the race was for his life, either to find his doom, or to escape it. Therefore with thoughts of guile he said to her: "(ll. 28-29) '"O daughter of Schoeneus, pitiless in heart, receive these glorious gifts of the goddess, golden Aphrodite ((lacuna)) (ll. 30-36) 'But he, following lightly on his feet, cast the first apple; and, swiftly as a Harpy, she turned back and snatched it. Then he cast the second to the ground with his hand. And now fair, swift-footed Atalanta had two apples and was near the goal; but Hippomenes cast the third apple to the ground, and therewith escaped death and black fate. And he stood panting and . . . '

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§ CW.F15  ARABUS 'And the daughter of Arabus, whom worthy Hermaon begat with Thronia, daughter of the lord Belus.'

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§ CW.F16  DANAUS Argos which was waterless Danaus made well-watered.'

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§ CW.F17  AEGYPTUS Egyptus himself did not go to Argos, but sent his sons, fifty in number, as Hesiod represented.

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§ CW.F18  PROETIDES And Apollodorus says that Hesiod already knew that the whole people were called both Hellenes and Panhellenes, as when he says of the daughters of Proetus that the Panhellenes sought them in marriage. Acrisius was king of Argos and Proetus of Tiryns. And Acrisius had by Eurydice the daughter of Lacedemon, Danae; and Proetus by Stheneboea 'Lysippe and Iphinoe and Iphianassa'. And these fell mad, as Hesiod states, because they would not receive the rites of Dionysus. These (the daughters of Proetus), because they had scorned the divinity of Juno, were overcome with madness, such that they believed they had been turned into cows, and left Argos their own country. Afterwards they were cured by Melampus, the son of Amythaon. 'Because of their hideous wantonness they lost their tender beauty...' '...For he shed upon their heads a fearful itch: and leprosy covered all their flesh, and their hair dropped from their heads, and their fair scalps were made bare.'

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§ CW.F19  (ll. 1-32) '...So she (Europa) crossed the briny water from afar to Crete, beguiled by the wiles of Zeus. Secretly did the Father snatch her away and gave her a gift, the golden necklace, the toy which Hephaestus the famed craftsman once made by his cunning skill and brought and gave it to his father for a possession. And Zeus received the gift, and gave it in turn to the daughter of proud Phoenix. But when the Father of men and of gods had mated so far off with trim-ankled Europa, then he departed back again from the rich-haired girl. So she bare sons to the almighty Son of Cronos, glorious leaders of wealthy men — Minos the ruler, and just Rhadamanthys and noble Sarpedon the blameless and strong. To these did wise Zeus give each a share of his honour. Verily Sarpedon reigned mightily over wide Lycia and ruled very many cities filled with people, wielding the sceptre of Zeus: and great honour followed him, which his father gave him, the great-hearted shepherd of the people. For wise Zeus ordained that he should live for three generations of mortal men and not waste away with old age. He sent him to Troy; and Sarpedon gathered a great host, men chosen out of Lycia to be allies to the Trojans. These men did Sarpedon lead, skilled in bitter war. And Zeus, whose wisdom is everlasting, sent him forth from heaven a star, showing tokens for the return of his dear son . . . for well he (Sarpedon) knew in his heart that the sign was indeed from Zeus. Very greatly did he excel in war together with man-slaying Hector and brake down the wall, bringing woes upon the Danaan. But so soon as Patroclus had inspired the Argives with hard courage . . . ' Zeus saw Europa the daughter of Phoenix gathering flowers in a meadow with some nymphs and fell in love with her. So he came down and changed himself into a bull and breathed from his mouth a crocus. In this way he deceived Europa, carried her off and crossed the sea to Crete where he had intercourse with her. Then in this condition he made her live with Asterion the king of the Cretans. There she conceived and bore three sons, Minos, Sarpedon and Rhadamanthys. The tale is in Hesiod and Bacchylides.

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§ CW.F24  And Hesiod says that when Oidipus had died at Thebes, Argea the daughter of Adrastus came with others to the funeral of Oidipus.

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§ CW.F26  ETEOCLUS Cephisus is a river in Orchomenus where also the Graces are worshipped. Eteoclus the son of the river Cephisus first sacrificed to them, as Hesiod says. 'which from Lilaea spouts forth its sweet flowing water...' ' ... And which flows on by Panopeus and through fenced Glechon and through Orchomenus, winding like a snake.'

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§ CW.F27  For the father of Menesthius, Areithous was a Boeotian living at Arnae; and this is in Boeotia, as also Hesiod says.

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§ CW.F28  ONCHESTUS Stephanus of Byzantium: Onchestus: a grove. It is situate in the country of Haliartus and was founded by Onchestus the Boeotian, as Hesiod says.

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§ CW.F29  Stephanus of Byzantium: There is also a plain of Aega bordering on Cirrha, according to Hesiod.

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§ CW.F30  PELASGUS Apollodorus, ii. 1.1.5: But Hesiod says that Pelasgus was autochthonous.

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§ CW.F31  LYCAON Strabo, v. p. 221: That this tribe (the Pelasgi) were from Arcadia, Ephorus states on the authority of Hesiod; for he says: 'Sons were born to god-like Lycaon whom Pelasgus once begot.'

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§ CW.F32  LYCAONIDES Stephanus of Byzantium: Pallantium. A city of Arcadia, so named after Pallas, one of Lycaon's sons, according to Hesiod.

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§ CW.F39  PHINEUS Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 181: Hesiod in the "Great Eoiae" says that Phineus was blinded because he revealed to Phrixus the road; but in the third "Catalogue", because he preferred long life to sight. Hesiod says he had two sons, Thynus and Mariandynus. Ephorus in Strabo, vii. 302: Hesiod, in the so-called Journey round the Earth, says that Phineus was brought by the Harpies 'to the land of milk-feeders who have waggons for houses.'

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§ CW.F40  CHASE OF THE HARPIES '(The Sons of Boreas pursued the Harpies) to the lands of the Massagetae and of the proud Half-Dog men, of the Underground-folk and of the feeble Pygmies; and to the tribes of the boundless Black-skins and the Libyans. Huge Earth bare these to Epaphus — soothsaying people, knowing seercraft by the will of Zeus the lord of oracles, but deceivers, to the end that men whose thought passes their utterance might be subject to the gods and suffer harm — Aethiopians and Libyans and mare-milking Scythians. For verily Epaphus was the child of the almighty Son of Cronos, and from him sprang the dark Libyans, and high-souled Aethiopians, and the Underground-folk and feeble Pygmies. All these are the offspring of the lord, the Loud-thunderer. Round about all these (the Sons of Boreas) sped in darting flight . . . of the well-horsed Hyperboreans — whom Earth the all-nourishing bare far off by the tumbling streams of deep-flowing Eridanus . . . of amber, feeding her wide-scattered offspring — and about the steep Fawn mountain and rugged Etna to the isle Ortygia and the people sprung from Laestrygon who was the son of wide-reigning Poseidon. Twice ranged the Sons of Boreas along this coast and wheeled round and about yearning to catch the Harpies, while they strove to escape and avoid them. And they sped to the tribe of the haughty Cephallenians, the people of patient-souled Odysseus whom in aftertime Calypso the queenly nymph detained for Poseidon. Then they came to the land of the lord the son of Ares . . . they heard. Yet still (the Sons of Boreas) ever pursued them with instant feet. So they (the Harpies) sped over the sea and through the fruitless air . . . '

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§ CW.F41  CHASE OF THE HARPIES Apollodorus, i. 9.21.6: As they were being pursued, one of the Harpies fell into the river Tigris, in Peloponnesus which is now called Harpys after her. Some call this one Nicothoe, and others Aellopus. The other who was called Ocypete, or as some say Ocythoe (though Hesiod calls her Ocypus), fled down the Propontis and reached as far as to the Echinades islands which are now called because of her, Strophades (Turning Islands).

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§ CW.F42  CHASE OF THE HARPIES Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 297: Hesiod also says that those with Zetes turned and prayed to Zeus: 'There they prayed to the lord of Aenos who reigns on high.' Apollonius indeed says it was Iris who made Zetes and his following turn away, but Hesiod says Hermes. Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 296: Others say (the islands) were called Strophades, because they turned there and prayed Zeus to seize the Harpies. But according to Hesiod . . . they were not killed.

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§ CW.F43  CHASE OF THE HARPIES Philodemus, On Piety, 10: Nor let anyone mock at Hesiod who mentions . . . or even the Troglodytes and the Pygmies.

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§ CW.F44  CHASE OF THE HARPIES Strabo, i. p. 43: No one would accuse Hesiod of ignorance though he speaks of the Half-dog people and the Great-Headed people and the Pygmies.

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§ CW.F45  THE ARGONAUTS Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 284: But Hesiod says they (the Argonauts) had sailed in through the Phasis. Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 259: But Hesiod (says) . . . they came through the Ocean to Libya, and so, carrying the Argo, reached our sea.

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§ CW.F46  CIRCE Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iii. 311: Apollonius, following Hesiod, says that Circe came to the island over against Tyrrhenia on the chariot of the Sun. And he called it Hesperian, because it lies toward the west.

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§ CW.F47  THE SIRENS Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 892: He (Apollonius) followed Hesiod who thus names the island of the Sirens: 'To the island Anthemoessa (Flowery) which the son of Cronos gave them.' And their names are Thelxiope or Thelxinoe, Molpe and Aglaophonus. Scholiast on Homer, Od. xii. 168: Hence Hesiod said that they charmed even the winds.

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§ CW.F48  CALYPSO Scholiast on Homer, Od.i. 85: Hesiod says that Ogygia is within towards the west, but Ogylia lies over against Crete: '...the Ogylian sea and... ...the island Ogylia.'

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§ CW.F49  PHAEACIANS Scholiast on Homer, Od.vii. 54: Hesiod regarded Arete as the sister of Alcinous.

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§ CW.F50  HIPPOSTRATUS Scholiast on Pindar, Ol.x. 46: Her Hippostratus (did wed), a scion of Ares, the splendid son of Phyetes, of the line of Amarynces, leader of the Epeians.

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§ CW.F51  OENEUS Apollodorus, i. 8.4.1: When Althea was dead, Oineus married Periboea, the daughter of Hipponous. Hesiod says that she was seduced by Hippostratus the son of Amarynces and that her father Hipponous sent her from Olenus in Achaea to Oineus because he was far away from Hellas, bidding him kill her. 'She used to dwell on the cliff of Olenus by the banks of wide Peirus.'

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§ CW.F52  MACAREUS Diodorus v. 81: Macareus was a son of Crinacus the son of Zeus as Hesiod says... and dwelt in Olenus in the country then called Ionian, but now Achaean.

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§ CW.F53  AEACUS Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. ii. 21: Concerning the Myrmidons Hesiod speaks thus: 'And she conceived and bare Aeacus, delighting in horses. Now when he came to the full measure of desired youth, he chafed at being alone. And the father of men and gods made all the ants that were in the lovely isle into men and wide-girdled women. These were the first who fitted with thwarts ships with curved sides, and the first who used sails, the wings of a sea-going ship.'

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§ CW.F55  Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. iv. 95: 'And this seemed to him (Acastus) in his mind the best plan; to keep back himself, but to hide beyond guessing the beautiful knife which the very famous Lame One had made for him, that in seeking it alone over steep Pelion, he (Peleus) might be slain forthwith by the mountain-bred Centaurs.'

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§ CW.F57  PELEUS AND THETIS Vol l. Herculan. (Papyri from Herculaneum), 2nd Collection: The author of the Cypria says that Thetis avoided wedlock with Zeus to please Hera; but that Zeus was angry and swore that she should mate with a mortal. Hesiod also has the like account.

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§ CW.F58  PELEUS AND THETIS Strassburg Greek Papyri 55 (2nd century A.D.): (ll. 1-13) 'Peleus the son of Aeacus, dear to the deathless gods, came to Phthia the mother of flocks, bringing great possessions from spacious Iolcus. And all the people envied him in their hearts seeing how he had sacked the well-built city, and accomplished his joyous marriage; and they all spake this word: "Thrice, yea, four times blessed son of Aeacus, happy Peleus! For far-seeing Olympian Zeus has given you a wife with many gifts and the blessed gods have brought your marriage fully to pass, and in these halls you go up to the holy bed of a daughter of Nereus. Truly the father, the son of Cronos, made you very pre- eminent among heroes and honoured above other men who eat bread and consume the fruit of the ground."'

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§ CW.F59  PELEUS AND THETIS Origen, Against Celsus, iv. 79: 'For in common then were the banquets, and in common the seats of deathless gods and mortal men.'

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§ CW.F60  POLYDORA Scholiast on Homer, Il. xvi. 175: ...whereas Hesiod and the rest call her (Peleus' daughter) Polydora.

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§ CW.F61  PATROCLUS Eustathius, Hom. 112. 44 sq: It should be observed that the ancient narrative hands down the account that Patroclus was even a kinsman of Achilles; for Hesiod says that Menoethius the father of Patroclus, was a brother of Peleus, so that in that case they were first cousins.

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§ CW.F62  HALLIRHOTHIUS Scholiast on Pindar, Ol.x. 83: Some write 'Serus the son of Halirrhothius', whom Hesiod mentions: 'He (begot) Serus and Alazygus, goodly sons.' And Serus was the son of Halirrhothius Perieres' son, and of Alcyone.

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§ CW.F63  ASCLEPIUS Pausanias, ii. 26. 7: This oracle most clearly proves that Asclepius was not the son of Arsinoe, but that Hesiod or one of Hesiod's interpolators composed the verses to please the Messenians. Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. iii. 14: Some say (Asclepius) was the son of Arsinoe, others of Coronis. But Asclepiades says that Arsinoe was the daughter of Leucippus, Perieres' son, and that to her and Apollo Asclepius and a daughter, Eriopis, were born: 'And she bare in the palace Asclepius, leader of men, and Eriopis with the lovely hair, being subject in love to Phoebus.' And of Arsinoe likewise: 'And Arsinoe was joined with the son of Zeus and Leto and bare a son Asclepius, blameless and strong.' 37

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§ CW.F67  TYNDAREUS Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes 249: Steischorus says that while sacrificing to the gods Tyndareus forgot Aphrodite and that the goddess was angry and made his daughters twice and thrice wed and deserters of their husbands . . . And Hesiod also says: (ll. 1-7) 'And laughter-loving Aphrodite felt jealous when she looked on them and cast them into evil report. Then Timandra deserted Echemus and went and came to Phyleus, dear to the deathless gods; and even so Clytaemnestra deserted god-like Agamemnon and lay with Aegisthus and chose a worse mate; and even so Helen dishonoured the couch of golden-haired Menelaus.'

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§ CW.F68.1  SUITORS OF HELEN Berlin Papyri, No. 9739: (ll. 1-10) ' . . . Philoctetes sought her, a leader of spearmen, . . . most famous of all men at shooting from afar and with the sharp spear. And he came to Tyndareus' bright city for the sake of the Argive maid who had the beauty of golden Aphrodite, and the sparkling eyes of the Graces; and the dark-faced daughter of Ocean, very lovely of form, bare her when she had shared the embraces of Zeus and the king Tyndareus in the bright palace . . . (And . . . sought her to wife offering as gifts) (ll. 11-15) ((lacuna) . . . and as many women skilled in blameless arts, each holding a golden bowl in her hands. And truly Castor and strong Polydeuces would have made him their brother perforce, but Agamemnon, being son-in-law to Tyndareus, wooed her for his brother Menelaus. (ll. 16-19) And the two sons of Amphiaraus the lord, Oicleus' son, sought her to wife from Argos very near at hand; yet . . . fear of the blessed gods and the indignation of men caused them also to fail. (l. 20) ((lacuna)) . . . but there was no deceitful dealing in the sons of Tyndareus. (ll. 21-27) And from Ithaca the sacred might of Odysseus, Laertes son, who knew many-fashioned wiles, sought her to wife. He never sent gifts for the sake of the neat-ankled maid, for he knew in his heart that golden-haired Menelaus would win, since he was greatest of the Achaeans in possessions and was ever sending messages to horse-taming Castor and prize-winning Polydeuces. (ll. 28-30) And . . . on's son sought her to wife (and brought) . . . bridal-gifts . . . cauldrons ((lacuna))

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§ CW.F68.31   . . . (ll. 31-33) to horse-taming Castor and prize-winning Polydeuces, desiring to be the husband of rich-haired Helen, though he had never seen her beauty, but because he heard the report of others. (ll. 34-42) And from Phylace two men of exceeding worth sought her to wife, Podarces son of Iphiclus, Phylacus' son, and Actor's noble son, overbearing Protesilaus. Both of them kept sending messages to Lacedemon, to the house of wise Tyndareus, Oibalus' son, and they offered many bridal-gifts, for great was the girl's renown, brazen . . . golden ((lacuna)) . . . (desiring) to be the husband of rich-haired Helen. (ll. 43-49) From Athens the son of Peteous, Menestheus, sought her to wife, and offered many bridal-gifts; for he possessed very many stored treasures, gold and cauldrons and tripods, fine things which lay hid in the house of the lord Peteous, and with them his heart urged him to win his bride by giving more gifts than any other; for he thought that no one of all the heroes would surpass him in possessions and gifts. (ll. 50-51) There came also by ship from Crete to the house of the son of Oibalus strong Lycomedes for rich-haired Helen's sake. Berlin Papyri, No. 10560: (ll. 52-54) . . . sought her to wife. And after golden-haired Menelaus he offered the greatest gifts of all the suitors, and very much he desired in his heart to be the husband of Argive Helen with the rich hair. (ll. 55-62) And from Salamis Aias, blameless warrior, sought her to wife, and offered fitting gifts, even wonderful deeds; for he said that he would drive together and give the shambling oxen and strong sheep of all those who lived in Troezen and Epidaurus near the sea, and in the island of Aigina and in Mases, sons of the Achaeans, and shadowy Megara and frowning Corinth, and Hermione and Asine which lie along the sea; for he was famous with the long spear. (ll. 63-66) But from Euboea Elephenor, leader of men, the son of Chalcodon, prince of the bold Abantes, sought her to wife. And he offered very many gifts, and greatly he desired in his heart to be the husband of rich-haired Helen. (ll. 67-74) And from Crete the mighty Idomeneus sought her to wife, Deucalion's son, offspring of renowned Minos. He sent no one to woo her in his place, but came himself in his black ship of many thwarts over the Ogylian sea across the dark wave to the home of wise Tyndareus, to see Argive Helen and that no one else should bring back for him the girl whose renown spread all over the holy earth. (Il. 75) And at the prompting of Zeus the all-wise came. ((lacuna — Thirteen lines lost.))

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§ CW.F68.89   . . . (ll. 89-100) But of all who came for the maid's sake, the lord Tyndareus sent none away, nor yet received the gift of any, but asked of all the suitors sure oaths, and bade them swear and vow with unmixed libations that no one else henceforth should do aught apart from him as touching the marriage of the maid with shapely arms; but if any man should cast off fear and reverence and take her by force, he bade all the others together follow after and make him pay the penalty. And they, each of them hoping to accomplish his marriage, obeyed him without wavering. But warlike Menelaus, the son of Atreus, prevailed against them all together, because he gave the greatest gifts. (ll. 100-106) But Chiron was tending the son of Peleus, swift-footed Achilles, pre-eminent among men, on woody Pelion; for he was still a boy. For neither warlike Menelaus nor any other of men on earth would have prevailed in suit for Helen, if fleet Achilles had found her unwed. But, as it was, warlike Menelaus won her before.

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F68  II.41 (ll. 1-2) And she (Helen) bare neat-ankled Hermione in the palace, a child unlooked for. (ll. 2-13) Now all the gods were divided through strife; for at that very time Zeus who thunders on high was meditating marvellous deeds, even to mingle storm and tempest over the boundless earth, and already he was hastening to make an utter end of the race of mortal men, declaring that he would destroy the lives of the demi-gods, that the children of the gods should not mate with wretched mortals, seeing their fate with their own eyes; but that the blessed gods henceforth even as aforetime should have their living and their habitations apart from men. But on those who were born of immortals and of mankind verily Zeus laid toil and sorrow upon sorrow. ((lacuna — Two lines missing.))

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F68  (ll. 16-30) . . . nor any one of men . . . should go upon black ships . . . to be strongest in the might of his hands . . . of mortal men declaring to all those things that were, and those that are, and those that shall be, he brings to pass and glorifies the counsels of his father Zeus who drives the clouds. For no one, either of the blessed gods or of mortal men, knew surely that he would contrive through the sword to send to Hades full many a one of heroes fallen in strife. But at that time he know not as yet the intent of his father's mind, and how men delight in protecting their children from doom. And he delighted in the desire of his mighty father's heart who rules powerfully over men. (ll. 31-43) From stately trees the fair leaves fell in abundance fluttering down to the ground, and the fruit fell to the ground because Boreas blew very fiercely at the behest of Zeus; the deep seethed and all things trembled at his blast: the strength of mankind consumed away and the fruit failed in the season consumed away and the fruit failed in the season of spring, at that time when the Hairless One in a secret place in the mountains gets three young every three years. In spring he dwells upon the mountain among tangled thickets and brushwood, keeping afar from and hating the path of men, in the glens and wooded glades. But when winter comes on, he lies in a close cave beneath the earth and covers himself with piles of luxuriant leaves, a dread serpent whose back is speckled with awful spots. (ll. 44-50) But when he becomes violent and fierce unspeakably, the arrows of Zeus lay him low . . . Only his soul is left on the holy earth, and that fits gibbering about a small unformed den. And it comes enfeebled to sacrifices beneath the broad-pathed earth . . . and it lies . . . '

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F69  AGAMEMNON Tzetzes, Exeg. Iliad. 68. 19H: Agamemnon and Menelaus likewise according to Hesiod and Aeschylus are regarded as the sons of Pleisthenes, Atreus' son. And according to Hesiod, Pleisthenes was a son of Atreus and Aerope, and Agamemnon, Menelaus and Anaxibia were the children of Pleisthenes and Cleolla the daughter of Dias.

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F70  MENELAUS Laurentian Scholiast on Sophocles' Electra, 539: 'And she (Helen) bare to Menelaus, famous with the spear, Hermione and her youngest-born, Nicostratus, a scion of Ares.'

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F71  IPHIGENEIA I know that Hesiod in the Catalogue of Women represented that Iphigeneia was not killed but, by the will of Artemis, became Hecate.

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F72  BUTES Eustathius, Hom. 13. 44. sq: Butes, it is said, was a son of Poseidon: so Hesiod in the Catalogue.

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F73  SICYON Pausanias, ii. 6. 5: Hesiod represented Sikyon as the son of Erechtheus.

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F74  MINOS Plato, Minos, p. 320. D: '(Minos) who was most kingly of mortal kings and reigned over very many people dwelling round about, holding the sceptre of Zeus wherewith he ruled many.'

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F75  ANDROGEOS Hesychius: The athletic contest in memory of Eurygyes Melesagorus says that Androgeos the son of Minos was called Eurygyes, and that a contest in his honour is held near his tomb at Athens in the Ceramicus. And Hesiod writes: 'And Eurygyes, while yet a lad in holy Athens . . . '

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F76  THESEUS AND ARIADNE Plutarch, Theseus 20: There are many tales.... about Ariadne...., how that she was deserted by Theseus for love of another woman: 'For strong love for Aegle the daughter of Panopeus overpowered him.' For Hereas of Megara says that Peisistratus removed this verse from the works of Hesiod. Athenaeus, xiii. 557 A: But Hesiod says that Theseus wedded both Hippe and Aegle lawfully.

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F77  CYCHREUS Strabo, ix. p. 393: The snake of Cychreus: Hesiod says that it was brought up by Cychreus, and was driven out by Eurylochus as defiling the island, but that Demeter received it into Eleusis, and that it became her attendant.

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F78  IOLAUS Argument I. to the Shield of Heracles: But Apollonius of Rhodes says that it (the Shield of Heracles) is Hesiod's both from the general character of the work and from the fact that in the Catalogue we again find Iolaus as charioteer of Heracles.

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F79  EURYTUS Scholiast on Soph. Trach., 266: (ll. 1-6) 'And fair-girdled Stratonica conceived and bare in the palace Eurytus her well-loved son. Of him sprang sons, Didaeon and Clytius and god-like Toxeus and Iphitus, a scion of Ares. And after these Antiope the queen, daughter of the aged son of Naubolus, bare her youngest child, golden-haired Iolea.'

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F80  AUTOLYCUS Herodian in Etymologicum Magnum: 'Who bare Autolycus and Philammon, famous in speech . . . All things that he (Autolycus) took in his hands, he made to disappear.'

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F82  LOCRUS, DEUCALION Strabo, vii. p. 322: 'For Locrus truly was leader of the Lelegian people, whom Zeus the Son of Cronos, whose wisdom is unfailing, gave to Deucalion, stones gathered out of the earth. So out of stones mortal men were made, and they were called people.'

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F83  ILEUS Tzetzes, Schol. in Exeg. Iliad. 126: '...Ileus whom the lord Apollo, son of Zeus, loved. And he named him by his name, because he found a nymph complaisant and was joined with her in sweet love, on that day when Poseidon and Apollo raised high the wall of the well-built city.'

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F87  MARON Athenaeus, x. 428 B, C: 'Such gifts as Dionysus gave to men, a joy and a sorrow both. Who ever drinks to fullness, in him wine becomes violent and binds together his hands and feet, his tongue also and his wits with fetters unspeakable: and soft sleep embraces him.'

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F88  CORONIS Strabo, ix. p. 442: 'Or like her (Coronis) who lived by the holy Twin Hills in the plain of Dotium over against Amyrus rich in grapes, and washed her feet in the Boebian lake, a maid unwed.'

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F91  ASCLEPIUS Philodemus, On Piety, 34: But Hesiod (says that Apollo) would have been cast by Zeus into Tartarus; but Leto interceded for him, and he became bondman to a mortal.

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F92  CYRENE Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. ix. 6: 'Or like her, beautiful Cyrene, who dwelt in Phthia by the water of Peneus and had the beauty of the Graces.'

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F93  ARISTAEUS Servius on Vergil, Georg. i. 14: He invoked Aristaeus, that is, the son of Apollo and Cyrene, whom Hesiod calls 'the shepherd Apollo.' 56

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F95  ANTIOPE Scholiast on Homer, Iliad ii. 469: 'Or like her (Antiope) whom Boeotian Hyria nurtured as a maid.'

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F96  AMPHION AND ZETHUS Palaephatus, c. 42: Of Zethus and Amphion. Hesiod and some others relate that they built the walls of Thebes by playing on the lyre.

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F97  ORACLE OF DODONA Scholiast on Soph. Trach., 1167: (ll. 1-11) 'There is a land Ellopia with much glebe and rich meadows, and rich in flocks and shambling kine. There dwell men who have many sheep and many oxen, and they are in number past telling, tribes of mortal men. And there upon its border is built a city, Dodona; and Zeus loved it and (appointed) it to be his oracle, reverenced by men . . . And they (the doves) lived in the hollow of an oak. From them men of earth carry away all kinds of prophecy, — whosoever fares to that spot and questions the deathless god, and comes bringing gifts with good omens.'

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F98  MELEAGER AND DEIANEIRA Berlin Papyri, No. 9777: (ll. 1-22) ' . . . strife . . . Of mortals who would have dared to fight him with the spear and charge against him, save only Heracles, the great-hearted offspring of Alcaeus? Such an one was strong Meleager loved of Ares, the golden-haired, dear son of Oineus and Althaea. From his fierce eyes there shone forth portentous fire: and once in high Calydon he slew the destroying beast, the fierce wild boar with gleaming tusks. In war and in dread strife no man of the heroes dared to face him and to approach and fight with him when he appeared in the forefront. But he was slain by the hands and arrows of Apollo, while he was fighting with the Curetes for pleasant Calydon. And these others (Althaea) bare to Oineus, Porthaon's son; horse-taming Pheres, and Agelaus surpassing all others, Toxeus and Clymenus and godlike Periphas, and rich-haired Gorga and wise Deianeira, who was subject in love to mighty Heracles and bare him Hyllus and Glenus and Ctesippus and Odites. These she bare and in ignorance she did a fearful thing: when (she had received) . . . the poisoned robe that held black doom . . . '

Event Date: -1000

§ CW.F99  SEVEN AGAINST THEBES Scholiast on Homer, Iliad. xxiii. 679: And yet Hesiod says that after he had died in Thebes, Argeia the daughter of Adrastus together with others (cp. frag. 99) came to the lamentation over Oidipus. SEVEN AGAINST THEBES, AMPHITRYON AND ALCMENE Papyri greci e latine, No. 131 (2nd-3rd century): (ll. 1-10) 'And (Eriphyle) bare in the palace Alcmaon, shepherd of the people, to Amphiaraus. Him (Amphiaraus) did the Cadmean (Theban) women with trailing robes admire when they saw face to face his eyes and well-grown frame, as he was busied about the burying of Oidipus, the man of many woes . . . Once the Danai, servants of Ares, followed him to Thebes, to win renown . . . for Polynices. But, though well he knew from Zeus all things ordained, the earth yawned and swallowed him up with his horses and jointed chariot, far from deep-eddying Alpheus. (ll. 11-20) But Electryon married the all-beauteous daughter of Pelops and, going up into one bed with her, the son of Perses begat . . . and Phylonomus and Celaeneus and Amphimachus and . . . and Eurybius and famous . . . All these the Taphians, famous shipmen, slew in fight for oxen with shambling hoofs, . . . in ships across the sea's wide back. So Alcmena alone was left to delight her parents . . . and the daughter of Electryon ((lacuna)) . . . (l. 21) . . . . who was subject in love to the dark-clouded son of Cronos and bare (famous Heracles).'

Event Date: -1000

§ AS.F1  THE ASTRONOMY
THE PLEIADES Athenaeus xi, p. 491 d: And the author of The Astronomy, which is attributed forsooth to Hesiod, always calls them (the Pleiades) Peleiades: "but mortals call them Peleiades"; and again, "the stormy Peleiades go down"; and again, "then the Peleiades hide away . . ." Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. ii. 16: The Pleiades . . . whose stars are these: — "Lovely Teygata, and dark-faced Electra, and Alcyone, and bright Asterope, and Celaeno, and Maia, and Merope, whom glorious Atlas begot . . . " ((lacuna)) "In the mountains of Cyllene she (Maia) bare Hermes, the herald of the gods."

Event Date: -1000

§ AS.F2  THE HYADES Scholiast on Aratus 254: But Zeus made them (the sisters of Hyas) into the stars which are called Hyades. Hesiod in his Book about Stars tells us their names as follows: "Nymphs like the Graces, Phaesyle and Coronis and rich-crowned Cleeia and lovely Phaco and long-robed Eudora, whom the tribes of men upon the earth call Hyades."

Event Date: -1000

§ AS.F3  CALLISTO AND ARCAS Pseudo-Eratosthenes Catast. frag. 1: The Great Bear.] — Hesiod says she (Callisto) was the daughter of Lycaon and lived in Arcadia. She chose to occupy herself with wild-beasts in the mountains together with Artemis, and, when she was seduced by Zeus, continued some time undetected by the goddess, but afterwards, when she was already with child, was seen by her bathing and so discovered. Upon this, the goddess was enraged and changed her into a beast. Thus she became a bear and gave birth to a son called Arcas. But while she was in the mountains, she was hunted by some goat-herds and given up with her babe to Lycaon. Some while after, she thought fit to go into the forbidden precinct of Zeus, not knowing the law, and being pursued by her own son and the Arcadians, was about to be killed because of the said law; but Zeus delivered her because of her connection with him and put her among the stars, giving her the name Bear because of the misfortune which had befallen her. Of Bootes, also called the Bear-warden. The story goes that he is Arcas the son of Callisto and Zeus, and he lived in the country about Lycaion. After Zeus had seduced Callisto, Lycaon, pretending not to know of the matter, entertained Zeus, as Hesiod says, and set before him on the table the babe which he had cut up.

Event Date: -1000

§ AS.F4  ORION Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Catast. fr. xxxii: Orion.] — Hesiod says that he was the son of Euryale, the daughter of Minos, and of Poseidon, and that there was given him as a gift the power of walking upon the waves as though upon land. When he was come to Chios, be outraged Merope, the daughter of Oinopion, being drunken; but Oinopion when he learned of it was greatly vexed at the outrage and blinded him and cast him out of the country. Then he came to Lemnos as a beggar and there met Hephaestus who took pity on him and gave him Cedalion his own servant to guide him. So Orion took Cedalion upon his shoulders and used to carry him about while he pointed out the roads. Then he came to the east and appears to have met Helius (the Sun) and to have been healed, and so returned back again to Oinopion to punish him; but Oinopion was hidden away by his people underground. Being disappointed, then, in his search for the king, Orion went away to Crete and spent his time hunting in company with Artemis and Leto. It seems that he threatened to kill every beast there was on earth; whereupon, in her anger, Earth sent up against him a scorpion of very great size by which he was stung and so perished. After this Zeus, at one prayer of Artemis and Leto, put him among the stars, because of his manliness, and the scorpion also as a memorial of him and of what had occurred.

Event Date: -1000

§ AS.F5  ORION Diodorus iv. 85: Some say that great earthquakes occurred, which broke through the neck of land and formed the straits, the sea parting the mainland from the island. But Hesiod, the poet, says just the opposite: that the sea was open, but Orion piled up the promontory by Peloris, and founded the close of Poseidon which is especially esteemed by the people thereabouts. When he had finished this, he went away to Euboea and settled there, and because of his renown was taken into the number of the stars in heaven, and won undying remembrance.

Event Date: -1000

§ PC.F1  THE PRECEPTS OF CHIRON
Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. vi. 19: "And now, pray, mark all these things well in a wise heart. First, whenever you come to your house, offer good sacrifices to the eternal gods."

Event Date: -1000

§ PC.F2  Plutarch Mor. 1034 E: "Decide no suit until you have heard both sides speak."

Event Date: -1000

§ PC.F3  NYMPHS Plutarch de Orac. defectu ii. 415 C: "A chattering crow lives out nine generations of aged men, but a stag's life is four times a crow's, and a raven's life makes three stags old, while the phoenix outlives nine ravens, but we, the rich-haired Nymphs, daughters of Zeus the aegis-holder, outlive ten phoenixes."

Event Date: -1000

§ PC.F4  Quintilian, i. 15: Some consider that children under the age of seven should not receive a literary education . . . That Hesiod was of this opinion very many writers affirm who were earlier than the critic Aristophanes; for he was the first to reject the Precepts, in which book this maxim occurs, as a work of that poet.

Event Date: -1000

§ GW.F1  THE GREAT WORKS
The verse, however (the slaying of Rhadamanthys), is in Hesiod in the Great Works and is as follows: "If a man sow evil, he shall reap evil increase; if men do to him as he has done, it will be true justice."

Event Date: -1000

§ GW.F2  Proclus on Hesiod, Works and Days, 126: Some believe that the Silver Race (is to be attributed to) the earth, declaring that in the Great Works Hesiod makes silver to be of the family of Earth.

Event Date: -1000

§ ID.F1  THE IDAEAN DACTYLS
Pliny, Natural History vii. 56, 197: Hesiod says that those who are called the Idaean Dactyls taught the smelting and tempering of iron in Crete.

Event Date: -1000

§ ID.F2  Clement, Stromateis i. 16. 75: Celmis, again, and Damnameneus, the first of the Idaean Dactyls, discovered iron in Cyprus; but bronze smelting was discovered by Delas, another Idaean, though Hesiod calls him Scythes.

Event Date: -1000

§ MC.F1  THE MARRIAGE OF CEYX
HERACLES AND ARGONAUTS Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 128: Hesiod in the Marriage of Ceyx says that he (Heracles) landed (from the Argo) to look for water and was left behind in Magnesia near the place called Aphetae because of his desertion there.

Event Date: -1000

§ MC.F2  HERACLES AND CEYX Zenobius, ii. 19: Hesiod used the proverb in the following way: Heracles is represented as having constantly visited the house of Ceyx of Trachis and spoken thus: "Of their own selves the good make for the feasts of good."

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F1  THE GREAT EOIAE
EPIDAURUS Pausanius, ii. 26. 3: Epidaurus. According to the opinion of the Argives and the epic poem, the Great Eoiae, Argos the son of Zeus was father of Epidaurus.

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F5  PHYLAS AND THERO Pausanias, ix. 40. 6: "And Phylas wedded Leipephile the daughter of famous Iolaus: and she was like the Olympians in beauty. She bare him a son Hippotades in the palace, and comely Thero who was like the beams of the moon. And Thero lay in the embrace of Apollo and bare horse-taming Chaeron of hardy strength."

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F6  EUPHEMUS Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. iv. 35: "Or like her in Hyria, careful-minded Mecionice, who was joined in the love of golden Aphrodite with the Earth-holder and Earth-Shaker, and bare Euphemus."

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F7  HYETTUS Pausanias, ix. 36. 7: "And Hyettus killed Molurus the dear son of Aristas in his house because he lay with his wife. Then he left his home and fled from horse-rearing Argos and came to Minyan Orchomenus. And the hero received him and gave him a portion of his goods, as was fitting."

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F8  PEIRENE Pausanias, ii. 2. 3: But in the Great Eoiae Peirene is represented to be the daughter of Oibalius.

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F9  MYCENE Pausanias, ii. 16. 4: The epic poem, which the Greek call the Great Eoiae, says that she (Mycene) was the daughter of Inachus and wife of Arestor: from her, then, it is said, the city received its name.

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F10  OENOMAUS Pausanias, vi. 21. 10: According to the poem the Great Eoiae, these were killed by Oinomaus: Alcathous the son of Porthaon next after Marmax, and after Alcathous, Euryalus, Eurymachus and Crotalus. The man killed next after them, Aerias, we should judge to have been a Lacedemonian and founder of Aeria. And after Acrias, they say, Capetus was done to death by Oinomaus, and Lycurgus, Lasius, Chalcodon and Tricolonus . . . And after Tricolonus fate overtook Aristomachus and Prias on the course, as also Pelagon and Aeolius and Cronius.

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F12  MELAMPUS Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 118: In the Great Eoiae it is related that Melampus, who was very dear to Apollo, went abroad and stayed with Polyphantes. But when the king had sacrificed an ox, a serpent crept up to the sacrifice and destroyed his servants. At this the king was angry and killed the serpent, but Melampus took and buried it. And its offspring, brought up by him, used to lick his ears and inspire him with prophecy. And so, when he was caught while trying to steal the cows of Iphiclus and taken bound to the city of Aigina, and when the house, in which Iphiclus was, was about to fall, he told an old woman, one of the servants of Iphiclus, and in return was released.

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F13  SCYLLA Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 828: In the Great Eoiae Scylla is the daughter of Phoebus and Hecate.

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F14  PHINEUS Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 181: Hesiod in the Great Eoiae says that Phineus was blinded because he told Phrixus the way.

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F15  PHRIXUS Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 1122: Argus. This is one of the children of Phrixus. These . . . Hesiod in the Great Eoiae says were born of Iophossa the daughter of Aeetes. And he says there were four of them, Argus, Phrontis, Melas, and Cytisorus.

Event Date: -1000

§ GE.F16  HYMENAEUS, BATTUS Antoninus Liberalis, xxiii: Battus. Hesiod tells the story in the Great Eoiae . . . Magnes was the son of Argus, the son of Phrixus and Perimele, Admetus' daughter, and lived in the region of Thessaly, in the land which men called after him Magnesia. He had a son of remarkable beauty, Hymenaeus. And when Apollo saw the boy, he was seized with love for him, and would not leave the house of Magnes. Then Hermes made designs on Apollo's herd of cattle which were grazing in the same place as the cattle of Admetus. First he cast upon the dogs which were guarding them a stupor and strangles, so that the dogs forgot the cows and lost the power of barking. Then he drove away twelve heifers and a hundred cows never yoked, and the bull who mounted the cows, fastening to the tail of each one brushwood to wipe out the footmarks of the cows. He drove them through the country of the Pelasgi, and Achaea in the land of Phthia, and through Locris, and Boeotia and Megaris, and thence into Peloponnesus by way of Corinth and Larissa, until he brought them to Tegea. From there he went on by the Lycaean mountains, and past Maenalus and what are called the watch-posts of Battus. Now this Battus used to live on the top of the rock and when he heard the voice of the heifers as they were being driven past, he came out from his own place, and knew that the cattle were stolen. So he asked for a reward to tell no one about them. Hermes promised to give it him on these terms, and Battus swore to say nothing to anyone about the cattle. But when Hermes had hidden them in the cliff by Coryphasium, and had driven them into a cave facing towards Italy and Sicily, he changed himself and came again to Battus and tried whether he would be true to him as he had vowed. So, offering him a robe as a reward, he asked of him whether he had noticed stolen cattle being driven past. And Battus took the robe and told him about the cattle. But Hermes was angry because he was double-tongued, and struck him with his staff and changed him into a rock. And either frost or heat never leaves him.

Event Date: -1000

§ MS.F4  MISCELLANEOUS
IO: Herodian in Stephanus of Byzantium: "(Zeus changed Io) in the fair island Abantis, which the gods, who are eternally, used to call Abantis aforetime, but Zeus then called it Euboea after the cow."

Event Date: -1000

§ MS.F5  IO Scholiast on Euripides, Phoen. 1116: "And (Hera) set a watcher upon her (Io), great and strong Argus, who with four eyes looks every way. And the goddess stirred in him unwearying strength: sleep never fell upon his eyes; but he kept sure watch always."

Event Date: -1000

§ MS.F6  IO Scholiast on Homer, Il. xxiv. 24: "Slayer of Argus." According to Hesiod's tale he (Hermes) slew (Argus) the herdsman of Io.

Event Date: -1000

§ MS.F7  Athenaeus, xi. p. 503: And the author of the Aegimius, whether he is Hesiod or Cercops of Miletus (says): "There, some day, shall be my place of refreshment, O leader of the people."

Event Date: -1000

§ MS.F8  TRIBES EtymGen: Hesiod (says there were so called) because they settled in three groups: "And they all were called the Three-fold people, because they divided in three the land far from their country." For (he says) that three Hellenic tribes settled in Crete, the Pelasgi, Achaeans and Dorians. And these have been called Three-fold People.

Event Date: -1000
END
Event Date: -1000

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