Polyaenus, Strategems

Polyaenus, Strategems of War, translated by Richard Shepherd (1732?-1809) (published 1793), corrected and generously placed on line by Andrew Smith of attalus.org who has confirmed that ToposText has permission to make non-commercial use of his work. This text has 1462 tagged references to 353 ancient places.
CTS URN: urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0616.tlg001; Wikidata ID: Q12902196; Trismegistos: authorwork/306     [Open Greek text in new tab]

§ 1.pref.1  The gods, your own virtue, and the Roman bravery, that have always before crowned with victory the arms of your sacred majesties, Antoninus and Verus, will also now attend with success the expedition which you have undertaken against Persia and the Parthians. I, who am by birth a Macedonian, and have therefore, as it were, a national right to victory over the Persians, have determined not to be entirely useless to you in the present circumstances; and if my constitution were as robust and hale as it used to be, you should not lack in me convincing proof of the a Macedonian spirit. Nor, advanced as I am in years, can I bear to be left behind without some efforts of service. Accept therefore, illustrious chiefs, in a collection of stratagems employed by the most distinguished generals, this small aid to military science; which, by exhibiting as in a picture the bravery and experience of former commanders, their conduct and operations, and the various successes that they achieved, may in some instances possibly be of service to yourselves, your polemarchs, your generals, the commanders of troops of ten thousand, or one thousand, or six hundred men, and whoever you may think fit to invest with military command.

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§ 1.pref.2  Bravery conquers by means of the sword; but superior generalship prevails by skill and stratagem; and the highest level of generalship is displayed in those victories that are obtained with the least danger. It is the most infallible evidence of military ability, in the heat of conflict to hit upon an expedient that will decide the contest in your favour without waiting for the outcome of a regular battle. I have always conceived this to be a favourite sentiment of Homer; for what else can he mean by those frequent expressions, "either by artifice or by valour", except that we should first employ stratagems and devices against the enemy, and that if these fail, valour and the strongest arm must prevail.

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§ 1.pref.3  If we admit the authority of Homer, Sisyphus the son of Aeolus was the first of the Greeks who employed stratagems in war:
With happy skill in war's devices blest,
Those realms did Sisyphus possess.

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§ 1.pref.4  The second man who was famous for those tactics, according the same authority, was Autolycus the son of Hermes:
Going to Parnassus, home of Autolycus and his sons —
Autolycus who was his mother's excellent father;
He outdid all men in stealing and in oaths,
And the divine Hermes granted him . . .

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§ 1.pref.5  Nor do I believe that the fabulous account of Proteus, his transformation into animals and trees, signifies anything else than the variety of artifices he practised against the enemy.

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§ 1.pref.6  As to Odysseus, we know that he particularly valued himself upon his stratagems and devices:
I am Odysseus, Laertes' son, and in skill to frame
Deceptive wiles, as far as heaven, unrivalled is my fame.

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§ 1.pref.7  The Greek heroes attributed the final victory to him:
Your schemes, your plans effected Ilium's fall,
And hurled destruction on Priamus' wall.

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§ 1.pref.8  And others confirmed that Troy was captured:
By Odysseus' advice and tales,
And by his sagacious skill.

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§ 1.pref.9  Homer frequently records the various stratagems that he employed against the enemy. He represents him, "with self-inflicted wounds deformed", deserting to the enemy. The Wooden Horse, "which Epeius built by the instruction of Athene", was his device. Also nobody, the wine, the firebrand, and the ram, may properly be called stratagems, which he employed against the Cyclops. In the same class were the stopping of the ears of his crew with wax, and the lashing of himself to the mast, in order to prevent the baneful influence of the music. And what will you say of the beggar's purse, and the deceptions imposed on Eumaeus and Penelope:
His was the art instruction to detail,
And facts inculcate, under fiction's veil.

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§ 1.pref.10  To box with Irus, to remove from the smoke the arms of the drunken young men, and to fix the bow at the door — were they not all military stratagems? But enough of these, and other examples of a similar kind, provided by Homer.

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§ 1.pref.11  How do the tragedians represent the stratagem which Odysseus used against Palamedes? The Achaeans, in solemn judgement, decided in favour of Odysseus, who had secretly left the barbarian gold in the other's tent; and thus, overcome by artifice and manoeuvre, the accomplished general was falsely convicted of treason. This is what is portrayed in the plays of the tragedians.

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§ 1.pref.12  But in the following collection of stratagems I have followed the faithful records of history. I have related them succinctly, and arranged them under each general. The whole is comprised in eight books, which contain nine hundred stratagems, beginning with Dionysus.

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§ 1.1.1  Dionysus: In order to gain admittance into the cities during his Indian expedition, Dionysus dressed his troops in white linen and deer skins, instead of gleaming armour. Their spears were adorned with ivy, and the points of the spears were hidden under a thyrsus. His orders were given by cymbals and drums, instead of trumpets; and intoxicating his enemies with wine, he engaged them in dancing and Bacchic orgies. Such were the stratagems which that general practised in his conquest of India, and the rest of Asia.

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§ 1.1.2  Dionysus, finding his army unable to bear the excessive heat of the Indian climate, occupied a three-peaked mountain; one of peaks of which is called Corasibie, another Condasbe, and the third he called Merus in commemoration of his birth. The mountain contains a variety of fountains, abounds in wild beasts, produces plenty of fruit, and the air is cooled by continual snow. His army, from their position here, used suddenly to show themselves to the barbarians in the plains; and showering down on them large flights of arrows from the those high and craggy precipices, obtained easy conquests.

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§ 1.1.3  After Dionysus had subdued the Indians, he formed an alliance with them and the Amazons, and took them into his service. When he penetrated into Bactria, whose boundary is the river Saranges, he found that the Bactrians had possessed themselves of the mountains above the river, in order to dispute his passage. Encamping therefore on the river side, opposite the enemy, he ordered the Amazons and the Bacchants to ford it; expecting that the Bactrians, in contempt of the women, would quit their posts on the mountains, and attack them; which they accordingly did. The women retreated, and were pursued by the enemy to the opposite bank. Then Dionysus at the head of his troops furiously attacked the Bactrians, and as they were surprised and impeded by the water, defeated them with great slaughter, and crossed the river himself without any further danger.

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§ 1.2.1  Pan: Pan, a general of Dionysus, was the first who created a regular system for the marshalling of an army. He invented the phalanx, and arranged it with a right and left wing; from which he is usually represented with horns. Victory always belonged to the strongest sword, until he pointed the way to conquest by artifice and manoeuvre.

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§ 1.2.2  While he was in a wooded hollow, Dionysus was informed by his scouts that an immense army of the enemy was encamped a little above him. This was alarming news; but he was soon relieved of his worries by Pan, who ordered the whole army, in the silence of the night and on a given signal, to give out a loud shout. The surrounding rocks, and the hollows of the forest re-echoed the sound, and imposed on the enemy a fear that his forces were infinitely more numerous than they were; seized by anxiety, they abandoned their camp and fled. From the circumstances of this stratagem, the nymph Echo has been supposed by the poets to be the mistress of Pan; and hence also all pointless and imaginary fears are called panics.

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§ 1.3.1  Heracles: Heracles was determined to remove the race of Centaurs from Pelion, but he was inclined to act on the defensive, rather than commence hostilities. He resided for a short time with Pholus, and opened a jar of fragrant wine, which he and his companions secretly watched. The neighbouring Centaurs, allured by the smell, flocked together to the cave of Pholus, and seized the wine. Then Heracles, to punish the crimes of these thieves and robbers, attacked and slew them.

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§ 1.3.2  To avoid encountering the superior strength of the Erymanthian boar, Heracles had recourse to artifice. As the beast lay in a valley, which was full of snow, he annoyed him with stones from above. The boar at length roused himself in anger, and with great violence sprang forward, but sank into the snow. While he was thus entangled in the snow, and unable to exert himself, he became an easy prey for his assailant.

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§ 1.3.3  In his expedition against Troy, Heracles advanced to give the enemy battle as soon as he landed; and at the same time he ordered the pilots to put back a little to sea. The Trojan infantry soon gave way, while their cavalry pushed to the sea, in order to possess themselves of the ships; but they were not able to capture the ships, because they were floating a little off from the land. Heracles came in pursuit if them, and thus hemmed in by the enemy on one side and the sea on the other, they fell an easy victim to the conquerors.

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§ 1.3.4  In India Heracles adopted a daughter, whom he called Pandaee. To her he allotted the southern part of India which is situated by the sea, dividing it into three hundred and sixty-five cantons. He imposed on these cantons a daily tax; and he ordered each canton in turn, on their stated day, to pay the royal stipend. So that if any of them refused the tax, the queen might depend on the others, because they were obliged to make up the loss, to help her in enforcing the due payment of it.

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§ 1.3.5  When Heracles went to war against the Minyans, whose cavalry were formidable within the Minyan plain, he did not think it safe to hazard a battle immediately, but diverted the course of the river Cephisus. This river flows by the two mountains Parnassus and Hedylium, and directs its course through the middle of Boeotia; but before it reaches the sea, it discharges its stream into a large subterranean chasm, and disappears. Heracles filled this chasm with great stones, and diverted the river into the plain where the Minyan cavalry was stationed. The plain soon became a lake, and the Minyan cavalry were rendered useless. After he had conquered the Minyans, Heracles opened the chasm again, and the Cephisus returned to its formal channel.

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§ 1.4.1  Theseus: Theseus, in his battles, always used to have the fore-part of his head shaved, so that the enemy should not have the opportunity of seizing him by the hair. His example was afterwards followed by all the Greeks; and from him, that sort of hair-cut was called theseis. But those who were particularly distinguished for this imitation of Theseus were the Abantes, whom Homer describes as follows:
Their foreheads bare,
Down their broad shoulders flowed a length of hair.

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§ 1.5.1  Demophon: Diomedes committed the Palladium into the care of Demophon. When Agamemnon demanded to take it, Demophon gave the real one to Buzyges, an Athenian, to carry to Athens; but kept a counterfeit one, made exactly like the original palladium, in his tent. When Agamemnon, at the head of a large body of troops, came to seize it by force, Demophon drew out his forces, and for some time sustained a sharp conflict with him; so that he might the more easily induce him to believe, that it could be no other than the original, for which he would have fought so resolutely. After many had been wounded on both sides, Demophon's men retreated, leaving the unsuspecting victor triumphantly to bear away the counterfeit palladium.

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§ 1.6.1  Cresphontes: Cresphontes, Temenus and the sons of Aristodemus agreed to share amongst themselves the government of the Peloponnese, and decided to divide the country into three parts: Argos, Sparta and Messene. While they were deliberating how to assign the property to each of themselves, Cresphontes, who had fixed his mind upon Messene, suggested that he whose lot was drawn first, should have Sparta; the second, Argos; and that Messene should be the portion of the third. His advice was followed, and they cast lots; which they did by each throwing a white stone into a pitcher of water. But instead of a stone, Cresphontes moulded a piece of clay, which he made into the resemblance of a stone. When he threw it into the water, it was immediately dissolved. After the other two stones coming out assigned Argos to Temenus, and Sparta to the sons of Aristodemus, Messene was assigned to Cresphontes, as if purely by fortune.

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§ 1.7.1  Cypselus: In the reign of Cypselus, the Heracleidae made an expedition against the Arcadians; but an oracle warned them that, if they received presents of hospitality from the Arcadians, they should immediately conclude a peace with them. Cypselus therefore, in the harvest season, ordered the farmers, after they had reaped the corn, to leave it by the highway, as a grateful present to the soldiers of the Heracleidae, who readily availed themselves of it. Cypselus afterwards went out to meet them, and offered them gifts of hospitality; but they declined to accept the gifts, remembering the oracle. "Why do you refuse?" replied Cypselus. "Your army, in taking our corn, has already received our presents of hospitality." By this device of Cypselus, the Heracleidae were induced to make peace, and they entered into an alliance with the Arcadians.

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§ 1.8.1  Elnes: When the Lacedaemonians were ravaging Tegea, Elnes, the king of Arcadia, selected the most able and vigorous of his troops, and posted them on a height above the enemy, with orders to attack them from there in the middle of the night. He stationed the old men and boys as guards before the city; and commanded them, at the time he intended to attack, to kindle a large fire. While the enemy, distracted by the sight of the fire, were all looking in that direction, the men ran down from the height to attack them, and killed most of them; many of the survivors were taken as prisoners. Thus was accomplished the prediction of the oracle:
I give you to Tegea to advance,
And there in fatal steps to lead the dance.

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§ 1.9.1  Temenus: Temenus and the rest of the Heracleidae, who intended to make an expedition against Rhium, dispatched some Locrian rebels, with instructions to inform the Peloponnesians that the Heracleidae had a fleet at Naupactus; and that although they were pretending to be sailing to Rhium, their real intention was to make a descent on the Isthmus. The Peloponnesians believed this message, and marched their forces to the Isthmus; and by this means, they gave Temenus an opportunity to capture Rhium without opposition.

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§ 1.10.1  Procles: While the Heracleidae, Procles and Temenus, were at war with the Eurystheidae, who were then in possession of Sparta, they were suddenly attacked by the enemy, as they were sacrificing to Athene for a safe passage over the mountains. Procles was not disconcerted, but ordered the flutes to lead the army forwards. The hoplites, who were inspired by the beat and the harmony of the music, preserved their ranks intact, and eventually defeated the enemy. From this experience of the influence of music, the Laconians were taught to keep flutes in their army; who, advancing before them into battle, would always sound the charge. And I know that the oracle had promised victory to the Laconians, so long as they continued to use flutes in their army, and did not fight against those who kept flutes. The battle of Leuctra confirmed this prediction; for there the Laconians, without the music of flutes, fought against the Thebans, who always used flutes in battle; so that the god seemed to have foretold directly that the Thebans would defeat the Laconians.

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§ 1.11.1  Acues: When the Spartans entered Tegea, which was betrayed to them in the night, Acues ordered his men to slay anyone who asked for a watchword. Therefore the Arcadians asked no questions; but the Lacedaemonians, not being able to discern their friends in the dark of night, were obliged to ask anyone whom they met, whether they were friend or foe. In this way they revealed their identity, and were instantly killed by the Arcadians.

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§ 1.12.1  Thessalus: When the Boeotians of Arne made war against the Thessalians, Thessalus used a clever stratagem to reduce them to terms of peace, without hazarding a battle. Waiting for a dark and moonless night, he dispersed his men throughout the fields. He ordered them to light torches and lamps, and post themselves in different places on the tops of hills, sometimes raising their lights above their heads, then lowering them again; so as to produce a confusing and strange spectacle. The Boeotians, when they saw the surrounding flames, supposed themselves to be involved in a blaze of lightning; they were thrown in consternation, and pleaded for peace with the Thessalians.

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§ 1.13.1  Menelaus: While Menelaus was returning with Helen from Egypt, he was forced to put in at Rhodes. When Polyxo, who was then mourning the death of her husband Tlepolemus at Troy, heard of their arrival, she resolved to avenge his death on Helen and Menelaus. At the head of as many Rhodians as she could muster, both men and women, armed with fire and stones, she advanced to the ships. Menelaus, because the wind did not permit him to put out to sea, concealed the queen under deck; and at the same time, he dressed one of the most beautiful of her attendants in her royal robes and diadem. The Rhodians, assuming that she was Helen, threw fire and stones at the unfortunate attendant. Then, satisfied that (as they thought) that they had gained revenge for Tlepolemus through the death of Helen, they returned home; leaving Menelaus and Helen at leisure to continue the rest of their journey.

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§ 1.14.1  Cleomenes: In a war between the Lacedaemonians and the Argives, the two armies were encamped facing each other. Cleomenes, the king of the Lacedaemonians, noticed that every command in his army was betrayed to the enemy, who acted accordingly. When he ordered his men to arms, the enemy armed also; if he marched out, they were ready to form up against him; when he ordered his men to rest, they did likewise. Therefore he gave out secret instructions that, whenever he next gave public orders to take a meal, his troops should arm for battle. His public orders were as usual transmitted to the unsuspecting Argives; and when Cleomenes advanced in arms to attack them, they were easily overwhelmed, being unarmed and unprepared to oppose him.

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§ 1.15.1  Polydorus: The Lacedaemonians had been at war with the Messenians for twenty years, when Polydorus pretended that there was a dispute between him and Theopompus, the king of the other house. He sent a deserter to the enemy's camp, with information that the kings were at variance, and had divided their forces. The Messenians, upon receiving this report, observed the movements of the enemy with particular attention. And Theopompus, in accordance with information they had received, decamped and concealed his army at a little distance from the spot; there he remained in readiness to act, whenever the occasion might require. The Messenians, seeing this movement, and despising the small size of Polydorus' army, sallied out of the city and gave him battle. Theopompus, upon a signal given by his scouts, advanced from his hiding place and made himself master of the empty abandoned town; then he fell upon the Messenians in the rear, while Polydorus attacked them in front, and gained a complete victory.

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§ 1.16.1  Lycurgus: The method Lycurgus used to impose his laws upon the Lacedaemonians was, on enacting any new law, to go to off to Delphi; there he enquired of the oracle, whether it would be advantageous to the state to accept the law, or. The prophetess, persuaded by the eloquence of a bribe, always confirmed that it was right to accept it. Thus, through a fear of offending the god, the Lacedaemonians religiously observed those laws, as if they were divine oracles.

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§ 1.16.2  One command of Lycurgus, sanctioned by the oracle, was this: "O Laconians, do not be too frequently engaged in war; lest by that means you also teach your enemies to be good soldiers."

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§ 1.16.3  Another of his instructions was, always to give quarter to those who fled; lest otherwise the enemy should judge it safer to hazard their lives in a brave resistance, than to yield and run away.

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§ 1.17.1  Tyrtaeus: Before a battle with the Messenians, the Lacedaemonians determined either to conquer or to die; and so that, if they died, they might easily be recognised amongst the bodies by their friends, they engraved their names on their shields, which were fastened to their left arms. In order to take advantage of this resolution, by making the Messenians aware of it, Tyrtaeus gave secret orders that the Helots should be offered frequent opportunities of deserting. As soon as the Helots realised that they were being less strictly guarded, many of them deserted to the enemy, whom they informed of the extent of the Laconians' desperation. The Messenians were intimidated by these reports, and after a weak resistance yielded a complete victory to the Lacedaemonians.

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§ 1.18.1  Codrus: In a war between the Athenians and the Peloponnesians, the oracle declared that victory would go to the Athenians, if their king fell by the hands of a Peloponnesian. The enemy, informed of the oracle, gave a public order to every soldier in their army, to abstain from attacking the person of Codrus, who was at that time the king of the Athenians. But Codrus disguised himself in the clothes of a wood-cutter, and at evening time he went forward from the trenches to hew some wood; and there he happened to meet some Peloponnesians, who were out on a similar errand. Codrus deliberately quarrelled with them, and wounded some of them with his axe, until out of exasperation they fell upon him with their axes, and slew him. Then they returned to their camp, elated by the achievement of what they thought was a noble exploit. The Athenians, when they saw that the oracle had been fulfilled, delayed no further but advanced to battle with new courage and resolution. Beforehand they dispatched a herald into the enemy's camp, to request the body of their dead king. When the Peloponnesians realised what had happened, they immediately abandoned their camp and fled. The Athenians afterwards paid divine honours to Codrus, who had purchased so complete a victory by his voluntary death.

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§ 1.19.1  Melanthus: In a war between the Athenians and Boeotians, for the possession of Melaenae, which was a tract of land on the border between Attica and Boeotia, the oracle declared:
Black bringing death to yellow
Shall obtain Melaenae.
Which came to pass as follows. Melanthus, general of the Athenians, and Xanthus, general of the Boeotians, agreed to decide the victory by single combat. As soon as they were engaged, Melanthus called out, "Thus to bring a second against a single man is unfair!", whereupon Xanthus turned round to see who this second person was. Melanthus seized his opportunity, and ran through his unguarded opponent with his spear. The victorious Athenians, in commemoration of this successful stratagem, instituted an annual festival, which they call Apaturia ["cheat"/ἀπατάω].

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§ 1.20.1  Solon: The Athenians, worn out by a long war in which they had been engaged against the Megarians for the island of Salamis, enacted a law, that imposed a penalty of death on anyone who asserted that the city ought to attempt to recover the island. Solon, undaunted by the severity of the punishment, devised a means to circumvent the law. He pretended madness, and, running into the assembly, repeated an elegy which he had composed for the occasion. This martial poem so aroused the Athenians to war that, inspired by Ares and the Muses, they advanced to battle, signing hymns and shouting. They entirely defeated the Megarians, and regained possession of Salamis. Solon was held in universal admiration, because he had repealed a law by madness, and won a battle by the power of music.

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§ 1.20.2  In the course of the war between Athens and Megara for the possession of Salamis, Solon sailed to Colias, where he found the women performing a sacrifice to Demeter. He immediately dispatched someone to Megara who, pretending to be a deserter, advised them to sail with all speed to Colias, where they could easily seize the Athenian women. The Megarians instantly manned their ships, and put to sea. Meanwhile, Solon ordered the women to leave; and he sent some beardless youths, dressed in women's clothes with garlands on their heads, but secretly armed with daggers, to play and dance by the sea-shore. Deceived by the appearance of the youths in their women's clothes, the Megarians landed and attempted to seize them, as if they were defenceless women. But the youths drew their swords, and proved by the slaughter of their enemies that they were really men. Then they embarked on the ships, and took possession of Salamis.

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§ 1.21.1  Peisistratus: Peisistratus, in an expedition from Euboea against Pallenis in Attica, fell in with a body of the enemy, whom he defeated and slew. When he advanced farther, he met the remaining part of their army. He ordered his men not to attack, but to crown themselves with garlands, so as to suggest to them that he had already made a truce with the first group that he had met. Convinced by this, the enemy formed an alliance with Peisistratus and admitted him into the city. Peisistratus mounted his chariot, with a tall beautiful woman called Phye by his side, who was clad in the armour of Pallas. When they saw them, the Athenians were convinced that Athene was his protectress and guide; and by this means he established himself as tyrant of Athens.

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§ 1.21.2  When he intended to disarm the Athenians, Peisistratus commanded them all to appear at the Anaceium, in arms. When they were assembled, he stepped forth, as if to address them, but he began in so low a tone of voice, that, not being able to hear him, the people asked him to go to the Propylaeum, where they might all hear him more distinctly. And even then he did not raise his voice enough to be heard distinctly, so that the people were straining to listen to him. Meanwhile his associates went about and secretly carried off all the arms, putting them in the temple of Agraulus. The Athenians, when they found themselves left defenceless, realised too late that Peisistratus' weak voice was only a stratagem to deprive them of their arms.

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§ 1.21.3  Megacles, who was magistrate on behalf of the rich, and Peisistratus, who was magistrate on behalf of the lower orders, were in dispute with each other. After insulting and menacing Megacles at a public assembly, Peisistratus suddenly went away; and after slightly wounding himself, went into the agora the next day, and revealed his wounds to the Athenians. The people were fired with anger and resentment on seeing what he had suffered in their defence, and assigned him a bodyguard of three hundred men. By means of these guards, who always used to appear armed with clubs, Peisistratus became tyrant of Athens, and left his sons as tyrants after his death.

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§ 1.22.1  Aristogeiton: Aristogeiton, when he was put to torture to force him to name his associates, revealed none of them, but instead he named all the friends of Hippias. And when they had all been put to death by order of Hippias, Aristogeiton taunted him for being duped into punishing his own friends.

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§ 1.23.1  Polycrates: When Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos, infested the Greek seas, he made no distinction in his depredations between the friends and foes. He observed that, if his friends demanded back whatever of their property he had seized, he would have the opportunity of obliging them by returning it to them; and thus bind them even more closely to his cause. But if he took nothing from them, then he would have nothing with which to oblige them.

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§ 1.23.2  When the Samians offered a public sacrifice in the temple of Hera, they were attended by a procession of men in arms, and a great quantity of weapons was collected for the occasion. Polycrates gave the conduct of the procession to his brothers, Syloson and Pantognostus. As soon as the sacrifice started, most of the men deposited their weapons on the altar, and addressed themselves to prayer. But the companions of Syloson and Pantagnostus, who were still armed, upon a given signal attacked the others, and each killed those standing by them. Meanwhile Polycrates, at the head of his supporters, occupied the most advantageous places in the city, where he was joined by his brothers and their party, who had promptly forced their way to him from the temple. With these men he fortified and defended himself in the citadel called Astypalaea; until, after receiving reinforcements from Lygdamis, the tyrant of Naxos, he established himself as tyrant of the Samians.

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§ 1.24.1  Histiaeus: While Histiaeus of Miletus was residing at the court of King Dareius in Persia, he formed a plan to incite the Ionians to revolt; but he was at a loss as to how to transmit a letter safely, when all the roads were controlled by the king's guards. He shaved off the head of one of his servants, and inscribed on it the brief message: "Histiaeus to Aristagoras, call for the revolt of Ionia." As soon as the servant's hair had grown again, he sent him off to Aristagoras. By this means, he passed by the guards without suspicion; and when he reached the coast, he asked to be shaved, and then showed the marks on his head to Aristagoras, who acted as the message instructed, and caused the revolt of Ionia.

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§ 1.25.1  Pittacus: Pittacus and Phrynon agreed to settle the dispute about the ownership of Sigeium by single combat. In appearance, they both went out to fight with equal weapons; but Pittacus had secretly concealed a net under his shield. He cast the net over Phrynon, and then he easily dragged down his entangled opponent and killed him. It was afterwards wittily remarked that he had captured Sigeium for the Lesbians with a linen net. This stratagem of Pittacus gave rise to the use of nets in duels between gladiators.

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§ 1.26.1  Bias: Croesus, the king of Lydia, intended to attack the islands, but was deterred from this plan by Bias of Priene. Bias told the king that the islanders had bought up a great number of horses, so that they might be able to bring a formidable force of cavalry against him. "By Zeus," said the king, "I wish that I could catch those islanders on the continent." "True," said Bias, "and what do you think they could wish for more, than to catch Croesus upon the seas?" This reply of Bias had the effect of dissuading the king from his intended expedition.

Event Date: 550 GR

§ 1.27.1  Gelon: Gelon of Syracuse, the son of Deinomenes, was appointed commander in the war against Himilco the Carthaginian. When he had defeated the enemy by his gallant conduct, he went into the assembly and gave an account of his achievements as general: the expenses of the war, the times, arms, horses and ships. After great praise had been bestowed on him for all of this, he removed his armour, and advanced unarmed into the midst of them. "Thus unarmed," he said, "I present myself to you, so that, if I have ever injured or oppressed any individual amongst you, I may now feel the just resentment of your weapons." He was answered by the applause of all present, who acclaimed him as the most gallant, the best of all generals. To this he replied, "Then for the future, always take care to choose a similar leader." But they answered, "We do not have any other such leader." He was therefore elected general for a second time; which paved the way for him to become tyrant of the Syracusans.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.27.2  When Himilco, king of Carthage, invaded Sicily, Gelon, who was then the tyrant of the Sicilians, marched against him, but did not venture to risk a battle. Instead he put his own clothes on Pediarchus, who was commander of the archers, and very much resembled him in appearance, and ordered Pediarchus to march out of the camp in order to attend a sacrifice on the altars. The band of archers followed him, dressed in white clothes, and carrying myrtle branches in their hands, but with bows secretly concealed under them. They had been ordered to use the bows against Himilco, as soon as they saw him advancing to sacrifice in a similar manner. When Himilco, not suspecting any trickery, came forward to make a sacrifice, a shower of arrows suddenly cut him down, while he was performing the ceremonies and offering libations.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.27.3  In order to overthrow the state of Megara, Gelon invited over to Sicily any of the Dorians who were willing to emigrate. At the same time, he imposed an enormous fine on Diognetus, the ruler of Megara. When Diognetus attempted to raise the money for the fine from his citizens, they refused and joined the colonists at Syracuse, submitting to the power of Gelon.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.28.1  Theron: Theron, in a battle against the Carthaginians, put the enemy to flight. But the Sicilians immediately fell to plundering the tents in the enemy's camp, and while they were thus distracted, they were overwhelmed by the Iberians, who had come to the assistance of the Carthaginians. Theron, perceiving the carnage that was likely to follow, dispatched a body of men to wheel behind the camp and set fire to the farthest tents. The enemy, who had lost their tents and now saw the camp on fire, hurried back to their ships; but the Sicilians pursued them closely, and killed most of them before they could board the ships.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.28.2  Theron, the son of Miltiades: The inhabitants of Selinus had been defeated by the Carthaginians, and the battlefield was covered with their dead. The enemy pursued them so closely, that they did not dare to return to bury the dead, but they were appalled to leave them neglected and unburied. In this emergency, Theron promised that, if they would provide him with three hundred servants who could cut wood, he would march out with them, burn the dead and erect a tomb for them. "If we fail in our attempt," he continued, "and fall victim to the enemy, the city will not suffer much from the death of one citizen, and three hundred slaves." The inhabitants of Selinus agreed to his proposal, and allowed him to choose the slaves whom he wanted. Accordingly, he chose those whom he judged to be to most active and sturdy, and led them forth, armed with bill-hooks, hatchets, and axes, under pretence of cutting wood for the funeral pyre. But after they had advanced a little distance from the city, Theron persuaded them to revolt against their masters, and late in the evening marched them back to the city. When they made themselves known to the guards, they were readily admitted, but as soon as they had entered, he cut down the guards. Then, having slain in their beds those citizens who were most likely to thwart his designs, he seized the city and made himself tyrant of Selinus.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.29.1  Hieron: When the enemy prepared to dispute his passage over a river, Hieron posted his hoplites at the place where he intended to ford it; and ordered the cavalry and light infantry to advance further up, under pretence of crossing it at another point. When the enemy observed this, they similarly marched their troops further up, in order to thwart his supposed intention. Meanwhile Hieron effected a crossing with his hoplites, easily overwhelming the small force which the enemy had left to oppose them. As soon as he had crossed to the other side, he raised a signal to the cavalry and light infantry, who immediately returned and crossed the river at the first point, where Hieron and his hoplites were able to repel the enemy's attacks.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.29.2  Whenever Hieron, during his wars with the Italians, took any prisoners who were particularly eminent or wealthy, he would not permit them to be immediately ransomed, but always retained them for some time with him, treating them politely and with every mark of honour. Afterwards, when he had received a ransom, he would courteously dismiss them. As a result of these clear signs of favour, they were suspected from that time onwards of secretly supporting the cause of Hieron.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.30.1  Themistocles: The Athenians were disheartened by receiving the following oracle:
Salamis divine, you will cause the death of many women's children.
But Themistocles cleverly interpreted it as referring to their enemies. "The oracle," he said, "could never refer to Salamis as divine, if it were to prove the cause of destruction to the youth of Greece." This explanation revived the courage and resolution of the Athenians, and their victory proved its veracity.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.30.2  The people were convinced by Themistocles' explanation of another, equally obscure oracle:
Zeus will give a wall of wood to Tritogeneia.
When most of the Athenians thought they had been instructed to fortify their towers, Themistocles told them to man their triremes. "For these," he said, "O Athenians, are your wooden walls." His words had their effect. The Athenians embarked, engaged with the enemy, and overcame them.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.30.3  While the fleet was stationed near Salamis, the Greeks were almost unanimous in favour of retreating, but Themistocles urged them to stay and risk a battle in the narrow seas. As he was unable to convince them, he secretly sent Sicinnus, a eunuch who was tutor to his sons, by night to inform the king that the Greek intended to withdraw; "but", he added, "you should pre-empt them by forcing a battle." The king followed the eunuch's advice, and attacked the Greek fleet; but the narrowness of the strait rendered the vast number of his ships a hindrance, rather than a help to him. Thus by a clever stratagem of their commander, the Greeks obtained a victory, even against their own inclinations.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.30.4  The Greeks, after their victory at Salamis, decided to sail to the Hellespont, in order to destroy the bridge, and cut off the king's retreat. Themistocles opposed this plan, saying that if the king was prevented from retreating, he would be forced to renew the battle; and despair is often found to effect what courage has failed to achieve. Therefore he sent Arsaces, another eunuch, to inform the king that unless he retreated quickly, he would find that the bridge over the Hellespont had been demolished. Alarmed at this information, the king promptly marched to the Hellespont, and crossed the bridge before the Greeks could carry out their plan. In this way Themistocles allowed the Greeks to enjoy their victory, without risking a second battle.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.30.5  When the Athenians first began to fortify their city with walls, the Laconians were greatly annoyed, but Themistocles found a means to deceive them by a clever stratagem. He was sent as an envoy to Sparta, and there he confidently denied that the walls were being constructed. "But," he added, "if you are not convinced by my words, send your best men to find out the truth, and in the meantime keep me here as your prisoner." The Spartans agreed to do this; but Themistocles secretly sent a messenger to the Athenians, with strict instructions to detain any investigators who came to Athens, while the walls were being constructed; and after that, not to allow them to depart until the Spartans had released him. Accordingly, the walls were completed; Themistocles then returned home, the investigators were released, and Athens was fortified, against the will of the Lacedaemonians.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.30.6  During the war against the Aeginetans, Themistocles opposed the plan of the Athenians to distribute amongst themselves a hundred talents, which was the produce of their silver mines; he proposed that they should give a talent to each of a hundred of the wealthiest citizens. If the people were satisfied with the way that the money was spent, then it should be reckoned as coming out of the public account; but if not, then the contributions should be returned to the city. This proposal was accepted; and the hundred citizens without delay each fitted out a splendid trireme. The Athenians found themselves suddenly furnished with a powerful fleet, which they employed not only against the Aeginetans, but also against the Persians.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.30.7  When the Ionians fought under Xerxes in alliance with the Persians, Themistocles instructed the Greeks to have this inscription placed on the (?) sides of their ships: "O impious Ionians, thus to fight against your fathers!" This message caused the king to distrust the loyalty of the Ionians.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.30.8  Themistocles, when he was escaping from the resentment of the Athenians, embarked for Ionia, without making himself known to the master of the ship. But the vessel was forced by a storm to Naxos, which was at that time being attacked by the Athenians. Themistocles in alarm went to the master, and revealed who he was. At the same time, he threatened that, if the master allowed him to be captured, he would accuse him to the Athenians of having been bribed to transport him to Ionia. For the common safety of both of them, he therefore proposed that no-one should be permitted to set foot on shore. Terrified by these menaces, the master insisted that everyone remained on board; and put out again to sea as quickly as was possible.

Event Date: -480 GR

§ 1.31.1  Aristeides: Aristeides and Themistocles, who were inveterate enemies, were at the head of opposing factions in the state; but when the Persians marched against the Athenians, they went out of the city together, and grasping each other's hand, announced, "Here we leave our former disputes, and lay aside our mutual animosity, until we have put an end to the war in which we are engaged against Persia." After this solemn declaration, loosing their hands, they filled up the ditch nearby, as if they had buried their enmity there; and they continued to co-operate throughout the whole course of the war. This harmony in the conduct of the generals did great damage to the enemy, and secured the victory for themselves.

Event Date: -480 GR

§ 1.32.1  Leonidas: Leonidas fought the Persian army at Thermopylae, where the narrowness of the pass made the great superiority of the enemy's forces of little use to them.

Event Date: -480 GR

§ 1.32.2  Shortly before a battle, Leonidas noticed that the clouds looked thick and lowering. He turned about to his officers, and told them not to be surprised at the thunder and lightning, which he observed from the appearance of the sky must be expected very soon. The army of Leonidas, thus forewarned of the phenomenon before it occurred, advanced confidently to battle. But the enemy, terrified and dispirited by the menaces of the elements, were easily defeated.

Event Date: -480 GR

§ 1.32.3  Leonidas, who had made a raid into the enemy's territory, dispatched small groups in different directions, with orders, upon a given signal, to fell trees and set fire to the villages. At sight of this, those who were in the city imagined that the enemy's forces were much more numerous than they really were, and did not venture out to confront them, but allowed them to carry off the spoil unmolested.

Event Date: -480 GR

§ 1.33.1  Leotychides: In a naval battle near Mycale, Leotychides observed that the Greeks were alarmed at the great superiority of the enemy's forces. He devised the following means of detaching the Ionians from their support of the Medes; which he knew they did more through fear, than inclination. He pretended that a dispatch had arrived, with information of a victory obtained by the Greeks over the Persians at Plataea. Encouraged by this news, the Ionians joined the Greeks; and fortune afterwards gave the sanction of truth to this stratagem, because the Greeks did indeed win a victory at Plataea.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.34.1  Cimon: After Cimon had defeated the king's satraps at the river Eurymedon, he manned the many ships, which he had captured, with Greeks who were dressed in the style of Medes, and sent them to Cyprus. The Cyprians, deceived by the barbarian clothes, readily received the fleet as friends and allies. But no sooner were they safe on shore, than they revealed very plainly that they were Greeks; and made themselves masters of the island, more by the sudden consternation into which the Cyprians were thrown, than by the force which was employed against them.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.34.2  Cimon, having carried off many captives from Sestus and Byzantium, was, at the request of the allies, appointed to distribute them. He assigned the captives, stripped of their possessions, to be one part of the spoils; the other was made up of trousers, cloaks, bracelets and other such things. The allies then chose to take the ornaments, and the Athenians contented themselves with the naked captives. Cimon was ridiculed for having made, as was thought, so unequal a division, and allowing the allies to choose much the better portion. Shortly afterwards, the friends and relations of the captives arrived from Lydia and Phrygia, and redeemed them for very large ransoms. The foresight of Cimon, and the advantageous arrangement he had made, then became clear; and Athenians returned the ridicule upon the allies.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.35.1  Myronides: The Athenian and Theban armies confronted each other. Myronides, the Athenian general, ordered his men, as soon as the signal for battle was given, to begin the charge from the left. After he had led them for a short time in the charge, he suddenly advanced to the right wing, calling out, "We are victorious in the left." When they heard the word "victorious", the Athenian took fresh courage, and charged the enemy with redoubled fury. The Thebans, on the other hand, were dismayed by the news of their defeat, and abandoned the battlefield to the enemy.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.35.2  When Myronides was leading the Athenians against Thebes, and was about to advance to battle, he ordered them to ground their arms, and look at the country around them. When they had done so, he said, "Observe what a wide plain this is; and what a large number of cavalry the enemy have in it. If we run away, the cavalry will undoubtedly overtake us; but if we stand like men, there are the fairest hopes of victory." By these words, he convinced them of the necessity of holding their ground; and advanced as far as the territories of Phocis and Locris.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.36.1  Pericles: The Lacedaemonians were ravaging Attica. In order to divert their operations, by carrying the war into their own country, Pericles fitted out some Athenian triremes with orders to lay waste the coast of Laconia; and thus he retaliated for the injuries the Athenians had sustained, by committing greater damage upon the enemy.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.36.2  Archidamus, who had formerly been a friend and acquaintance of Pericles, invaded Attica. Pericles, who was very rich and had large estates, suspected that on account of their former friendship, Archidamus might not allow his property to be ravaged in the same way as the rest. In order to avoid the suspicion of the Athenians, before the devastation began, he went into the assembly and publicly donated all his possessions to the city.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.37.1  Cleon: By means of a lucky discovery, Cleon betrayed Sestus to the Abydenes without risking a battle. Theodorus, a friend of his, who was commander of the watch in the city, was having an affair with a woman in the suburbs. Theodorus observed that a narrow aqueduct passed through the walls. By removing a stone, he made a hole through which he went to visit his mistress; and on his return, he replaced the stone in its usual position, and continued his affair in secret. Once, when wine and mirth had loosed his tongue, he revealed his intrigue to his friend Cleon. Cleon immediately informed the Abydenes; and on a dark night, when Theodorus had removed the stone and was dallying with his mistress, he brought in some of the enemy through the aqueduct. These, after they had slain the watch, opened the gates to the rest of the enemy, who easily made themselves masters of Sestus.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.38.1  Brasidas: When Amphipolis, which was under Athenian protection, had been betrayed to Brasidas, he ordered the gates to be shut. Then he threw the keys over the wall, so that, not being able to open the gates again to the enemy that besieged the place, they would be forced to rely on a vigorous defence.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.38.2  Brasidas was attacked near Amphipolis, and hemmed in on a rough craggy hill. To prevent his escape, the enemy raised a high wall of stone round the hill. The Laconians urged their general to lead them out to battle, and not to let them be cooped up until they perished from famine. But Brasidas ignored their protests, and told them that he knew best what was the proper time for battle. When the enemy had extended their wall round most of the hill, and only one place was left open, like a pass into a spacious lawn, he gave orders for battle, saying that this was the time for them to show their bravery. By a vigorous sally, they forced a passage through, with great slaughter of the enemy and little loss to themselves. The narrowness of the entrance was of no inconvenience to the small number of their forces, while the wall secured them from an attack on their rear. Thus the enemy's numbers were rendered useless, and the Laconians effected a safe retreat.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.38.3  When Brasidas had advanced secretly to Amphipolis and found everything there in confusion, he judged it sensible not to risk a battle with enemy forces who would be inflamed by despair. He issued a proclamation, promising safety to the Athenians, if they would agree to a truce with him and then retreat with their own property. And to the citizens of Amphipolis he made another proposal, that they could retain their freedom, if they entered into a strict alliance with the Lacedaemonians. The terms of the proclamations were accepted by the Athenians, who withdrew their forces; the citizens of Amphipolis willingly became allies of the Lacedaemonians, and Brasidas gained control of their city.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.38.4  When Brasidas intended to sail to Scione by night, he ordered a trireme to be manned, and sail before him, while he followed in a light vessel; so that if the trireme was attacked by a larger vessel, the light vessel could come to its assistance; but if it was attacked by another trireme, Brasidas could sail on and arrive safely at Scione.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.38.5  When the enemy were harassing on the Lacedaemonians' rear in a narrow defile, Brasidas ordered his men to cut down large quantities of wood as they marched, and to pile it in heaps. Then he set the wood on fire, so that the flames spread far around; thus he secured his rear, and effected a safe retreat.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.39.1  Nicias: Nicias sailed by night to the mountain Solyges, which is in the territory of Corinth. There he landed his Athenian forces, and a thousand other troops, and posted them in ambush in different places. Then he returned to Athens, and the next morning as soon as it was light he set sail openly for Corinth. The Corinthians promptly advanced to oppose him, and to dispute his landing; but the Athenians suddenly arose from their ambush, and totally defeated the enemy.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.39.2  While the Athenians were encamped by the Olympieium, Nicias ordered his men to fix wooden spikes by night in the level ground, which extended in front of the camp. On the next day Ecphantus, the Syracusan commander, attacked with his cavalry, but he was entirely routed, as the spikes stuck into the horses' hooves with every step that they advanced. Many of them, who were unable to make good their retreat, were cut down by the peltasts, who had been provided with hard stiff shoes for that purpose.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.39.3  Nicias was left to defend a town with a few men, while the main body of the army was at Thapsus. The Syracusans seized possession of the outworks, where a great quantity of wood was deposited. Nicias, finding himself unable to defend the town any longer, set fire to the wood, which continued to burn fiercely and repelled the enemy, until the army returned from Thapsus and relieved him.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.39.4  Nicias, when he was being closely pursued by Gylippus and very near to being captured, sent a herald to him with a proposal to surrender on whatever conditions he might offer; and at the time same he asked for someone to be sent to ratify the truce. Gylippus, who believed the herald, stopped the pursuit and encamped where he was, while he sent back the herald, and with him one who was assigned to conclude the treaty. But in the meantime Nicias seized a more advantageous position, and continued the war, after securing his retreat through the pretence of the herald.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.40.1  Alcibiades: To test the loyalty of his friends, Alcibiades used the following stratagem. In a dark corner of his house he shut up a statue of a man, which he revealed separately to his friends, pretending that it was a person whom he had murdered, and begged their assistance in trying to conceal the fact. They all excused themselves from any involvement in an affair of that nature, except Callias, the son of Hipponicus, who readily offered to take the pretended corpse, and hide it so that it would not be discovered. Thus Alcibiades discovered that Callias was a faithful friend; and ever afterwards he held him in the first place in his affections.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.40.2  When Alcibiades sailed against a foreign city, he landed his forces in the enemy's territory by night, and awaited their attack on the next day; but he found that they were not inclined to venture out of the city and hazard a battle. Therefore he planted some men in ambush; and, after burning his tents, weighed anchor and sailed away. As soon as the inhabitants of the city saw him embark, they confidently opened their gates, and in little groups straggled up and down the countryside. But then the men in ambush, sallying out against them, took many prisoners and a considerable amount of booty. Alcibiades immediately appeared on the coast again, and taking on board both the spoil and the captors, sailed away from there.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.40.3  While the Lacedaemonians were besieging Athens, Alcibiades wanted to encourage the guards of the Peiraeus and the Long Walls to be vigilant. He announced that three times every night he would hold out a torch from the Acropolis, and that if any of the guards failed to respond by holding up their torch at the same time, they would be punished for neglect of duty. The stratagem had the desired effect; for all the guards took care to remain prepared, to respond to their general's signal.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.40.4  In the expedition against Sicily, Alcibiades landed at Corcyra, and because his army was numerous, he divided it into three parts, so that supplies could be provided more easily. He advanced to Catane, but found that the inhabitants were determined not to admit him. Therefore he sent an envoy to them, requesting that he should be permitted to enter their city alone, to communicate some proposals to them. After they agreed to this, he left orders with his officers, that they should vigorously attack the city's weakest gates, while the citizens were gathered in the assembly. Accordingly, the citizens of Catane found that the Athenians had gained possession of their city, while Alcibiades was still addressing them.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.40.5  After Alcibiades gained possession of Catane, he found a loyal assistant in one of the citizens, who was also well known at Syracuse. Alcibiades sent him to Syracuse, on pretence of coming from the Syracusans' allies at Catane, who were known to them by name. He brought information that the Athenians spent their time at Catane in pleasure, and used to leave their camp casually, without their weapons; therefore if the Syracusans could surprise the camp early in the morning, they would find it easy to capture the other Athenians, who were unarmed and indulging themselves in the city. The Syracusan generals were convinced by the message; they advanced with their whole army to Catane, and encamped by the river Symaethus. As soon as Alcibiades perceived that they were advancing, he manned his triremes as quickly as possible, and sailed directly to Syracuse; because the city had been left empty of defenders, he was able to demolish the fortifications alongside it.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.40.6  When Alcibiades was ordered to return from Sicily to stand trial, on charges of defacing the statues of Hermes and of profaning the mysteries, he hired a merchant-ship and sailed to Lacedaemon. There he advised the Spartans to send aid immediately to Syracuse, and to fortify Deceleia against the Athenians. If they followed this advice, the Athenians would receive produce neither from the soil nor from their silver mines; and also the islanders were likely to come out in revolt, when they saw them thus under siege. When it turned out as he predicted, the Athenians voted for him to be recalled from exile.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.40.7  While the Athenians were fighting against the Syracusans, Alcibiades noticed that there was a great quantity of dry fern between the two armies. When a brisk wind was blowing from behind the Athenians, and towards the enemy's faces, he ordered the fern to be set on fire. The wind drove the smoke into the enemy's eyes, and as a result they were completely routed.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.40.8  When Alcibiades was trying to escape from Tiribazus, there was only way by which he could secure his retreat, while the enemy hung upon his rear, but did not risk a general engagement. Alcibiades encamped in a place which was well covered with wood; he ordered a quantity of timber to be cut down, and piled in different heaps. In the middle of the night he set fire to the wood, and secretly left his camp. The barbarians, seeing the fire, never suspected that the Greeks had decamped; and when Tiribazus did discover the stratagem, he found that his progress was so impeded by the fire, that he had to desist from pursuing them.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.40.9  Alcibiades secretly sent Theramenes and Thrasybulus with a large squadron to Cyzicus, in order to cut off the enemy's retreat to the city, while he himself advanced with a few triremes to offer them battle. Mindarus, despising his little fleet, immediately prepared for battle. No sooner had they drawn close, than Alcibiades' ships pretended to turn to flight, and Mindarus' ships, as if they already had the victory, eagerly pursued them. But Alcibiades, as soon as he was approaching the squadron under the command of Theramenes and Thrasybulus, hoisted the signal and turned around to face the enemy. Mindarus then attempted to sail away towards the city; but he was prevented by the intervention of Theramenes. Cut off from that route of escape, Mindarus directed his course to Cleri, a point in the territory of Cyzicus; but there also he was prevented from landing by the army of Pharnabazus. Meanwhile Alcibiades closely pursued him, and broke his ships by ramming them with his beaks, or hauled them off with grappling-irons, while they were attempting to land. Any of the enemy who managed to reach land were cut to pieces by Pharnabazus. The death of Mindarus finally completed a brilliant and glorious victory for Alcibiades.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.41.1  Archidamus: On the night before a battle, in which Archidamus was about to command the Spartan army against the Arcadians, in order to raise the spirits of the Spartans, he had an altar secretly erected, adorned with two suits of shining armour; and he ordered two horses to be led around it. In the morning, the captains and officers, seeing the new suits of armour and the marks of two horses' feet, and an altar raised as it were of its own accord, were convinced that the Dioscuri had come to fight alongside them. The soldiers, because they were thus filled with courage and inspired by their belief in assistance from the gods, fought bravely and defeated the Arcadians.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.41.2  While Archidamus was besieging Corinth, disputes broke out between the rich and the poor within the city; one party wanted to deliver up the city to the enemy, while the other wanted to establish an oligarchy. When Archidamus heard of these divisions, he slackened the siege; he no longer brought his machines up to the walls, he no longer extended ditches around the city, and he ceased from levelling the ground. The rich men were convinced by this that the other party had already arranged to betray the city to him; therefore they decided to pre-empt them, and sent envoys who promised to surrender the city to Archidamus, on condition that he guaranteed their personal safety.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.41.3  There was a violent earthquake at Lacedaemon, after which only five houses were left standing. Archidamus saw that the men were wholly occupied in saving their possessions, and was afraid that they themselves would be trapped and buried in the buildings. Therefore he ordered the trumpet to sound an alarm; at this, the Laconians, imagining that an enemy was advancing against them, assembled around him. In this way, even when their houses collapsed, the men themselves were kept safe.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.41.4  When he was about to be utterly defeated by the Arcadians, Archidamus, who was weak and disabled by his wounds, sent to ask for a truce, so that they could bury their dead, before the rest of his army was destroyed.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.41.5  Archidamus marched his army at night to Caryae, by a long difficult route, rough and craggy, and lacking in water. He tried, as much as possible, to keep up the spirits of his men, although they were harassed by a tiring and laborious march, and continually encouraged them to persevere. By this forced march, they surprised the enemy; and because they were unprepared for so sudden an attack, entirely defeated them, and plundered the city. Afterwards, when they were celebrating their victory in the captured town, Archidamus asked them, at what particular time the city appeared to them to be captured. Some answered, when they began the close attack; others, when they came within reach of their javelins. "Neither," replied Archidamus, "but when we continued our march along that tedious dry road; for perseverance and resolution eventually conquer everything."

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.42.1  Gylippus: Gylippus, wishing to be invested with the chief command of the Syracusan army, invited the other generals to a council of war. There he communicated to them a plan for gaining possession of a hill which lay between the city and the Athenian camp. After they had confirmed that they agreed with this plan, he dispatched a deserter to inform the Athenians of his intentions; they took advantage of this information, and themselves immediately took possession of the hill. Gylippus pretended great indignation at this, as if his plan had been revealed to the enemy by one of the other generals. To prevent any such unwanted disclosures in future, the Syracusan leaders entrusted to Gylippus the sole management of the war.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 1.42.2  In order to recover the hill, which the Athenians had occupied, Gylippus selected twenty out of a great number of triremes, which he manned and kept in readiness. As soon as he had a full complement for the rest of the fleet, he ordered these ships to put out to sea early the next morning. The enemy no sooner perceived them under sail, than they also embarked, and advanced to give them battle. But while they were edging off, and the Athenians were briskly pursuing them, Gylippus also, having manned the rest of the fleet, put out to sea. Because the Athenians were distracted by the naval action, the few troops that they had left behind were easily dislodged by Gylippus' infantry, who afterwards occupied the position.

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§ 1.43.1  Hermocrates: When an insurrection took place at Syracuse, and a great band of slaves was gathered together, Hermocrates sent an envoy to their leader Sosistratus. The envoy was Daimachus, a captain of cavalry and formerly a friend and particular acquaintance of Sosistratus. He told Sosistratus from the generals, that because of their great regard for the bravery which he had shown, they had agreed to give the men their freedom, furnish them with arms, and grant them military rations; and that they also admitted him to the rank of general, and requested that he would forthwith come and join them in their deliberations on public business. Relying on the friendship of Daimachus, Sosistratus went to meet the generals, with twenty of his best and ablest men; but they were immediately seized, and thrown into chains. Meanwhile Hermocrates marched out with six thousand picked men, and having captured the rest of the slaves, he promised them on oath, that they should receive no ill treatment from him, provided that they would return to their respective masters; to which they all agreed, except three hundred, who deserted to the Athenians.

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§ 1.43.2  The Athenians, having been defeated in a final naval battle off Sicily, resolved to withdraw their forces during the night, while the Syracusans were overcome by wine and sleep after celebrating their victories with a sacrifice. Hermocrates suspected their intentions, but did not want to hazard a battle with troops as drowsy and inebriated as his were. He dispatched a deserter, who told Nicias that his friends, who were always keen to pass him crucial information, informed him that if he attempted to make his retreat during the night, he would inevitably fall into the enemy's ambush. Nicias was convinced by the message, and remained in his camp until the next day. The next morning, Hermocrates ordered the Syracusans to arms; by that time they were well refreshed and had slept off the effects of the evening's wine. He occupied positions at the crossings and bridges over the rivers, and defeated the Athenians with great slaughter.

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§ 1.44.1  Eteonicus: While Conon of Athenian was besieging Eteonicus of Laconian at Mytilene, a light-horseman arrived with news that Callicratidas, the Spartan admiral, had been defeated at Arginusae. Eteonicus commanded the messenger to leave the city secretly by night, and to return the next day, crowned with a wreath and singing a paean. Eteonicus then offered a sacrifice for the news of the victory, while Conon and the Attic army, struck with consternation, raised the siege. Eteonicus, exerting himself with renewed vigour, sent the fleet away to Chios, and marched the army to Methymna, a city which was then in alliance with the Lacedaemonians.

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§ 1.45.1  Lysander: Lysander, who had promised his Milesian friends that he would put the people under their control, went to Miletus for that purpose. In his public speeches, he severely reprimanded the plotters, but promised the citizens that he would strive to secure their liberty, and to protect them in it. The people, not doubting his sincerity, readily accepted his offers, and put themselves under his protection. Then, at a given signal, his friends fell upon the unsuspecting citizens, who were unprepared for such an attack; and after the leaders of the opposition had been slain, they established themselves as rulers of Miletus.

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§ 1.45.2  At Aegospotami the Athenians several times put out to sea, and bearing down upon the enemy offered them battle, which Lysander of Laconian always declined; whereupon they returned to their camp, exulting in their success and singing paeans. Lysander at last sent two triremes to observe them; and their captains, as soon as they observed the enemy landing, hoisted a brazen shield as a signal to Lysander, who immediately advanced with the rest of the fleet. The Laconians rowed across as fast as possible, and reached the Athenians just after their forces had been landed. Some of the Athenians had gone to rest, while others were employed, some on one task and some on another. Then the Lacedaemonians suddenly attacked them, and as a regular force against a confused rabble, obtained an easy victory. They captured the whole fleet, both men and triremes, except only the Paralus, which escaped to carry the news of the defeat to Athens.

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§ 1.45.3  Lysander used to say, that boys were to be cheated with dice, but an enemy with oaths.

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§ 1.45.4  After Lysander had seized control of Thasos, knowing that many of the citizens, who supported the Athenians, had concealed themselves through fear of the Laconian, he assembled the Thasians in the temple of Heracles. There, in a gracious and conciliating speech, he indicated to them how readily he forgave all those who might have concealed themselves as a result of this revolution in the state; and hoped that they would dismiss all fear of his resentment. The Thasians trusted in the assurance he gave them, in so sacred a place as the temple, and that too in the city of his ancestor Heracles. Those, who had before concealed themselves, began to venture out and appear in public. But Lysander, after forbearing two or three days to take any notice of them, so that they might become less cautious, suddenly ordered them to be seized and executed.

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§ 1.45.5  When the Lacedaemonians and their allies were debating, whether they should entirely destroy the city of Athens, Lysander urged many arguments against doing so. He particularly emphasised that Thebes, which was a neighbouring state, would thereby be rendered more powerful, and a more formidable enemy to Sparta. Whereas, if they could preserve the loyalty of Athens, under the government of tyrants, they might watch over the actions of the Thebans from nearby, and keep them from growing too great. Lysander's advice was approved, and they were prevailed upon to give up the plan of destroying Athens.

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§ 1.46.1  Agis: In a war with the Peloponnesians, the Lacedaemonians suffered from great scarcity of provisions. Agis gave orders that the oxen should be kept from feeding for one whole day; and to conceal from the enemy their distress, he sent some deserters to inform them, that the next day large reinforcements were expected in the Laconian camp. Throughout the day the mouths of the cattle were kept muzzled; and they were loosed as soon as night came on. The hungry oxen, when they thus set free and turned loose into the pastures, leaped about and bellowed, raising a terrible noise, which the cavities between the hills increased yet more. Agis ordered the soldiers at the same time to spread around, and kindle several fires. The Peloponnesians, alarmed at the bellowing of the oxen and the shouting, as well as by the fires that they observed, assumed that the enemy had been strongly reinforced. They immediately struck camp, and fled away.

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§ 1.47.1  Thrasyllus: To conceal from the enemy the number of his ships, Thrasyllus ordered the pilots to link them together in pairs, unfurling the sails of only one of each pair. By this stratagem, his fleet appeared to the enemy to be only half of its real size.

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§ 1.47.2  Thrasyllus, who was vigorously besieging Byzantium, struck Anaxilas and the other Byzantine generals with such terror, lest their city should be captured by storm, that they agreed to surrender the city within a fixed time, and gave hostages for the observance of these terms. Thrasyllus accordingly raised the siege, and sailed off with his army for Ionia; but then he returned secretly by night, and seized control of the city of the Byzantines while they were off their guard.

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§ 1.48.1  Conon: Conon, who was in danger of being abandoned by his allies, dispatched a deserter to the enemy, with information of their intended retreat, of the time when they intended to depart, and of their route. The enemy took measures accordingly, and placed an ambush to intercept them. Conon then told the allied army that he had received intelligence, that an ambush had been planted to intercept them; but he was happy to be able to inform them, so that they might be on their guard, and thus make their retreat more safely. The allies took his advice, and discovered the ambush; then, won over by his generosity, they returned to the camp, and remained with him until he had put a successful end to the war.

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§ 1.48.2  Conon was confronted by Callicratidas, with a fleet twice the size of his, and pursued almost to Mytilene; but when Conon observed that the Lacedaemonian ships were widely separated in the pursuit, he hoisted the purple flag, which was a signal for battle to the other commanders. His ships immediately stood to, and forming a line, furiously attacked the Lacedaemonian fleet. The enemy were thrown into confusion by this sudden about-turn, and most of their ships were either damaged or sunk. Thus Conon obtained a complete victory.

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§ 1.48.3  When Agesilaus was ravaging Asia, Conon, who had been sent to assist Pharnabazus, advised the Persian to distribute his gold amongst the demagogues of the Greek cities. "Once they have received this," he said, "they will at your request persuade their states, not only to make peace with you, but also to take up arms against the Lacedaemonians." Pharnabazus followed this advice, and as a result the Corinthian war soon broke out, which forced the Spartans to recall Agesilaus from Asia.

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§ 1.48.4  Conon, when he was blocked up in Mytilene by the Lacedaemonians, wished to inform the Athenians of the situation, but realised that it was difficult to do so without being intercepted. Therefore he manned two of his swiftest sailing ships with able seamen, and after providing them with everything necessary, he ordered them to lie still until evening. As soon as day closed, he observed that the guards were straggling around the shore, and employed in various tasks: some dressing their wounds, some piling up wood, and others lighting fires. Then he ordered the ships to set sail, and to steer on different courses, so that if one was captured, the other might escape. The ships both arrived safely, because the enemy were too preoccupied to pursue them in time.

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§ 1.48.5  Just before a naval battle, Conon, who had been informed by a deserter that a picked detachment of the enemy's fleet intended, as their principal aim, to capture the ship in which he sailed, fitted out a trireme exactly like his own, and dressed the captain in an admiral's uniform. He ordered the ship to take its position on the right wing, and also commanded that the whole fleet should receive their signals from it. When the enemy observed this, they formed a line of their best ships, and immediately advanced against the supposed flagship. But Conon, vigorously attacking them with the rest of his fleet, sank some of the ships, and put the rest to flight.

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§ 1.49.1  Xenophon: Xenophon, in the famous retreat of the ten thousand men from Persia, when he found that Tisaphernes' cavalry were continually attacking his baggage, advised that their wagons, along with all that was not absolutely necessary either for war or for the transport of their supplies, should be left behind. Otherwise the Greek would lose all chance of retreating safely, by sacrificing their lives in defence of their property.

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§ 1.49.2  As the enemy kept on harassing his rear, Xenophon formed his little army into two lines, placing his baggage in a hollow square in the middle. In this formation, he proceeded on his march; and his rear was protected by the cavalry, slingers and peltasts, who repelled the frequent attacks of the barbarians.

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§ 1.49.3  Xenophon observed that the barbarians had occupied a narrow defile, through which he had to march. Looking around from a high mountain with a wide view of the countryside, he spotted a hill, that was accessible, but defended by a group of the enemy. He took a detachment, which he judged sufficient for the purpose, and led them towards the hill. After dislodging the forces who were posted there, he showed himself to the enemy below. When they saw the advantageous position of the Greeks, they took to flight; and thus provided a safe way through for the Greek army.

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§ 1.49.4  The barbarian cavalry were drawn up on the other side of a river, which Xenophon needed to cross, and were ready to resist his passage over it. Xenophon selected a thousand men, whom he sent to ford the river a little upstream, while he himself, to distract the attention of the enemy, made a feint as if to cross it directly opposite their forces. When the detachment reached the opposite side of the river, they attacked the enemy from above and inflicted many casualties, so that Xenophon was able to cross over safely with the remaining part of his army.

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§ 2.0.1  I beg leave to present your most sacred majesties, Antoninus and Verus, with this second book of Stratagems. You are yourselves well qualified to judge, how much labour and time I have employed to compile this collection; especially as the position, which I hold under you in the courts, allows me few leisure hours for other studies.

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§ 2.1.1  Agesilaus: Agesilaus marched out to fight against the Acarnanians at about the time of sowing. The Laconians wished to prevent the enemy from sowing, but Agesilaus told them that after the Acarnanians had sown their corn, they would want to preserve it, and thus would be more inclined to sue for peace. "For then," he said, "they must either have peace; or allow us to reap the fruits of their labour."

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§ 2.1.2  When the Lacedaemonians were advancing to battle against the united forces of Thebes and Athens, although the light-armed troops and peltasts could be of no service to them, Agesilaus ordered the entire phalanx to the attack. Chabrias, general of the Athenians, and Gorgidas, general of the Thebans, ordered their men not to advance, but to await the enemy's charge, with their shields fixed on their knees, and their spears poised. Agesilaus, impressed by the firm disposition of their battle line, decided that it was wiser for a general to retreat, rather than risk fighting about such a resolute enemy.

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§ 2.1.3  Not long after Agesilaus brought his army to Coroneia, a messenger arrived with news that Peisander, the Lacedaemonian admiral, had been defeated and killed by Pharnabazus. Lest the army should be discouraged by this bad news, Agesilaus ordered the heralds to proclaim the opposite: that the Lacedaemonians had won a victory at sea. To support the deceit, he himself appeared crowned, and offered sacrifices on account of the auspicious news, and sent portions of meat from the victims round to his friends. These signs of victory so inspired his troops, that they marched out to battle at Coroneia with confidence and alacrity.

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§ 2.1.4  Agesilaus always told his troops to leave the enemy a door open for flight.

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§ 2.1.5  Agesilaus, after his victory at Coroneia, was told that the Athenians had fled for refuge to the temple of Athene. He replied, "Let them go wherever they are inclined; for nothing can be more dangerous than to risk a battle with an enemy who is aroused by despair."

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§ 2.1.6  Agesilaus, during his campaign in Asia, in order to inspire his men with contempt for the barbarians, ordered some Persian captives to be stripped. He exposed them naked before the army, and told the Greeks to observe their delicate and puny bodies, caused by the luxurious lives in which they were brought up; but on the other hand, their clothes were rich and costly. He added laconically, "Those are our enemies, and these are the rewards of victory."

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§ 2.1.7  The allies complained, that the Lacedaemonians had brought fewer soldiers into battle than themselves. Agesilaus ordered the allies to sit down by themselves; and the Laconians to do the same; so that he could give them proof. A herald then made a proclamation, that all the potters should stand up; and a great many of the allies did so. Secondly, the smiths were ordered to rise; many more stood up. Then the carpenters, who were a numerous group, were ordered to stand up. In the same way, all the other craftsmen and artisans were ordered to stand up. After this, there were hardly any of the allies left seated. But of the Lacedaemonians, not a man was seen standing; for their laws forbade them from practising any such trade. Thus the allies were taught that, although they had contributed more men towards the conduct of the war, yet the Laconians had brought more soldiers for battle.

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§ 2.1.8  When Agesilaus marched his army into Asia and ravaged the king's territory in that region, Tisaphernes proposed a truce of three months; in that time, they might persuade the king to grant freedom to the Greek cities in Asia. Consequently, the Greeks avoided action and waited for the expiry of the truce; but the Persian was indefatigable in augmenting his forces, and contrary to what he had agreed, suddenly attacked the Greeks. Because they were not expecting an enemy, and were not prepared for resistance, there was confusion and consternation throughout the camp. But Agesilaus came forward with a tranquil expression, or rather looking full of joy, and said to the Greeks, "I thank Tisaphernes for his perjury, by which he has made the gods his enemies, and our allies. Let us therefore march out with confidence, because we have such powerful allies." Encouraged by this short speech, they followed their general into battle and completely defeated the barbarians.

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§ 2.1.9  When he marched to Sardis, Agesilaus sent men to spread a rumour, that his march was only a pretence to deceive Tisaphernes; for although his expedition seemed professedly against Lydia, in reality his target was Caria. Tisaphernes, informed of this, directed all his attention towards the defence of Caria; but the Lacedaemonian ravaged Lydia, and enriched himself with the spoil of the defenceless territory.

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§ 2.1.10  When Agesilaus invaded Acarnania, the inhabitants retreated into the mountains; he halted in the plains, and contented himself with destroying the wood in the neighbouring places, by uprooting the trees. Because he seemed preoccupied in destroying their trees, the Acarnanians despised his apparent indolence; they abandoned the positions they had taken in the mountains, and returned to the cities which were situated in the plains. This spurred Agesilaus into action; by a forced march of a hundred and sixty stades in one night, he surprised them the next morning. He captured many of the Acarnanians in the plain, and took away a great quantity of cattle and other booty.

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§ 2.1.11  When Agesilaus heard that the Thebans had secured the pass at Scolus, he ordered all the embassies from Greece to remain at Thespiae; and commanded the supplies for the army to be stored there. The Thebans, informed of this, marched their forces from Scolus to Thespiae, in order to intercept the enemy there. Meanwhile Agesilaus, after a two days' march, found the post at Scolus deserted, and passed through without opposition.

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§ 2.1.12  When Agesilaus was ravaging their territory, the Thebans occupied a hill, called the Seat of Rhea, which was almost inaccessible by nature. He could not attack them there except at a great disadvantage, nor could he penetrate any further into the country, without dislodging them from there. Therefore he made a feint of drawing away his forces, and marching directly against Thebes, which was at that time quite undefended. The Thebans, afraid for their city, abandoned their advantageous position, and hastened to the defence of their homes. Then Agesilaus passed by the hill without opposition.

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§ 2.1.13  At the battle of Leuctra, many of the Lacedaemonians threw down their arms and deserted their ranks. In order that so large a number of men might not be branded with infamy, Agesilaus arranged to be appointed as a temporary legislator. In that capacity, he did not venture to weaken the constitution by establishing any new laws, but for a short time he prevented the execution of the old laws, and then allowed them to regain their full force after the battle of Leuctra.

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§ 2.1.14  A mutiny happened at Sparta, and many of the hoplites occupied the sacred hill of Artemis Issoria, near Pitane. At the same time the Thebans and Arcadians pressed hard upon them, and there was general consternation between the dangers of war and mutiny. Agesilaus, who always retained his resolution and promptness of thought even in the most widespread confusion, judged that it would be too dangerous at that moment to try to force the rebels to obedience; but to plead with them would demean his authority. Therefore he went to the hill alone and unarmed, and with an intrepid and serene expression, he called out, "Men, you have mistaken my orders; go over to that hill" (and he pointed to another place) "and remain on guard in your various posts." The Laconians assumed that he was unaware of their mutiny; they obeyed his orders, and marched off to their new positions. But as soon as night arrived, Agesilaus seized twelve of the ringleaders in different places, and thus quashed the mutiny.

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§ 2.1.15  The army was in great distress, and many soldiers were deserting every day. To conceal the number of deserters from the rest of the army, Agesilaus sent men throughout the different parts of the camp by night, with orders to gather up all the shields which had been cast away, and bring them to him; so that the discovery of a shield should not reveal the desertion of its owner. In this way, because no discarded shields were to be seen, the other soldiers remained unaware of the deserters.

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§ 2.1.16  Agesilaus besieged Phocaea for a long time, without being able to capture the city; nor could he afford to remain there for the further length of time, that the siege was likely to require. However the allies of the Phocaeans were no less weary of the siege than he was. Therefore he ordered his army to strike camp; and retreated. After he had retreated, the allies of the Phocaeans gladly left for their homes; but Agesilaus, learning of this, returned to the city and easily captured it, now that it had been abandoned by its allies.

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§ 2.1.17  When he needed to march through Macedonia, Agesilaus sent envoys to king Aeropus, asking him for a free passage. But Aeropus, who had been informed that the Laconians were weak in cavalry, refused to enter into any treaty with him; instead, he replied that he would meet him in person, and ordered his own cavalry to take the field. Therefore Agesilaus, to give the impression of more cavalry than he really had, ordered the infantry to form the first line; and behind them placed all the horses that he could muster, forming them into a double phalanx, and augmenting them with asses, mules, and some horses which, though too old for service, were still used to pull the baggage. There were soldiers mounted on all of these, in complete cavalry armour, so that they gave the appearance of a large number of horsemen. When he saw such a formidable force, Aeropus agreed a treaty with the Lacedaemonians, which allowed them a free passage through his dominions.

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§ 2.1.18  While his army was encamped in Boeotia, Agesilaus noticed that the allies were unwilling to fight, and were continually slipping away. He secretly sent orders to Orchomenus, an allied city which was the destination of many of the deserters, that they should receive none of the allies into their city, without his permission. Therefore the allies found that they had no place of refuge; and they were forced to place their hopes of safety in victory, rather than flight.

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§ 2.1.19  When the Thebans were hard pressed in a battle with the Lacedaemonians, they attempted to cut their way out through the Lacedaemonian phalanx. This resulted in obstinate fighting, with many casualties on both sides. Then Agesilaus ordered his troops to act on the defensive, and to open up their ranks, so that the Thebans had an opportunity of breaking through. The Thebans immediately ran through and took to flight; but Agesilaus then fell on their rear, and without further loss to himself, obtained a complete victory over the fleeing enemy.

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§ 2.1.20  In another battle with the Boeotians, when he noticed that his allies were on the point of yielding, Agesilaus ordered a retreat through a narrow defile in the mountains, with the Lacedaemonians leading the way. When the enemy fell upon his rear, the allies had no choice but to conquer, or die.

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§ 2.1.21  When Agesilaus invaded Boeotia, he ordered the allies to destroy the timber, and to ravage the countryside; but when he saw how negligent and lax they were in executing his orders, he commanded them to desist from the devastation. At the same time, he moved his camp three or four times each day, and because of these manoeuvres, the allies were obliged to cut down wood for the purpose of erecting their tents. Thus they were compelled by necessity to do what they had failed to do earlier, and to inflict this damage on the enemy.

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§ 2.1.22  When Agesilaus was sent as an ally to Nectanebus in Egypt, they were hemmed in on a narrow strip of land, and blockaded. The Egyptian, who could not bear to be encircled in this way, urged Agesilaus to risk a battle. But Agesilaus did not give in to his demands; instead he waited until his little army was almost surrounded by a wall and trench, with only one small gap remaining, which looked like an entrance into the enclosure. Then Agesilaus called out, "Now is the time for courage!" After sallying out through the entrance, he vigorously attacked and routed the enemy, while the wall served as a fortification to prevent his men from being surrounded by the superior numbers of the enemy.

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§ 2.1.23  A battle was fought between the Lacedaemonians and Thebans, which remained undecided when it was brought to an end by the approach of night. In the night, Agesilaus sent a group of trustworthy soldiers, with orders to carry away from the field or secretly bury all the Spartans that they could find. After accomplishing this, they returned to the camp before daybreak. When it became light, the enemy saw that almost all the dead were Thebans, and as a result they were dispirited, because they assumed that they had been completely defeated.

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§ 2.1.24  When Agesilaus, on his return from his campaign in Asia, was marching through Boeotia, the Thebans tried to harass him and occupied the defiles through which he had to pass. But Agesilaus formed his army into a double phalanx, and ordered the soldiers to march towards Thebes in that formation. The Thebans were terrified that he would capture their city while it was undefended, and they immediately left their positions. While they rushed back to defend the city, Agesilaus continued his march without opposition.

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§ 2.1.25  In order to halt the invasion of their territory by Agesilaus, the Thebans fortified a camp, on either side of which were narrow defiles. Agesilaus formed his army into a square, hollow column and advanced against the pass on the left. After he had drawn the enemy's whole attention in this direction, he secretly sent small groups of soldiers from his rear, who occupied the other pass without opposition. Then he entered the Theban territory through the other pass, and thoroughly devastated it before retreating safely.

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§ 2.1.26  While Agesilaus was encamped near Lampsacus, there came to him some Greek deserters from the mines, who announced in the camp, that the inhabitants of Lampsacus had decided to send all the prisoners that they might capture to the mines. This so enraged the army, that they advanced right up to the walls of the city, determined to storm and plunder it. Agesilaus, who was unable to suppress their fury but wanted to save the city, pretended to join in the general resentment. He ordered his troops immediately to destroy the neighbouring vineyards, because they belonged to the leading citizens. While the troops were engaged in doing this, Agesilaus managed to inform the citizens of Lampsacus of their danger, and they took steps to guard themselves against the intended attack.

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§ 2.1.27  The Lacedaemonians and Thebans were encamped against each other, on opposite sides of the river Eurotas. Agesilaus noticed that the Lacedaemonians were eager to cross the river, but he was afraid of the superior numbers of the enemy. He deliberately spread a rumour that the oracle had declared that the army, which first crossed the river, would be routed. After curbing the enthusiasm of the Lacedaemonians in this way, he left a few of the allies, under the command of their general Symmachus of Thasos, to guard the crossing of the Eurotas; he concealed some other troops in ambush within a hollow; and he himself took up a strong position with the Lacedaemonian veterans. The Thebans, when they observed the small force that was left under Symmachus to dispute their crossing, confidently advanced to cross the river; but while they pursued the troops, who deliberately fled away from them, they fell into the ambush and lost six hundred men.

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§ 2.1.28  After marching into Messenia, Agesilaus sent out a spy, who returned with information, not only that the Messenians had left their city in order to oppose him, but also that they had been joined by their wives and children, and even by their slaves, who had been manumitted for the purpose. He therefore abandoned his attack, observing that men who were so desperate would always fight with the most determined courage.

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§ 2.1.29  When the Lacedaemonians were besieged in their city by the Thebans, they were indignant at being cooped up within their walls along with the women, and decided to sally out in a glorious attempt either to conquer or to die. Agesilaus dissuaded them from this rash intention, by reminding them, that they had once blocked up the Athenians in a similar way; but the Athenians, instead of throwing away their lives in such a wild attempt, had manned their walls and defended their city, until the Lacedaemonians, worn down by the opposition and delay, had been compelled to raise the siege and evacuate the country.

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§ 2.1.30  While Agesilaus was bringing back a great quantity of spoils in Asia, he was harassed by the enemy, who attacked him with their arrows and javelins. Therefore he flanked his army with prisoners; the barbarians were unwilling to kill their own men, and desisted from further attacks.

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§ 2.1.31  Agesilaus surprised by night the city of Menda, which supported the Athenians, and occupied the strongest part of it. The inhabitants were enraged, and immediately gathered together in their assembly. Agesilaus stood up and said to them all: "Why are you so angry and resentful? Half of you belong to the conspiracy, which betrayed the city to me." This made the citizens of Menda turn to suspecting each other, and they submitted to the victor's terms without further resistance.

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§ 2.1.32  It was the practice of Agesilaus, to restore to their countries without ransom those captives, who had powerful connections in their respective states. In this way he reduced their influence and ability to incite rebellion, by creating suspicion of their loyalty in the minds of their fellow citizens.

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§ 2.1.33  When Agesilaus negotiated with the enemy, he always insisted that they should send their most important men to discuss the terms with him. He then conversed with these men in a friendly fashion, and entertained them lavishly, so that he created suspicion of them among the common people, and caused dissension within their state.

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§ 2.2.1  Clearchus: Clearchus advanced with a numerous army to a river, which in one place was so easily fordable that the water would not reach higher than the knees, but in another place was deep enough to be breast-high. He tried first to force a passage where the water was shallowest. But when he found that the crossing was strongly contested by the enemy with slings and arrows, he marched his hoplites to the spot where the river was deepest. While they were crossing there, most of their bodies were concealed beneath the water, and the parts which were above the water were covered by their shields. Therefore they were able to cross the river without loss, and forced the enemy to retreat. Then the remaining part of the army crossed the shallow ford without opposition.

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§ 2.2.2  During the retreat of the Greek forces after the death of Cyrus, Clearchus encamped in a region which abounded with provisions. Tisaphernes sent envoys there, and assured them that he would allow them to continue unmolested there, if they gave up their weapons. Clearchus showed so much attention to the envoys, that Tisaphernes, assuming that a treaty would be agreed, disbanded some of his troops and sent his army back to their quarters. Then the Greeks struck camp at night, and by marching continuously through the day and the night advanced so far ahead of the Persian, that before he could gather his scattered troops, they were completely out of his reach.

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§ 2.2.3  Clearchus asked Cyrus not to expose himself to danger, but to stay at a distance, as a spectator of the battle. He said to him that a single man, merely by his physical strength, could be of little consequence in determining the outcome of a battle; whereas if he fell in battle, they would all fall with him. He then advanced slowly with the Greeks in a close firm phalanx, and the well-ordered charge struck terror into the enemy. As soon as they approached within reach of their javelins, Clearchus ordered his men to close with the enemy, as fast as they could run. By this manoeuvre the Greeks completely defeated the Persians.

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§ 2.2.4  After the death of Cyrus, the Greeks were left in possession of a large and fertile tract of country, which was surrounded by a river, so that it was almost an island, except for one narrow isthmus. Clearchus, in order to dissuade his troops from remaining encamped in this peninsula, dispatched to their camp a pretended deserter, who informed them that the king intended to build a wall across the isthmus, and hem them in. Alarmed by this news, the Greeks took the advice of Clearchus, and placed their camp outside the isthmus.

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§ 2.2.5  When he was returning from a raid with a large amount of booty, Clearchus was surprised by a superior force on a mountain, where he had halted. The enemy began to dig a trench around the mountain, and his officers strongly urged him to fight, before they were completely blocked in. Clearchus told them to be patient. As soon as the evening approached, he threw his baggage and booty into the most incomplete part of the trench, and there he attacked the enemy, as if on a narrow pass, and defeated them because they were unable to use the advantage of their superior numbers.

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§ 2.2.6  When Clearchus was returning with the spoils which he had captured in Thrace, he was unable to complete his retreat to Byzantium, and encamped near the Thracian mountains. Because he expected that the Thracians would pour down from the mountains and attack him in the night, he ordered his men to keep on their armour, and to wake up at frequent intervals during the night. In order to test their readiness to meet a sudden attack, he chose a very dark night and in the middle of it, he appeared before his own camp at the head of a small detachment, who brandished and struck their weapons against each other in the Thracian manner. His troops, assuming that they were the enemy, immediately formed up to resist them. Meanwhile the Thracians really did advance in the hope of surprising them while they were asleep; but the Greeks, being already dressed and armed, confronted the assailants. The Thracians were unprepared for such a ready and vigorous resistance, and were defeated with great slaughter.

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§ 2.2.7  After the revolt of Byzantium, Clearchus, although he had been condemned by the ephors, continued with a raid against the Thracians. He arrived with four ships at Lampsacus, where apparently he lived in a loose and dissipated manner. The Byzantines appealed to him for assistance against the Thracians, by whom were being hard pressed. He pretended a severe attack of gout, and waited for three days before he agreed to meet with the Byzantine envoys. Then he assured then, that he felt very sorry for their situation, and assured them that they would receive the assistance which they required. Accordingly, after manning two other ships besides the four which he had with him, he set sail for Byzantium. There he disembarked his own troops, and at an assembly of the people he urged them to put all their cavalry and their hoplites on board the ships, so that they could fall on the enemy's rear, and thereby divert their attention away from the city. At the same time, he ordered the captains of the ships to weigh anchor, as soon as they saw him give the signal for battle. The troops embarked, and at the given signal the ships immediately set sail. Then Clearchus, pretending to be thirsty, invited the Byzantine generals to step inside a nearby tavern with him. After posting a group of his men at the door, he massacred the generals, and ordered the landlord of the tavern, on pain of death, not to reveal what had happened. Meanwhile he took advantage of the absence of the citizens, who were on the ships, to send his own troops into the city, and gained control of it.

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§ 2.2.8  The Thracians sent envoys to Clearchus to sue for peace, after he had spread terror and devastation throughout their country. Clearchus was opposed to peace on any terms, and to prove this, he ordered his cooks to cut into pieces two or three Thracian bodies, and hang them up. He told them, if any Thracians asked what this meant, to reply that they were being prepared for Clearchus's supper. Struck with horror at such acts, the Thracian envoys abandoned their mission and returned home.

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§ 2.2.9  When Clearchus's hoplites were being harassed by the enemy's cavalry, he formed his army eight deep, in a looser formation than the usual square. He ordered his men to lower their shields, and under cover of the shields to use their swords to dig ditches, as large as they could conveniently make them. As soon as this was finished, he advanced beyond the ditches into the plain which lay in front of them, and ordered his troops, as soon as they were pressed by the enemy, to retreat behind the ditches which they had recently made. The enemy's cavalry, charging eagerly after them, fell one over another into the ditches, and became easy victims to the troops of Clearchus.

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§ 2.2.10  When Clearchus was in Thrace, his army was seized by a groundless fear of attacks at night. To restore order in his camp, he ordered that, if any tumult should arise, no-one should stir; and if anyone rose and left his tent, he should be killed as an enemy. This order effectively put an end to the fears of a night attack, and the camp became quiet and tranquil again.

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§ 2.3.1  Epaminondas: Phoebidas, the officer in charge of the Cadmeia, conceived a passion for the wife of Epaminondas, who informed her husband of the advances he had made to her. Epaminondas told her to feign acceptance of his advances, and to invite him to dinner; she asked him at the same time to bring along some friends with him, to whom she promised to introduce ladies who were as easy and compliant as herself. Accordingly, Phoebidas and his friends came to dinner, and found everything as they had hoped. After they had eaten, and drunk freely, the ladies asked for leave to retire, in order to go to an evening sacrifice; they promised that they would return later. The men agreed, and told the doormen to let them in when they returned. After leaving, the women exchanged their clothes with some beardless youths; the youths then accompanied one of the women, who led them back and after a short conversation persuaded the doormen to let them in. The young men, as they had been instructed, immediately killed both Phoebidas and his companions.

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§ 2.3.2  In the battle at Leuctra, Epaminondas commanded the Thebans, and Cleombrotus commanded the Lacedaemonians. The battle remained finely balanced for a long time, until Epaminondas called on his troops to give him one step more, and he would ensure the victory. They did as he asked; and they gained the victory. The Spartan king Cleombrotus was killed in the fighting, and the Laconians left the enemy in possession of the battlefield.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.3.3  When Epaminondas advanced to Leuctra, the Thespians showed that they were reluctant to fight. Epaminondas plainly noticed this, but in order to avoid the confusion which would be caused in his army by their desertion, he announced just before he attacked, that whoever of the Boeotians wished to leave the battlefield, they were at liberty to do so. The Thespians, who were already armed, took advantage of his proclamation and withdrew. Meanwhile Epaminondas led the resolute troops, who remained with him, to a great and glorious victory.

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§ 2.3.4  When Epaminondas invaded the Peloponnese, he found the enemy encamped at Mount Oneium. A violent storm of thunder happened at the same time, which greatly intimidated his army, and the soothsayer declared against fighting. But Epaminondas said that it was the right time for fighting; because the thunder was clearly directed against the enemy in their camp. His interpretation of the occurrence brought fresh courage to his soldiers; and they advanced eagerly to the attack.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.3.5  After a successful expedition against the Lacedaemonians, Epaminondas had it in his power to capture Lacedaemon; but he retreated from the vicinity of the city, without taking advantage of the opportunity. When his colleagues threatened to bring him to trial for his conduct, he showed them the Arcadians, Messenians, Argives and other Peloponnesians. "If we were to destroy the Lacedaemonians," he said, "all these would become our enemies. They are at present our allies, not for the sake of helping Thebes, but to keep the Spartan power in check."

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§ 2.3.6  Epaminondas used to encourage the Thebans to try their strength with the Lacedaemonians, who lived amongst them, in wrestling and boxing. When the Thebans easily mastered them in these exercises, they conceived a contempt for the people; and so they learned to meet them on the battlefield with confidence in their own superiority.

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§ 2.3.7  While he was in the Peloponnese, Epaminondas constantly drew up his army at sunrise, as if ready to fight; and thereby he gave the impression to the enemy that he intended to confront them openly in battle. After the Lacedaemonians had been deceived by this feint, he attacked them during the night, while they were quite unprepared to resist him.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.3.8  At the famous battle between the Lacedaemonians and their allies, commanded by Cleombrotus, and the Thebans, under the command of Epaminondas, the Theban general used two stratagems to raise the spirits of his troops, when they were alarmed by the superior numbers of the enemy, whose army amounted to forty thousand men. When they marched out of the city, he arranged for them to be met by a stranger, who had a garland on his head, and was adorned with ribbons. The man said that he was sent by Trophonius to inform them, that the victory would belong to those, who began the attack. Then Epaminondas told the Thebans, who were moved with superstition by this pronouncement of the oracle, to pay their vows at the temple of Heracles. He had previously ordered the priests to open the temple during the night, take out the rusty weapons which were kept there, polish them up, and lay them before the statue of the god; after they had done this, he told them to leave the building and inform no one of what had happened. When the soldiers and their officers entered the building, they found no one in attendance, but the old rusty weapons were newly polished, bright and gleaming. The soldiers immediately shouted in acclamation, and advanced out to battle, confident that they were fighting under the protection of Heracles. As a result of their confidence, they were able to defeat the army of forty thousand men.

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§ 2.3.9  In order to prevent an expedition that Epaminondas planned to make against Lacedaemon, a body of Laconians were sent to secure the pass by Mount Oneium. Epaminondas halted by the mountain, and pretended that he would immediately attempt to take it by force. The Laconians remained in arms all through the night, in readiness to resist him. But on the contrary, Epaminondas ordered his men to relax and rest themselves, and waited until the next morning. Then he struck camp and attacked the enemy while they were exhausted and sleeping. He easily defeated them, and forced his way through the pass.

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§ 2.3.10  Epaminondas once attempted to gain control of Lacedaemon by a night attack, while the Lacedaemonian forces were absent. But Agesilaus, who had been informed of this plan by deserters, entered the city after a forced march with a body of troops; and after preparing to receive the enemy, he drove them back with great loss. Amidst the confusion, many of the Theban soldiers, who had been routed in the night and were being vigorously pursued by the Lacedaemonians, threw away their shields. When Epaminondas observed this, in order to conceal their disgrace, he ordered the troops to hand over their shields to the keepers of the baggage, and to follow their general with only their swords and their spears. This earned him the gratitude of those who had thrown away their shields; and in return for that act of favour, they were most alert from then on in executing his commands.

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§ 2.3.11  In a battle between the Thebans and the Lacedaemonians, when night came on and the victory remained undecided, both armies returned to their respective camps. The Lacedaemonians, who encamped in regular formation, in their own regiments and morae, could see who was missing and were aware of their losses, which greatly discouraged and concerned them. But Epaminondas ordered the Thebans, without regard to their particular regiment or company, to eat as quickly as they could, in whatever tent they could find, sharing with each other whatever provisions they could find. The next morning they advanced to the attack, well refreshed and in full spirits; and they obtained an easy victory over the enemy, who were so disheartened by the loss of their friends that they were like an army that had already suffered a defeat.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.3.12  When Epaminondas advanced to fight against the Lacedaemonians and their allies, whose army amounted to forty thousand men, he observed that the Theban troops, as might be expected, were alarmed by the great superiority in numbers of the enemy. He employed various stratagems to keep up their spirits. There was in the temple of Athene at Thebes a statue of the goddess, holding a spear in her right hand and with a shield before her knees. During the night, he sent an artist into the temple, who altered the statue so that the goddess was holding the handle of the shield in her left hand. In the morning, before the troops marched out, he ordered the temples to be opened up, on pretence of performing some religious ceremonies before he went out to battle. The soldiers noticed with astonishment how the appearance of the goddess had changed; and they considered that they were assured of her direct protection. Then Epaminondas reassured them in a powerful speech, that Athene was taking up her shield against their foes. As a result, the Thebans fought with such confidence of success, that after charging against the enemy sword in hand, they obtained a complete and brilliant victory, despite their inferiority in numbers.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.3.13  The Thessalians were drawn up on the other side of the river Spercheius, ready to dispute the crossing of the Thebans over the bridge. In the morning, Epaminondas observed that a heavy cloud was rising up from the river. He ordered each of his men to carry two parcels of wood, one green and one dry; in the middle of the night they set fire to the dry one, and put the green one on top of it. In the night, the clouds and the smoke so obscured the view, that Epaminondas and his army were able to cross the bridge without being observed. It was not until the smoke and the clouds had dispersed, that the Thessalians realised that the Theban army had crossed the bridge; and meanwhile the Thebans drew up in order of battle on the open plain.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.3.14  To gain the advantage of ground over the Lacedaemonians near Tegea, Epaminondas ordered the commander of his cavalry, with sixteen hundred men, to ride up and down, a small distance in front of the army. By this means they raised a cloud of dust, which prevented the enemy from observing his movements. Then he moved away, and took possession of the higher ground. When the Spartans saw his new position, they realised the reason for the movements of his cavalry, which they had been unable to understand beforehand.

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§ 2.3.15  In order to encourage the Thebans to make a vigorous attack on the Lacedaemonians, Epaminondas produced a large snake, and crushed its head in front of the army. "If you crush the head," he said, "you see how impotent is the rest of the body. So let us crush the head of the confederacy, that is the Laconians, and the power of their allies will become insignificant.". The Thebans appreciated the force of his argument. They attacked and routed the Laconian phalanx; after which, the whole army of the allies immediately gave way and fled.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.4.1  Pelopidas: Pelopidas advanced against two fortified cities, which were about 120 stades distant from each other. Upon approaching one of them, he ordered some horsemen, with wreaths on their heads, to ride up to him at full speed, and announce that the other city had been captured. Upon receiving this news, he changed his plans, and marched to the city which was supposed to have been captured. As soon as he arrived before its walls, he ordered a large fire to be lit; and when the people in the other city saw the smoke rising from it, it confirmed their suspicion that the city had been captured and burnt. Therefore in order to avoid the same calamity, they opened their gates to Pelopidas when he returned, and surrendered their city to him. With the addition of the forces which he found in that town, he then advanced against the other city. The inhabitants, alarmed by the fate of the city which had already been captured, no longer tried to resist, and they also surrendered to Pelopidas.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.4.2  Pelopidas did not have time to cross a river in his retreat from Thessaly, because the enemy were pressing so closely on his rear. He encamped by the side of the river, and entrenched himself opposite the enemy, as strongly as time permitted. Then he ordered a great quantity of wood to be cut down, and after it had been laid in the trenches, he told his troops to rest. In the middle of the night, he set the wood on fire. The fierce blaze, which stopped the enemy from pursuing, allowed him to cross the river without hindrance.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.4.3  A Laconian garrison was placed in Thebes, and their commander took up residence in the Cadmeia. It happened to be the festival of Aphrodite, which the women celebrate with great jollity, while the men attend as spectators. To do honour to the goddess, the commander of the garrison ordered some prostitutes to be introduced. But Pelopidas entered among them, with a hidden dagger; he slew the commander of the garrison, and liberated Thebes.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.5.1  Gorgidas: Gorgidas was the man, who first established the sacred band in Thebes; it consisted of three hundred men, who were devoted to each other by mutual obligations of love. And such was the effect of the passion, which they had conceived for each other, that they scarcely ever turned to flight; but they either died for each other, or bravely conquered.

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§ 2.5.2  Gorgidas, who commanded a detachment of cavalry, fell in with a body of peltasts, who were under the command of Phoebidas, on a narrow piece of ground. Gorgidas ordered a retreat, as if he was unable to withstand the attack of the peltasts. The enemy continue to pursue him closely, until he had at last drawn them into an open plain. Then Gorgidas, by hoisting a helmet on a spear, gave the signal to his troops to turn around. The peltasts were unable to withstand the attack of the cavalry, now that they had room in which to manoeuvre. The peltasts fled away to Thespiae, and (?) many of them were killed in the rout; Phoebidas along with a few others escaped with difficulty to Thebes.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.6.1  Dercyllidas: Dercyllidas pledged with an oath to Meidias the tyrant of Scepsis, that if he came out to a conference, he would be at liberty to return to the city afterwards. The tyrant accordingly came out to meet him. At the conference, Dercyllidas instructed him, on pain of death, to order the gates of the city to be opened. The tyrant yielded to the threat, and the gates were thrown open. "Now," said Dercyllidas, "return into your city; for that is what I promised. But I and my army will enter too."

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.7.1  Alcetas: Alcetas of Lacedaemonian planned to sail out of Histiaea, but wanted to conceal the strength of his fleet. He embarked his forces in turn on one trireme, which he ordered to manoeuvre in sight of the enemy. In this way he was able to exercise the crews of all his ships.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.8.1  Arxilaidas: Arxilaidas of Laconian was marching through an inhospitable country, where he thought it very probable that ambushes might be formed against him. Although he had received no direct intelligence of any ambushes, he told his army that he had been informed of it as a fact, and he ordered them therefore to march in order of battle. His suspicions were justified; a large force had been placed in ambush to surprise him. He immediately attacked this force, who were unprepared for any resistance, because they did not expect the other army to be prepared for action; and he killed many of them.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.9.1  Isidas: After their decisive victory at Leuctra, the Thebans installed a garrison in Gytheium, the port of Sparta. Isidas of Laconian formed a group of a hundred youths of his acquaintance, who oiled themselves and bound wreaths of olive around their heads. Then they concealed daggers under their arms, and ran naked across the plain, with Isidas in the lead and the others following. The Thebans, who were deceived by their appearance, supposed that they were just exercising themselves. But the Laconians took out their daggers and fell upon them. After killing some of the Thebans, and driving out the others, they regained possession of Gytheium.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.10.1  Cleandridas: In an expedition against Terina, Cleandridas of Laconian marched his army through a concealed valley, in order to surprise the city. But the inhabitants of the city, who were informed of his plans by deserters, marched out and appeared on the hills above him. His troops were disheartened by the advantageous position which the enemy had taken, but Cleandridas told them to take courage. He then ordered a herald to proclaim, "Those men of Terina, who answer the agreed signal, will remain safe." The inhabitants of Terina, who were induced by this proclamation to suppose that they were being betrayed, went back as quickly as possible to defend their city. Meanwhile Cleandridas continued his march in safety; and, after ravaging the countryside, he retreated without opposition.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.10.2  Cleandridas, after the Thurians under his command had defeated the Lucanians, led his men back to the field of battle. He pointed out to them, on the spot where they had stood, the close and compact manner in which they had fought, and he told them that it was because of this that they had won the victory; but the enemy, who left their posts and loosened their ranks, had been unable to withstand their united attack. Meanwhile, the Lucanians rallied and advanced against him with a considerably larger force. Cleandridas retreated to a confined and narrow spot, where the enemy could not make use of their superiority in numbers, but his own men could extend their front to an equal length. By this manoeuvre he defeated the Lucanians a second time.

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§ 2.10.3  The inhabitants of Tegea suspected that their leaders secretly supported the Lacedaemonians. In order to increase this suspicion, when Cleandridas ravaged their territory, he scrupulously avoided damaging the estates of their leaders. As a result of these signs of favour from the enemy, the leaders were immediately charged with treason. When they found that the resentment of the people against them was running high, they feared that they would be condemned on this charge. Therefore the leaders were forced by the false suspicion to become real traitors, and betrayed their city to Cleandridas.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.10.4  In the war against the Lucanians, Cleandridas, whose own army was one and a half times the size of the enemy, was afraid that he would be unable to bring them to battle, if they knew his true strength. Therefore he formed a deep phalanx, with a narrow front. The Lucanians, who were made over-confident by his supposedly small numbers, tried to block his retreat, by extending their ranks in order to surround him. After the Lucanians had (?) made their own retreat impossible by this manoeuvre, Cleandridas ordered his own officers to extend their formation as wide as they could. In this way he surrounded the enemy, who were all killed, except for a few who escaped with difficulty.

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§ 2.10.5  Cleandridas always advised the Thurians against fighting a superior enemy in open battle; he said that, if the lion's skin was not sufficient, it was necessary to put on the fox's tail.

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§ 2.11.1  Pharacidas: After the Carthaginians declared war against Syracuse, Pharacidas attacked a Carthaginian squadron, and captured nine of their ships. In order to pass by the enemy's main fleet, which was much larger, he manned the ships with his own troops and sailors. The Carthaginians, recognising their own ships and supposing them to be friendly, allowed them to pass by without hindrance into the harbour of Syracuse.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.12.1  Deiphantes: Deiphantes ordered the Dorians to bring the Argives out to battle, by ravaging their territory. He himself sailed off with a detachment, and landed near a mountain, where he lay concealed. A scout was sent to inform the Argives of the damage which the Dorians had committed; they immediately set off to confront the raiders. Meanwhile Deiphantes rushed forwards from his ships with his detachment, and captured the camp which had been left without defenders. In this way the parent, children and wives of the Argive fell into the hands of the enemy. The Argives were forced to surrender their country and cities to the Dorians, in order to recover their families.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.13.1  Eurytion: Eurytion, king of the Lacedaemonians, found that the war which he had undertaken against the Arcadians was lasting longer than he had expected. In order to sow dissension amongst the Arcadians, he sent a herald, to inform them, that the Lacedaemonians would end the war, if they banished those who were guilty of killing Agis. Therefore those, who had been responsible for the death of Agis, banded together to avoid being punished by the people as the price of peace. They won the support of the slaves through the promise of their freedom, and put to death all of their opponents. After the people had been divided into two factions in this way, the party who were in favour of peace assembled in a particular quarter of the city of Mantineia, and threw open the gates to the enemy; and so by their help the Lacedaemonians obtained what they had been unable to achieve by force of arms.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.14.1  The ephors: When the ephors learned of a conspiracy, which had been formed by Cinadon, they did not think it advisable to seize him in the city. Instead they secretly dispatched a group of cavalry to Aulon, not far from the borders of Laconia, and contrived that Cinadon, attended by two soldiers, should be sent there as if on a covert operation. As soon as he arrived on the spot, the cavalry seized him, and through torture forced him to reveal the identity of the other conspirators. When the ephors received his confession, they ordered the execution of the others conspirators while he was still absent, and in this way they suppressed the conspiracy without any resistance.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.14.2  When the ephors learned that the Partheniae were planning an uprising, and that the signal for it was to be a cap thrown up in the middle of the market-place, they ordered this proclamation to be made: "All who are waiting for the cap to be thrown up, must leave the market-place". Accordingly, all those, who were involved in the intended uprising, abandoned their attempt, because their plan had been discovered.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.15.1  Hippodamas: Hippodamas was besieged at Prasiae by the Arcadians, and reduced to great distress by the lack of provisions. The Arcadians intercepted a courier, whom the Spartans had sent to Hippodamas; they led the courier to the walls, and gave him permission to deliver his message, but would not allow him to enter the city. Hippodamas immediately called out to him from the walls, "Tell the ephors to deliver us from the woman, who is bound in the temple of Chalcioecus." The Arcadians could make nothing of this instruction, but the Lacedaemonians understood that he was asking to be delivered from famine. For in the temple of Chalcioecus there was a picture of Famine, who was shown as a woman, pale and emaciated, with her hands tied behind her back. In this way Hippodamas contrived to send a message which was clear to his fellow-citizens, but kept it secret from the enemy.

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§ 2.16.1  Gastron: Gastron, the Lacedaemonian commander in the war against the Persians in Egypt, made the Greeks and Egyptians exchange their weapons and clothes before a battle. The Greeks appeared in Egyptian costume, and the Egyptians as Greeks. He drew up the Greeks in front, and the Egyptians in support behind them. The Greeks bravely withstood the danger; and when they forced open the way, the Egyptians, encouraged by their example, charged boldly forwards. The Persians, assuming that they also were Greeks, abandoned their ranks and fled away.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.17.1  Megacleidas: Megacleidas, who was retreating from a superior force, took up position on a rough and woody mountain. When he was closely pressed by the enemy, he split up his army, and sent the most heavy-laden and useless part of it, to make their escape through the woods. When the enemy discovered this, they set off in pursuit of the fugitives; but Megacleidas with the best part of his troops took a different route, and retreated safely.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.18.1  The harmost: A Lacedaemonian harmost, who was being closely besieged by the Athenians, had no more than two days' provisions left. The Athenians escorted a herald, whom the Spartans had sent to him, up to the walls, but would not allow him to go inside. The herald shouted from where he stood, "The Lacedaemonians command you to persist; for you will soon receive relief." To this the harmost replied, "Tell the Lacedaemonians to be in no hurry; for we still have six months' provisions left." The Athenians, because winter was now approaching and they did not care for a tedious winter campaign, raised the siege and disbanded their army.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.19.1  Thibron: When Thibron was attacking a fort in Asia, he persuaded the governor to meet him, in order to try to negotiate a truce. And if they failed to reach agreement, he promised on oath to conduct him back to the fort. The governor accordingly went out to meet him, and while they were talking, the garrison became laxer in their duties because the expected a truce. The besiegers took advantage of this, and captured the fort by storm. Thibron, as he had promised, conducted the governor back to the fort; and there he ordered him to be executed.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.20.1  Demaratus: Demaratus engraved a message to the Lacedaemonians, about the army of Xerxes, on a tablet which he then covered with wax, so that if the message was intercepted, no writing would be visible on the tablet.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.21.1  Herippidas: As soon as Herippidas arrived at Heracleia in Trachis, he summoned an assembly; he surrounded the assembly with hoplites, and ordered the Trachinians to sit down. He then demanded from them an account of their misdeeds, with their hands bound, as the criminal law in Sparta requires. The soldiers bound them up and took them out of the city, where they were all executed.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.22.1  Ischolaus: Ischolaus observed that the Athenian fleet at Aenus was waiting in strength close to the coast, and suspected that they intended to cut out some of his ships from the harbour. He ordered his ships to be attached by their masts to a tower, that stood on the sea-wall; the ships nearest the shore were fastened directly to the tower, and the others were attached to each other. In the night, the Athenians made the attempt which Ischolaus suspected. When the people of Aenus were informed of this by the guard, they immediately sallied forth and caused great havoc amongst the Athenians, both by sea and by land.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.22.2  Ischolaus was marching through a country, which in one part was steep and craggy, with many precipices, while in the other part the enemy had taken an advantageous position on a mountain that commanded the plain below. When the wind was very high, he ordered a quantity of wood to be set on fire. The enemy were driven from their position by the smoke and fire, and Ischolaus took the opportunity to pass by them without loss or danger.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.22.3  When Chabrias was besieging him at Drys, and was moving a battering ram up to the walls, Ischolaus gave orders for part of the wall to be demolished. He supposed that the effect of this would be two-fold: it would force his own soldiers to fight more resolutely, because they no longer had the protection of the wall; and it would discourage the enemy from carrying on with their siege-works, when they saw how little his men depended on their fortifications. This stratagem was so effective, that the enemy did not venture to enter into the city, whose inhabitants were acting with such desperation.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.22.4  When Ischolaus was informed that some of the guards intended to betray the city, which was then being besieged by the Athenians, he ordered a mercenary to be posted with every sentry. By this means, without suggesting any suspicion, he thwarted any plans of treachery.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.23.1  Mnasippidas: The enemy caught up with Mnasippidas, who had a much smaller force, and attacked him in the night. He ordered his light-armed troops and trumpeters to wheel round. After they had gone round the enemy's flank, they sounded the charge and attacked them in the rear with a shower of missiles. The enemy, finding themselves in this way attacked both in front and in the rear, suspected that they were in danger of being surrounded by a numerous army, and made a precipitate retreat.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.24.1  Antalcidas: While Antalcidas was lying with a large fleet at Abydus, he found that the Athenian ships at Tenedos would not venture to join Iphicrates at Byzantium. He gave orders to sail to Chalcedon, which had been attacked by Iphicrates, but then he halted near Cyzicus. The the Athenians at Tenedos heard that Antalcidas had departed, they immediately decided to sail and join Iphicrates at Byzantium. As soon as the approached the enemy's fleet, which was hidden in a bay so that it could not be seen from a distance, Antalcidas sailed out and vigorously attacked them. He sank some of the Athenian ships, and captured most of the others.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.25.1  Agesipolis: While Agesipolis was besieging Mantineia, the Lacedaemonians were joined by their allies, who were sympathetic towards the Mantineians, but were obliged to help the Lacedaemonians because they were at that time the leading power in Greece. Agesipolis was informed that the allies were secretly supplying the defenders with whatever they might need. To prevent this happening in future, he let loose a number of dogs around the camp, and particularly around the part which faced towards the city. This stopped the communications with the defenders; because no-one ventured to cross between the camp and the city, for fear of being discovered by the barking of the dogs.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.26.1  Sthenippus: Sthenippus of Laconian, pretending resentment at having been fined by the ephors, went off to Tegea, where he was readily received. While he was living there, he was able to bribe a group who were opposed to Aristocles, their ruler. With their assistance he fell upon Aristocles, while he was going to a sacrifice, and killed him.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.27.1  Callicratidas: Callicratidas of Cyrene asked the commander of the citadel at Magnesia, to receive four of his sick. After this had been agreed, four men in complete armour, with swords hidden under their cloaks, lay down on stretchers, and twenty young men, with weapons concealed, carried the stretchers. As soon as they were let inside the walls, they killed the guards and gained control of the citadel.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.27.2  When Callicratidas was being besieged at Magnesia, and the enemy were moving battering rams up to the walls, he ordered a breach to be made in the walls, in a place which was not easily accessible to the enemy. While the attention of the enemy was still fixed on the area where they were attacking, he sallied out through the breach. He vigorously attacked the rear of the enemy, drove them off with great loss, and made many of them prisoners. After his return to the city, he repaired the breach which he had made in the walls.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.28.1  Magas: When Magas left Cyrene, to go on a foreign expedition, he left his friends in charge of the city. But he stored the missiles and other weapons of war in the fortress, and dismantled the walls; so that, if any revolution should be attempted in his absence, he should find it easy to re-enter the city on his return.

Event Date: -275 GR

§ 2.28.2  When Magas captured Paraetonium, he order the guards to kindle a "friendly" fire signal both in the evening, and early in the morning. By this deception, he advanced without resistance into the surrounding country, as far as the place that is called Chi.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.29.1  Cleonymus: When Cleonymus, king of Lacedaemon, was besieging Troezen, he posted expert marksmen against different parts of the city, and he ordered them to hurl javelins into the city, which carried this inscription: "I have come to preserve the freedom of Troezen." Also he sent the Troezenians, whom he had taken prisoners, back home without ransom, so that they might inform their fellow citizens of the happy news. However Eudamidas, an officer of experience and indefatigable vigilance, strongly opposed his plans. While the different factions in the city were engaged in arguments and discord, Cleonymus scaled the walls. Then he made himself master of the city, and placed a Spartan garrison in it.

Event Date: -278 GR

§ 2.29.2  At the siege of Edessa, when a breach was made in the walls, the spear-men, whose spears were sixteen cubits long, sallied out against the assailants. Cleonymus deepened his phalanx, and ordered the front line not to use their weapons, but with both hands to seize the enemy's spears, and hold them fast; while the next rank immediately advanced, and closed upon them. When their spears were seized in this way, the men retreated; but the second rank, pressing upon them, either took them prisoner, or killed them. By this manoeuvre of Cleonymus, the long and formidable sarissa was rendered useless, and became rather an encumbrance, than a dangerous weapon.

Event Date: -274 GR

§ 2.30.1  Clearchus the tyrant: In order to gain permission to fortify a citadel in Heracleia, Clearchus ordered the mercenaries to go out by night, and plunder, rob, maim and do all the damage they could. Suffering from these injuries, the citizens complained to Clearchus, and begged his protection. He told them, it would be impossible to stop the depredations of the troops, unless they were confined within walls, which is what he wanted to recommend to them. The citizens agreed, and assigned part of the city, where he could raise a wall and build a citadel. In fact, this citadel offered no protection to the citizens, but it enabled Clearchus to maltreat them in any way he chose.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.30.2  Clearchus, the tyrant of Heracleia, announced that he intended to dismiss his guards, and restore the republic into the hands of the council of Three Hundred. The Three Hundred accordingly met at the council house, in order to express their gratitude to him for the restitution of their liberty. Clearchus went to the council house, and placed an armed guard at the door. Then he ordered them to be called out one by one; the soldiers seized them as they came out, and took them away to the citadel.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.30.3  Clearchus, who suspected that the number of citizens was too large for the safety of his government, but had no pretext for removing them, undertook an expedition against the city of Astacus in the middle of the dog-days. He recruited an army of men, aged from sixteen years to (?) sixty-five. When he came near to Astacus, he established a camp for the citizens on a flat marsh, full of dead and stagnant water. He ordered them to watch the movements of the Thracians, while he himself advanced with the mercenaries, as if to sustain all the danger of the siege; but he took up a position on a hill, which was shaded by trees, and refreshed by streams. Then he protracted the siege, until all the citizens were dead, from the fatal diseases which were inevitably caused by the stagnant waters in that hot season. Having achieved his purpose, he raised the siege, and pretended that the citizens had died as a result of an infectious disease.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.31.1  Aristomenes: When Aristomenes of Lacedaemon was serving in a naval battle as an ally of Dionysius, he noticed that during a sudden retreat, some of the enemy's triremes had appeared in the middle of his squadron. Then he cried out to his officers, "Let them escape." When the enemy heard this, they assumed that they were utterly defeated; they gave up fighting, and turned to flight.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.31.2  After three splendid victories over the Lacedaemonians, Aristomenes, the general of the Messenians, was disabled by wounds and captured along with many others. They were all sentenced by the Laconians to be thrown down a precipice; the rest were to be stripped, but Aristomenes was allowed to keep his armour, out of respect for his bravery. The others were killed instantly; but the broad shield of Aristomenes, which was to some extent lifted up by the air, let him gently down upon the ground. Aristomenes looked up, and saw nothing above, except inaccessible precipices; but he was too was bold in spirit, to give up all hope of safety. Examining the mountain carefully, he at last spotted a cleft, into which some foxes were entering. He broke off a bone from a dead body, and caught one of the foxes by the tail. Although he was severely bitten by the fox, he would not let go, but followed it into the cleft. After clearing away the rubbish with the bone that he held in his other hand, he escaped through the mountain, and arrived in the Messenian camp, just as his men were going out to fight again. He immediately armed himself, and led them into battle. The Laconians saw that enemy's troops were being led by Aristomenes, who was again engaging in battle, although they had just thrown him down the precipice, a punishment which no-one had ever before survived. They retreated from him, as from one who was more than human, and promptly fled from the battlefield.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.31.3  On another occasion, when Aristomenes of Messenian had been made prisoner by the Lacedaemonians, and was bound with cords, he went so close to a fire which was in the prison, that it burnt through the cords. Then he fell upon the guards and slew them. He proceeded secretly into Sparta, where he fixed up the guards' shields in the temple of Chalcioecus with this inscription: "Aristomenes has escaped from the Lacedaemonians unhurt." Then he returned to Messenia.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.31.4  On the day of the festival, when the Lacedaemonians make a public sacrifice to the Dioscuri, Aristomenes of Messenian and a friend mounted on two white horses, and put golden stars on their heads. As soon as night came on, they appeared at a little distance from the Lacedaemonians, who with their wives and children were celebrating the festival on the plain outside the city. The Lacedaemonians superstitiously believed that they were the Dioscuri, and indulged in drinking and revelling even more freely. Meanwhile, the two supposed deities, alighting from their horses, advanced against them with sword in hand. After leaving many of them dead on the spot, they remounted their horses, and made their escape.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.32.1  Cineas: In a battle near Mantineia, both the Thebans and the Mantineians claimed the victory. However the Mantineians wanted to send heralds to the Thebans, to ask for permission to carry off their dead. But Cineas of Athenian, whose brother Demetrius had died in the battle, opposed this suggestion. He said that he would rather leave his brother without decent burial, than surrender the honour of victory to the enemy. "My brother sacrificed his life," he added, "to prevent the enemy from erecting trophies to the disgrace of ourselves and our country." The Mantineians were moved by the brave words of Cineas, and decided not to send any heralds.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.33.1  Hegetorides: The Thasians were closely besieged by the Athenians, and many of them were dying every day from war and famine; but none of them ventured to suggest a treaty with the enemy, because of a law which made it a capital offence to propose a treaty with the Athenians. Then Hegetorides put a rope around his neck, entered the assembly of the Thasians, and spoke as follows: "Fellow citizens, you can dispose of me as you think fit, and as best suits your interests. But in pity for the rest of the citizens, who have survived the slaughter, that famine and the sword have made among us, I ask you to repeal the law which forbids all discussion of peace." The Thasians took his advice; they acquitted Hegetorides, and repealed the law.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.34.1  Deinias: Deinias the son of Telesippus, by birth a Pheraean, moved to Crannon a city of Thessaly, where he supported himself by catching birds on the lakes and rivers. From that lowly position he set out to establish himself as tyrant of the city, by the following devices. The citizens of Crannon used to pay by agreement a certain stipend every year for the watch and guard of the city. Deinias took on this duty; and for three years he performed his office so diligently, that the citizens could walk out more securely in the night, than by day. His conduct in this office gained him a great reputation; and to ingratiate himself further with the people, he hired more watchmen, in order to keep everything in greater security. When the task of collecting the tithe of corn was put out for contract, he persuaded his younger brother, who had never before held any public office, to take it on, by emphasising the profits which could be made from it. His brother, thus appointed collector, associated with him a number of young men, to survey the various tracts of land, and collect the corn. On the occasion of a festival, called Itonia, when the inhabitants of Crannon give themselves up to banqueting and merriment, Deinias gathered together his own dependants, the watchmen, and the gatherers of corn, who were connected with his brother. With this band of sober men he attacked and easily defeated the drunken citizens; he slew more than a thousand of them, and made himself tyrant of Crannon.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.35.1  Nicon: After Nicon, a pirate from Pherae in the Peloponnese, had by frequent raids done great damage to the property of the Messenians, Agemachus, the Messenian general, at last surprised and captured him. When he was brought before their assembly, Nicon promised, if the Messenians would spare his life, to put them in possession of Pherae. To this they agreed: and choosing a dark night, he took with him a few attendants, with bundles of straw on their shoulders, but directed a greater number to follow him a short distance behind. During the second watch of the night, he arrived at the gates, called out to the sentinels, and gave them the password. They recognised his voice, as well as the password, and so they instantly opened the gates. When Nicon and his companions had entered, they threw down their bundles, and drawing their swords slew the sentinels; and the rest of the men, rushing in, took control of the city.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.36.1  Diaetas: Diaetas, the general of the Achaeans, was unable to capture the city of Heraea by a regular siege, but contrived by a stratagem to achieve what he had attempted in vain by force of arms. By large bribes he won over some of the citizens to his purpose; they took frequent opportunities of visiting the sentinels of the gates: and while familiarly conversing and drinking with them, they managed to take an impression of the keys, which they sent to Diaetas, who made exact copies of the keys. He sent these copies back to his collaborators, and told them to fix a night, when they would open the gates to him. By this means he entered the city with a select body of troops, but he found it necessary to use yet another stratagem; because the citizens of Heraea, when they discovered what had happened, sallied forth in great numbers, and had the advantage of being well acquainted with every part of the city. Diaetas, seeing such formidable opposition, ordered his trumpeters to disperse to every part of the city, and to sound the attack wherever they went. The citizens of Heraea, hearing the sound of the enemy's trumpets on all sides, assumed that the enemy were already in possession of the whole city; and so they fled away. Afterwards they sent envoys to Diaetas, asking for permission to return to their own country; and they promised that they would remain subject to the Achaeans in the future.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.37.1  Tisamenus: While Tisamenus was on the march, he noticed that a number of birds were hovering over a particular place, without every settling; and he supposed that there were some men there, who were keeping the birds in the air. On reconnoitring the ground, he found that there were some Ionians lying in ambush, whom he attacked and killed.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.38.1  Onomarchus: When the Boeotians were besieging Elateia, Onomarchus of Phocian ordered all the inhabitants to leave the town, and locked the gates. In one row he placed the fathers, mothers, children and wives; and in front of them he placed all those who could bear arms, in order of battle. Pelopidas realised, from such an appearance of desperation, that they were determined either to conquer or to die; and he retreated without risking a battle.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 2.38.2  When Onomarchus was fighting against the Macedonians, he took up a position with a steep and craggy mountain in his rear; and on the top of the mountain he placed in ambush a number of men, who were expert in throwing stones, with a supply of huge stones and pieces of jagged rock for this purpose. He then advanced, and formed up his army on the plain. The Macedonians began the attack with their javelins, which the Phocians pretended they were unable to resist, and retreated half-way up the mountain. The Macedonians eagerly pursued them, until they came within reach of the men in ambush, who then emerged and started to attack the Macedonian phalanx with huge stones. Onomarchus then gave the signal to the Phocians to turn around and renew the fight. The Macedonians, who were vigorously attacked by the troops in front of them, and grievously harassed by those above them, with difficulty succeeded in making a rapid retreat. On this occasion, Philippus the king of Macedonia is said to have cried out, "We do not run away, but retreat like rams, ready to renew the fight with greater strength."

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.0.1  I address this third book of Stratagems to your most sacred majesties, Antoninus and Verus; and I trust that some advantage may be derived from it by statesmen, as well as soldiers. For to know how to negotiate advantageously with an enemy, and to preserve good government at home, are as much a part of generalship, as conduct in the battlefield. The truth of this is illustrated by yourselves, who, vested with imperial power as sovereigns of the world, are ever forming plans for the glory and happiness of your subjects, and in times of peace you make preparations for war. I need not mention your real exploits in the battlefield, because they are known to all the world.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.1.1  Demosthenes: Demosthenes, finding that Pylus was strongly garrisoned by the Laconians, sailed towards the headland. The Lacedaemonians, who supposed that this feint was his real objective, abandoned Pylus and marched as quickly as possible to the headland, in the hope of surprising Demosthenes immediately after he landed. But when they approached there, Demosthenes suddenly returned to Pylus, and easily took possession of the place, which had been evacuated by its garrison.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.1.2  When Demosthenes was commanding the Acarnanians and Amphilochians against the Peloponnesians, he encamped in front of the enemy, with a large torrent parting the camps. He observed that the enemy greatly outnumbered him, and expected that they would try to surround him. He concealed a body of hoplites, along with three hundred of the allies, in a hollow place, which was suitable for ambushes. He ordered them, if the enemy tried to surround him, to sally forth and attack them in the rear. The Peloponnesians, as he expected, extended their line in an attempt to surround him; but the men sallied forth from their ambush, fell upon their rear, and easily obtained the victory.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.2.1  Paches: Paches, when he was besieging Notium, proposed a conference with Hippias, the general of Pissithnus. He promised on oath, that if Hippias would come out and meet him, he would ensure that he was brought back into the city safe and alive. Hippias accordingly went out to meet him, but Paches left him under guards and immediately took the city by storm. He then ordered Hippias to be brought back into the city, safe and alive, just as had been agreed; and afterwards he ordered him to be executed.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.3.1  Tolmidas: In order to enable Tolmidas to man a fleet, the Athenians voted him a complement of a thousand men, with permission to choose them. When he approached each of the youths, he told them that he intended to choose them, but it would look better, if they offered themselves as volunteers. Accordingly three thousand of them gave in their names. Tolmidas therefore chose the thousand, whom the state had allotted to him, from those who had not given in their names; and he was able to man fifty ships, because by adding the volunteers he had gathered four thousand men instead of one thousand.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.4.1  Phormion: Phormion attacked Chalcis, and carried off some booty, with which he afterwards landed at Scyros. The inhabitants of Chalcis sent envoys to him there, demanding that he restore their possessions. He secretly fitted out a light ship, which he pretended had just arrived from Athens, and he said that the people had ordered him to return to the Peiraeus immediately. He restored everything that the envoys asked for, and then set sail, but dropped anchor at an island nearby. The inhabitants of Chalcis, seeing that their property had been restored, and supposing that Phormion had returned to Athens, neglected to place guards either in the city or in the countryside. Therefore when Phormion attacked them again, they were unprepared for defence; he almost captured the city, and took a great amount of booty away from the countryside.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.4.2  Phormion, with only thirty ships, resolved to face the enemy, whose fleet consisted of fifty ships. He formed his little force into five lines, and sailed away past the enemy fleet at a steady pace. The enemy, who were confident of their superiority and eager to engage, made every effort to catch up with him, and in their pursuit the swiftest ships left the others behind. When Phormion observed that the enemy were in disorder, he kept his lines and vigorously attacked the ships that came into action first; after sinking them, he bore down on those who were next. The captains in the other lines followed the same manoeuvre, which gave the enemy no time to reform, so that their only hope of safety was to turn in flight.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.4.3  Phormion was attacked by two triremes while he was sailing in the Paralus near Naupactus. He took advantage of a heavy merchantman that lay at anchor nearby, fully laden. He doubled round it, directing his beak with full force against the stern of the slowest ship, and sank it before the other could come to its assistance. After that he easily defeated the other ship.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.5.1  Cleisthenes: When Cleisthenes attacked Cirra, the oracle declared, that the city would be invincible until the sea reached the sacred land. The inhabitants of Cirra thought that their safety was assured by this, because the sacred land, which was next to their city, was far distant from the sea. But Cleisthenes, when he was informed of the oracle, immediately devoted both the city and the country to the god, so that everything was made sacred. In this way the oracle was fulfilled, and the land next to the sea became sacred. Cleisthenes then conquered the country, and consecrated it to the god.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.6.1  Phrynichus: When Phrynichus was commander in Samos, he plotted to betray the city. But he was accused of treachery, before the plot was ready to be carried out. To avoid punishment, he changed sides and betrayed the enemy, informing the Samians of all their movements before they took place. He told the Samians that the enemy would attack in a place, where some of their ships lay unprotected by a wall, and told them to fortify the place before the enemy arrived, which they achieved just in time. Afterwards Alcibiades, the commander of the enemy, who suspected the duplicity of Phrynichus, sent a letter to the Samians, informing them of his intended treason. But Phrynichus had gained the favour of the Samians, because of the good advice which he had given them, and they refused to pay any regard to the letters of the enemy.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.7.1  Lachares: After Athens was captured by Demetrius, Lachares slipped out through a little gate, in a slave's clothes, with his face blackened, and a basket of money covered with dung on his arm. He mounted his horse, and attempted to make his escape as quickly as possible. But a squadron of Tarentine cavalry was dispatched to pursue him; when they were close behind him, Lachares scattered some golden darics on the road. The men dismounted to pick up the money; and the delay in the pursuit, which this caused, gave Lachares time to make his escape into Boeotia.

Event Date: -294 GR

§ 3.7.2  When Thebes was captured, Lachares hid himself in the public sewers. After remaining there for three or four days, he ventured out by night, escaped safely to Delphi, and from there went to Lysimachus.

Event Date: -291 GR

§ 3.7.3  When the enemy had seized control of Sestus, Lachares concealed himself for several days in a pit, with just enough provisions to support himself. By chance, a woman's funeral procession passed close by. He threw a woman's gown around himself, and with a black veil over his head, he mixed among the mourners. In this way he escaped out of the gates, and safely reached Lysimacheia.

Event Date: -288 GR

§ 3.8.1  Archinus: The Argives had ordered new weapons to be made for all the citizens at public expense; and Archinus was appointed to be superintendent of the work. He accordingly gave out new weapons to each of the citizens, and received in return their old weapons, which he pretended that he would dedicate to the gods, as instructed by the decree of the Argives. Instead of this, he used the weapons to arm a mixed band of foreigners, lodgers, the profligate, the poor and the desperate; and with their help he seized control of the city.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.9.1  Iphicrates: After Iphicrates had formed his lines ready for battle, he observed that several of his soldiers were trembling, and pale, and showing every symptom of fear in their expression. He ordered a herald to proclaim that anyone, who had left something behind, might go back and fetch it, and then immediately return and rejoin the army. All the cowards gladly took advantage of the proclamation, and left the battlefield. As soon as they were gone, Iphicrates called out: "Now is the time for battle, as we have got rid of our useless baggage. The rewards of courage and resolution will now belong only to those who deserve them." The army derived new confidence from his speech, and without those who had skulked away, they won a glorious victory.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.9.2  When he had routed the enemy, Iphicrates never allowed his lines to be broken in the heat of the pursuit. He continually called out to his light-armed troops to beware of ambushes. He also had a general rule, never to press the enemy too hard when they had been routed, if there were any narrow passes or rivers behind them; for if they are hemmed in, they are often forced by desperation to rally and fight again. Nor did he think it a mark of good generalship, to pursue the enemy to their walls and battlements; for a sure victory has often been snatched away, when it is rashly followed up within a javelin's throw of the walls; and the victors have been forced, with disgrace and loss, to relinquish their conquests.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.9.3  Iphicrates had taken control of a town by night. When the people assembled in great crowds, and poured into the market-place, he ordered the gates to be thrown open. In that way he gave the inhabitants an opportunity to escape, so that he could more safely keep possession of the place.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.9.4  Iphicrates was making a raid into Thrace. When his troops fled from the enemy as if in panic, he ordered a proclamation to be made, that if anyone informed against another man, who had thrown away his weapons, they should be given his weapons as a reward. The proclamation had the intended effect; the men recovered their courage, and resolutely withstood the enemy's attack.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.9.5  Iphicrates, finding it necessary to pass by the enemy at night, directed his trumpets to the end of the enemy's line, and ordered them to sound the charge. When the enemy heard this signal, they advanced the place, where the trumpets sounded. But Iphicrates marched his army unmolested along the opposite side, where the way had been left open.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.9.6  After Iphicrates had sustained a defeat, he halted with the remains of his army on a rough piece of ground, that was covered with trees. As he was being closely pursued by the enemy, he found it necessary to pass by them, in order to secure his retreat. Therefore he ordered his troops to move off noisily in one direction by night; and having drawn the enemy's attention towards that place, he changed his march to the opposite direction, where he met no opposition.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.9.7  When the two armies lay encamped opposite each other, Iphicrates, whose objective was to avoid a battle, gained three days' march ahead of the enemy, before they realised that he had struck camp. He achieved this by ordering fires to be lit with dry wood, and green wood to be continually thrown on them, which gave rise to a thick smoke, and clouded the air so much, that the armies could not see what was happening in each other's camp.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.9.8  Although his army was much more numerous than that of the enemy, and the augurs had foretold success, Iphicrates still declined a battle, to the equal surprise of both armies. "The augury of my own mind," he said, "urges me not to risk a battle. For when an army is very numerous, they can neither charge, nor sing a paean together; and when I order them to charge, I hear more of the chattering of their teeth, than the clang of their weapons.

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§ 3.9.9  Whenever the augurs declared against fighting, Iphicrates, without openly submitting to their advice, used to change his ground and vary his movements; then he ordered the sacrifices to be repeated. He did this, in order to gain time maturely to consider a matter of such great importance, as the success or failure of a battle.

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§ 3.9.10  Iphicrates, when once he was commanding against the Lacedaemonians, received a great variety of requests. One man asked for the command of five hundred men, another for the command of one hundred, and another for the command of a company; and all of these requests he rejected. On a later day, after drawing up his army hastily, he secretly ordered his generals to throw it into confusion, and raise a panic among the troops, as if the enemy were advancing in force to attack them. In this general confusion, the timorous fled and the brave advanced against the supposed foe. Iphicrates then smiled, and told them that the panic was of his own making, to test the merit of their various pretensions. He granted commands to those who had stood their ground; and he ordered those, who had retreated, to follow their leaders.

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§ 3.9.11  After deciding on a camping ground, Iphicrates dispatched a body of troops, before he camped there, to secure a position which was a considerable distance away from the army. His officers were surprised at this action, and asked the reason for taking such a distant position. Iphicrates said it was to avoid thinking afterwards, "Who would ever have conceived that such an action was necessary?" By this he implied, that in war every precaution ought to be taken, and as little as possible left to chance.

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§ 3.9.12  When Iphicrates had been brought to battle in an open plain, where the enemy were much superior in numbers, he drew up his army and dug a trench in their rear. Thereby he showed them that, because all hope of retreat had been cut off, they had no alternative but to conquer or die.

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§ 3.9.13  When Iphicrates had to fight against newly-raised troops, he did not attack immediately after confronting them; but he wearied them out by various manoeuvres, before he began the attack. But if he commanded newly-raised troops against an army of veterans, he joined battle immediately, giving all possible efficacy to the first attack.

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§ 3.9.14  When Iphicrates had forced a fleeing enemy into a narrow pass, he always tried to open a way for them, and give them a chance to escape, without making it necessary for them to force their way out by fighting. He said that there was no reason to compel an enemy to be brave.

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§ 3.9.15  When Iphicrates was prosecuted on a capital offence, he placed in court some youths, with swords in their hands. They showed the hilts of the swords to the judges, who were so intimidated, that justice shut her eyes, and Iphicrates was absolved.

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§ 3.9.16  While Iphicrates was in the palace of his father-in-law, he went up to him and showed him his armour. "You see," he said, "that I am always in exercise and on my guard."

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§ 3.9.17  Iphicrates always fortified his camp during truces. He observed, that it was not the habit of a good general to say, "I could not have expected that."

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§ 3.9.18  When the enemy had encamped against Iphicrates in great force, he found it necessary to attempt a retreat. And as they closely watched his movements, he cut down all the wood that was near him. He fixed it up in his camp, and hung shields, helmets and spears upon it. When the enemy saw this, they supposed that he was still in camp, but he had secretly evacuated the camp and made a safe retreat.

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§ 3.9.19  When Iphicrates outnumbered the enemy, he tried to conceal his strength from them, in order to make them more ready to engage, because of his supposed weakness. Therefore he used to make two soldiers sleep on one bed, taking it turns to lie down to rest; and alternately to place their armour on top of each other's. On the contrary, if his force was small, he tried to impress the enemy with an idea of his numbers being greater than they really were. He ordered every soldier to make two beds; then he shifted his ground, and encamped in a different place. Thus the enemy, from the number of beds which they observed, were either so confident in their supposed superiority that they advanced rashly to battle, or were so dispirited by the apparent number of this troops, that they were reluctant to commence battle.

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§ 3.9.20  The Thebans planned to surprise Athens by night. When Iphicrates was informed of this, he summoned the people by a particular signal in the night to assemble in the forum. Then told them, that he had a party at Thebes, who were ready to betray the city to them. "Let us," he said, "therefore march quietly out, so that we may take possession of the city without striking a blow." As soon as the Thebans were advised of this suggestion, through their envoys at Athens, they thought no more of surprising Athens, but directed their attention towards the defence of their own city.

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§ 3.9.21  When Iphicrates was very inferior to the enemy, and therefore his troops were dispirited, at supper he summoned the captains of companies and leaders of bands. He ordered them to raise from their respective groups whatever gold, silver and valuables they could, on the pretence that he had bribed some men in the enemy's camp, to betray their army to him; and so to make good his promise, he needed every assistance that could be given to him. He said that as soon as he had received the contributions of his army, he would immediately proceed to action. The officers according brought to him whatever they had been able to raise, which he took and dedicated to Hermes of Friendship, as if to acknowledge the agreement between him and the conspirators. Shortly afterwards he drew up his army and advanced to the attack. The troops recovered their spirits, and moved boldly forwards, in their confidence that the enemy's army would be betrayed to them.

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§ 3.9.22  Iphicrates used to liken an army which was marshalled for battle to the human body. The phalanx he called the breast, the light-armed troops the hands, the cavalry the feet, and the general the head. If any of the lower parts were lacking, he said that the army was defective; but if it lacked a general, it lacked everything.

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§ 3.9.23  Iphicrates spread a report at Mytilene, that he intended shortly to provide a number of shields, which would be sent to the slaves on Chios. The Chians believed this rumour, which made them afraid of a rebellion among their slaves. They immediately sent presents to Iphicrates, and entered into an alliance with Athens.

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§ 3.9.24  When the Athenians were making preparations for the siege of Sicyon, the Laconian harmost, who was ordered to relieve it, told the envoys, who came to ask for assistance, to plant an ambush and surprise the enemy. The Sicyonians did as he suggested. Iphicrates, who took the direct way to the city, passed by the ambush. But when some youths boldly called out from the walls, as he appeared before the city, "Now you will meet your punishment," it occurred to him that they must be depending on something in particular. He therefore immediately marched back by a different route; and then explored the country with a select body of his best troops. In a hidden corner, they discovered the men lying in ambush, and cut them to pieces. On this occasion, he acknowledged that he had made an error, by not exploring the country; although he had immediately acted on his suspicions, and thereby thwarted the purpose of the enemy's manoeuvre.

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§ 3.9.25  When he was preparing for battle with the barbarians, in order to encourage his men, Iphicrates called out, "These barbarians seem not to realise the terror, which the arms of Iphicrates carry with them. But with your assistance, I will now teach them about this terror, and they will pass the message on to the others." When the armies were drawn up, someone observed that the enemy had a formidable appearance. "Therefore," said Iphicrates, "we must be even more formidable."

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§ 3.9.26  On one occasion Iphicrates implored his men, by all the glorious exploits which they had performed under his command, to obey his one request, to advance quickly and begin the attack. He was sure that, if they did not immediately charge at the enemy, the enemy would charge against them; and that whichever army attacked, the other would find it difficult to withstand them.

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§ 3.9.27  Iphicrates told his men, that he would ensure that they were victorious, if at a given command, they would encourage each other and advance by only a single pace. At the crisis of the battle, when victory hung in the balance, he gave the signal; the army responded with a shout, after which they advanced a pace and defeated the enemy.

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§ 3.9.28  When Iphicrates commanded the Athenians at Corinth against the Thebans, his troops frequently urged him to bring the enemy to battle. But he observed that the enemy outnumbered him, and they were confident from their recent victory at Leuctra, and so he refused to risk a battle. "But," he said, "I have formed you to such a height of military valour, that you despise the Thebans; now let some better general take the command, and lead you in the attack." By this mild reprimand, he changed the minds of the Athenians, and curbed their rashness, which would probably have ended in a defeat.

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§ 3.9.29  At the instigation of Aristophon and Chares, Iphicrates was prosecuted for treason against the state, because he had not brought the enemy to battle at Embata, when he could have destroyed their fleet. When he found that there was strong support for the case against him, instead of proceeding with his defence, he abandoned his speech and showed the judges his sword. The judges were afraid that the court might be surrounded by his fellow soldiers, and acquitted him. Someone suggested afterwards, that he had intimidated the judges by threatening violence. "I should be an idiot indeed," said Iphicrates, "if I could fight for the Athenians, but could not do the same for myself."

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§ 3.9.30  When the Athenians needed a great deal of money for a particular enterprise, Iphicrates advised them to pull down the public buildings, which fronted onto the streets, and sell them. The demolition of those buildings would have seriously damaged the houses which were built up against them. The owners of these houses, as Iphicrates expected, paid the sums which were needed, in order to have the buildings preserved.

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§ 3.9.31  After a battle, Iphicrates distributed the booty among his troops, as each individual deserved. But when contributions had been raised from cities, without a battle, he did not distribute the money to each individual, but gave it to their tribes, and companies, and bands. And when his troops were arming themselves, he used to order silence, and then promise that in the distribution of booty he would reward every man in the different divisions of cavalry, hoplites, and light-armed troops, who particularly distinguished themselves. At all festivals, and public meetings, he always awarded the seats of honour to the men, who had displayed the most courage. By these methods he prompted his men to be more courageous in the face of danger.

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§ 3.9.32  Iphicrates used to exercise his troops in all the various events, that might occur in warfare: sham sallies, ambushes, betrayals, revolts, surprises and panics; so that if any of these were really practised by the enemy, or required from his own troops, they would in either case be experienced and ready.

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§ 3.9.33  The enemy took up position, about five stades away from the Athenian army, on a hill near the Sacred mountain, with the sea in their rear, and a single pass in front of them, which was so narrow that there was not even room for two men abreast, while the approach towards the sea was steep and craggy. Iphicrates and a group of resolute, strong men, after they had oiled and properly equipped themselves, took advantage of a still night. Skirting around the mountain, and swimming over particular places where the sea was deepest, they arrived in the rear of the enemy, cut the sentinels to pieces, and secured the way for the rest of his army through the defile. Then, while it was still night, he attacked the enemy who were unprepared to resist him. He obtained a complete victory with little loss; those of the enemy who escaped the sword were taken prisoner.

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§ 3.9.34  In a winter campaign, when his army was poorly clothed and fed, Iphicrates saw that there was a favourable opportunity for a battle; but his troops, because of the hardships they had suffered, were ill-disposed towards fighting. Therefore he dressed in mean clothes, more pitiable than the rest, and went round the camp, exhorting his troops to set out and attack the enemy. When they saw their general in such thin clothes, without any shoes, they sacrificed their own comfort and convenience to the public good, and readily followed him in the attack.

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§ 3.9.35  When his war chest was depleted, Iphicrates used to march his army to sea coasts and deserted places, where their expenses would be small. But when his finances were in good shape, he gave them quarters in cities and rich countries; where after quickly squandering away their money, their poverty might encourage them to greater achievements. But he never suffered them to be idle. When they were not engaged in actual service, he always found some employment for them. He ordered them to pile up earth, or dig trenches, or cut down wood, or shift their camp, or repair their baggage; because he considered that idleness was the parent of plots and mutiny.

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§ 3.9.36  After ravaging Samos, Iphicrates sailed off to Delos. There Samian envoys came to him, to purchase the property which he had taken from them, and he promised to restore all of it to them. But he secretly fitted out a light ship, which he pretended had just arrived from Athens, with instructions for his recall. He took a friendly leave of the Samians, and ordered the captains of his fleet to weigh anchor and get under sail. Then he steered to an uninhabited island, and anchored there for a day and a night. The Samians, as soon as they heard that Iphicrates had received their envoys courteously, before leaving Delos because he was recalled home, relaxed with a false sense of security both in the city and in the countryside. But while they were scattered about, Iphicrates landed again in Samos; and he carried off a greater quantity of booty, than he had before. Phormion had previously practised a similar stratagem against the inhabitants of Chalcis.

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§ 3.9.37  When Iphicrates was arbitrating between the Lacedaemonians and the Thebans, who were then at war with each other, he found that the Argive and Arcadian allies of the Thebans were preventing a reconciliation. He ordered a body of troops to ravage Argolis, and when the Argives complained of this incursion, he said the ravages were committed by their own rebels. He pretended that he had marched against the rebels, in order to punish them; and, as if he had been successful in his expedition, he restored to the Argives the property of which they had been plundered. The Argives were won over by this generous retribution. They looked on Iphicrates as their benefactor and friend, and persuaded the Thebans to agree to the proposed conditions of peace.

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§ 3.9.38  When Iphicrates was in the service of Persia, he made war against Egypt with Pharnabazus. Because there were no ports in that region, he ordered the captains of the ships each to take with him forty sacks. And when they approached land, he ordered all the sacks to be filled with sand, and to be suspended from the sides of the ships into the water. By using this counterbalance they were able to halt safely, without needing a harbour.

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§ 3.9.39  At Epidaurus Iphicrates drew up his army near the sea; but because he was not ready for a battle, he advanced to a thick, shady wood, where he called aloud for the men to emerge from their ambush. The enemy feared that there was a large ambush, and so they wheeled around and retreated to their ships.

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§ 3.9.40  When Iphicrates and the tyrant Jason were encamped against each other by a river's side in Thessaly, they agreed to end the war by a treaty. Accordingly after they had been searched by each other's officers, they met unarmed under a bridge, to settle the terms of the treaty. After they had formally bound themselves by oath to keep to the conditions which should be agreed, Iphicrates mounted the bridge; and Jason began a sacrifice to the river, with a sheep which he had taken from a neighbouring flock. Iphicrates then leapt down and seized the knife, and although he did not murder Jason with it, he frightened him into making the treaty on terms which were favourable to Iphicrates.

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§ 3.9.41  In the Thracian war, when the enemy were encamped near Iphicrates, he ordered a wood, which lay between the two camps, to be set on fire in the night. Leaving behind his baggage, and a great store of cattle, he retreated during the night, which was made even more dark by the smoke, to a place which was hidden and shady, and covered with undergrowth. As soon as day appeared, the Thracians advanced to plunder the baggage and the cattle. While they doing this in scattered groups, Iphicrates advanced in good order, and suddenly fell upon them. After defeating them, he recovered his baggage.

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§ 3.9.42  When he was attacking a particular place by night, Iphicrates ordered the trumpets, which were scattered in various places, to sound the charge. The enemy were intimidated by the sound of trumpets around them, and tried to escape, some in one direction and some in another. Meanwhile Iphicrates, cutting down the few who opposed him, easily took possession of the place.

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§ 3.9.43  While Iphicrates was at Corinth, the Lacedaemonians advanced against the city. He did not risk a battle immediately, but because he learned that there were strong positions around the city, he secretly took possession of them, and then ordered those who were within the walls to join him. The whole body of the people, advancing in one firm compact band, so intimidated the Lacedaemonians by their numbers, and by the favourable positions of their allies, that they raised the siege and retreated, without striking a blow.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 3.9.44  While Iphicrates was at war with Abydus, he halted at Cherronesus. After choosing a suitable spot, he pretended to be afraid of Axibius, the Laconian general, and constructed a wall around his camp. When the inhabitants of Abydus saw him raise a wall, they assumed that his force must be weak. Therefore they ventured out of the city, and made expeditions into the countryside, whenever they needed. Iphicrates observed that they had relaxed their guard, and sent part of his army into the territory of Abydus by night; they ravaged the countryside, made many prisoners, and carried off a considerable amount of booty.

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§ 3.9.45  When Iphicrates was at Corinth, he learned that the supporters of the opposite faction had decided to let mercenaries from Lacedaemon into the city. After mustering his troops, and leaving part of them in the city as a garrison, he marched the rest out, and drew them up outside the gates. Then he hurried to the gate, which the Lacedaemonian faction had opened to admit the mercenaries. He rushed inside at the rear of the mercenaries, and in the confused battle which followed, he killed many of the mercenaries, who were caught off their guard. The following morning he slaughtered many others, who had taken refuge in the temples.

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§ 3.9.46  When Iphicrates was encamped with eight thousand men, during an expedition into Thrace, he heard that the Thracians intended to attack his camp in the night. He evacuated the camp in the evening, and took up a position in a valley about three stades away, where he lay unobserved by the enemy. They accordingly attacked his camp, which they found empty, and plundered it, mocking the Greeks, as an enemy who had invaded their country, and had then run away again. But Iphicrates advanced from his hiding place, and suddenly attacked them; many of them were killed, and a large number of the others were captured.

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§ 3.9.47  When Iphicrates had to make a two days' march through a sandy country, destitute of water, he ordered his army after supper to fill their water casks. Then as soon as the sun was down, he began his march, which he continued all night. The next morning he encamped, and ordered the troops to rest themselves. After resting all day, and taking their meal in the evening, when the night came on, they packed up their baggage and renewed their march. Thus instead of a two days' march, he had only one day, and that a day of rest, in which to endure the heat of the climate, and the scarcity of water.

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§ 3.9.48  After acquiring a large quantity of spoils at Epidaurus, Iphicrates retreated to his ships, but he was pursued by the Laconian governor of the region, who took up a position on a hill, in order to intercept him. Iphicrates drew up his hoplites before his baggage, and attached to them in various places the light-armed troops and other weaker forces, to increase their numbers; then he concealed himself with the rest of his army, a small distance away. When the hoplites advanced against the Laconian governor, he left the hill to attack them. Iphicrates, with the other part of his army, wheeled about and took possession of the hill; then he fell on the rear of the enemy and completely defeated them.

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§ 3.9.49  When Iphicrates had to pass through some narrow defiles near Phlius, while the enemy were pressing on his rear, he ordered his troops to march through the pass as quickly as possible. Meanwhile he took a body of his best troops and fell back to the rear, to cover the others. With these troops he attacked the enemy, who were scattered and disordered in the eagerness of their pursuit, and killed many of them.

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§ 3.9.50  During a raid into Thrace, Iphicrates encamped on an open plain, which was almost surrounded by a ridge of mountains, and accessible only in one place by a bridge. The Thracians crossed this bridge in the night, with the intention of attacking his camp. But Iphicrates evacuated his camp, after lighting a number of fires in it. The he skirted around the mountains, and concealed himself in a patch of shrubby ground near the bridge. While the Thracians advanced against his camp, assuming because of the fires that he was still in there, he left his hiding place, crossed the bridge and made a safe retreat.

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§ 3.9.51  When Iphicrates was in command of a large army, consisting of both naval and land forces, he kept in hand a quarter of their monthly pay, as a security against their desertion. By this means he kept his army complete, and his troops had plenty of money, because they received a quarter of their pay in arrears.

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§ 3.9.52  After encamping opposite the allies of the Lacedaemonians, Iphicrates made his army exchange their clothes during the night; the soldiers dressed themselves in the clothes of their servants, while the servants put on the clothes of the soldiers. The servants walked around openly in their military attire, as if they were free men, leaving the care of the weapons in the hands of the soldiers, who prepared their weapons while dressed as servants. When the enemy saw this, they did the same; their soldiers walked around in a leisurely fashion outside the camp, while their servants were engaged in their normal employments inside. At a given signal, the troops of Iphicrates took up their weapons and immediately advanced against the enemy's camp. The servants fled from the camp, and the soldiers, who were caught unprepared and without their weapons, were either killed or taken prisoner.

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§ 3.9.53  On another occasion, when Iphicrates was encamped directly opposite the enemy, he observed that they took their meal regularly at a certain time. He made his men eat early in the morning, and immediately afterwards he attacked the enemy; but instead of closing with the enemy, he fought them from a distance with missiles throughout the day. In the evening both armies withdrew; but while the enemy sat down to their meal, Iphicrates led out his troops, who had eaten heartily earlier in the day, and attacked them with much slaughter.

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§ 3.9.54  The narrowness of the roads at Phlius forced Iphicrates to march with a narrow front, and his lines extended to the rear. While his rear was being severely harassed by the enemy, Iphicrates ordered his army to march more quickly. Meanwhile he took a select body of troops, and fell back to the rear, where the vigorously attacked the enemy, who were disordered and worn out by the pursuit. He killed many of them, and made prisoners of the rest.

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§ 3.9.55  While Iphicrates was staying at Corcyra, his signallers informed him that Crinippus, who was sailing from Sicily with eleven store ships, had halted at a deserted island. Iphicrates instructed them to light a friendly beacon. Then during the night he sailed over and captured all of the ships except one.

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§ 3.9.56  While Iphicrates was in Ace, he learned that a conspiracy had been formed by two of his generals. He selected a group of his best and most reliable troops, and ordered them, as soon as he had charged the generals with treason, to seize the weapons of the generals and of the troops whom they commanded. When the conspiracy had been clearly proved, Iphicrates ordered the generals to be taken to execution; their soldiers were stripped and driven naked out of the camp.

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§ 3.9.57  After two thousand mercenaries revolted to the Lacedaemonians, Iphicrates sent secret letters to the generals of the rebels. He reminded them of the appointed time, and assured them that they could depend on assistance from Athens. When, as he anticipated, the letters were intercepted by the guards of the roads, the letters were shown to the Lacedaemonians, who sent a body of troops to arrest the rebels. The mercenaries, who were real traitors to the Athenians and suspected of treachery by the Lacedaemonians, were forced to flee away from both of them.

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§ 3.9.58  When Iphicrates was commander at Chios, he suspected that a group of the Chians were supporting the Lacedaemonians. In order to prove their guilt, he ordered the captains of some ships to weigh anchor secretly during the night, and then to return into the harbour the next morning, dressed in Lacedaemonian clothes. As soon as those, who favoured the Lacedaemonian cause, saw the ships, they ran with joy to the harbour to greet them. Then Iphicrates advanced with a body of troops from the city, arrested them, and sent them to Athens to be punished.

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§ 3.9.59  On one occasion, when Iphicrates was particularly short of money, the soldiers mutinied, and insisted on a general meeting being called. Iphicrates dressed some men, who were familiar with the Persian language, in Persian clothes, and ordered them to be introduced to the assembly when everyone was present. These men spoke in a barbarian fashion, and stated that they were part of a group who were marching there to bring money for the payment of the soldiers' arrears; and they had been sent on ahead to announce this. When they heard this news, the soldiers immediately put an end to the assembly.

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§ 3.9.60  After Iphicrates had ravaged the territory of the Odrysians, and had carried away a great quantity of booty, the Odrysians pursued him in great force. Iphicrates had only a small number of cavalry, but he ordered them to attack with flaming torches in their hands. The flames so frightened the horses of the enemy, who were unaccustomed to the sight of fire, that they did not withstand the attack, but turned around and fled.

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§ 3.9.61  Iphicrates once advanced against a city, which was built on the banks of a river. He needed to cross the river above the city, before he could begin to attack it. Therefore he crossed the river by night, so that the colour of the water, made muddy by the passage of so many men, would not reveal his approach to the enemy. The next morning he appeared before their gates, and began his attack, before they realised that he had crossed the river.

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§ 3.9.62  Iphicrates captured many of the Odrysians in Thrace. When he was being harassed by the enemy's slings and arrows, he stripped his prisoners naked, and with their hands tied behind their backs placed them in front of his army. The Odrysians saw that their friends had been put in the place of danger, and stopped attacking from a distance with slings and arrows.

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§ 3.9.63  Iphicrates was sent to Phoenicia with a fleet of a hundred thirty-oared ships. As soon as he approached the Phoenician coast, which was flat and muddy, he found that the enemy were drawn up to confront him. He ordered the captains of the ships to form a line and approach the coast, and to drop their anchors when the signal was given; after that, the soldiers were instructed to take up their weapons, and jump into the sea next to their respective oar. As soon as Iphicrates supposed that the sea was shallow enough for his purpose, he gave the signal. The ships immediately dropped anchor; the soldiers moved out of them in perfect order, and advanced to the shore under cover of their shields. The enemy, who were intimidated by the order and boldness of their attack, turned to flight. In the pursuit, Iphicrates' men killed some of the enemy, and captured others. They also took much booty, which they loaded onto their ships while they established a camp on the shore.

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§ 3.10.1  Timotheus: When there was a great shortage of money in the Attic camp, Timotheus persuaded the merchants to treat his documents as coinage. He assured them that the documents would all be redeemed with money. The merchants trusted in the general's honour, and supplied the army with provisions on the credit of his documents. The money was afterwards punctually paid, and Timotheus by this stratagem not only supplied the needs of his army, but strengthened his credit amongst the merchants.

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§ 3.10.2  Just as the fleet which Timotheus commanded was about to sail, one of the men was seized with a fit of sneezing. The helmsmen ordered them to halt; and the sailors refuse to embark on the triremes. Timotheus smiled, and with great composure remarked, "What kind of omen is this, that among so many men, one of them should happen to sneeze?" The sailors laughed when he said this, and proceeded to set sail.

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§ 3.10.3  Timotheus ordered his army to charge immediately, although some of the men had not yet arrived; one of his officers asked, whether it would be better to wait, until the others had caught up with them. "By no means," replied Timotheus: "all the men who will fight bravely are here, and those, who will not fight, are not worth waiting for."

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§ 3.10.4  In a naval battle between the Athenians and Lacedaemonians at Leucas, Timotheus commanded the Athenians, and Nicolochus the Lacedaemonians. The battle was fought during the festival of Scira. In the morning Timotheus decorated his ships with myrtle, and then gave the signal for attack. His soldiers exerted themselves with uncommon courage, because they were confident that they were fighting under the direct protection of the goddess; and so he obtained a victory.

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§ 3.10.5  When Timotheus was besieging a city, he assigned to his soldiers a particular district, in which they might go out for foraging. But in the rest of the country, he told them to pay for what they took. He did not allow them to destroy any house or cottage, or even to cut down a growing tree, but merely to supply themselves with the produce of the countryside. By this conduct, he knew that if was successful he would be able to demand a larger tribute, and if the war was protracted, his army would not be lacking in either provisions or accommodation. And what was of still greater consequence, by this means he gained the goodwill of his enemies.

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§ 3.10.6  When Timotheus was about to fight at sea against the Lacedaemonians, he rested, having the crews of twenty triremes by his stern; and ordered the captains of twenty light vessels to advance against the enemy, whom they harassed with various movements and manoeuvres. As soon as he saw that the enemy appeared to be tired, and were handling their oars weakly, he advanced into action with the rest of the fleet. Being fresh and in full strength, he obtained an easy victory over an enemy who was exhausted after the long and laborious manoeuvres.

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§ 3.10.7  When Timotheus was passing by Olynthus, in order to avoid being harassed by the Olynthian cavalry, he marched in a rectangular formation; he placed his baggage and cavalry in the centre, with the carriages fastened to each other in continuous lines, and around the outside he placed his hoplites. As a result, the Olynthian cavalry were unable to make any impression on him.

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§ 3.10.8  While he was encamped at Amphipolis, Timotheus was informed in the evening that the enemy were marching in force against him, and would arrive the next day. To avoid discouraging his troops, he concealed from them the true strength of the enemy; and as if he was advancing against an undisciplined enemy, he ordered the baggage and camp attendants to march first, directing their route along a rugged and unfrequented road, where it was probable that the enemy might not have placed a guard. Timotheus himself marched at the head of the phalanx; and he placed the light infantry in the rear. In this order he reached the river Strymon, where he embarked his army. He burnt all the others ships, which he did not need. After achieving all this in a single night, he made a safe retreat.

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§ 3.10.9  Timotheus hired seven thousand mercenaries for the siege of Samos. Because he was unable to give them their full pay, and observed that the island was rich and well cultivated, he allowed them to forage freely in a designated part of the island. He sold the produce of the rest of the island, but protected those who were employed in gathering it. From this sale he raised a considerable sum of money, with which he paid part of their arrears to his troops. In this way he persuaded them to persevere in the siege, and eventually he took the city by storm.

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§ 3.10.10  When Timotheus was besieging Samos, the continual influx of foreigners cause such a high consumption of provisions, that it created a shortage. Timotheus ordered no flour to be sold, nor a cotyla of oil or wine; no corn less than a medimnus could be sold, and no liquids less than one measure. He prohibited all corn-mills, except on the hills. As a result of these regulations, when the foreigners found that they could not buy in Samos what they needed for their daily use, they brought their own provisions with them. In this way, the whole produce of the island was kept for the use of the army.

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§ 3.10.11  Timotheus needed to send five ships, out of his fleet of forty ships, on a secret expedition with provisions for many days, but he had no money to pay for their expenses. He therefore ordered the whole fleet to set off, each ship taking on board three days' provisions, and to anchor at a certain island. He then ordered every captain to unload onto the island two days' provisions, which he secretly put on board the five ships, which were destined for the distant expedition. With the thirty-five remaining ships, he returned to his former station.

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§ 3.10.12  When Timotheus was about to fight against the Spartan admiral Nicolochus at Leucas, he ordered the crews of several ships to be landed, and to rest on the shore until they were summoned. Then he bore down on the enemy with twenty of his fastest ships. He ordered the captains not to come within range of the enemy's missiles, but to pass by them, advance and retreat, and by every possible manoeuvre to harass and weary them. After this kind of running fight, as soon as he saw that enemy were almost exhausted by heat and fatigue, he gave the signal for a retreat. He picked up the men, who had been left behind to rest on the shore during the distant fighting, and then renewed the fight with his weary foe. He captured many of their triremes, and disabled others.

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§ 3.10.13  When Timotheus was lying opposite the Lacedaemonian fleet, he was afraid that his store ships would be intercepted by ten of the enemy's ships, which their admiral had sent out for this purpose. He decided to retreat and protect them. At the same time, he was afraid that the enemy would attack him during his retreat, and if they caught up with him while the small vessels were still trying to form, they would force a battle with him while his fleet was in a disordered state. Therefore he ordered the captains of the triremes not to form again, but to head for the first land they could reach. Then, having cleared the decks and put the prisoners in the holds, he gently sailed away with the rest of his fleet in the shape of a crescent; their sterns were foremost, and their beaks remained pointing towards the enemy.

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§ 3.10.14  While Timotheus, assisted by Perdiccas, was commanding in a war against Chalcis, he mixed the Macedonian money with Cyprian copper, and from this alloy he struck a new coin, which had the value of five drachmas. A quarter of the content of these coins was silver, and the rest consisted of copper. After increasing his supply of money in this way, he persuaded the merchants and inhabitants of the country to accept it as normal currency, which he then received in payment back from them. Thus this money passed between the army and their suppliers, instead of more valuable coins.

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§ 3.10.15  When Timotheus was besieging Torone, the inhabitants of the city constructed moles of great height, consisting of bags of sand; but he contrived a means, by long machines with sharp metal points, which were fixed to the top of masts, to cut the bags and let out the sand. After this he forced the inhabitants of Torone to agree to the terms which he imposed on them.

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§ 3.10.16  Timotheus was the commander in a naval battle against the Lacedaemonians, in which he was assisted by the Corcyraeans and other allies. He placed his best ships in the first line; directing the rest of the fleet to lie on their oars, and keep still. As soon as he saw that the enemy's strength was weakened by the first attack, he gave the signal for the rest of the fleet to advance. The other ships, being quite fresh, easily completed the victory over an enemy who was already exhausted by the earlier manoeuvres.

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§ 3.10.17  Timotheus had defeated the Lacedaemonian fleet at Leucas, and destroyed several of their ships, but he was afraid of ten of them, which still remained undamaged and ready for action. Therefore he drew up his fleet in the form of a crescent; he placed his small ships in the centre of the curve, which projected towards the enemy; and in this formation he retreated, with the sterns foremost, and the beaks pointing towards the enemy. The enemy did not dare to attack him, and he made a safe retreat.

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§ 3.11.1  Chabrias: To stop his men inflicting unnecessary carnage, Chabrias reminded them that the victims of their swords, though enemies, were still men of flesh and blood, and of the same nature as themselves.

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§ 3.11.2  Chabrias won a naval victory at Naxos, on the sixteenth day of the month of Boedromion. He considered this date auspicious, because it is one of the days on which the Eleusinian mysteries are celebrated. It was on one of these days that Themistocles defeated the Persians at Salamis; but the day, on which the battle of Salamis was fought, was particularly dedicated to Iacchus, so that we may suppose that Themistocles was under the direct protection of the god; but Chabrias had on his side the support of the "seawards initiates".

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§ 3.11.3  Twelve Laconian ships, which had been sent out to observe Chabrias, escaped from him and made for land. To decoy them out to sea again, he detached twelve ships, fastened together in pairs, with their sails also joined together. The enemy, supposing them to be only six ships, weighed anchor and advanced against them. As soon as Chabrias thought that they were too far from the shore to escape, he separated the sails and set the individual ships free. They bore down on the enemy, and captured half of them, together with their crews.

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§ 3.11.4  When Chabrias was obliged to retreat before a superior force, he posted his best troops in the rear, while he himself led the van. As he pursued his march in this order, no-one in the rear dared to desert his ranks, or to pass by their general against his orders, and so he achieved his retreat with little loss.

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§ 3.11.5  The treasury of Thamus, king of Egypt, was exhausted, and he needed more money. Chabrias advised him to command his wealthier subjects to contribute whatever gold and silver they could, towards his immediate needs; and their annual taxes would be remitted, in proportion to their contributions. By this means, he collected a great sum without harming anyone; and later the subjects all recovered the money which they had paid.

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§ 3.11.6  Chabrias made a raid on Sellasia in Laconia, and seized a great quantity of booty. When he needed to cross a river by night, he secured the booty by sending it over the river and lodging it in the territory of his allies. Then he halted with the rest of his army until mid-day, and ordered them to refresh themselves. As he expected, the Lacedaemonians, after they heard about the raid, marched out to intercept him at the river, and recover their possessions. After a long and laborious march of two hundred stades, they caught up with him, but they were exhausted, disordered, and in no way prepared for action. Chabrias on the other hand, with his troops well refreshed and in good order, attacked them and gained an easy victory.

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§ 3.11.7  Chabrias was sent as commander to Egypt, as an ally to the Egyptian king against the Persians, who had invaded his country with a numerous army and a powerful fleet. When he found that the Egyptians possessed many ships, but lacked sailors to man them, he selected a sufficient number of the strongest of the Egyptian youths, to provide crews for two hundred ships. He took the oars out of the ships, and told the Egyptians to sit in order on some benches, which he had placed on the shore. Then he gave them the oars, and send among them some sailors, who understood both the Egyptian and the Greek languages. These sailors taught them how to handle the oars, and in a short time the king possessed a fleet of two hundred ships, completely manned.

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§ 3.11.8  Chabrias, whenever his army consisted of new recruits, before he went into battle used to made a proclamation, that whoever was indisposed, could leave the ranks. The cowards took advantage of this order; they pretended illness and laid down their weapons. Therefore he never led those men into battle, but used them to secure strong points, where their number at least might make them formidable to the enemy. And as soon as he conveniently could, he reduced their pay.

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§ 3.11.9  When Chabrias was advancing against a hostile city, he landed a body of peltasts by night; and at the break of day he entered the harbour, and pretended to disembark his troops at some distance from the city. The citizens sallied out, to contest his landing; but then the peltasts emerged from their ambush and fell upon the enemy's rear. After killing some of them, they re-embarked with a considerable number of prisoners.

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§ 3.11.10  Chabrias landed ten of the strongest and bravest of the peltasts from each of his ships by night in the enemy's territory, with orders to ravage the countryside. The citizens sallied out of their city to protect their property, and advanced against the raiders. As soon as he observed this, Chabrias sailed with his fleet directly against the city. His attack drew the troops, who were advancing against the raiders, back to protect the city. Meanwhile he sent a squadron to land on the shore above the city, where the peltasts were able to re-embark. Then he sailed away with all the booty which his men had captured.

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§ 3.11.11  When Chabrias was about to fight a naval battle against Pollis at Naxos, he ordered the captains of his triremes, if they were ready to face the danger, secretly to lower the flags of their own ships, so that they would know how that any ships with flags belonged to the enemy. After they had done this, whenever the captains of Pollis' fleet encountered Athenian ships, they were confused because they were not showing an Attic flag, and sailed on by. But the Athenian captains, as they had been instructed, proceeded to make a double ramming attack against any ships with flags. This stratagem gained the victory for the Athenians.

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§ 3.12.1  Phocion: Phocion urged the Athenians not to march against the Boeotians; but they eagerly voted for war, and appointed Phocion as their general. He told the herald to proclaim: "All adult Athenians, under sixty years old, should take provisions for five days and follow me immediately from the assembly." There was a great uproar; the old citizens in particular cried out, jumped up, and protested loudly. Then Phocion said, "You are not being asked to do anything unreasonable; because I will be there with you as your general, even though I am eighty years old." When the Athenians heard this, they changed their minds and ceased to be so eager to go to war.

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§ 3.13.1  Chares: Chares, who suspected that the enemy had spies in his camp, placed a strong guard outside the trenches, and ordered every man to question his neighbour, and not to part till each had told the other, who he was, and to what company, and band, he belonged. By this device the spies were revealed and caught: because they were unable to tell either their company, band, comrade, or the password.

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§ 3.13.2  When he was in Thrace, and the weather was very severe, Chares observed that his men were reluctant to use all their clothes and, benumbed with cold, did not show their usual alertness in carrying out his orders. He therefore ordered them to change clothes with each other. The soldiers were then no longer concerned to spare another's clothes, as they had done their own. They wrapped themselves up warm; and became ready, and alert as usual, in executing their general's commands.

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§ 3.13.3  While Chares was retreating from Thrace, the Thracians pursued him closely, and harassed his rear. In order to retard the enemy's pursuit, when he had some dangerous ground to cross, he mounted his trumpeters and detached some horsemen to accompany them. He ordered them to take a circuitous route, and as soon as they had got upon the enemy's rear, to sound the charge. On hearing this, the Thracians halted: and, supposing themselves surrounded by an ambush, they left their ranks, and fled. Then Chares was able to make good his retreat without further loss or danger.

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§ 3.14.1  Charidemus: When the inhabitants of Ilium were ravaging the territory of his city, Charidemus seized one of their servants, who was loaded with booty; and by promise of great rewards prevailed on him to betray the city into his hands. To help the traitor gain the trust of the guards, Charidemus supplied him with sheep and other booty, on his nocturnal expeditions. He shared these amongst the watch; and thereby obtained leave to go out and return as he wished. On a night agreed on between them, he went out of the gates, with a group of men whom he had engaged, on the pretext of assisting him in bringing back a greater spoil. Charidemus seized his companions, and kept them as prisoners; he dressed some of his own troops in their clothes, and furnished them with a quantity of plunder, including a horse. In order to admit the horse, the sentinel opened the whole gate; then the soldiers, together with the horse, rushed in, slew the guards, and opened the gates to the rest of the army. In this way they gained control of the city; and it could be said, in jest, that Ilium was captured for a second time by the stratagem of a horse.

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§ 3.15.1  Demetrius Phalereus: When Demetrius Phalereus was close to being captured by the king of Thrace, he hid himself in a load of straw; and in this way he escaped into a neighbouring country.

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§ 3.16.1  Philocles: Philocles, a general of Ptolemaeus, who was besieging Caunus, bribed the superintendents of the corn supply to help him. Accordingly, they announced in the city, that they intended to give out the corn to the soldiers on that day. The soldiers immediately left the walls, to see the corn measured out. Philocles took advantage of the absence of the soldiers from their posts, and, while the walls were left undefended, he made his attack, and captured the town.

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§ 4.0.1  This book of stratagems I also address to your most sacred majesties, Antoninus and Verus; which I have written with more particular pleasure than the rest, because it contains the exploits of our heroic ancestors, who filled the throne of Macedonia.

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§ 4.1.1  Argaeus: In the reign of Argaeus king of Macedonia, the Taulantii under their king Galaurus made an incursion into Macedonia. Argaeus, whose force was very small, directed the Macedonian young women, as the enemy advanced, to show themselves from mount Ereboea. They accordingly did so; and in a numerous body they poured down from the mountain, their faces covered by wreaths, and brandishing their thyrsi instead of spears. Galaurus, intimidated by the numbers of those, whom instead of women he supposed to be men, sounded a retreat; whereupon the Taulantii, throwing away their weapons, and whatever else might retard their escape, abandoned themselves to a precipitate flight. Argaeus, having thus obtained a victory without the hazard of a battle, erected a temple to Dionysus Pseudanor; and ordered the priestesses of the god, who were before called Kladones by the Macedonians, to ever afterwards be distinguished by the title of Mimallones.

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§ 4.2.1  Philippus: Philippus once dismissed (?) Docimus of Tarentum, who had a command in his army, because he used warm baths, saying: "You seem a stranger to the Macedonian customs, which do not indulge the use of warm water even to a woman in childbirth.

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§ 4.2.2  Engaging the Athenians at Chaeroneia, Philippus made a sham retreat: and Stratocles, the Athenian general, ordered his men to push forwards, crying out, "We will pursue them to the heart of Macedonia." Philippus observed, "The Athenians know not how to conquer:" and ordered his phalanx to keep close and firm, and to retreat slowly, covering themselves with their shields from the attacks of the enemy. As soon as he had by the manoeuvre drawn them from their advantageous ground, and gained an eminence, he halted; and encouraging his troops to a vigorous assault, he attacked the Athenians and won a brilliant victory.

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§ 4.2.3  Philippus, while encamped against the Thebans, was informed that two of his generals, Aeropus and Damasippus had taken a singing girl from an inn, and introduced her into the camp: and the fact being proved, he banished both of them from the kingdom.

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§ 4.2.4  Having attacked a city of Thrace, Philippus sent envoys to the enemy: who convened an assembly, and introduced the envoys, anxious to know the enemy's proposals. Philippus in the mean time directed a vigorous attack, and carried the city: while the people were more attentive to the supposed conditions of peace, than the real attacks of war.

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§ 4.2.5  After an engagement with the Illyrians, Philippus proposed a truce with them, for the purpose of burying their dead: which being agreed to, as soon as the last man was buried, his army being drawn up and waiting the signal to engage, he instantly ordered them to charge; and put the enemy, who were unprepared, to a general rout.

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§ 4.2.6  While Philippus was trying his strength with Menegetes in wrestling: the soldiers around were clamorous for their pay; in which he was much in arrears to them, and had not the means at the present to make it good. Dripping with sweat, and covered as he was with dust, he ran up to them with a laugh; "You are right," said he, "my fellow soldiers; and I have been preparing myself with that barbarian, in order to pay my respects to you, for the credit you have been so obliging as to give me." Having thus said, he ran through the midst of them, and plunged into a pool. The Macedonians laughed at the humour of the prince: who continued amusing himself in the water, till the soldiers were tired out with the neglect he paid to their remonstrances, and went away. In his hours of gaiety Philippus often used to mention this device, by which he had with a stroke of buffoonery got rid of demands, that no arguments could have reasoned away.

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§ 4.2.7  Philippus, at Chaeroneia, knowing the Athenians were impetuous and inexperienced, and the Macedonians inured to fatigues and exercise, contrived to prolong the action: and reserving his principal attack to the latter end of the engagement, the enemy weak and exhausted were unable to sustain the charge.

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§ 4.2.8  Having marched against the territory of Amphissa, Philippus found himself obstructed by the Athenians and Thebans; who had made themselves masters of a defile, which he was unable to force; and therefore resorted to a stratagem. He wrote a letter to Antipater in Macedonia, informing him that the Thracians were in rebellion, and that he was obliged for the present to defer his expedition against Amphissa, and to march into Thrace. This letter he dispatched by a way, where he knew it would be intercepted: which accordingly was the case; and Chares and Proxenus the generals, who commanded against him, because they were convinced by the contents of the letter, abandoned the post they possessed. Philippus immediately availed himself of their movements; and passing the defile without opposition, afterwards defeated the allies, and took Amphissa.

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§ 4.2.9  Philippus was not more successful in his arms, than he was in treaties and negotiations: and indeed he prided himself more on advantages gained by these, than by dint of arms. For in the latter he observed his soldiers shared in the glory, but in the other it was all his own.

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§ 4.2.10  Philippus accustomed the Macedonians to constant exercise, before they went to war: so that he would frequently make them march three hundred stades, carrying with them their helmets, shields, greaves, and spears; and, besides those arms, their provisions likewise, and utensils for common use.

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§ 4.2.11  When Philippus advanced to Larissa, he pretended a fit of illness; in order to lure some of the Aleuades to visit him: intending to seize them. But Boiscus apprised the Aleuades of the stratagem: which thereby failed in its intent.

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§ 4.2.12  Philippus desired permission in a full assembly to address the Sarnusians; which being granted, he directed the soldiers, who attended him, to carry cords under their arms. When reaching out his arm, as if to harangue them, the signal he had fixed on, his men immediately seized on all the Sarnusians present, bound them, and sent more than ten thousand prisoners into Macedonia.

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§ 4.2.13  When closely pursued by the Thracians, Philippus ordered that as soon as he sounded a retreat, the rear under cover of their shields, should sustain the enemy's attack; and, by acting only on the defensive, retard their pursuit, and thus facilitate the retreat of the army.

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§ 4.2.14  When advancing into Boeotia, Philippus' direct march was through a narrow pass, which the Boeotians had secured, and from which he could not dislodge them; he therefore took another route, and laid waste the whole country before him. The Boeotians, not bearing to see their country thus desolated, abandoned their post; and gave him an opportunity of passing the defile, and continuing the march he first projected.

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§ 4.2.15  Philippus had raised the scaling-ladders against the walls of Methone; and a strong body of Macedonians advanced to the attack. As soon as they had mounted the walls, he ordered the ladders to be taken away: thereby leaving the assailants no hopes of safety, but in their courage.

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§ 4.2.16  The country of the Orbelians, which Philippus had invaded, was rough, and craggy, and covered with wood. The barbarians concealed themselves in the thickets: where Philippus, a stranger to the country, knew not how to follow them, but by tracing their steps with blood-hounds.

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§ 4.2.17  When the Athenians demanded of Philippus the restitution of Amphipolis; because he was at that time engaged in a war with the Illyrians, although unwilling to give it up to the Athenians, he consented to make it free: and Athenians appeared contented with this. Philippus therefore, as soon as he had finished the Illyrian war, returned at the head of a powerful army to Amphipolis; and in defiance of the Athenians made himself master of the place.

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§ 4.2.18  Philippus having besieged Pharcedon, a city of Thessaly, the Pharcedonians capitulated; and his mercenaries entered the city to take possession. But an ambush was placed on the houses and towers, and the mercenaries fell victims to a shower of javelins and stones. While the attention of the citizens was thus directed to that part of the city, where the mercenaries entered, and the ambush was placed; Philippus raised the scaling ladders against the walls on the opposite part of the town, and by a vigorous assault carried it; before the force, employed in the ambush, had time to return to their posts, and man the walls.

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§ 4.2.19  Philippus, when he formed the design of conquering Thessaly, did not directly make war on the Thessalians. But when Pallene was engaged in war with Pharsalus, and Pherae with Larissa; and the other states in Thessaly with each other: his practice was in those struggles to give assistance to which ever power applied to him for it. And his victories on those occasions were never marked with cruelty or devastations. He neither disarmed the conquered, nor destroyed their fortifications: but his great object was to create factions, rather than heal them; to protect the weak, and crush the powerful. He endeavoured always to ingratiate himself with the bulk of the people, and cultivated the favour of demagogues. By these stratagems Philippus made himself master of Thessaly, and not by arms.

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§ 4.2.20  After a long siege of Carae, a well-fortified town, which he was unable to capture, Philippus found his best exertions necessary to effect a safe retreat, and carry off with him his machines. For this purpose he availed himself of a very dark night; and ordered the smiths to take his machines in pieces, imitating in the noise, as much as they could, the fabrication of new ones. The inhabitants of Carae, hearing the sound of hammers, applied themselves to strengthen their gates, and to counter-work the effect of the enemy's supposed operations by new erections. And while they were thus employed, Philippus in the night struck his tents, and carried off his machines.

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§ 4.2.21  When Philippus advanced against the Byzantines, he found them strongly supported by various allies. To break the confederacy, he dispatched deserters to propagate a report, that he had detached forces into the different countries of the allies; and that some of their cities were at that instant in danger of being taken. And to give colour to this intelligence, he made detachments from his army, which he ordered out on short marches different ways, without any intention to act offensively. These movements agreeing with the report of the deserters, the allies left the Byzantines, to repair to the assistance of their respective countries.

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§ 4.2.22  As Philippus, after having ravaged the territory of Abdera and Maroneia, was returning from his expedition with a great fleet, and powerful army; Chares placed an ambuscade of twenty ships near Neapolis to attack him. Philippus, suspecting such an attempt, manned four of his best-sailing vessels with the stoutest and most experienced oarsmen he could pick out: and ordered them to make what sail they could before the fleet, and to pass Neapolis, holding not far from the shore. In pursuit of those four ships, Chares pushed out with his twenty ships: with which however, being light, and well-manned, he was unable to catch up. And while he was chasing them without effect, Philippus sailed safely by Neapolis with the rest of the fleet.

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§ 4.3.1  Alexander: Alexander whose ambition was, to unite all mankind to him, as their common head, declared that they should no longer be called mortals, human beings, or men, but Alexanders.

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§ 4.3.2  Alexander, in his wars, directed his generals to order the Macedonians to shave their faces, that their enemies in engaging might never lay hold on their beards.

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§ 4.3.3  At the siege of Tyre, Alexander having resolved to join the city, which was then an island, to the mainland, by raising a mound in the surrounding waters, himself first carried a basket of sand, which he threw into it. As soon as the Macedonians saw their king at work with his own hands, they all instantly threw aside their robes, and soon raised the ground.

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§ 4.3.4  Having left a part of his army before Tyre, Alexander himself marched into Arabia. His absence gave the Tyrians new spirits: they advanced beyond their walls, engaged the Macedonians in battle, and frequently defeated them. Parmenion, Alexander's general, gave him notice of what had happened. He suddenly returned, and seeing the Macedonians retreating before the enemy, instead of flying to their assistance, marched directly to the town; which he surprised, evacuated by the Tyrian forces, and took it by storm. The Tyrians, finding their city taken, surrendered themselves and their arms to the discretion of the Macedonian conqueror.

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§ 4.3.5  When Alexander advanced against Darius, he ordered the Macedonians, as soon as they drew near the Persians, to fall down on their hands and knees: and, as soon as ever the trumpet sounded the charge, to rise up and vigorously attack the enemy. They did so: and the Persians, considering it as an act of reverence, abated of their impetuosity, and their minds became softened towards the prostrate foe. Darius too was led to think, he had gained a victory without the hazard of a battle. When on sound of the trumpet, the Macedonians sprung up, and made such an impression on the enemy, that their centre was broken, and the Persians entirely defeated.

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§ 4.3.6  At Arbela, where the last battle between Alexander and Darius was fought, a considerable body of Persians had made a circuit, and seized the Macedonian carriage-horses and baggage. Parmenion, observing their movement, desired Alexander to order a detachment to protect them. By no means, replied Alexander; my business is with the enemy here; and I must not weaken my phalanx. If we be conquered, we shall not want our baggage: and if we conquer, both ours and the enemy's will become our own.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.7  After the conquest of Asia, the Macedonians being insistent with Alexander, and extravagant in their demands, he ordered them to take their posts by themselves in arms: and opposite to them he ordered his Persian troops to do the same. The forces being thus separated, "Now," said he, " Macedonians, choose our general: and I will take the Persians. If you beat me, I will comply with all your demands: and you, if I beat you, will learn to be quiet." Struck with the greatness of soul, which the stratagem revealed, the Macedonians ever after conducted themselves with more moderation.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.8  In his first action with the Persians, Alexander seeing the Macedonians give way, rode through the ranks, calling out to his men, "One effort more, my Macedonians, one glorious effort." Animated by their prince, they made a vigorous attack: and the enemy abandoned themselves to flight. Thus did that critical moment determine the victory.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.9  Alexander in his Indian expedition advanced to the Hydaspes with intention to cross it: when Porus appeared with his army on the other side, determined to dispute his passage. Alexander then marched towards the head of the river, and attempted to cross it there. Thither also Porus marched, and drew up his army on the opposite side. He then made the same effort lower down; there too Porus opposed him. Those frequent appearances of intention to cross it, without ever making one real attempt to effect it, the Indians ridiculed: and concluding that he had no real design to pass the river, they became more negligent in attending his movements. Then Alexander by a rapid march reached the banks, and effected his purpose on barges, boats, and hides stuffed with straw, before the enemy had time to come up with him, because they had been deceived by so many false attempts.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.10  Alexander found that his men, glutted with the immense wealth of which they had possessed themselves in Persia, and which they carried about with them in carriages, did not at all relish a new expedition into India. He ordered first the royal carriages to be destroyed; and afterwards all the rest. The Macedonians, thus deprived of their treasures, immediately became anxious for more; and, in order to obtain it, of course ready for new enterprises.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.11  When the Thracians endeavoured to make an impression on the Macedonian phalanx by a great number of chariots, which were directed against them, Alexander ordered his men to avoid them, if they could; and if not, to throw themselves on the ground, holding over them their shields; by which means the carriages quickly passed over, without hurting them. And by this manoeuvre the numerous carriages of the enemy were rendered useless.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.12  When Alexander advanced against Thebes, he planted in ambush a concealed body of troops under the command of Antipater; while he himself marched openly against the enemy's strongest works: which the Thebans with great obstinacy defended. In the midst of the engagement Antipater secretly quitted his ambush, and wheeling round attacked the walls in an opposite quarter, where they were weakest, and ill-manned; and made himself master of the city. He immediately raised a signal, which Alexander saw and called out, "The town was his own." The Thebans, who had till then made a gallant resistance, as soon as they saw their city in the possession of the enemy, abandoned themselves to flight.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.13  The Macedonians having fled from battle, Alexander changed their body armour into a breast-plate: which was a protection to them, as long as they boldly faced the enemy: but if they fled, they exposed to the foe their naked backs. This had the effect: that they never afterwards fled; but, if they were overpowered, always retreated in good order.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.14  After Alexander had learned from the soothsayers, that the sacrifices were propitious, he ordered the victims to be carried round the army; that the soldiers, not depending on what was told them, might be convinced with their own eyes of the ground of their hopes in the ensuing action.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.15  When Alexander entered Asia, to make Memnon the general of the enemy's forces suspected by the Persians, he ordered the party, he had detached to ravage the country, not to touch his property, nor commit any depredations on his estates.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.16  When Alexander saw the advantageous position of the Persians on the opposite side of the Granicus, ready to dispute his passage over the river; he led the Macedonians to the right, and outflanked the enemy. Then his phalanx attacked the enemy and routed them.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.17  At the battle of Arbela, Darius planted the ground between the two camps with caltrops. When Alexander discovered this, he led out his right wing and ordered his army to follow him at a slant to the right, skirting the ground that held the caltrops. To oppose that manoeuvre, and throw him upon the ground he seemed to avoid, the Persian weakened his lines and detached his cavalry to his left. Observing this, Alexander, with the support of Parmenion, and flanked by the caltrops, fell upon the weakened lines of the enemy, threw them into disorder, and began the rout.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.18  Alexander, after he had passed the Tigris, while the Persians were laying the whole country waste with fire, sent a detachment to pursue them closely, so that they would have regard for their own preservation, and spare the country.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.19  Alexander, when in Hyrcania, having been informed that his character and conduct were disparaged both by the Macedonians and Greeks, assembled his friends, and told them; the situation of his affairs at home required him to send letters to Macedonia, and inform his subjects, that he should certainly return within three years: and he desired his officers at the same time to write letters to their respective friends, to the same purport; which to a man they all did. As soon as the letter-carriers had got about three stathmoi from the camp, he ordered them to be brought back, and opened all the letters. From them he learned the opinion, that every one entertained of him.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.20  Alexander having closely besieged a fortified place in India, the besieged agreed to evacuate the fort on condition that they might be permitted to march out with their arms. Then the garrison marched out, and encamped on a hill; where they entrenched themselves, and posted a guard. When Alexander advanced against them, the Indians appealed to the terms of the treaty. To which the Macedonian replied, "I gave you leave to quit the fort; but not a word was mentioned in the treaty of any further movement."

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.21  Pittacus, the grandson of Porus, advantageously posted himself in a narrow valley to intercept Alexander in his march. The valley was long, but not more than four stades wide: and terminated in a very straight defile. Adapting his march to the nature of the ground, Alexander formed his cavalry into a double phalanx; and ordered them, bearing upon their reins, to ride in a close compact body: and, as soon as the enemy attacked their right wing, to receive them upon their spears, and give their horses the rein; and, when they saw the rear of the formation on the right, to attack the enemy. Having thus given his orders, he began his march nearly in the shape of a gnomon. As soon as those, who were posted in the left wing, saw the rear of the detachment on the right, they set up a shout, and in the same manner giving reins to their horses, they attacked the enemy. The Indians, afraid of being blocked up in the valley, precipitately fled to the narrow exit, in order to make their escape. Then many were cut to pieces by the Macedonians, and many more trampled to death by their own horse.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.22  In the battle against Porus Alexander posted part of his cavalry in the right wing, and part he left as a body of reserve at a small distance on the plain. His left wing consisted of the phalanx and his elephants. Porus ordered his elephants to be formed against him, himself taking station on an elephant at the head of his left wing. The elephants were drawn up within fifty yards of each other; and in between them was posted his infantry; so that his front exhibited the appearance of a great wall, the elephants looked like so many towers, and the infantry like the parapet between them. Alexander directed his infantry to attack the enemy in front; while himself at the head of his horse advanced against the cavalry. Against those movements Porus ably guarded. But the beasts could not be kept in their ranks; and, wherever they deserted them, the Macedonians in a compact body pouring in closed the with the enemy, and attacked them both in front and flank. The body of reserve in the mean time wheeling round, and attacking their rear, completed the defeat.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.23  When the Thessalians were guarding Tempe, and Alexander saw it impracticable to force, he cut holes in the rugged rock of Ossa, which served as steps. Across these he marched his army: and thus opened himself a passage over the top of Ossa into Thessaly; while the Thessalians were employed in defending the pass at Tempe. Anyone travelling through Tempe can still see the rock of Ossa cut in the manner of a ladder, which now bears the name of Alexander's ladder.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.24  Among the Macedonians and among the Greeks, Alexander's court of justice was plain and simple; but among the barbarians, in order to strike them with the greater awe, it was most splendid and imperial. In Bactria, Hyrcania, and India when he heard causes, the apparatus and formality of his court were as follows. The pavilion was large enough to contain a hundred tables; and was supported by fifty pillars of gold: and the canopy was adorned with various gold ornaments. Stationed round the pavilion within were, first, five hundred Persian bodyguards, dressed in purple and white uniforms: and next to those an equal number of archers in different uniforms, yellow, blue, and scarlet. Before those stood five hundred Macedonians, with silver shields, the tallest men that could be picked out. In the middle of the pavilion was a golden throne, on which the monarch sat to hear causes: attended on either side by his guards. Round the pavilion on the outside were ranged a number of elephants, and a thousand Macedonians in Macedonian costumes. Behind those were five hundred Susians in purple uniforms: and the whole was surrounded with ten thousand Persians, distinguished for their appearance, and size, and dressed in the Persian manner, with scimitars at their sides. Such was the court of Alexander among the barbarians.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.25  Alexander and his army, marching through a sandy desert, were in great distress for water; when one of the scouts, having in the hollow of a rock discovered a little, brought it to him in his helmet. After he had showed it to his army, in order to revive their spirits with the hope of water being near at hand; without moving it to his lips, before them all he poured it out upon the ground. The Macedonians immediately set up a shout, and bade him lead on; for their king's example had taught them to conquer thirst.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.26  Alexander by a forced march was endeavouring to gain the river Tigris, before Darius: when a panic seized his rear, and ran through the army. The king ordered trumpets to sound the signal of safety, the first rank immediately to throw down their arms at their feet, and the next to do the same. This order being observed through the whole army, they were convinced the cause of their confusion was panic: from whence as soon as they recovered themselves, they took up their arms, and pursued their march.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.27  After Alexander had defeated Darius at the battle of Arbela, Phrasaortes a relation of that monarch in great force posted himself at the gates of Susa; which is a narrow pass between high and steep mountains. This the Macedonians in vain endeavoured to force: the barbarians easily defended it, pelting the enemy with arrows, slings, and stones. Alexander ordered a retreat, and encamped about thirty stades distant. The oracle at Delphi had formerly declared, that a lycus should be his guide against the Persians. A herdsman came up to Alexander, in his rustic dress, saying that he was a Lycian; and informed him, there was a secret road, which wound round the mountains, covered with trees, and known to no one but himself; and well known to him, as affording excellent pasturage. Alexander remembered the oracle, and listened to the herdsman's information. He then ordered the whole army to remain in camp, and light a number of fires in such conspicuous places, as might be best seen by the Persians: and gave private orders to Philotas and Hephaestion, as soon as they saw the Macedonians show themselves on the mountains, to attack the enemy below. Himself with his guards, one phalanx of hoplites, and all the Scythian archers, marched eighty stades along the secret road; and halted in the middle of a thick wood. About midnight by a circuitous march he gained a position a little above the enemy; who were then buried in sleep: and in the morning sounded the charge from the top of the mountains. Hephaestion and Philotas immediately marched out of the camp, and advanced against them on the plain. The Persians, thus attacked both above and below, were part of them cut to pieces, some thrown from the precipices, and others taken prisoner.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.28  Alexander having been obliged in the heat of summer to make a speedy retreat, the enemy hanging upon his rear, directed his march near a river. Observing that his men, who were very thirsty, looked anxiously at the water; lest by stopping to drink they should lose their ranks, and also retard his march, he ordered proclamation to be made, "That no man should touch the river, for its waters were foul." Fearing the consequences they refrained from drinking it, and without intermission continued their march. As soon as they had halted, and the army was encamped; both Alexander and his officers drank openly of the stream; and the soldiers, laughing at the trick their general had played them, drank freely of it too; liberated from every fear either of the enemy, or the water.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.29  When Alexander penetrated into Sogdiana, a rough and rugged country, his march was attended with great difficulties. In the middle of it extended a high and craggy rock; its tops accessible only to the birds. Around it was a thick and continuous wood: which rendered access to the place still more difficult. There Ariomazes posted himself, with a numerous and determined band of Sogdians. On the part of the rock, where he had fortified himself, were fine springs, and plenty of provision. Alexander riding round, and reconnoitring the place, observed behind the rock a slope particularly well-covered with wood. There he ordered three hundred young men, expert in climbing precipices, without their arms to endeavour to make their way through the trees, assisting each other by fastening as they went up small cords to the boughs. And as soon as they had reached the top, loosing the white belts they had on, they were directed to fix them upon poles, and extend them above the trees; that the gleaming girdles brandished about might be seen as well by the Macedonians below, as the barbarians above them. The active and intrepid band, as soon as they had with difficulty reached the top, at sun-rise according to orders brandished their belts: when the Macedonians set up a general shout. Ariomazes, supposing in his astonishment that the whole army were in possession of the top of the mountain, and above their heads, surrendered himself and his rock to Alexander, considering his power and abilities divine.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.30  After the Cathaeans, a people of India, had desperately resisted him, Alexander utterly exterminated them, slaying all that were able to bear arms, and levelling their city Sangala with the ground. This act prejudiced him much in the opinion of the Indians; who considered him as a bloodthirsty savage. In order to remove these prejudices, from the next city he reduced in India, he took hostages; and advancing against a third city, which was large and populous, he placed before his army the hostages, old men, and boys, and women. As soon as the enemy saw their own countrymen, and from the condition in which they appeared concluded the humanity with which their conqueror had treated them, they opened their gates, and with his hostages readily received him: and this account of his clemency being studiously propagated induced other Indian nations voluntarily to submit to him.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.31  The country of the Cossaeans Alexander found rough and uncultivated, the mountains high and almost inaccessible; and on the mountains was a numerous and resolute body of men. He had therefore little hopes of making himself master of it. At that time he received information of the death of Hephaestion, who died at Babylon: in consequence of which he ordered a general mourning; and put the army in motion, in order to celebrate his funeral. The Cossaean scouts seeing that, and supposing them going to evacuate the country, reported the motions of the Macedonian army; and the Cossaeans began to disband. Alexander, having received intelligence of the error, into which his movement had betrayed the enemy, detached a body of horse to secure the posts on the mountains: then wheeling round he joined the detachment of cavalry, and completed the conquest of the country. This circumstance, it was said, arising from Hephaestion's death, consoled Alexander for the loss of his friend.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.3.32  In the palace of the Persian monarch Alexander read a bill of fare for the king's lunch and dinner, that was engraved on a column of brass: on which were also other regulations, which Cyrus had directed. It ran thus.
Of fine wheat flour four hundred artabae (a Median artaba is an Attic medimnus).
Of second flour three hundred artabae,
and of third flour the same.
In all one thousand artabae of wheat flour for dinner.
Of the finest barley flour two hundred artabae,
of the second four hundred,
and four hundred of the third.
In all one thousand artabae of barley flour.
Of oatmeal two hundred artabae.
Of paste mixed for pastry of different kinds ten artabae.
Of cresses chopped small, and sifted . . . (?) artabae.
Of pearl barley, ten artabae.
Of mustard-seed the third of an artabae.
Male sheep four hundred.
Oxen a hundred.
Horses thirty.
Fat geese four hundred.
Three hundred turtles.
Small birds of different kinds six hundred.
Lambs three hundred.
Goslings a hundred.
Thirty head of deer.
Of new milk ten marises (a maris contains ten Attic choes).
Of milk whey sweetened ten marises.
Of garlic a talent's weight.
Of strong onions half a talent's weight.
Of knot grass an artaba.
Of the resin of silphium two minae.
Of cumin an artaba.
Of silphium a talent's weight.
Of rich apple juice the fourth of an artaba.
Of millet seed three talents' weight.
Of anise flowers three minae.
Of coriander seed the third of an artaba.
Of melon seed two capetises.
Of parsnips ten artabae.
Of sweet wine five marises.
Of salted turnips five marises.
Of pickled capers five marises.
Of salt ten artabae.
Of Ethiopian cumin six capetises (a capetis is an Attic choenix).
Of dried anise thirty minae.
Of parsley feed four capetises.
Oil of sesame, ten marises.
Cream, five marises.
Oil of cinnamon, five marises.
Oil of acanthus, five marises.
Oil of sweet almonds, three marises.
Of dried sweet almonds three artabae.
Of wine five hundred marises. (And if he dined at Babylon or Susa, one half was palm wine, and the other half wine expressed from grapes).
Two hundred wagon-loads of dry wood, and one hundred wagon-loads of green.
Of fluid honey a hundred square palathae, containing the weight of about ten minae.
When he was in Media, there were added:-
Of safflower seed three artabae;
of saffron two minae.
Those were the quantities consumed in food and drink. He also expended in largesses:-
Five hundred artabae of fine wheat flour.
Of fine barley flour a thousand artabae:
and of other kinds of flour a thousand artabae.
Of rice five hundred artabae.
Of corn five hundred marises.
Of corn for the horses twenty thousand artabae.
Of straw ten thousand wagon-loads.
Of vetches five thousand wagon-loads.
Of oil of sesame two hundred marises.
Of vinegar a hundred marises.
Of cresses chopped small thirty artabae.
All, that is here enumerated, was distributed among the forces, that attended him. In lunch, and dinner, and in largesses, the above was the king's daily expenditure.
While the Macedonians read these details of the Persian monarch's dinners, with admiration of the happiness of a prince, who displayed such affluence; Alexander ridiculed him, as an unfortunate man, who could wantonly involve himself in so many trivial cares; and ordered the pillar, on which these articles were engraved, to be demolished: observing to his friends, that it was no advantage to a king to live in so luxurious a manner; for cowardice was the certain consequence of luxury and dissipation. Accordingly, added he, you have experienced that those, who have been used to such revels, never knew how to face danger in the field.

Event Date: -330 GR

§ 4.4.1  Antipater: Antipater, having advanced into the country of the Tetrachoritae, ordered fire to be set to the horses' hay, which lay before his tent. And as soon as it flamed up, the trumpets sounded the charge; and the Macedonians gathered in front of his tent, with their spears all raised on high. The Tetrachoritae, struck with terror at such marks of frantic desperation, made a precipitate retreat; leaving to Antipater a cheap and easy victory.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 4.4.2  When Antipater attempted to cross the Spercheius, and found the Thessalian cavalry drawn up on the other side, ready to dispute his passage; he retreated to his camp: and ordered the Macedonians to rest on their arms, and not to unbridle their horses. The Thessalians, left without an enemy, directed their horses with all speed to Lamia, to dine at their own houses. Antipater in the mean time quickly advanced to the river, crossed it without opposition, and afterwards took Lamia by surprise.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 4.4.3  To give Thessalians the impression, that his cavalry was very numerous, Antipater advanced with a number of asses and mules; which he mounted with men, armed like cavalrymen: but the first line of every troop he formed of his real cavalry. The enemy seeing so formidable an appearance, and supposing not only the front lines, but all the rest, to be cavalry, abandoned themselves to flight. This stratagem Agesilaus also employed against Aeropus in Macedonia; and Eumenes against Antigonus in Asia.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 4.5.1  Parmenion: Parmenion, after the battle at Issus, was sent by Alexander to Damascus, to escort the baggage. When he fell in with a body of heavy-armed troops, he was apprehensive that the barbarians, who had the care of the baggage, might, during the action, through fear desert their posts, and run away. He dispatched three troops of horse to them, with orders to proclaim, that whoever of them did not hold his horses with his own hands, should be put to death. This proclamation had its effect: the barbarians all held their horses, and took good care of the baggage.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 4.6.1  Antigonus: Antigonus made himself master of Corinth by the following stratagem. Alexander, who possessed Acrocorinth, had died. His widow Nicaea was no longer young, but Antigonus proposed a marriage between her and his son Demetrius, and the splendour of royalty easily obtained her consent to this proposal. A magnificent sacrifice was offered, and a ceremony was held, according to Greek custom. A great crowd of people were assembled for the occasion; the citharode Amoebeus was due to perform; and the guards attended Nicaea, dressed in royal robes, and parading in affected splendour to the theatre. But the bride had no sooner entered the theatre, than Antigonus, paying no more attention to the nuptial ceremonies, made a vigorous attack upon Acrocorinth, and captured it with ease, while the guards were preoccupied with celebrating the royal wedding. Thus Antigonus possessed himself of all Corinth; and that was the end of the proposed marriage.

Event Date: -245 GR

§ 4.6.2  Antigonus, when he received an embassy, used to inform himself beforehand from the public records, who were the persons that composed the last embassy from the same state, the purpose of their visit, and every particular relative to it. In the course of conversation, he would usually entertain the ambassadors with all these details; and by this means he achieved a degree of familiarity with them, and at the same time he impressed them by appearing to have an extraordinary memory.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 4.6.3  At the siege of Megara, Antigonus brought his elephants into the attack; but the Megarians daubed some swine with pitch, set fire to it, and let them loose among the elephants. The pigs grunted and shrieked under the torture of the fire, and sprang forwards as hard as they could among the elephants, who broke their ranks in confusion and fright, and ran off in different directions. From this time onwards, Antigonus ordered the Indians, when they trained up their elephants, to bring up swine among them; so that the elephants might thus become accustomed to the sight of them, and to their noise.

Event Date: -265 GR

§ 4.6.4  Antigonus once saved Antipater from being stoned by the Macedonians, by the following device. Through the midst of the camp ran a rapid river, over which was a bridge. On one side were the Macedonians, on the other Antigonus with his own cavalry. The soldiers were insistently demanding their pay; and threatened Antipater with death, if he trifled with them any longer, and did not immediately comply with their demands. Antipater was unable to pay their arrears, and alarmed at the danger that threatened if he failed to satisfy them. He consulted Antigonus, who advised him to leave the camp, and undertook to assist his escape. Antigonus accordingly crossed the bridge in full armour, and rode directly through the phalanx, thereby dividing it; he turned first to one division, and then to the other, as if he was going to harangue them. The Macedonians paid every attention due his rank and character; and followed him with great interest, to hear what he had to offer. As soon as they formed around him, he began a long harangue in defence of Antipater; promising, assuring, and urging every consideration to induce them to wait patiently, until he should be in a situation in which he could satisfy their demands. During this prolix harangue, Antipater crossed the bridge with some horsemen; and thus escaped the soldiers' resentment.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 4.6.5  Antigonus, when in force superior to the enemy, always engaged cautiously; but if inferior, attacked with all possible vigour, because he considered a glorious death preferable to an ignominious life.

Event Date: -301 GR

§ 4.6.6  While Antigonus was wintering in Cappadocia, three thousand Macedonian hoplites revolted from him. They took up a strong position on the mountains, from which they ravaged Lycaonia and Phrygia. Antigonus thought it cruel, to put such a number of men to death; and yet was afraid, lest they should join the enemy, who were commanded by Alcetas. He therefore carried out the following stratagem. He dismissed Leonidas, one of his generals; who immediately went over to the rebels, and offered to join them. They readily accepted his offer; and appointed him their general. The first step he took, was to persuade them not to attach themselves to any party, which relieved Antigonus of his fears. Leonidas afterwards contrived to draw them from the mountains to a place, which was suitable for cavalry action, though they themselves had no cavalry. There Antigonus surprised them with a detachment of horsemen, and seized Holcias and two of the leaders of the revolt. They threw themselves upon his mercy, and begged for their lives; which he granted, on condition, that they would leave the camp without tumult or confusion, and return to Macedonia. They accepted the terms; and Leonidas was sent to conduct them to Macedonia, and deliver them to their respective homes.

Event Date: -319 GR

§ 4.6.7  Antigonus was marching in pursuit of Attalus, Alcetas, and Docimus, three able generals of the Macedonians. He hoped to surprise their camp in the straights of Pisidia: but the elephants cried out, and informed the Macedonians of his approach; for he was the only general who used those beasts. Alcetas with the heavy-armed troops immediately attempted to gain the summit of the steep and craggy mountains. Instead of following him, Antigonus wheeled round the mountain. He marched with all possible speed to the place where the army was encamped. He surprised and surrounded them, before they had time to form up. The enemy were forced to surrender themselves as prisoners of war, and thus he obtained a victory without slaughter.

Event Date: -319 GR

§ 4.6.8  Antigonus fitted a fleet of a hundred and thirty ships, and placed Nicanor in command of them. Nicanor confronted the fleet of Polysperchon, which was commanded by Cleitus, in the Hellespont; but because of his inexperience, he engaged the enemy with the swell of the tide against him, and lost seventy ships. The enemy had won a decisive victory, by the time that Antigonus reached the fleet in the evening. Undaunted at the defeat he had received, he ordered the sixty ships that remained, to be ready to renew the action the next morning. On board each of them he posted some of the bravest and most resolute men of his own guards; and he commanded them to threaten death to all, who would not charge boldly against the enemy. Byzantium, which was then in alliance with him, was situated nearby; from there he summoned light-armed troops, and peltasts, and archers, a thousand of each. He posted them on the shore, in order to support the fleet, by annoying the enemy with javelins and arrows. This was all achieved in a single night. At day break a shower of javelins and arrows was poured upon the enemy. While they were just arising, and scarcely awake, they were seriously injured, before they realised where the attack was coming from. Some cut their cables, and others weighed their anchors; while nothing prevailed but noise and confusion. Antigonus at the same time ordered the sixty ships to bear down upon them. Under attack both from the sea, and from land, the conquerors were obliged to yield their victory to the conquered.

Event Date: -318 GR

§ 4.6.9  After the naval victory in the Hellespont, Antigonus ordered his fleet to cruise towards Phoenicia. The sailors were adorned with garlands, and the ships were decorated with the ornaments of the enemy's fleet. He ordered his captains to sail as near as they could to the harbours, and cities, that they passed; that so the victory might be broadcast throughout all Asia. The Phoenician ships, bound for Rhosus, a port of Cilicia, and charged with great sums of money from Eumenes, were under the conduct of Sosigenes. While he was standing on a steep slope, watching the tides, the crews of the Phoenician vessels saw the victorious fleet approaching, splendidly adorned. They seized the treasures that they carried, and climbed on board the vessels of Antigonus. Thereby Antigonus obtained both great treasures and new allies; and Sosigenes gave up hope of fighting by sea.

Event Date: -318 GR

§ 4.6.10  After an engagement between Antigonus and Eumenes, in which the victory was undecided, Eumenes sent a herald to Antigonus, to arrange with him a mutual agreement to bury their dead. Antigonus, who had been informed that his own loss exceeded that of the enemy, to conceal the fact, detained the herald, until his own dead had all been all cremated. After they had been buried, he let the herald go, and agreed to the proposal.

Event Date: -317 GR

§ 4.6.11  While Antigonus lay in winter quarters at Gadamarta, a city of Media, Eumenes blocked him up there, with a cordon of troops spread over a distance of a thousand stades. The roads on which the troops were posted, lay over the mountains. Below was a level plain, that contained nothing but sulphur mines, and stinking bogs, barren and uninhabited; it afforded neither water, nor grass, nor wood, nor plant. Antigonus decided to march through this plain, and thereby to escape the forces that were posted on the roads, as he passed through the midst of the generals, whose station was on either side of the plain. For this purpose he ordered ten thousand casks to be got ready and filled with water, and provision for ten days; with barley for the horses, and whatever fodder they might have need of. As soon as these preparations were made, he began his march by night through the inhospitable plain; strictly forbidding any fires to be lit, lest those, who were posted at the feet of the mountains, should observe them and by that means discover their march. Nor indeed would they have been discovered at all, had his orders been exactly complied with. But on a particularly cold night, some of the soldiers lit fires; the enemy observed the flames, and detected his movements, just as he had moved clear of the plain. They fell upon his rear, did some damage there. But that makes no difference to the stratagem, which was so cleverly conceived; that had it been properly executed, not a man would have been lost.

Event Date: -317 GR

§ 4.6.12  Antigonus posted himself on the side of a mountain, and observed that Eumenes' ranks, drawn up on the plain, were very weak. He ordered a squadron of cavalry to wheel round, and fall upon Eumenes' rear; which they did, and carried away a considerable part of his baggage.

Event Date: -316 GR

§ 4.6.13  Antigonus fought against Eumenes at Gabiene. The soil of the plain, on which they fought, was light and sandy: and the two great armies fighting on it, raised such clouds of dust, that both armies were prevented from observing each other's movements. They fought hand to hand; but Antigonus discovered that the baggage of the enemy was left at a little distance behind, with which were their wives, and children, mistresses, slaves, gold, and silver, and whatever else of value the soldiers, who followed the fortunes of Eumenes, had brought from the army of Alexander. Antigonus detached some picked horsemen to seize the baggage, and bring it back to his own camp. They accordingly, while the armies were closely engaged, wheeled round, and, with their movement being concealed by a cloud of dust, brought back the baggage, as instructed. After the battle was over, it appeared that Antigonus had lost five thousand men, and Eumenes only three hundred. Eumenes' army therefore returned to their camp in high spirits on the decided success of the day. But as soon as they discovered that their baggage had been carried off, and everything lost, that was precious to them, the victory celebrations were replaced with mourning, and every expression of grief. They were so distressed, the more they reflected on their loss, that many of them sent a deputation to Antigonus, with an offer of their service. When he perceived the effect that the loss of their baggage had on Eumenes' army, Antigonus followed it up with a proclamation, that he would let every soldier recover his property without a ransom. After this proclamation, many of them immediately revolted to him — not only Macedonians, but also ten thousand Persians under the command of Peucestes. For as soon as he saw that the Macedonians inclined to Antigonus, he followed their example. And eventually, there was such a change of sentiment and fortune as a result of this circumstance, that the Silver Shields delivered up Eumenes as a prisoner to Antigonus; who thereby became king of all Asia.

Event Date: -316 GR

§ 4.6.14  When he heard that Pithon, governor of Media, had raised a foreign army and was planning to revolt, Antigonus pretended not to believe it. He remarked to those who had given him the information, "I can give no credit to this report of Pithon; for I intended myself to furnish him with five thousand Macedonian hoplites and a thousand Thracians, to guard his satrapy." Pithon was informed of this, and put full trust in the regard which Antigonus had expressed for him. He therefore went to him to receive the promised supplies; but when Antigonus brought Pithon before the Macedonians, he denounced his crimes, and ordered him to be executed.

Event Date: -316 GR

§ 4.6.15  Antigonus liberally rewarded the Silver Shields, who had delivered up Eumenes to him as his prisoner. But to guard against a similar act of perfidy towards himself, he ordered a thousand of them to serve under Sibyrtius governor of Arachosia. Others he disposed of in garrisons, in remote and uncultivated countries. And thus he very soon got rid of them all.

Event Date: -316 GR

§ 4.6.16  When Antigonus besieged Rhodes, he committed the conduct of the siege to his son Demetrius; proclaiming safety to the Rhodians, both as to their persons and property. And also to all merchants about Syria, Phoenicia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, and even to those of Rhodes who had concerns on the sea, he gave leave to trade securely on any sea, provided they never touched at Rhodes. He expected that, thus deprived of all foreign assistance and supplies, the city would be more easily reduced; because the auxiliaries Ptolemaeus had sent to them would not be able to hold out for long against Demetrius.

Event Date: -305 GR

§ 4.6.17  Antigonus took into pay some Gallic mercenaries under the command of Ciderius, at the rate of a gold Macedonian coin each; and gave up to them, as hostages in security of payment, some men and boys of rank and family. Antipater, against whom the Gauls were engaged by Antigonus, brought him to action: after which the mercenaries demanded their pay. But when Antigonus directed payment to be made to all, that bore arms, according to his agreement; the Gauls demanded pay for all that attended the army, whether they bore arms, or not, even women and children: alleging, that the agreement was to pay every Gaul a gold Macedonian coin. The sum to be paid, if only every soldier received pay, would amount to thirty talents; but, if paid to all indiscriminately, to a hundred talents. When Antigonus refused to comply with their unreasonable demands, they retired to their camp, vowing vengeance against the hostages. Fearing they might proceed to acts of cruelty, he sent a deputation to them; informing them, that rather than leaving them dissatisfied, he would comply with their demands; and directed them to send some envoys to receive the money. The Gauls were overjoyed at this compliance of Antigonus, and the prospect of so great riches; and they dispatched some of their chiefs to settle the business, and receive the money. But, as soon as they arrived at the Macedonian camp, Antigonus seized them; and informed the Gauls, they should never be given up until he had first received his own hostages. The Gauls were anxious for their chiefs' safety; therefore they gave up the Macedonians, and in return received their own chiefs, and thirty talents.

Event Date: -277 GR

§ 4.6.18  Antigonus was determined to crush Apollodorus tyrant of the Cassandreia, and invested the city; but, after a ten month's blockade, he was obliged to raise the siege. Antigonus then persuaded the famous pirate Ameinias to assist him. Ameinias accordingly proceeded to cultivate the good opinion of Apollodorus; he undertook to reconcile Antigonus to him, and to settle the dispute between them; and also to supply him with provisions and wine. The tyrant, convinced by the friendly professions of Ameinias, and presuming on the absence of Antigonus, became less strict in his discipline and duty on the walls. Ameinias in the mean time directed ladders to be secretly constructed, as high as the walls; and at an advanced post, not far from them, called Bolus, he concealed two thousand men, and with them ten Aetolian pirates under the command of Melotas. At daybreak these men, observing that the walls were thinly guarded, crept secretly to the parapet between the towers; and, as soon as they had fixed the ladders, gave the signal. Ameinias with the two thousand men immediately advanced, mounted the ladders, and took possession of the place. When Antigonus was informed of his success, he returned to Cassandreia, and put an end to the tyranny of Apollodorus.

Event Date: -276 GR

§ 4.6.19  Antigonus was encamped opposite to the enemy, who were commanded by Eumenes, and his force was inferior in numbers. While frequent embassies passed between the two camps, Antigonus directed that, as soon as the next embassy arrived, a soldier should abruptly introduce himself, panting, and covered with dust; and inform him, the allies were at hand. Antigonus, hearing this, jumped up in pretended jubilation, and dismissed the ambassadors. The next day he extended the front of his army twice its former length, and advanced beyond the trenches. The enemy were informed by their envoys of the arrival of the allies, and when they observed the phalanx so much extended, which they supposed had a similar depth, they did not dare to hazard an engagement, but made a precipitate retreat.

Event Date: -316 GR

§ 4.6.20  Antigonus, in order to make himself master of Athens on as easy terms as possible, concluded a peace with the Athenians in the autumn. After which they sowed their corn, and kept for their own use only as much of their old stock of corn, as would serve them till their next crop was reaped. But as soon as the corn was almost ripe, Antigonus invaded Attica. The Athenians had nearly finished the stock they had in their granaries, and found themselves prevented from reaping the crop then on the ground; therefore they opened their gates to Antigonus, and complied with all his demands.

Event Date: -261 GR

§ 4.7.1  Demetrius: Demetrius, though very short of money, doubled his army by new levies. And when some of his friends in surprise asked him, how he expected to pay them, when he found it difficult to support a smaller force; "the more powerful we are," he replied, "the weaker we shall find our enemies; and the more easily make ourselves masters of their county. From thence tribute and free gifts will come in, that will soon fill our coffers."

Event Date: -282 GR

§ 4.7.2  After Demetrius had determined on his expedition to Europe, he wished to conceal from his men the place of their destination; but in case any accidents during their voyage should make it necessary to disclose the destination, he delivered to the master of every ship a sealed tablet. He instructed them, so long as the fleet kept together, not to break the seal; but if they were separated from the others, they were directed to open the tablet; and there they would find the place to which they were to endeavour to proceed.

Event Date: -301 GR

§ 4.7.3  In pursuance of a plan Demetrius had formed to surprise Sicyon, he retired to Cenchreae; and there gave himself up to luxury and pleasures. This threw the Sicyonians off their guard, because the expected no danger from a quarter, where nothing seemed to prevail but effeminacy and dissipation. Informed of the impression his conduct had made on them, he issued his orders for the mercenaries under Diodorus on a certain night to attack the gates, that faced Pellene, and the fleet at the same time to show themselves in the harbour; while he advanced up to the walls with the main body of his army. The city, thus vigorously attacked in various quarters at once, yielded to the sudden storm, and opened its gates.

Event Date: -303 GR

§ 4.7.4  When Demetrius sailed on an expedition to Caria, he left Diodorus captain of his guards in charge of Ephesus: which Diodorus engaged to betray to Lysimachus for fifty talents. Demetrius gained intelligence of this compact; attended by a few small vessels he steered directly to Ephesus, ordering the rest of the fleet to disembark at the place of destination. When he approached Ephesus, he entered the harbour with Nicanor in one of the small vessels, and concealed himself in the body of the ship; while Nicanor sent for Diodorus to come on board to him, as if to receive some orders from him concerning the disbanding of a part of his forces. Diodorus, supposing Nicanor to be alone, immediately went out to him in a light vessel. But as soon as he reached the ship, Demetrius sprang from the place of his concealment. He sank Diodorus' boat, with the men on board; and anyone who tried to swim away was captured. Thus the execution of the plot was promptly prevented, and Ephesus was secured in his possession.

Event Date: -301 GR

§ 4.7.5  After Demetrius had taken Aegina and Salamis in Attica, he asked the inhabitants of Peiraeus for weapons for a thousand men, jointly with him, to attack the tyrant Lachares. They readily agreed, and sent the arms; with which he armed his troops, and then attacked those who had furnished him with them.

Event Date: -295 GR

§ 4.7.6  Demetrius made himself master of Peiraeus by the following stratagem. Without employing his whole fleet against it, he fitted out some galleys, with instructions to conceal themselves at Sunium. From those he selected twenty, and ordered them not to steer directly to Athens; but to shape their course with all speed, as if bound for Salamis. Demetrius of Phalerum, the Athenian general, belonged to the party of Cassander; and from the Acropolis observed those ships, which he supposed to be some ships of Ptolemaeus, and to be steering to Corinth. But in the evening according to their secret instructions, they changed their course to sail directly to Peiraeus, and made themselves masters of it. As soon as this was known, the whole fleet sailed out from Sunium, and the forces on board took possession of the forts, as the fleet had done of the harbour. Demetrius then ordered liberty to be proclaimed to the Athenians; in gratitude of which, they gladly received him as their friend and benefactor

Event Date: -307 GR

§ 4.7.7  With a hundred and eighty triremes Demetrius sailed against Salamis in Cyprus, which was possessed and defended by Menelaus, a general of Ptolemaeus, who lay by with sixty ships, in constant expectation of being joined by Ptolemaeus himself with a hundred and forty sail more. Not thinking himself able to engage two hundred ships at once, Demetrius directed his course round a neck of land above Salamis; where he concealed himself, and disembarking his land forces, planted an ambush. Ptolemaeus soon appeared; and having fixed upon an open, level, and convenient part of the shore for landing, disembarked his troops. The army of Demetrius immediately attacked them on the first confusion of landing; and, almost as soon as they engaged, secured the victory. Meanwhile Demetrius, unexpectedly bearing down upon the Egyptian fleet, obliged Ptolemaeus to turn to flight; in which Menelaus, who had sailed from Salamis to his assistance, was forced to follow him.

Event Date: -306 GR

§ 4.7.8  When Corinth was betrayed to Demetrius, he entered it in the night at the topmost gate. But apprehensive lest an ambush should be formed against him by some party in the city, he advanced first against the gate towards Lechaeum, where his army set up a general shout, and drew the attention of the Corinthians to that quarter; then he wheeled round, and entered the topmost gate, which was thrown open by the conspirators. And while the Corinthians were engaged in the defence of the gate towards Lechaeum, Demetrius without danger made himself master of the city.

Event Date: -303 GR

§ 4.7.9  Demetrius and the Lacedaemonians encamped against each other, with Lycaeum, a mountain of Arcadia, extending itself between the two camps. The Macedonians expressed some uneasiness at their situation, unacquainted as they were with the mountain. While the north wind blew full against the enemy, Demetrius resolved to take advantage of it; and setting fire to the gate of his camp, advanced to the attack. The sparks and smoke, carried by a sharp wind amongst the Lacedaemonians, so irritated them, that the Macedonians pushing forward obtained a complete and easy victory.

Event Date: -294 GR

§ 4.7.10  The Spartans took advantage of a narrow pass, through which Demetrius in his retreat was obliged to march, and fell upon his rear, causing him serious harm. In the narrowest part of the defile he heaped a number of carriages together, and set fire to them; which so effectively obstructed the enemy's pursuit, till the carriages were all consumed, that Demetrius, in the meantime continuing his march as quickly as he could, made good his retreat.

Event Date: -294 GR

§ 4.7.11  Demetrius dispatched a herald to the Boeotians, with a proclamation of war. The letter, which announced it, was delivered at Orchomenus to the Boeotarchs; and the next day Demetrius encamped at Chaeroneia. The proclamation of war, so closely followed by the approach of the enemy, terrified the Boeotians into terms of submission.

Event Date: -293 GR

§ 4.7.12  Demetrius had to cross the Lycus, which was a very rapid river, not fordable by the infantry, and only by such of the cavalry as were most able and strong. He drew up his cavalry in three lines across the river; by which the force of the waves was broken, and the infantry by that means were enabled to cross it.

Event Date: -286 GR

§ 4.8.1  Eumenes: Eumenes was closely pursued by the Galatians, and at the same time he was so indisposed in health, as to be carried on a litter. When he found it impossible to escape their pursuit, and was near to being overtaken, he directed those that carried his litter, to stop at a hill which he saw near the road, and there to place it. The barbarians, who had closely pursued him, supposed that he would not have halted, unless in dependence of a body of troops in reserve he might have posted there in ambush; and so they gave up the pursuit.

Event Date: -240 GR

§ 4.8.2  Eumenes had received information, that the Silver Shields were likely to rebel; the principals in the plot were Antigenes and Teutamus, who behaved with rudeness towards him, and seldom came to his pavilion. Eumenes convened the generals, and told them a dream, which had occurred twice; and in the dream it was threatened that their common safety depended on paying a proper regard to it. The dream was this: "Alexander the king sat in his pavilion in the midst of the camp, holding his sceptre in his hand, and distributing justice. He commanded his generals to transact no public business of any kind except in the royal pavilion; which he ordered to be called the pavilion of Alexander." The Macedonians, who adored the memory of Alexander, out of the royal treasures erected a magnificent pavilion. A golden throne was raised in the pavilion, ornamented with the insignia of royalty, and on it was placed a crown of gold with the royal diadem. Beside the throne were arms, and in the midst of them a sceptre: before it a golden table, with frankincense and perfumes on it. There were also silver benches for the generals, that might attend in council on public affairs. Next to Alexander's pavilion, Eumenes pitched his own, and the other generals theirs in order. After all this was completed, Eumenes received the generals not in his own, but Alexander's pavilion: and among the rest Antigenes and Teutamus attended, in fact upon Eumenes; but in appearance, to do honour to Alexander.

Event Date: -318 GR

§ 4.8.3  Eumenes, when he was in Persia, was afraid that his army would be won over to the interests of Peucestes by bribes and largesses, and that there was a plan to place him on the throne. Eumenes produced a letter in Syriac characters, as if written by Orontes, the satrap of Armenia, which contained this message: "Olympias, with a son of Alexander, has left Epirus, and advanced into Macedonia; of which she has taken possession by force, after slaying Cassander, who had usurped the throne." When the Macedonians heard this, they thought no more of Peucestes; but with infinite joy proclaimed the mother and son of Alexander as his heirs to the throne.

Event Date: -317 GR

§ 4.8.4  When Antigonus heard, that Eumenes, who was in Persia, had sent his troops into winter quarters, he immediately advanced against him. Eumenes, being informed by Peucestes of the enemy's march, directed his officers, with their children, in the night to take fire with them to the highest and most exposed places, and there ride about at the distance of seventy stades. Then leaving a gap of about twenty cubits between them, he ordered them to set a great quantity of wood on fire; making the outward fires very large, another range of fires less, and a third still smaller, in imitation of a real camp. Antigonus' army from this appearance suspected that Eumenes had gathered his forces together, and did not venture not to attack him. Instead, they left by another route, on purpose to avoid the supposed superiority of the enemy.

Event Date: -317 GR

§ 4.8.5  Eumenes found he could not by any arguments divert his soldiers from their intention of plundering the enemy's baggage; but he contrived to provide his adversary with secret intelligence of their plan. As a result, the enemy placed a stronger guard upon their baggage. When the soldiers of Eumenes observed this, they abandoned their plan.

Event Date: -320 GR

§ 4.9.1  Seleucus: In an engagement between Seleucus and Antigonus, the evening put an end to the undecided action; and both armies retreated to their respective camps, determined to renew the conflict the next day. The soldiers of Antigonus in the mean time put off their arms, and relaxed in their tents. But Seleucus ordered his men to eat, and sleep in their arms, and lie down in order of battle: that they might be ready for action, whenever the charge was sounded. At break of day the army of Seleucus rose up, already armed and in order. They immediately advanced against Antigonus, whose troops were unarmed and disordered, and therefore afforded an early victory to the enemy.

Event Date: -309 GR

§ 4.9.2  Seleucus and Demetrius were encamped against each other: the former in high spirits, but the latter doubtful of success. Demetrius therefore determined to fall upon the enemy in the night, placing his hopes of victory on a vigorous attack. The army readily embraced his plan, and had high hopes of surprising Seleucus. At the time appointed they arose, and armed; but two Aetolian youths, who were peltasts in Demetrius' army, approached the advanced guard of Seleucus' camp, and demanded to be introduced to the king immediately. As soon as they informed him of the preparations for action in the enemy's camp, Seleucus, fearing lest he should be attacked before he was ready to fight, ordered the trumpets immediately to sound the charge. At the same time, he ordered his soldiers to raise a great shout, and each to light a fire by their tent with whatever wood they had available. Demetrius, when he saw the troops standing round the fires, and heard the trumpets sound the charge, supposed them ready for battle, and therefore declined the intended attack.

Event Date: -286 GR

§ 4.9.3  Seleucus, learning that the soldiers of Demetrius were dispirited, selected a body of picked men from his guards. He posted them with eight elephants at his front, in a narrow pass, which flanked the enemy. Then he advanced before them, threw off his helmet, and called aloud: "How long will you be so mad, as to follow the fortunes of a bandit, who is almost starving, when your merits could find their reward with a king, who reigns in affluence? You could share with him in a kingdom, not depending on hope, but in actual possession." Most of the soldiers were persuaded by this speech to throw aside their swords and spears; and, waving their hands, they went over to Seleucus.

Event Date: -285 GR

§ 4.9.4  The command of the fortress of Sardis, with the royal treasures, was entrusted by Lysimachus to Theodotus. Such was the strength of its fortification, that Seleucus despaired of capturing it by storm. He ordered a proclamation to be made, that he would give an hundred talents to any one who would kill Theodotus. As the lure of such a sum might be supposed to tempt some or other of the soldiers, Theodotus became suspicious and afraid of them; and for that reason seldom showed himself in public. The army on the other hand resented his suspicions of them. In this unpleasant situation, when one party was alarmed by suspicion, and the other stirred up by resentment, Theodotus determined to preempt his troops. Therefore he himself opened the gates in the night; he let in Seleucus, and delivered up to him the treasures.

Event Date: -281 GR

§ 4.9.5  Demetrius had encamped under mount Taurus. Seleucus, who was afraid that he would secretly make his escape into Syria, detached Lysias with a body of Macedonians to secure the pass over the Amanides mountains, through which Demetrius would be obliged to march; and he ordered them to kindle a number of fires there. By this timely movement Demetrius saw his intended route cut off, and his escape blocked.

Event Date: -286 GR

§ 4.9.6  Seleucus, after an unsuccessful battle with the barbarians, fled towards Cilicia. To conceal himself, in those circumstances, even from his own troops, he was attended only by a few friends, and took on the appearance of the armour-bearer of Amaction, the general of the royal forces. But as soon as a sufficient number of cavalry and infantry, the shattered remains of his army, had assembled, he put his royal clothes back on, revealed himself to his army, and again put himself at their head.

Event Date: -239 GR

§ 4.10.1  Perdiccas: In a war between the Illyrians and Macedonians, many of the Macedonians were taken prisoners, and others fought timidly in the expectation of being ransomed if they were captured. Perdiccas ordered the deputation, that was sent to negotiate the ransom of the prisoners, to declare on their return, that the Illyrians had refused to receive a ransom, and had decided to put the prisoners to death. When all hope of a ransom had been removed in this way, the Macedonians in future fought with more resolution, because their only hopes of safety were placed in victory.

Event Date: -600 GR

§ 4.10.2  When Perdiccas was short of money, in his war against Chalcis, he struck a coin of brass mixed with tin; with which he paid his army. The merchants accepted the money as currency, because it bore the royal stamp; and, as it had no value beyond the king's dominions, he took it off them again in payment for corn and the produce of the country.

Event Date: -600 GR

§ 4.11.1  Cassander: At the same time that Cassander was besieging Salamis, he also fought the Athenians by sea, and defeated them. He set free all of the Salaminians, whom he had captured in the action with the Athenians, and sent them to Salamis without ransom. In consequence of such an act of favour and humanity, the people of Salamis voluntarily surrendered themselves to Cassander.

Event Date: -317 GR

§ 4.11.2  Cassander, knowing that Nicanor, governor of Munychia, was ill-affected to him, outwitted and got rid of him in the following way. He pretended that he was going to sail away from Attica. When he was about to embark, a messenger, according to his own instructions, arrived with letters from his friends in Macedonia to this effect: that the Macedonians invited him to assume the throne, universally dissatisfied as they were with the government of Polysperchon. On reading those letters, Cassander appeared in high spirits. He embraced Nicanor, who was accompanying him, and congratulated him as a friend on sharing in his own greatness: "And, now," said he, "other business requires our attention; the settling of an empire's concerns demands our common cares." After saying this, he took him aside to a neighbouring house; as if to confer in private with him on business of importance. But Nicanor was immediately seized by a party of guards, who had been previously posted there for that purpose. Cassander then convened an assembly of the people; and gave leave to anyone, to present an accusation against Nicanor. While accusations from different quarters were being laid against him, Cassander secured Munychia. And Nicanor, who was convicted of many acts of injustice, was sentenced to death.

Event Date: -304 GR

§ 4.11.3  While Cassander besieged Pydna, a city in Macedonia, in which Olympias was shut up; Polysperchon dispatched a sloop with orders to land close by the town in the night. Polysperchon sent a letter to inform Olympias, and to urge her to embark on board the ship. The courier was intercepted, and carried before Cassander; to whom he confessed his errand. As soon as he had read the letter, he closed it and again affixed on it Polysperchon's seal; he ordered the courier to deliver the letter, but not to inform her that Cassander had seen it. The letter was accordingly delivered; and Cassander took care to intercept the sloop. Olympias, in accordance with instructions in the letter, came out of the city in the night, expecting to find the vessel at the appointed place. In her annoyance at not finding it, and thinking herself deceived by Polysperchon, she surrendered both herself and the city to Cassander.

Event Date: -316 GR

§ 4.11.4  When Cassander returned from Illyria, he planted in ambush a body of cavalry and infantry, at the distance of a day's march from Epidamnus. After that, he set on fire the villages which were in the most exposed situations on the edge of the territories of Illyria and Atintanis. Supposing that Cassander had entirely evacuated the country, the Illyrians ventured out of the city, and went out to various places, as their different business required their attention. Then the soldiers sallied out of their ambush, and captured no less than a thousand men. Cassander came up to the city while the gates were still open, and made himself master of Epidamnus.

Event Date: -314 GR

§ 4.12.1  Lysimachus: Lysimachus was apprehensive lest the Autariatae, who had been plundered of their baggage in an engagement with Demetrius near Lampsacus, should start a mutiny or revolt — barbarians as they were, and stripped of their property. He summoned them outside the trenches, on pretence of giving them a handout of corn; and on a given signal, he ordered every man to be cut to pieces. Their number amounted to five thousand.

Event Date: -302 GR

§ 4.12.2  After Lysimachus had taken Amphipolis by the treachery of Andragathus, he loaded him with presents, and promised him still greater, if he would accompany him into Asia. But as soon as they arrived at the straits of Thrace, he not only stripped Andragathus of all he possessed; but, after exposing him to torture, put him to death.

Event Date: -288 GR

§ 4.12.3  Lysimachus conducted Ariston, son of Autoleon, to his father's kingdom in Paeonia; under pretence that the royal youth might be acknowledged by his subjects, and treated with due respect. But as soon as he had bathed in the royal baths in the river Arisbus, and they had set before him an elegant banquet, according to the custom of his country, Lysimachus ordered his guards to arm. Ariston instantly mounted his horse and escaped to the land of the Dardani; and Lysimachus was left in possession of Paeonia.

Event Date: -284 GR

§ 4.13.1  Craterus: When the Tyrians attacked and overpowered the Macedonians, who were employed on their siege works, Craterus ordered a retreat. But after the Tyrians, who had continued eagerly to pursue them, had worn themselves out, he gave the signal to face about, and charge. The nature of the battle was immediately changed: they who had pursued, now fled away; and the fugitives became the pursuers.

Event Date: -300 GR

§ 4.14.1  Polysperchon: Polysperchon, to encourage his men against the Peloponnesians, who were in possession of a pass between the mountains, put on an Arcadian cap, and double cloak; and taking a staff in his hand, he said, "Such are the men, against whom we are now engaged." Then, throwing his Arcadian garments aside, and taking up his own weapons, he added, "And such, my fellow soldiers, are the men, who engage them; men, who in great and various battles have won glorious victories." This short harangue so animated his troops, that they unanimously requested him to lead them instantly against the enemy.

Event Date: -318 GR

§ 4.15.1  Antiochus, son of Seleucus: Dion, a general of Ptolemaeus, with a strong garrison defended Damascus against Antiochus so ably, that Antiochus despaired of capturing it by a regular siege, and therefore had recourse to a stratagem. He directed his army, and the whole country around, to celebrate a Persian festival with the utmost profusion of luxury; and he ordered all persons of consequence to contribute their share to supply it. While Antiochus and his army were thus engaged, Dion hearing of the voluptuous celebrations remitted a little of his attention to his duty. Antiochus was no sooner informed of this, than he ordered his troops to take four days' provision of raw flour, and after marching them through a desert, by rough and unfrequented ways, arrived before Damascus, while the citizens supposed he was revelling in his camp; and by vigorous attack he surprised and captured the city.

Event Date: -271 GR

§ 4.16.1  Antiochus, son of Antiochus: When Antiochus besieged Cypsela, a city in Thrace, he had in his army many Thracians of good rank and family, who were commanded by Tiris and Dromichaetes. To those he gave gold chains, and arms studded with silver; ornamented with which, they marched out to battle. The men of Cypsela, seeing their friends and acquaintances so richly equipped, concluded that they had chosen the better side; so they threw down their arms, and went over to Antiochus, becoming allies instead of enemies.

Event Date: -246 GR

§ 4.17.1  Antiochus Hierax: Antiochus, having revolted from his brother Seleucus, made his escape into Mesopotamia; and in his march over the Armenian mountains he was joined by Arsabes. The two generals of Seleucus, Achaeus and Andromachus, pursued him in great force; and an obstinate battle was fought, in which Antiochus was wounded, and fled to the upper parts of the mountain, leaving the main body of the army to encamp on the sides of it. He then directed that a report of his death should be propagated, and ordered his army in the night to advance to the heights of the mountain. The next day the army of Antiochus sent envoys, Philetaerus of Cretan and Dionysius of Lysimacheia, to ask for the body of Antiochus in order to bury it; and on condition of receiving it, to engage to surrender themselves as prisoners of war. Andromachus agreed to these conditions; he informed them that the body of Antiochus was not yet found, and proposed to send an escort for the prisoners and arms. A detachment of four thousand men was accordingly dispatched, not prepared for action, but as a deputation to receive the prisoners. As soon as they advanced to the sides of the mountains, those who were posted on the heights attacked them, and made great havoc amongst them. Then Antiochus, appearing in his royal robes, presented himself to them, both alive, and victorious.

Event Date: -227 GR

§ 4.18.1  Philippus, son of Demetrius: When Philippus besieged Prinassos, a Rhodian city, in the Peraea, he found the walls so exceedingly strong, that he saw no other way to succeed against it, than by undermining them. But when the sappers began to dig, they found nothing but hard rock; which so blunted their tools, that they could make no progress in the undertaking. To conceal from the enemy the difficulties he had to encounter, he contrived a kind of awning to cover the workmen; notwithstanding which, the enemy plainly perceived how little progress he was able to make. He therefore directed the soldiers to bring in the night a quantity of earth from eight or ten stades distance, and lay it at the mouth of their mine. The garrison on the walls saw the quantity of earth, thrown up at the mouth of the mine, increasing greatly every day, and concluded that the walls must be undermined. Intimidated by this, they surrendered the city to Philippus. He then revealed to them the stratagem which he had practiced, and left them to lament their credulity.

Event Date: -201 GR

§ 4.18.2  Philippus son of Demetrius, when engaged in a war with Attalus and the Rhodians, found himself inferior to the enemy, and considered how to effect a secure retreat by sea. He sent an Egyptian deserter, to give intelligence to the enemy, that he was making preparations for a naval engagement, intending next day to have his fleet ready for action. And in the night he kindled a number of fires, to induce them to think the army remained in camp. Attalus, according to this intelligence, made preparations also on his side to confront him. And to strengthen his fleet, he drew off the guards who were posted at the place of Philippus' intended embarkation; which gave Philippus an opportunity to embark his army, and thereby effect his escape.

Event Date: -200 GR

§ 4.19.1  Ptolemaeus: When Perdiccas had marched down to the river opposite Memphis, with intention to cross it, Ptolemaeus tied his baggage to a number of goats, swine, and oxen, and left the herdsmen with some of his horse to drive them. The baggage thus dragged along the ground by those animals raised a prodigious dust; and exhibited in appearance the march of a numerous army. With the rest of his cavalry Ptolemaeus pursued the enemy, and came up with them as they were crossing the river, part having already passed it; who, from the dust, suspecting a numerous army in their rear, some fled, others perished in the river, and a great number were taken prisoners.

Event Date: -300 GR

§ 4.20.1  Attalus: Attalus, previous to an engagement with the Gauls, to whom he was very inferior in force, in order to encourage his men against the superiority of the enemy, offered a sacrifice; Sudinus a Chaldaean priest performed the ceremony. Upon his hand, in the black juice of the oak apple, the king inscribed, "The king's victory," in inverted letters, not from the left to the right, but from the right to the left. And when he disembowelled the victim, he placed his hand under a warm and spongy part; which took from it the impression. The priest, after turning over the rest of the parts, the gall, the lungs, and the stomach, and observing the omens to be drawn from them, turned to the part which contained the inscription of the king's victory; which exulting with joy he showed to all the soldiers. This they eagerly read; and assuming confidence, as if the gods had assured them of victory, they unanimously requested to be immediately led against the barbarians, whom they charged with such extraordinary vigour, that they obtained the victory they had been taught to expect.

Event Date: -237 GR

§ 4.21.1  Perseus, son of Philippus: Perseus was at war with the Romans, who made use of elephants in their army, which they procured partly from Africa, and partly from India, through Antiochus king of Syria. To accustom his horses to the formidable appearance of those animals, he directed some elephants to be made in wood, in size and colours as nearly as possible resembling the real ones. And to imitate the terrible noise the beast sometimes made, he ordered a trumpeter to enter his body, and directing his trumpet through the mouth to sound the loudest, harshest notes he was able. And by this means the Macedonian horses were trained to bear the noise and sight of the elephants without fear.

Event Date: -171 GR

§ 5.0.1  This fifth book of stratagems I offer to your most sacred majesties, Antoninus and Verus. I do not myself assume so much praise in composing this work, as I attribute to you in the diligent attention you have been pleased to employ upon it, when I consider the high authority with which you are invested, and this critical time, when you are so particularly engaged in matters of peace and war. But indeed generals cannot form themselves to victory by any surer means, than by studying the skills by which ancient generals obtained it. A treatise on warlike operations cannot fail to be useful to a prince who is engaged in war. Eloquence is learned by studying the works of celebrated orators; and leaders are taught, by observing the actions of illustrious generals, to form their own conduct, in the various similar instances that may occur. And so I trust that these stratagems may be of service to you, as they will place before your eyes the best models that you may imitate in the field of military glory.

Event Date: 163 GR

§ 5.1.1  Phalaris: The people of Acragas decided to build a temple to Zeus Polieus within their citadel; both because the ground there was the firmest and hardest, and therefore most suitable for foundations, and also because the site was the most elevated, and therefore most suitable for the temple of the god. Phalaris undertook to superintend the work, and to finish it for a fixed price, employing the most skilful workmen, and supplying the best materials. The people supposed him to be a proper person to conduct the work, because of his occupation, which was collecting public debts. They therefore contracted the work out to him, and put into his hands the necessary money. With this money he hired a number of strangers, bought many slaves, and gathered a quantity of stones, timber and iron. As soon as he had laid the foundations, he pretended that his materials had been stolen; and he ordered a proclamation to be made, that if anyone disclosed, who had stolen the stones and iron from the citadel, they would receive a sum of money in reward. The people expressed great indignation at the theft; and gave him permission as he requested, to do what was necessary to prevent such thefts in future; in other words, to strengthen the fortress, and dig a trench around it. He then struck off the slaves' shackles, and armed them with battle-axes, hatchets, and stones. While the citizens were intent on celebrating the Thesmophoria, he suddenly fell upon them, slew many of the men, and seized the women and children. In this way he established himself as tyrant of the city of Acragas.

Event Date: -550 GR

§ 5.1.2  Phalaris, when he wished to disarm the inhabitants of Acragas, pretended to entertain them with some very magnificent games outside the city. As soon as a great crowd of the citizens had gone out of the city to watch the games, the gates were shut. The guards, following his orders, searched every house in the city, and carried off whatever weapons they found.

Event Date: -550 GR

§ 5.1.3  When the men of Acragas attacked the Sicanians, Phalaris found it impossible to capture their city by siege, because they had laid aside a great quantity of corn, and therefore he entered into a treaty of peace with them. He had in his camp some corn, which he agreed to leave for them, on condition that he received from them an equal quantity after their harvest. The Sicanians readily complied with these terms, and received the provisions. Phalaris then contrived to bribe the superintendents of the granaries, secretly to remove their roofs in some places; as a result, the rain came in through the holes, and rotted the corn. As soon as the harvest was over, Phalaris received his quantity of new corn, according to their agreement; but when the old corn was found to be rotten, the Sicanians were reduced by hunger, and after giving up their provisions to him, were forced to surrender their liberty as well.

Event Date: -550 GR

§ 5.1.4  Phalaris dispatched an embassy to Teutus, the ruler of Vessa, which was one of the most flourishing and powerful cities of the Sicanians; and asked for his daughter in marriage. When Teutus gave his consent, Phalaris sent a number of soldiers in chariots, without beards, and in women's clothes, in the guise of servants, who were bringing presents to the bride. As soon as they were let into the house, they drew their swords and secured the place. Phalaris arrived immediately afterwards, and made himself master of Vessa.

Event Date: -550 GR

§ 5.2.1  Dionysius: The mercenaries attacked the house of Dionysius, tyrant of Sicily, and forced their way in, with the intention of murdering him. He came out to them in mean clothes, with dust on his head, and the told the soldiers, that he gave himself up to them, to treat him as they please. His appearance, being so altered and humiliated, made them abandon their plan; they left him safe, and uninjured. Dionysius not long afterwards surrounded these same men with his troops at Leontini, and cut them all to pieces.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.2  Dionysius, son of Hermocrates, was in the service of the Syracusans, and acted as secretary to their generals. When the Syracusans complained of the generals' conduct in the course of an unsuccessful war with the Carthaginians, Dionysius ventured so far as to accuse them of treachery. In consequence of his accusation, some of them were executed, and others were banished. Then he pretended that he was in danger from the intrigues of their supporters, and from their resentment over the active part which he had taken against those who had already been convicted. Therefore, while the Carthaginian war was still continuing, he received from the people a bodyguard for his person. By means of that, he seized control of Syracuse, and became the greatest tyrant that the Syracusans ever knew; he died at an advanced age, and handed the sovereignty on to his son.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.3  Dionysius always guarded against conspiracies with great care. When he was informed that a foreigner who was then in the city had claimed that he possessed an infallible secret for revealing conspiracies and treason, Dionysius ordered him to be summoned. As soon as he came to the tyrant's fortress, he asked all those present to withdraw; because he did not want to make the secret widely known, but he was ready to reveal it to Dionysius alone. When the company had accordingly left them, he said;" Only claim, as I have done, that you possess the secret which I am pretending to reveal; and no-one will venture into any conspiracy against you." Dionysius was pleased with this advice, and rewarded the man liberally. He told his guards, that the man had revealed to him the most astonishing means of detecting conspirators; which intimidated them so much, that they never ventured in future to form any plots against him.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.4  When Dionysius left on a foreign expedition, he left Andron in charge of the fortress and the treasury. Hermocrates advised Andron to seize both of these, while Dionysius was absent. A few days later, Dionysius returned from this expedition; he had heard nothing of such a proposition, but he was suspicious, as tyrants always are. He told Andron that he had been informed of a proposal that had been made to him to betray his trust, and he wished to hear the particulars of it from himself. Andron believed what he said, and confessed every detail of what had happened. Dionysius then ordered him to be executed, because he had not revealed the proposal that had been made to him, immediately upon the tyrant's return. Dionysius confined Hermocrates, who had married his sister, in prison; but afterwards, to oblige her, he banished him to the Peloponnese.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.5  Dionysius, having persuaded some men in Naxos to betray the city to him, advanced to the walls late in the evening, attended by seven soldiers. The conspirators on the towers suggested to him, that he should attack the city with all his force. But he wished to make himself master of it without any loss, and demanded the surrender of the garrison on the walls. If they refused, he threatened to put every man to the sword. At the same time, on his orders one of his ships entered the port of Naxos, with trumpets on board, and boatswains, who informed the Naxians, that they all belonged to separate ships, which they would soon see in their harbour. The terror of so great a naval force, and the threats of Dionysius, prevailed upon the Naxians to surrender their city, without a blow being struck.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.6  When Himilco blocked up the harbour of Motye, Dionysius led his forces out of the town, and encamped on the shore opposite to the enemy, who stretched along the mouth of the harbour. He told his men to take courage, and both soldiers and sailors to exert themselves, in running the ships ashore. In one day, he drew out about eighty ships upon a flat muddy piece of land, about twenty stades wide, that lay under the promontory which formed one side of the harbour; and he protected the ground there with wooden stakes. Himilco was afraid that Dionysius, after securing his own ships, would take an opportunity of attacking the Carthaginians in the rear, and shutting them up in the harbour. He therefore withdrew his fleet with the first suitable wind; and he left Dionysius in possession of the harbour, with his ships in safety, and the town in peace.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.7  Dionysius, who was in possession of the citadel, held out against the forces of Dion, and sent an embassy to the Syracusans with proposals of peace. As a preliminary to any such negotiations, they insisted that he should abdicate from the sovereignty. If he complied with this, they were ready to treat with him; but if not, they were determined upon an unremitting war. Dionysius again dispatched a herald, asking them to send ambassadors, into whose hands he would resign the sovereignty, and conclude a peace with them. When the ambassadors had been dispatched to him, the citizens gave themselves up to intemperate joy at the recovery of their liberty, and took less care of their defence. In the meantime, Dionysius detained the ambassadors, and advanced with his forces against the walls, which he captured by a vigorous attack; he recovered the city, and retained possession of the citadel.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.8  The next day, Dionysius freed the Syracusan ambassadors, whom he had detained. They were followed by women, carrying letters to Dion and Megacles, from the sister of the one, and the wife of the other; as well as letters to other Syracusans, whose wives had been shut in during the siege. These letters were produced before an assembly of the people, and read. Their general purport was an earnest request to their husbands and relations, not to suffer them to languish in the hands of Dionysius. The address of one particular letter was "Hipparion to his father" (Hipparion was the name of Dion's son). But when the secretary opened the letter, it appeared to be a familiar letter from Dionysius to Dion, written in the most friendly terms, and seeking his support by great promises. This letter put Dion under suspicion by the Syracusans for ever afterwards, and entirely deprived him of his importance in the state, which was the objective which Dionysius most hoped to achieve.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.9  When the Carthaginians invaded the territory of Syracuse with an army of three hundred thousand men, Dionysius, who had taken care to erect various strongholds and forts in different parts, send ambassadors to conclude a peace with them, on condition of delivering up to them all the strongholds and forts. The terms were readily accepted by the Carthaginians, who were very well satisfied with receiving possession of the forts, without the hazard of a battle; and they left considerable garrisons in each of them. But Dionysius afterwards successfully attacked, and entirely routed, their main army, which was considerably reduced by the detachments, which had been dispersed in the various places.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.10  Although Dionysius wished to capture Himera, he entered into an alliance with the inhabitants of the place. He then made war upon some of the neighbouring cities, and encamped near Himera. He frequently sent deputations to the city, because the people were in alliance with him, and the inhabitants of Himera supplied his army with provisions for some time. But when this great army still continued in their vicinity, without attempting anything of consequence, it raised in the citizens a suspicion of some secret plot; and they refused to supply him in the same generous manner that they had done before. Dionysius therefore made his lack of provisions a pretext for breaking with the men of Himera; he advanced against their city with all his forces, and took it by storm.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.11  Dionysius wished to deprive the old soldiers of their pay; but the young men expressed their indignation, saying it was an act of extreme cruelty, to starve those in their old age, who had spent their youth in the service of their country. When he realised that his plan was likely to meet with much opposition, he convened an assembly, and addressed them as follows: "I expect the young men to withstand the shock of battle; but I intend to garrison my forts with the old men; and I will give equal pay to them both. For they, whose loyalty has been proved, are the proper persons to be entrusted with the defence of the fortifications; and this service causes less fatigue." Everyone was pleased with these pronouncements, and departed in good humour. But as soon as the troops were dispersed, and placed in different positions and garrisons, he deprived the veterans of their pay, when they no longer had the body of the army to support them.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.12  Dionysius, in an expedition he had undertaken, wanted to test the loyalty of his naval captains. He wished to keep the object of his expedition secret, and therefore mentioned it to none of them. To every captain he gave a tablet which was sealed up, but entirely blank inside. He ordered them, as soon as they were under sail, to open their tablets, upon receiving a certain signal; and then to steer their course, according to the directions which they found inside. As soon as they were under sail, but before the signal was given, he hurried around the fleet in a swift-sailing vessel, and ordered every captain to return his tablet. Those, who had broken their seals, he ordered to be executed for breach of orders; to the rest he gave tablets, in which was written the real name of the city, which was the object of their expedition. In this way the expedition was kept secret, and successfully concluded. He attacked (?) Amphipolis, which was unprepared to resist an enemy, and ungarrisoned; and he easily made himself master of the city.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.13  In order to discover the opinions of his subjects about him, and to know who were his enemies, Dionysius demanded to know the names of several female musicians and prostitutes. Instead of receiving presents from him, as they expected, they were made to confess under torture, what were the opinions which they had heard their lovers express about the tyranny. In this way he found out about all, who were opposed to his government; some of them he executed, and others he banished.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.14  After Dionysius had disarmed the citizens, he used to march a hundred stades from the city, whenever he had occasion to fight against an army, and then he handed every man his weapons. When the war was finished, before they re-entered the city, and the gates were thrown open, the men were ordered to ground their weapons, which were carried away and kept under guard.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.15  Another stratagem which Dionysius employed, to discover who were opposed to his government, was as follows. He secretly set sail for Italy, and ordered a report to be spread about, that he had been killed by his own soldiers. Those who were hostile to the tyranny joyfully met together, and congratulated each other on the happy event. As soon as he was informed of their names, Dionysius ordered them to be seized, and put them to death.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.16  At another time Dionysius pretended to be ill, and ordered a report to be spread about, that he was at the point of death. While many were expressing their joy at this occurrence, the tyrant suddenly appeared in public with his guards, and ordered everyone, who had rejoiced at the news, to be taken off to execution.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.17  Dionysius obliged the Carthaginians to pay a very high ransom for their prisoners; but he released the Greeks, who had been captured while in the service of Carthage, without any ransom at all. The partiality shown by the tyrant caused the Carthaginians to become suspicious of the Greeks, and they discharged all the Greek mercenaries from their service. Thus Dionysius rid himself of these Greeks, who were a formidable foe.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.18  When Dionysius was at war with the Messenians, a rumour prevailed, that he had a group in their city who were co-operating with him. In order to encourage this suspicion, when he ravaged the enemy's country, he ordered his men scrupulously to avoid causing any damage to the estates of particular persons. This is a stratagem which, as I remember, was practiced by other generals. But Dionysius carried it further; in pretended secrecy, he dispatched a soldier into the city, with a talent of gold for the suspected persons. The Messenians seized the messenger, with the gold upon him; and when he informed them of those to whom the present was being taken, the persons whom he indicated were ordered to be tried for treason. These men, being persons of importance, had a powerful party to support them, and escaped the tyrant's snare. However dissensions arose as a result, and by this means, Dionysius was able to gain control of Messene.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.19  When his treasury was low, Dionysius imposed a tax on the people. They were unwilling to pay, saying that they often been forced to make contributions, and Dionysius did not think it wise to compel the payment of it. A few days later, he ordered the magistrates to take all the offerings from the temple of Asclepius (and there were many of them, both silver and gold), to carry them to the marketplace, and there to put them up for sale. The Syracusans eagerly purchased them at high prices; and a very considerable amount of money was raised. As soon as Dionysius had obtained the money, he passed an edict, that whoever had sacrilegiously bought any of the offerings from the temple of Asclepius, should on pain of death immediately return them to the temple, and restore them to the god. The edict was obeyed; the offerings were returned to the god, and Dionysius kept the money.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.20  When Dionysius captured a city, some of the inhabitants died in the siege, and others were banished by him. He left a small garrison in it, but the town was a large one, and to big to be held by the few men he was able to spare. Therefore he married the captive slaves to the daughters of their masters. This not only strengthened the garrison, but, because of the natural abhorrence of each other, which must exist between them and their masters, he made the people loyal to himself.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.21  Dionysius, when he was sailing to Etruria with a hundred warships and transport ships, landed at the temple of Leucothea. There he received five hundred talents, and then continued his voyage. But he was informed that the soldiers and sailors had stolen a thousand talents of gold, and many more of silver. Therefore, before he disembarked, he made a proclamation, that everyone should take to him half of what he had got, and should keep the other half for himself. He threatened immediate death for anyone who failed to comply with his orders. After he had exacted half of the plunder they had acquired in this way, he extorted the other half from them as well; and instead of it he gave them a month's subsistence of corn.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 5.2.22  Many of the Parians followed the Pythagorean philosophy, and they were dispersed throughout different parts of Italy. When Dionysius, tyrant of Sicily, sent ambassadors to Metapontum and other Italian states, to propose conditions of peace, Euephenus advised the youths, who studied under him, and their fathers, to pay no attention to the tyrant's words. Dionysius was informed of Euehenus' conduct, and decided, if he could get the philosopher into his power, to move him from Metapontum to Rhegium. It afterwards happened, that Euephenus did fall into his hands; and Dionysius put him on trial for the great wrongs that he had done him. To the accusations that were urged against him, Euephenus replied that he had acted conscientiously and justly. "Those," he said, "whom I advised were my friends and acquaintances; but the tyrant, against whom I advised them, I knew not even by sight." He was however condemned to die. Undaunted by this verdict, he addressed Dionysius, and told him that he had a unmarried sister in Parium, and he wished to settle her before he died; therefore, he requested leave to visit his homeland, and assured the tyrant, that he would return in a short time, and face his sentence. Everybody laughed at the apparent folly of the man; but Dionysius was struck by the firmness of his demeanour, and asked him, who would be bail for his return. "I will find a bail," he replied, "who will answer for it with his life." Immediately he called Eucritus, who readily agreed, at the risk of his life, to answer for his friend's return. Euephenus was allowed six months for the transaction of his business at Parium. He immediate set out there, while in his absence Eucritus remained a prisoner at Rhegium. The fact was extraordinary, but the conclusion of it even more so. After the six months had expired, Euephenus returned to Sicily, having settled his sister. He surrendered himself up for his sentence, and requested that his bail might be discharged. Dionysius, in admiration of the virtue, which they both had displayed, forgave Euephenus, and released Eucritus from confinement. Taking them both by the hand, he asked them to admit him as a third into their friendship; and to remain with him, and to share in his prosperity. They thanked the tyrant for his kindness, but asked him, if he granted them their life, to permit them to return to their former manner of enjoying it, and to their beloved studies. By this act of generosity, Dionysius won the favour of many Italian states.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.3.1  Agathocles: Agathocles, the tyrant of Sicily, broke the oath he pledged to his enemies, and slew his prisoners. He told his friends with a laugh, "After supper we will throw up our oaths."

Event Date: -288 GR

§ 5.3.2  After Agathocles had defeated Leontini, he sent his general Deinocrates to the city; to inform the inhabitants, that it was his intention, in the preservation of his prisoners, to rival the glory of Dionysius, who after the battle at the river Eleporus preserved the lives of all the Italian prisoners he had taken. The inhabitants of Leontini trusted in his promise, and sent him magnificent presents. Agathocles then ordered all the prisoners to meet him unarmed. When the general, as directed, asked every man, who thought as Agathocles did, to hold up his hand; "My thoughts," said Agathocles, "are to slay every man of you;" and they were ten thousand in number. The soldiers, who surrounded them, according to the tyrant's orders immediately cut them to pieces.

Event Date: -304 GR

§ 5.3.3  Agathocles, having received information that some of the Syracusan leaders intended to attempt a revolution, offered a solemn sacrifice to the gods for a victory he had gained over the Carthaginians. And he invited to the banquet, which he made on that occasion, five hundred persons, whom he supposed most hostile to his government. The banquet was most sumptuous and magnificent. And after the company had all drunk pretty freely, he himself, with a scarlet robe in the Tarentine fashion thrown loosely around him, advanced into the midst of them, and sang, and played on the harp, and danced; while mirth and revelry prevailed around. When they all were in the height of enjoyment, Agathocles withdrew, as being tired, and wanting to change his clothes. A number of armed men immediately rushed in, and falling upon the company with their drawn swords, allowed no-one to escape.

Event Date: -307 GR

§ 5.3.4  Ophellas of Cyrene was advancing with a numerous army against Agathocles. Hearing that Ophellas was notoriously addicted to the love of boys, Agathocles sent an embassy to him, and his son Heracleides, who was a boy of extraordinary beauty, went as a hostage, with orders to hold out for a few days against his solicitations. Ophellas, charmed with the beauty of the boy, conceived a violent passion for him, and strongly solicited him to comply with his desires. While he was thus engaged, Agathocles suddenly attacked and slew him; and entirely defeated his army. His son also he recovered safely, and without any injury having been offered to him.

Event Date: -308 GR

§ 5.3.5  When Agathocles had embarked on an expedition against Carthage, to test the resolution of his men, he ordered a proclamation to be made, that whoever wished to be excused from the expedition might go ashore, and take with him whatever property he had on board. All those who took advantage of the proclamation, he ordered to be executed, as traitors and cowards; and praising those who stayed on board, for their courage and attachment to him, he directed his course with sixty ships to Africa. As soon as he had disembarked his troops, he set fire to his ships; so that his men might fight with greater resolution, when they saw themselves deprived of every resource which the ships might have provided them, if they fled. By these stratagems, Agathocles defeated the Carthaginians in various battles; and made himself master of many cities in Africa.

Event Date: -310 GR

§ 5.3.6  Agathocles asked the Syracusans to furnish him with two thousand men, for an expedition into Phoenicia; where, he informed them, he was invited by a party acting in his interests, who had promised to put him in possession of the country. The Syracusans believed him, and sent him the supplies he required. As soon as he had received them, he thought no more of his Phoenician expedition, but employed his forces against his allies, and demolished the fortifications of Tauromenium.

Event Date: -312 GR

§ 5.3.7  Agathocles concluded a peace with Hamilcar; who drew off his forces, and returned to Africa. Agathocles convened an assembly of the Syracusans; "This is the hour," he said, "that I have ever wished for, when I might see my fellow citizens enjoying full liberty." Having said this, he took off his robe and sword, and declared himself a private citizen. Struck with such an instance of patriotism and moderation, the Syracusans voluntarily committed to him the government of the state. But he, in less than six days, having put many of the citizens to death, and driven more than five thousand into exile, possessed himself of the sovereignty of Syracuse.

Event Date: -316 GR

§ 5.3.8  When Agathocles received intelligence that Tisarchus, Anthropinus, and Diocles had formed designs against him, he sent for them; and invested them with the command of a considerable force, with which he directed them to relieve a city, that was then in alliance with Syracuse, and closely besieged. "Tomorrow," said he, "I will meet you at the Timoleonteum with horses, arms, and baggage, and send forth the expedition." They received his commands with rapture; hoping to have forces put into their hands, which they intended to employ against him. The next day, when they met at the Timoleonteum, Agathocles gave the signal for seizing them. Then his men cut down Diocles, Tisarchus, and Anthropinus, with their guards, to the number of two hundred; and six hundred others, who attempted to assist them, were slain.

Event Date: -316 GR

§ 5.4.1  Hipparinus: While Hipparinus was at Leontini, he heard that Syracuse had been left without a garrison, because a considerable force had been sent out of it under the command of Calippus. He decided to march from Leontini with a body of troops, and attack Syracuse, after dispatching some envoys to the city, with orders to slay the guards. After carrying out these orders, they opened the gates. Hipparinus entered with his mercenaries, and made himself master of Syracuse.

Event Date: -352 GR

§ 5.5.1  Theocles: Theocles advanced with the Chalcidians from Euboea against Leontini, and made himself master of the place, with the assistance of the Sicilians, who previously possessed it. Lamis also led colonists there from Megara, with the intention of settling at Leontini under the protection of Theocles. Theocles told them that he was under an oath not to disturb the Sicilians, but that he would open the gates to them in the night, and then they could use their discretion in how they proceeded. When the gates were thrown open, the Megarians took possession of the marketplace and the citadel. Then they attacked the Sicilians, who, being unarmed and unprepared, were unable to resist the enemy. The Sicilians abandoned the city, and fled, but the Megarians undertook to take the place of the Sicilians, and became allies of the Chalcidians.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.5.2  After they had resided for about six months with the Chalcidians, Theocles used the following stratagem to expel the Megarians from the city. He pretended that in the course of the recent war he had made a vow, that if ever he became master of Leontini, he would offer sacrifices to the twelve gods, and hold an armed procession in their honour. The Megarian, who had no suspicion of any hostile intentions, congratulated him on this occasion, and wished him success in his pious activities. The Chalcidians then borrowed weapons from them, so that, while the ceremonies were being performed, they might make the procession. After they had halted in the marketplace, Theocles made a proclamation, that the Megarians should leave the city before sunset. The Megarians fled to the altars, and implored Theocles not to expel them from the city, or at least not to expel them unarmed. But after consulting with the Chalcidians, he decided that it was unsafe to remove such a large number of enemies from the city, and to put swords into their hands. Therefore they were sent away from Leontini without their weapons; and were allowed, with the permission of the Chalcidians, to winter at Trotilus for one year only.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.6.1  Hippocrates: Hippocrates hoped to make himself master of the city of the Ergetini, who served as mercenaries in his army. He always gave them the largest portion in the distribution of booty; he gave them increased pay; he complimented them on being the best troops in his army; and he tried by every means to entice as many of them as possible into his service. The honours, the advantages, and the reputation, which they acquired under Hippocrates, induced them to leave their city in great numbers, in order to enlist in his army. He received them with exceptional marks of favour, and after assembling all his forces, he marched through the country of the Laestrygonians. He placed the Ergetini on the shore, and the rest of the army was encamped higher up in the country. While the Ergetini were stranded in this way by the edge of the sea, Hippocrates dispatched a body of cavalry to their abandoned city, and sent a herald to take possession of it in his name. Then he ordered the Geloans and Camarinaeans to fall upon the Ergetini, and cut them to pieces.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.7.1  Daphnaeus: The Syracusans and Italians were engaged in a battle against the Carthaginians, with the Syracusans on the right wing, and the Italians on the left. Daphnaeus heard a loud and confused noise on the left, and hurried there; he found the Italians hard pressed, and scarcely able to hold their ground. When he returned to the right wing, he told the Syracusans, that they were victorious on the left; and vigorous effort on their part would make the victory complete. The Syracusans, trusting in the truth of their general's report, boldly attacked the barbarians, and defeated them.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.8.1  Leptines: The Carthaginians, who were sailing by Pachynus, landed there, and ravaged the country around it. Leptines placed some cavalry in ambush by night, and ordered some others to find some means to set the Carthaginian camp on fire. As soon as the Carthaginians saw their tents and baggage on fire, they hurried there as quickly as possible, to save whatever they could. But while they were intent on this, they were attacked by the cavalry, who pursued them to their ships with great slaughter.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.8.2  Leptines, after sailing from Lacedaemon, came to Tarentum and landed there with some of his crew. The Tarentines offered no violence to any of the sailors, because they were Lacedaemonians; but they searched for Leptines, in order to seize him. Leptines threw off his clothes, and took on a sailor's apparel; he put some wood on his shoulder, and boarded his ship again. Then he slipped the anchor, and put off to sea. After he had collected the sailors, who swam out to the ship, he directed his course to Syracuse, and joined Dionysius.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.9.1  Hanno: When Hanno passed by Sicily, Dionysius dispatched a considerable fleet to intercept him. When the fleet had nearly caught up with him, Hanno furled his sails, and the enemy, who were watching his motions, did the same. Hanno then ordered his men to set their sails as quickly as possible; and by using all the sail he could, he got clear of the enemy, who were thrown into confusion by this sudden movement, because they were not very expert at naval manoeuvres.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.10.1  Himilco: Himilco the Carthaginian, who was were aware that the Africans were fond of liquor, mixed laudanum into a great number of jars of wine. After placing the jars in the suburbs, he skirmished a little with the enemy, and then retreated into the city, as if he had been overpowered. The Africans were elated by their apparent success in blocking up the Carthaginians in their city. They drank large quantities of the abandoned wine, which threw them into a profound sleep, and left them at the mercy of the enemy.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.10.2  When Himilco weighed anchor by night with the Carthaginian fleet on an expedition to Sicily, he provided the masters of the ships with sealed tablets, in which he wrote the place of their destination, so that, if they should become separated from the rest, they might know which port to head for, without revealing the secret purpose of the expedition for deserters to pass on. And he covered up the front of his lamps, so that the enemy might not be informed of his invasion, by seeing his lights at a distance.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.10.3  Himilco was besieging a town in Africa, to which there were two narrow and difficult approaches; and the Africans had posted two strong garrisons to defend them. Himilco sent out a pretended deserter, to inform them, that he intended to raise a mound on one of those approaches, where he had decided to make his attack; and to dig a ditch across the other, to prevent the defenders from sallying out, and attacking his rear. When the Africans saw that the work starting, they believed the deserter, and collected their whole strength against the approach, on which Himilco had begun to erect a mound. Then in the night Himilco, who had prepared wood for this purpose, filled in the ditch which he had cut in that approach, and marched his forces over it. Thus he captured the town by that route, while the enemy's whole attention was directed to the other pass.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.10.4  While he was besieging Acragas, Himilco encamped not far from the city. When he saw the enemy march out in great force, he gave secret orders to his officers, at a given signal, to make a hasty retreat. The men of Acragas pressed closely on them in their flight, and they were drawn a considerable distance from their city. Then Himilco, who had placed himself in ambush with a body of his troops, set fire to some wood, which he had ordered to be placed near the walls for that purpose. When the pursuers saw a great amount of smoke arise from the walls, they supposed that some part of their city was on fire. They halted the pursuit, and returned to the relief of the city as quickly as possible. At the same time, the enemy, who before had fled, turned round and pressed hard upon their rear. As soon as they reached the place, where the ambush had been set, Himilco attacked them vigorously with his forces. He cut many of them to pieces, and the rest were made prisoners.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.10.5  Himilco was encamped near Cronium, opposite the generals of Dionysius. They were between him and the town, and prevented the Carthaginian forces from entering the town, though the inhabitants of Cronium would readily have admitted them. Himilco therefore, when he was informed that the people were well disposed towards him, cut down all the wood that he could find, from the great quantity which grew near the enemy's camp; and piled it in front of them. Then, taking advantage of a wind that blew directly towards them, he set the wood on fire; and while the enemy were surrounded by a cloud of smoke, he slipped past them, and reached the walls. The inhabitants of Cronium opened their gates to him, and he entered the city, while the enemy was still unaware of his march.

Event Date: -376 GR

§ 5.11.1  Gesco: Hamilcar, one of the ablest generals that the Carthaginians ever had, was in command of their forces in Africa. But after a series of great successes, he was opposed by a faction, who were jealous of his reputation, and they charged him with planning to undermine the liberties of the people. Through their influence, he was condemned, and executed; and his brother Gesco was banished. New generals were then appointed; but under their command, the Carthaginian armies met with nothing but repeated defeats, until their very survival became a matter of doubt. In these difficulties, what could they do? They could not raise Hamilcar from his tomb. They therefore sent a contrite letter to Gesco, recalling him from exile and appointing him to be general of their armies. They promised to hand over to him his own, and his brother's enemies, for him to punish as he wished. Gesco, on his return to his country, ordered his enemies to be brought before him in chains. He ordered them to lie down upon their bellies on the ground, and he thrice put his foot lightly upon their necks. Then he said that, by this humiliation, he had taken sufficient revenge on them for his brother's death. After this, he dismissed them, adding: "I will not return evil with evil, but repay evil with good." This conduct won Gesco the favour and ready obedience of all parties, both of friends and enemies; as someone who was both amiable and great. And he soon brought them success in their public affairs; he conquered the enemy by his courage, and he gained the support of the vanquished by the sweetness of his nature.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.12.1  Timoleon: When Timoleon was leading his army against the Carthaginians in Sicily, just as he was advancing to battle, they met a mule loaded with parsley. His army was intimidated by the omen; for it was customary with them, to cover tombs with parsley. But Timoleon gave a different turn to the omen, and cried out: "The gods have granted us the victory; for the Corinthians give a crown of parsley as a reward for victory in the Isthmian games." After saying this, he put a sprig of parsley upon his head; and his generals did the same. The rest of the army followed their example, and stuck pieces of parsley on their heads; then they advanced to battle, in full confidence of victory.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 5.12.2  Timoleon closely besieged the tyrant Mamercus, who, by false promises and breach of oaths, had deceived and murdered many men. Mamercus promised to surrender himself, and stand trial before the Syracusans, if Timoleon would promise not to stand forward as his prosecutor. This condition was complied with, and Timoleon conducted Mamercus to Syracuse. As soon as he had introduced him into the assembly, he said: "I will not prosecute this man, for I have promised him not to. But I order him to be executed immediately. For there is no law more just, than that he, who has deceived many to their death, should for once be overcome by trickery."

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 5.12.3  When Timoleon, according to the terms of a treaty of alliance, had gone the assistance of the Syracusans, he climbed a high mountain, from where he saw the Carthaginian army drawn up, to the number of fifty thousand men; they were in a bleak position, directly exposed to the wind and the enemy. He immediately convened a council. "Now," he said, "is the moment for victory. For there exists an oracle, which foretells defeat for an army, which occupies the exact position which the Carthaginians have taken. And the time is now at hand, when the oracle will be fulfilled." This assurance gave courage to the Greeks, and despite being very inferior in numbers they obtained the victory.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 5.13.1  Ariston: When Ariston with one small vessel was accompanying the transport ships, which were laden with corn, an enemy ship appeared, gave chase, and caught up with him, just as he was about to land. Ariston placed the transport ships as close to the shore as he could, and he himself kept on the outside of them. So that if the enemy attacked the men, who were landing the corn, they would be harassed with missiles from the transports; and if they attacked the ships, he would come against their triremes from the side, and hem them in between them and his own vessel

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.13.2  Ariston, the Corinthian general, after a naval engagement between the Athenians and Syracusans, in which the victory remained undecided, as both sides remained at sea, ordered provisions to be got ready, and headed for the shore. After his forces had disembarked, and made a hasty meal, he ordered them all on board again. The Athenians, supposing that the enemy had retreated in acknowledgement of their defeat, and had left them as masters of the sea, exulted in their victory and returned to land. While some of them were employed on one thing, and some on another, in preparation for their dinner, the Syracusans suddenly attacked them. In the Athenian fleet, all was confusion; leaving their dinner, they all boarded their ships as hastily as possible. But the Syracusans, who had thoroughly refreshed themselves, obtained an easy victory.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.14.1  Thrasymedes: Thrasymedes, son of Philomelus, fell in love with the daughter of Peisistratus; as she was walking in a procession, he ran up to her and greeted her. Her brother resented this liberty, and regarded it as an affront; but Peisistratus calmly observed to him, "If we punish men for having too great an affection for us, what must we do with those who openly hate us?" The passion of Thrasymedes increased with every day, and he engaged a group of his friends, to help him to obtain the object of his desire; they achieved this, while she was assisting at a religious ceremony. Forcing their way through the crowd with drawn swords, they seized the maid, and carried her onto a ship, with which they set sail for Aegina. Hippias, the elder of her brothers, was at that time clearing the seas of pirates. Supposing from the speed at which it travelled, that their ship also belonged to pirates, he bore down on it, and captured it. When Thrasymedes and the others were brought before the tyrant, to answer for their outrage, instead of begging for mercy, they told him with firmness and resolution, to treat them as he pleased. They assured him that, from the time they had resolved upon the attempt, they had resigned themselves to death, and despised it. Peisistratus was impressed by the dignity of mind which they revealed, and he gave his daughter in marriage to Thrasymedes. This act gained for him the favour and goodwill of all his subjects; they no longer regarded him as a tyrant, but as an affectionate father, and a patriotic citizen.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.15.1  Megacles: Megacles of Messene in Sicily opposed Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse, with extraordinary vigour. He aroused many of the Sicilians against Agathocles, and offered a reward to anyone who assassinated him. Agathocles, who was annoyed by his behaviour, moved to besiege Messene. He sent a herald to demand Megacles, declaring that, if he was not given up to him, he would storm the city and reduce all the inhabitants to slavery. Megacles, who despised death, proposed to his fellow citizens, that he should be appointed to be their ambassador; in which case, he would voluntarily surrender himself into the hands of the tyrant. The Messenians did as he suggested. Megacles was brought into the camp of Agathocles, and spoke to him as follows: "I come in the name of my city, as an ambassador from the Messenians; and the object of my embassy is to die. But first convene your friends, and give me a hearing." Agathocles therefore summoned his friends, and Megacles was brought before them. After pleading for the rights of his country, he said: "If the Messenians had engaged in an expedition against Syracuse, with the intention of completely destroying it, would you not have done the same things against the Messenians, which I have done against the Syracusans?" Agathocles smiled at the question; and his friends, who were present, interceded on behalf of Megacles. Accordingly, Agathocles sent him back unhurt, concluded the war, and entered into an alliance with the Messenians.

Event Date: -315 GR

§ 5.16.1  Pammenes: When Pammenes was marching his army through Phocis to Thebes, he found the enemy in charge of a fort called Philoboeotus, to which there were two narrow approaches; one was defended by a strong position which the enemy had secured, but the other was more open. Pammenes ordered his army to march to the right, as if intending to force their way through the latter approach, with the front of their line contracted, but with their formation deepened. The enemy collected all their forces to oppose him, and even abandoned the position which they had occupied, in order to defend the other pass. This was what Pammenes hoped for, and he immediately sent a body of troops to take possession of the deserted position. Then he marched his army without loss, through the approach which it commanded.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 5.16.2  Pammenes was strong in cavalry, but in infantry very inferior to the enemy, who outnumbered him particularly in peltasts,. He posted the few peltasts he had, and some of his light infantry, against the strongest part of the enemy's army; and he ordered them after a short skirmish to turn to flight, and thereby to draw the peltasts of the enemy away from the main body of their army. When this turned out as he hoped, he advanced at the head of a body of cavalry from the other wing, and charged furiously at their rear, while the troops, who before had fled, turned around to face them. In this way he surrounded the enemy, and either took them prisoners, or cut them to pieces.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 5.16.3  Pammenes wished to make himself master of the harbour of Sicyon, which was then under the protection of the Thebans. At the same time as he advanced against the city by land, he manned a merchant ship with soldiers, and stationed it at the mouth of the harbour. Towards the evening, some of these soldiers, without arms, went on shore in the guise of merchants, to make purchases and see the market. When the evening was well advanced, and the ship had entered the harbour, with a great and confused noise Pammenes attacked the city. All the inhabitants ran to the district, where the attack was being made. Even the men who lived by the beach left it, and ran to the assistance of their friends in the city. In the meantime, the armed troops from the ship went on shore, and made themselves masters of the harbour without opposition.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 5.16.4  Pammenes ordered his men to follow the orders of the trumpet, in a manner completely opposite to their usual meaning. As soon as they heard the retreat sounded, they were instructed to attack; and when the trumpet sounded an attack, they were told to retreat. And he used both of these devices successfully.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 5.16.5  Pammenes, with a small force, was surprised by the enemy, who were very superior in numbers. He sent a spy into their camp, who discovered their password, and on his return he disclosed it to Pammenes. At midnight he attacked their camp; and while the enemy in the dark could not recognise each other, and could not distinguish their friends from their foes, who also knew the password, he obtained a complete victory.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 5.17.1  Heracleides: When Demetrius undertook an expedition into Lydia, he left Heracleides in charge of Athens in his absence. The Athenian generals sought to take advantage of this opportunity. They tried to persuade Hierocles of Caria, the general of the mercenaries, to open the gates by night, and admit the Athenian troops; the Athenians would then murder Heracleides, and make themselves masters of the place. This conspiracy, in which the generals Hipparchus and Mnesidemus took the lead, was formed at Ilissus, where the lesser mysteries were celebrated. However Hierocles, who remained true to Heracleides and to his duty, informed him of the hostile plot. Heracleides arranged with Hierocles to admit the Athenians, by opening only a part of the gates. Accordingly, four hundred and twenty men were let in during the night, under the leadership of Mnesidemus, Polycles, Callisthenes, Theopompus, Satyrus, Onetorides, Sthenocrates and Pythion. As soon as they had entered, Heracleides attacked them with two thousand soldiers, who methodically cut down all the conspirators.

Event Date: -286 GR

§ 5.17.2  Heracleides, the Tarentine architect, promised to Philippus, the father of Perseus, that he would with his own hand destroy the Rhodian fleet. When he left the royal palace, he showed the people the marks of the king's cruel treatment of him, and took refuge at the altars. The Macedonians expressed great compassion for him, and with their support he got into a boat, and escaped to Rhodes. "I come to you," he said to the Rhodians, "for refuge from the cruel treatment which I have experienced at the hands of Philippus, only because I prevented an unjust war he planned against you. As proof of the truth of what I say, here is his letter, addressed to the Cretans, in which he expressly declares his intention of making war upon the Rhodians." The letter seemed to confirm his story beyond doubt; the Rhodians therefore welcomed him, and thought that he could assist them against Philippus. Then, taking advantage of a rough and windy night, he set fire to all their docks. Thirteen of them were entirely destroyed, with all the ships that were in them. As soon as he saw the fire take hold, Heracleides got into a boat and escaped. He crossed over to Macedonia, where he afterwards held the first place among Philippus' friends.

Event Date: -204 GR

§ 5.18.1  Agathostratus: The Rhodians were engaged in a war with Ptolemaeus, whose fleet then lay at Ephesus. Chremonides, Ptolemaeus' admiral, embarked and put to sea, with the intention of bringing the Rhodians to battle. Agathostratus sailed with the Rhodians (?) on a single ship; and having shown himself to the enemy, returned to port, as if avoiding battle. The enemy gave a general cheer, at seeing the Rhodians retreat, and themselves also returned to port. Then Agathostratus put to sea again as quickly as possible, and in a close compact line bore down upon the enemy, just as they were landing at the sanctuary of Aphrodite. He attacked them vigorously, while they were so unprepared for action, and obtained a complete victory.

Event Date: -246 GR

§ 5.19.1  Lycus: Aenetus, the general of Demetrius, was left in charge of Ephesus, and he gave shelter there to a number of pirates, who committed great depredations in the neighbouring countries. Lycus, the general of Lysimachus, managed to bribe Andron, the pirate-chief, to betray Ephesus to him, and the plot was carried out as follows. The pirate admitted into the city a body of Lycus' troops, who were unarmed, in their coats and cloaks, and bound as prisoners. As soon as they had advanced up to the citadel, he ordered them to draw their swords, which they carried concealed under their arms. After slaying the sentinels and guards, they gave the pre-arranged signal to Lycus. Lycus forced his way to them with the rest of his army, took Aenetus prisoner, and made himself master of Ephesus. But after paying the pirates, according to their agreement, he expelled them from the city; because he rightly concluded that he could not depend on their loyalty to him, when they had been so very unfaithful to their former friends.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.20.1  Menecrates: When Menecrates attacked Salamis in Cyprus, his men were twice driven from the walls and fled to their ships. He renewed the attacked a third time, and gave orders to the masters of the vessels to weigh anchor and sail away to a promontory nearby, behind which they were to anchor and lie concealed. The soldiers, after preparing their engines and ladders, again attacked the walls, and were again beaten off; but when they could see none of their ships, and found no hope of safety left to them, except in victory, they returned to the fight. They acquired fresh courage from despair, drove the defenders from the walls, and made themselves masters of Salamis.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.21.1  Athenodorus: After Athenodorus, the king's general, had been defeated by Phocion at Atarneus, and forced to retreat, he made all his officers and soldiers take an oath, that they would continue to fight as long as they were able to stand. Then he led them to the same spot, and renewed the fight. The conquered, under the constraint of their oath, became victorious; and the victors fled.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.22.1  Diotimus: While Diotimus was escorting some transport ships with ten triremes, he was intercepted by the Lacedaemonians with a fleet a twenty ships at Chios. Keeping close by his transports, he maintained a running fight; and, by separately attacking the enemy's ships, as they came up to him, he defeated a fleet of double his size without any loss, through his courage and excellent tactics.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.22.2  Diotimus with ten ships advanced against a Lacedaemonian fleet of the same number; but they were conscious of the Athenians' superior seamanship, and he could not bring them to a battle. He afterwards joined his ships together, two by two, hosting the sails of only one of the pair, and thus put to sea. The Lacedaemonians, by the appearance of the sails, discerned only five ships, and, on the assumption that the enemy's force was as small as that, they immediately bore down upon them. As soon as they had advanced too near to escape from him, Diotimus untied his ships and confronted their fleet with an equal force. And the Athenians were so superior to the enemy in seamanship, that they sank six of their ships, and captured the other four.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.22.3  Diotimus, the Athenian admiral, was put in command of an expedition, that needed to be completed quickly. He secretly informed the captains of the fleet, that he intended to take with him only the fastest vessels, which could keep up with him. He said this, not because he intended to leave any of them behind, but in order to make them exert themselves, and therefore give vigour to the expedition by their promptness and speed.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.22.4  When Diotimus wanted to invade an enemy's country, he landed a small party from each ship by night, and formed them into an ambush. Early in the morning, he approached that part of the shore, near which he had planted the ambush. He ordered the soldiers on board to prepare for action, and he gave the appearance of intending to put some boats, with armed men on them, on shore. The enemy advanced to the place, to dispute the landing. When a signal was given, the troops sallied out from their ambush, and fell upon the enemy's rear. They slew many of them, and put the rest to flight. Diotimus then landed his army without further opposition.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.23.1  Tynnichus: When Theudosia, a city of Pontus, was besieged by the neighbouring tyrants, and in danger of being captured, Tynnichus relieved the city with one transport ship and one warship. Taking with him as many soldiers as he could, with three trumpets, and some canoes, he arrived near the town in the night. He posted each trumpeter in a separate canoe, and ordered them to advance at a good distance from each other, and to sound their instrument not separately, but together, and at regular intervals; so that it might appear to be the sound, not of a single trumpet, but of several. The besiegers supposed that a large fleet was arriving, and abandoned their position, thinking themselves lucky to have made their escape. They left Tynnichus in possession of the port, and he was able to send reinforcements into the town.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.24.1  Cleitarchus: When the enemy advanced against Cleitarchus, to avoid being blocked up by them in the town, he marched out his forces. Then he ordered the gates to be locked, and the keys to be thrown over the walls. He took the keys, and showed them to his soldiers, who, finding that all hope of a retreat was thus removed, fought bravely, and by their courage defeated the enemy.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.25.1  Timarchus: When Timarchus of Aetolian had landed his forces in a densely populated part of Asia, so that his men should not be deterred from carrying out the enterprise by the great numbers which the enemy might bring to confront them, he set fire to his ships, and thus removed all hope of effecting a safe retreat. His army, seeing no alternative but death or victory, fought valiantly and obtained the victory.

Event Date: -259 GR

§ 5.26.1  Eudocimus: When some disputes arose in his camp, Eudocimus was unable to compose them, and the rival groups were on the point of deciding their differences by arms. Eudocimus ordered some couriers to appear, as if they had just arrived, and to announce that the enemy was approaching, and that they had even begun to destroy the palisades. The news of the enemy's approach immediately composed the internal strife; and every soldier ran to his post for the common good.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.27.1  Pausistratus: When Pausistratus, the Rhodian admiral, found that a great quantity of weapons had been lost, he ordered his men on board, each carrying his own weapons. As soon as they were all on board, he commanded every man to disarm; and certain officers, whom he had appointed for this purpose, took care that no weapons were carried back on shore.

Event Date: -190 GR

§ 5.28.1  Theognis: In order to put an end to disputes which were forming in the Athenian army about the battle positions of companies and units, Theognis dispatched a body of cavalry and officers by night; with orders to stop in a conspicuous position a little distance away, where they might be seen by the army, and taken for the enemy. When they appeared in that position, Theognis, in a pretended hurry and confusion, ordered the army to form up immediately, and everyone to fall into their ranks, as if the enemy were actually in arms and advancing against them. The fear of attack left no time for contention, but each soldier readily posted himself in his old position. Theognis then told them, that the pretended enemy were in fact there friends and fellow soldiers. "But," he said, "in future let us have no more disputes about positions; each of you should maintain the post, which you now have taken."

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.28.2  When Theognis suspected that spies had infiltrated into the camp, he posted guards on the outside of the trenches, and then ordered every man to take his station by his own weapons. In consequence of this order, the spies became easy to distinguish; either because they moved away, or because they had no weapons by which to post themselves.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.29.1  Diocles: When Diocles, the Athenian general, was marching in the enemy's country, he could not make his men keep their ranks, or carry their weapons. Therefore he continually changed the password; from which the men concluded that the enemy were not far off. This made them take up their weapons, and preserve their ranks.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.30.1  Chileus: Chileus of Arcadian, when he was staying at Lacedaemon, learned that the Spartans were planning to fortify the Isthmus, and to withdraw from the general alliance of the Athenians and the other Greeks, who lived outside the Peloponnese. Chileus observed to them, that if the Athenians and other Greeks should ever enter into friendship with the Persians, the barbarians would find a thousand ways to cross into the Peloponnese. The Lacedaemonians felt the force of his observations; they thought no more about the Isthmus, but joined the general alliance of the Greeks.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.31.1  Cypselus: After he had sent the most eminent of the Bacchiades to consult the oracle at Delphi about some public business of the Corinthians, Cypselus forbade them to return to Corinth. Thus, by getting rid of the most powerful family in the state, he easily established himself as tyrant.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.32.1  Telesinicus: Telesinicus of Corinthian fought against the Athenians in front of the harbour of Syracuse. When the battle had continued for most of the day, and both sides were exhausted, Telesinicus sent a light vessel to the city, with orders to bring provisions down to the beach. When they had done this, though the battle was still undecided, at a given signal the Corinthian fleet retreated into port. After the Corinthians had left, the Athenians also returned to land; the men went on shore, and were employed in various tasks for the preparation of dinner. Meanwhile, Telesinicus' men had eaten a short and hasty meal, and he put to sea again. He covered his decks with marksmen and archers, and suddenly attacked the Athenians, who ran to their ships from their different tasks in tumult and confusion. Telesinicus bore down on their sterns, before they had time to turn around, and he obtained a complete and easy victory.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.32.2  Telesinicus observed the enemy ate when he did, and copied him in all their movements. He ordered some of his best sailing vessels to take their meal early in the morning; and at the usual time, he gave the signal for the rest of the fleet to eat. When the enemy did the same, those Syracusans, who had already taken their meals, boarded their ships and attacked the enemy, who were unprepared and in disorder, and destroyed many of their triremes.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.33.1  Pompiscus: Pompiscus of Arcadian made it a general rule, whenever he encamped, to fortify the roads leading to his camp with both palisades and trenches; and also to make new roads behind them. In this way, any scouts or spies, who tried to enter the camp by night, would fall into the trenches; and when they turned around, they would be unable to find their way back.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.33.2  When Pompiscus perceived that the enemy, because they were stationed very close by, could observe his signals and orders, he secretly instructed his men, to do the exact opposite of the signals they were given.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.33.3  Pompiscus had so formed his camp, that it almost surrounded the city he was besieging, but in a single area he deliberately left it open. He ordered that the approach to the city in that direction should be safe and free for all, who might have occasion to use it; and he ordered his marauding parties not to attack anyone who was found there, whether they were going to the city, or coming away from it. The citizens, finding that they could use that route without harm, went into the country as their concerns required, and passed backwards and forwards without any precautions. When his scouts informed him, that great numbers of the inhabitants were in that area, Pompiscus suddenly attacked them, and made them prisoners.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.33.4  Finding that he could not capture a town by force, Pompiscus bribed a deserter to inform the enemy, that the Arcadians had recalled him, and that he had been ordered to raise the siege. The inhabitants rejoiced at the news, and when soon afterwards they saw the enemy strike their tents, and retreat, they fully believed what the deserter had told them. They came out of the city in crowds, to seize whatever they could find that was worth carrying off from the enemy's camp; but Pompiscus suddenly returned, and fell upon them. Thus he captured both the men themselves, and their city.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.33.5  In order to capture the enemy's scouts, Pompiscus always had only a few roads leading to his camp, which were open and exposed; and he ordered his marauding parties to leave and return by side-roads. The scouts, who did not dare to use the open roads, used to travel by the side-roads; and thus they soon fell into the foragers' hands.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.33.6  Pompiscus used to employ as scouts persons, who were not acquainted with each other; so that they might be less likely to group together, and give in false reports. He also ordered them not to communicate in any way with anyone within the camp; so that no-one would be able, by talking to them, to inform the enemy of their errands.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.34.1  Nicon: In order to pass by the enemy's triremes without being noticed, Nicon of Samos painted his ship in the same manner as theirs; and he chose some of the ablest and most expert hands he had on board, to work on the oars. Then he headed straight past the enemy; his crew, as soon as they came near enough, saluted by signs the sailors of the other fleet, who were taken by surprise. It was not until the ship had got to their rear, and from there had set out on a different course, that they realised that it was an enemy ship, and by that time it had got out of their reach.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.35.1  Nearchus: Nearchus of Cretan made himself master of Telmessus, which was then in the hands of Antipatrides, by the following stratagem. When he sailed into the harbour, Antipatrides, who was an old acquaintance of his, came out of the fort towards him, and asked if he was on any particular business, and whether he was in need of anything. The Cretan told him, that he had some girl musicians on board, and also some slaves in fetters, that he would be glad to leave on shore with him; and Antipatrides readily agreed to this. The women were accordingly conducted into the fort; and the slaves accompanied them, carrying their instruments and baggage. But small swords were hidden in the flutes, and shields were hidden in the baskets; and, as soon as they had entered the fort, the attendants immediately seized the weapons, and took possession of the fort; in this way, they made Nearchus master of Telmessus.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.36.1  Dorotheus: When Dorotheus of Leucas, in a single ship, was pursued by two enemy ships, he steered towards a harbour. Slipping by the mouth of it, he suddenly tacked around, and promptly bore down on the vessel which was first in the pursuit. That ship, supposing that he intended to enter the harbour, had set all its sails in that direction, and before it had time to change its course and face him, he sank it at the first attack. The other ship, seeing the fate of its companion, immediately sailed away.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.37.1  Sosistratus: Sosistratus persuaded the Syracusans to pass a general decree for the banishment of all those, with their families, who had any connection with Agathocles, or who were in any degree instrumental in raising him to power. These men were accordingly conducted out of the city by a body of a thousand men, consisting partly of cavalry, who fell upon them and slew most of them. Sosistratus afterwards proscribed those who had escaped, and confiscated the property of the exiles, which he used to hire Greek and barbarian mercenaries. He liberated the men who had been condemned to the quarries, and took them also into his service; they became his bodyguard, and by their assistance he became ruler of Syracuse.

Event Date: -278 GR

§ 5.38.1  Diognetus: When Diognetus of Athenian had advanced against a city, he planted an ambush during the night, and the next day he openly attacked the city with a naval force. Upon his approach, the enemy immediately marched out of the city, to dispute his landing; but then the men came out of their ambush, and easily took possession of the city, which was left defenceless and open. The enemy were bewildered and dubious, whether to dispute the landing of the invaders, or to attempt to recover their city. Diognetus took advantage of their confusion; he landed his troops, and defeated the force that advanced against him.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.39.1  Archebius: Archebius of Heracleia, when the enemy were perpetually harassing the country with raids against the coasts, fastened together some fishing boats, and secured them with ropes run through their keels; then he posted himself with a body of troops in ambush nearby. A trumpeter was placed in a tree, in order to observe the enemy, and as soon as he saw them steering towards the coast with a small boat and two transport ships, he gave a signal to the men in the ambush. After the enemy had landed, and some of them were engaged in plundering the countryside, and others in loosing the boats, the men suddenly sallied out, attacked them, and cut them to pieces. Archebius captured the small boat and transports, and brought them into the harbour.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.40.1  Aristocrates: When Aristocrates of Athens captured a Lacedaemonian ship, he manned it with his own crew, and a considerable military force, and he steered to a city which was in alliance with the Lacedaemonians. The men who were in charge of the harbour readily admitted him, as a friend and ally. But as soon as the men had landed, they fell upon the inhabitants and guards, who were casually walking on the beach. They slew ten, who tried to resist them, and carried off twenty five prisoners, for whom Aristocrates afterwards received a considerable ransom.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.41.1  Aristomachus: When Aristomachus captured some triremes of the Cardians, he placed his own rowers at their oars, and decorated them with the colours and standards of his own ships, which he towed after him as if in triumph. In the evening he entered the harbour, with music playing, and the Cardians flocked out of the city, to see their victorious fleet. When Aristomachus' troops landed, they made a dreadful slaughter of them.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.42.1  Charimenes: When Charimenes of Milesian fled to Phaselis, and was closely pursued by some warships of Pericles of Lycia, he put to shore and, changing his clothes, travelled on foot through the dominions of Pericles.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.43.1  Calliades: Calliades, the master of a ship, was overtaken by a warship before he could reach port. Calliades so managed his rudder, as to receive upon it the oars of the enemy's first bench, and thereby he broke the force of their attacks upon his stern. By this means, he kept them away for some time, and under cover of night he succeeded in escaping.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.44.1  Memnon: Memnon had decided to make war on Leucon tyrant of the Bosphorus. In order to acquaint himself with Leucon's forces, and the population of the country, he dispatched Archibiades of Byzantium on a trireme, as his ambassador to Leucon, as if to arrange an alliance with him. And with him he sent an eminent citharode, Aristonicus of Olynthus, the most celebrated artist of his day in Greece; in order that whatever towns he touched at in his journey, Aristonicus might publicly entertain them with his musical abilities. When the inhabitants of course crowded to the theatres to hear him, the ambassador was able, from the number of men he saw there, to form some estimate of the population of the respective places.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.44.2  Memnon, when encamped on a plain before the enemy, to decoy them from an advantageous post they had taken, retreated to a greater distance from them; and drew up only a part of his army, to make the enemy believe that some disaster had occurred in his camp. And to support such a suspicion, he at the same time dispatched a deserter over to them, to inform them that a mutiny had taken place in his army; and that, because he could not trust his troops, he had for fear of an attack from the enemy retreated to a greater distance. His retreat, and the diminished appearance of his army, combined to persuade the enemy of the truth of the deserter's story. They therefore decided to leave their position, and offered him battle. Then the army of Memnon, instead of being divided by mutinies, marched out in one firm body; they attacked the enemy, and obtained a complete victory.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.44.3  When Chares besieged Aristonymus in Methymna, Memnon sent an embassy to him, asking him to desist from any further hostilities against Aristonymus, who was his father's friend and ally. He said that, if Chares persisted in the siege, he would relieve Aristonymus with a powerful force during the next night. Chares ridiculed the embassy's message; supposing that it was impossible to transport so large an army so far, by the next night. But Memnon, as soon as he had dispatched the embassy, marched his forces five stades, and embarked twelve hundred men; with orders as soon as ever they were landed at the citadel, to kindle a fire, and attack the enemy. Such an unexpected attack in the dark, with a fire at the same time blazing, persuaded Chares to make a precipitate retreat, because he supposed that Memnon had taken possession of the citadel with all the force that he had pretended to send.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.44.4  Memnon with a body of four thousand troops advanced against Magnesia; and he pitched and fortified his camp at the distance of forty stades from the city, which was defended by Parmenion and Attalus with a force of ten thousand men. Then he led his forces out; but, when the enemy advanced against him, he sounded a retreat; and marched his army back into the camp. The enemy retreated in the same manner. Memnon again drew up his army, and as soon as the enemy advanced against him, he again retreated. The enemy continued to copy his movements; they advanced to battle when he marched out, and retreated when he retreated. At last, after the enemy had retreated from the field, put off their arms, and were at dinner, Memnon immediately returned and attacked them. They rose up hastily from their meal, some without weapons, others hastily snatching them up, and all in great confusion; and before they had time to form themselves in a phalanx, he attacked them and secured a victory. Many of them were cut to pieces, and many taken prisoners; those, who escaped, fled for refuge to Magnesia.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.44.5  When Memnon advanced against Cyzicus, he put a Macedonian cap upon his head, and made all his army do the same. The generals of Cyzicus, observing their appearance from the walls, supposed that Chalcus of Macedonian, their friend and ally, was marching to their assistance with a body of troops; and opened their gates to receive him. However they discovered their error just soon enough to correct it, and shut their gates against him; Memnon had to content himself with ravaging their country.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.45.1  Philomelus: When the Phocians were attacked by the united forces of Thebes and Thessaly, Philomelus promised that he would bring the war to a successful conclusion, if the Phocians would make him their commander. They readily agreed to this, and he was enabled to hire a body of mercenaries. But instead of employing them against the common enemy, he bribed them with the money from the sanctuaries, and by their assistance he established himself as tyrant, instead of general.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.46.1  Democles: Democles, who was sent on an embassy by Dionysius the tyrant, was accused by the other ambassadors of neglecting the tyrant's interests. When this was reported to Dionysius, and he expressed his resentment, Democles said: "Our quarrels originated merely in this: after supper, they wanted sing the paeans of Stesichorus and Pindar, and I wanted to sing your paeans." And at the same time, he recited some of Dionysius' verses. The tyrant was so pleased with his taste, that he paid no more attention to the accusations.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.47.1  Panaetius: Panaetius was appointed general of Leontini, in a war against Megara concerning the boundaries of their respective territories. The first use he made of his authority was to stir up the camp servants and the infantry against the merchants and the cavalry, because the latter had every advantage in war, while they themselves struggled under every hardship that attended it. He then ordered them all to disarm themselves, and to pile up their weapons at the gate of the camp, so that an account could be made of them, and their condition could be examined. He ordered the servants to take the horses, and feed them. He had six hundred peltasts, who were ready to fight and devoted to his interests; and he ordered their commanding officer to make an account of the weapons. Then he withdrew to the trees, where the servants and horses were stationed, as if to enjoy the shade a little; and there he persuaded the servants to attack their masters. The servants accordingly mounted the horses, and seized the weapons, taking them from the peltasts, who were aware of his intentions. Then they fell upon their masters, while they were defenceless and unarmed, and cut them to pieces. The peltasts, who had joined in the slaughter, immediately marched to the city and took possession of it; and in this way, Panaetius became tyrant of the city.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 5.48.1  Pyraechmes: A sling has a longer range than a bow; as was proved when Pyraechmes, who was armed with a sling, was victorious in single combat against Aeschines, who was armed with a bow.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.0.1  To your most sacred majesties, Antoninus and Verus, I also address this sixth book of Stratagems; and I most ardently hope hereafter to employ myself in handing down to posterity those excellent stratagems which you yourselves have practiced in your wars, which have been a uniform series of successes. For superior as you are to ancient generals in power and fortune, far more do you excel them in experience and abilities; by which you have so successfully terminated foreign wars with many barbarous nations, and in concert with your father you have formed plans for the permanent management of the conquered Moors, the subjugated Britons, and the humbled Getae. The Persians and the Parthians now call down the thunder of your war upon them. Go then, and under the the favour of the immortal gods, display your wisdom in forming plans, and your fortitude in the execution of them. I shall be happy to employ myself in a full and accurate relation of those exploits, which posterity will receive with admiration. In the mean time, I will add more achievements of ancient heroes, to those that I have already offered to you.

Event Date: 163 GR

§ 6.1.1  Jason: Jason, having formed a plan to attack a city in Thessaly, without communicating his plan to his army, ordered them to be reviewed, and to receive their pay. As soon as they came to the ground, in arms, and in good spirits, messengers suddenly arrived with intelligence, that the enemy had invaded their territories, and were just as far distant, as the city which he had it in mind to attack. The army, equipped for battle, urged him to make no delay, but to lead them immediately against the enemy. He availed himself of their request, marched against the city, surprised it, and took it, while the victors and the vanquished were equally unaware of his intentions.

Event Date: -375 GR

§ 6.1.2  Jason the Thessalian was being pressed by his men for their pay, and he did not have the money to discharge the arrears. He ran hastily into his mother's apartments, as if to escape the violence of the soldiers, and two or three of them at the same time rushed in with him. His mother, who was exceedingly rich, composed all their differences, and paid the arrears.

Event Date: -375 GR

§ 6.1.3  Jason lacked money to pay his troops after a war, which he had concluded with success. He told his mother, that in the course of the war he had received manifest assistance from the Dioscuri, and that he had vowed that, if he was successful, he would celebrate a magnificent sacrifice in honour of them; to which he had invited his generals, commanders, captains, and all the officers in the army. Believing this, she sent him cups, bowls, tables, and the whole collection of table plate that she had, in gold and silver. As soon as he received it, he sold it all, and paid his mercenaries.

Event Date: -375 GR

§ 6.1.4  Jason had taken a city, that was very rich, and full of elegant and valuable commodities. He sent a messenger to his mother, asking her to send all the servants she had about her, who were versed in works of elegance and embroidery, to choose for her such articles as they thought most magnificent, and most suitable for her to receive. She therefore ordered all, whose taste she most relied upon, to go upon this errand; but Jason kept them imprisoned, until she purchased their ransom at great expense.

Event Date: -375 GR

§ 6.1.5  Jason, with one of his brothers, went to his mother, who was entertaining herself with her servants in the room, where the needlework and embroidery were done. He pretended to have business of importance, on which to consult her, and ask the servants to withdraw. The guards accordingly conducted them out of the room; and after a long conversation, Jason laughed, and told his mother, that if she wanted her servants back again, she would have to send for them, and ransom them.

Event Date: -375 GR

§ 6.1.6  Jason had a brother, whose name was Meriones. Meriones was exceedingly wealthy, but very mean, and not at all disposed to supply his pressing needs. When a son was born to Jason, he invited the Thessalian chiefs to an entertainment on the occasion, when a name was to be given to the child; and he particularly invited his brother, whom he wished to take a principal part in the ceremony. While Meriones was thus engaged, Jason pretended to go out hunting; but instead of that, he went to Pagasae, the place where his brother resided. Surrounding his house with a troop of armed men, he bound up the servants, and took away twenty talents of silver. He then returned in high spirits to the entertainment, where he desired his brother to preside over the proceedings, and also begged him to give a name to the child. Meriones, who at that moment was informed that his house had been plundered, gave the child the name of Porthaon, or the plunderer.

Event Date: -375 GR

§ 6.1.7  Jason, accompanied by his brother Polydorus, went to take possession of a city, and to sell the confiscated property in it. At bathing time, he advised his brother, in order to improve the circulation of his blood, to rub his body well, and use the strigil freely, as he did. As he endeavoured to do this, Jason remarked to him, that the ring which he wore on his finger was hindering him. He advised him to pull the ring off, and put it aside, until he was dressed again. Polydorus accordingly handed the ring, to someone who was standing nearby, to hold for him. But that man, as he had been instructed by Jason, took it directly to Polydorus' wife, and asked her for ten talents of gold, producing her husband's ring as proof of his commission for that purpose. This convinced her, and she immediately gave the money to the messenger, and as soon as he brought it to Jason, he gave up the strigil, and told his brother that it was time to get dressed.

Event Date: -375 GR

§ 6.2.1  Alexander of Pherae: While Leosthenes lay before Panormus, Alexander did not dare to risk a general action with the whole Athenian fleet, but sent a messenger to the garrison by night (?) on a light boat. He directed them, if the enemy detached any ships from their station, to let him know of it, by lighting an additional beacon on the tower facing the garrison in Magnesia; and the men in Magnesia would then light a beacon towards Pagasae. Leosthenes, according to his plans, dispatched a ship to Samos, another to Thasos, and a third to the Hellespont. The besieged garrison informed Alexander of this by the signals which had been agreed; and he immediately attacked the Athenian fleet while it was thus weakened, and defeated them.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.2.2  Alexander, after the battle of Peparethus, dispatched some vessels immediately to the market in the Peiraeus, in the hope of catching the Athenians relaxed and off their guard, in consequence of their recent victory. He ordered his men to seize all the money they found on the tables. The Athenians, supposing them to be friends, never attempted to prevent them landing. But as soon as they had landed, they went on the attack, and with drawn swords immediately secured possession of the money tables. While the Athenians fled into the city, to give information to the generals of what had happened at the Peiraeus, they possessed themselves of the money, and retreated to their ships.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.3.1  Athenocles: When Athenocles was closely besieged, as protection against the battering ram and other siege machines, the he contrived to run bars of lead along the sides of the fortress, which broke the violence of the blows, and damaged the enemy's machines. Against this device, the besiegers sent forward another machine, which dislodged the mass of lead in such a direction, that its fall hurt no-one who was under it. Then, under cover of the testudo, they advanced again to the attack, and shook the walls. Nevertheless, the men inside the fortress continued to exert themselves vigorously. Through brazen pipes they poured molten lead from the walls, which split up the testudo. But the enemy contrived, from the siege works which they had erected, to largely counteract the effect of the lead, by pouring on it a quantity of vinegar, which soon extinguished the lead, as well as other combustibles which were thrown from the walls. For nothing is more effective than vinegar in extinguishing fire; nor can anything be secured against fire in a better way, than by rubbing it over with vinegar; the fire no sooner touches the liquid, than it is extinguished. They also hung sponges filled with water around it. And some covered their machines with sand and dirt, as protection against the molten lead.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.4.1  Philopoemen: Philopoemen thought it was not the part of a good general, to always lead the phalanx; but he used to ride through the ranks, and be sometimes in the van, sometimes in the centre, and sometimes in the rear. By his means, he saw everything, and was always at hand to correct whatever he saw that was wrong in any part of the army.

Event Date: -182 GR

§ 6.4.2  When Philopoemen was defeated by the Lacedaemonians, and was pursued by them to the river Eurotas, as soon as he crossed the river, he ordered the cavalry to unbridle their horses, and give them water. The Lacedaemonians, from the confidence which he displayed, supposed that an ambush had been planted, and did not venture to cross the river, but gave up the pursuit.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.4.3  Instead of the small shield and short spear, Philopoemen introduced into the Achaean army the use of the sarissa and large shield, and also the helmet, coat of mail, and greaves. Instead of skirmishing with javelins, as light armed troops, he made them stand firm and close in battle. Likewise, he discouraged all elegance in dress, and the luxuries of the table. He observed that military men ought to forsake everything, that was not absolutely necessary. By these means Philopoemen reformed his army; and no general of his age led braver, or more hardy, troops into battle.

Event Date: -208 GR

§ 6.5.1  Aratus: Aratus used the following stratagem to make himself master of Acrocorinth, which Antigonus held with a garrison, under the command the Persaeus the philosopher and Archelaus, general of the forces. There were at Corinth four brothers, who were Syrians by birth; one of them was Diocles, who belonged to the garrison that defended the fortress. The other three had been involved in robbing the royal treasury, and had sold the gold to Aesias, a money-changer at Sicyon, who was employed by Aratus in money matters. Erginus, who was one of the brothers, was frequently at this money-changer's house, and a constant guest at his entertainments. When the discussion one day turned to Acrocorinth, he remarked that he had discovered a cleft in the precipices, on which it was built; and a hollow way ran obliquely through the cleft, extending to the walls themselves. When Aesias mentioned this to Aratus, he tried by every means to cultivate Erginus' acquaintance, and promised to pay him seven talents, if he should become master of Acrocorinth. Erginus accepted the proposal, and with his brothers undertook to put Aratus in possession of it. Preparations were accordingly made for the attack. Aratus posted his army nearby, and ordered them to rest on their weapons. From there he took with him four hundred picked men, with whom he entered the cleft by night, and continued on his way until he reached the walls; he placed ladders on the walls, and immediately climbed them. As soon as those inside the fortress became aware of the assault, a desperate fight started. The moon sometimes gave a momentary light, and then, in passing under a cloud, withdrew it again, and left the combatants to fight on in the dark. Aratus' troops gained the victory; and as soon as day broke, they opened the gates to the rest of the army. Aratus took Archelaus prisoner, but afterwards freed him, and gave him leave to depart to whatever place he chose. Theophrastus, who refused to leave the place, was killed; and Persaeus the philosopher, seeing the fort captured, escaped to Cenchreae, from where he made his way to Antigonus.

Event Date: -243 GR

§ 6.6.1  Pyrrhus: Pyrrhus, after he had been defeated by the Romans, and had lost his elephants, sent an embassy to Antigonus, asking for his assistance. When this request was refused, he directed his ambassadors everywhere to say the opposite: that Antigonus had agreed to assist him with a powerful force. And thus he held together the Tarentines, the Sicilians, and some of the Italian states, who would otherwise have deserted him, by the hope that Antigonus would become their ally.

Event Date: -275 GR

§ 6.6.2  Pyrrhus, having undertaken an expedition into the Peloponnese, received with great respect the embassies, which the Spartans sent to treat in Arcadia; and he promised to send his sons to Sparta, to be instructed according to the rules of Lycurgus. While the ambassadors, as a result of these statements, were extolling the friendly and peaceable nature of Pyrrhus, he arrived at Sparta with a powerful army. And when they accused him of acting contrary to his statements, he replied with a smile: "When you Spartans have decided on a war, it is your habit not to inform your enemy of it. Therefore do not complain of unfair treatment, if I have used a Spartan stratagem against the Spartans."

Event Date: -272 GR

§ 6.6.3  Before Pyrrhus engaged in a war, he always tried to bring the enemy to terms; by making clear to that otherwise there would the terrible consequences, by trying to convince them where their own interests lay, by demonstrating to them the miseries that must come with the war, and by urging every just and reasonable argument against it.

Event Date: -272 GR

§ 6.7.1  Apollodorus: When Apollodorus of Cassandreia was charged with plotting to deprive the people of their liberty, he appeared in black, with his wife and daughters dressed in the same manner. In this fashion, he surrendered himself to his judges, to dispose of him as they pleased; but, seeing him so humiliated, they were touched with compassion, and acquitted him. Not long afterwards, Apollodorus pursued his schemes with more success, and seized power. The first act of his tyranny was directed against the judges, who had acquitted him. He punished them with the greatest cruelty, as if he owed his life not their humanity, but to his own conduct.

Event Date: -278 GR

§ 6.7.2  Apollodorus, when he was a private citizen at Cassandreia, was so careful in his words and actions, that he was considered the greatest patriot who ever lived. He signed the decree for the removal of the tyrant Lachares from Cassandreia, because Lachares was a friend and ally of king Antiochus, and suspected of intending to betray the people to him. And when Theodotus proposed that he should have a bodyguard, he himself was the first to oppose the motion. He also established the Eurydicaea, a feast in commemoration of Eurydice, who had restored liberty to the citizens of Cassandreia. He obtained the freedom of the city for the soldiers, who had refused to defend the fortress against the people, and he allotted them settlements in Pallene, so that they might remain there, as guardians of the public liberty. And at all public meetings he was continually denouncing despotism, as the most dreadful of all things which could happen to a people. By these devices he deceived the people so effectively, that at the very time when he had formed a plot to seize the sovereignty of the state, he was supposed to be the most determined foe of tyranny. He had gained the support of a gang of slaves and workmen, whom he summoned to a private meeting. There he killed a youth, whose name was Callimeles, and gave the body to the cook Leontomenes, who served up his entrails for them to eat. They all shared in this meal, and drank his blood mixed with wine, uniting themselves in a horrid conspiracy by these savage mysteries. With the assistance of these associates, he seized power, and became the most cruel and bloody tyrant, that ever afflicted not only Greece, but any barbarian nation.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.8.1  Aegyptus: Aegyptus was dispatched by Mausolus to Miletus, to assist a group there, who had promised to betray the city to him. When Aegyptus arrived, he found that the conspiracy had been detected, and that he was in danger of being arrested. He made his escape to his ship, but saw that some men were on guard to prevent the vessel from putting to sea. Then he sent a pilot on shore, to pretend to search for Aegyptus, and to ask everyone whom he met, to help find him, and send him down to the ship, which was ready to sail. The men, who had been dispatched to prevent the vessel from sailing, when they heard that Aegyptus was not on board, left the harbour, and ran in different directions around the city in search of Aegyptus. But as soon as the pilot returned to the ship, he slipped his cable, and got off safely to sea.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.9.1  Leucon: Leucon, when his treasury was very low, issued a proclamation for a new coinage; and ordered everyone to bring in their money, and to receive the same in value struck in the new coinage. The new coins were then struck, and each piece of money bore a value double to what it possessed before. One half he kept for himself, and every individual received the same value that he gave in.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.9.2  When Leucon received information of a conspiracy being formed against his government by a strong group of the citizens, and among them his own friends, he assembled the merchants. He borrowed from them whatever sums they could afford, upon the pretence that, if he paid a stipulated sum, the names of the conspirators would be revealed to him. When they had readily supplied him with what he wanted, he took them into his palace. He told them, that there really was a conspiracy formed against him, and that he depended on them to be his guards, because if his government did not survive, the money that they had lent him would be lost. The merchants therefore armed themselves, and some attended him as his bodyguards, while some were posted to defend the palace. By the assistance of these men, and his particular friends, he caught and killed all who had been involved in the conspiracy; and when his government was thus secured, he repaid the money.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.9.3  In a war against the inhabitants of Heracleia, Leucon observed that some of his officers appeared likely to revolt. He ordered them to be seized; and told them, that some disagreeable accusations had been made against them, but that for his part he had no doubt of their loyalty. However, in case by the chance of war the victory should go to his enemies, in order that the accusations against them should not appear to be corroborated by such an event, he ordered them for the time being to leave their posts, which would be assigned to others. And, as if out of regard of them, he promoted their particular friends to be magistrates and officials in the villages. As soon as the war was finished, he observed that it was right to make some inquiry into the accusations, that had been indirectly made against them; so that the doubt, which he might have seemed to have cast on their loyalty, should be shown to be unreasonable. As soon as they appeared in court, accompanied by their friends, he surrounded the place with an armed force, and ordered everyone of them to be put to death.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.9.4  The inhabitants of Heracleia made war on Leucon, and advanced against him with a great fleet. They landed opposite him, and carried out various raids. Leucon observed that his troops did not show courage against the enemy; they were reluctant to fight, and easily routed. He drew up his army to oppose the invaders, but altered the arrangement of it; he posted his hoplites in the first line, and in their rear the Scythians, who had express orders, that if the hoplites gave way, they should strike them down with their javelins. The severity of these orders made his army more resolute, and put an end to the ravages of the enemy.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.10.1  Alexander, general of the guards: Alexander, who commanded the guards, that garrisoned the town and forts of Aeolis, exhibited games to the people, for which he hired from Ionia the most celebrated wrestlers, the musicians Thersander and Philoxenus, and the actors Callipides and Nicostratus. The eminence of the performers drew a large number of people from all the neighbouring cities. When the theatre was quite crowded, Alexander surrounded it with his own troops, and the barbarians who were in his pay; and he seized all the spectators with their wives and children. By this act, he intended no more than to raise money from them, which he did by the ransom which he demanded. Then he gave up his command to Thibron, and left the country.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.11.1  Aristeides of Elea: When Dionysius was besieging Caulonia, Aristeides of Elea sailed with twelve ships to relieve it, and Dionysius advanced against him with fifteen ships. Aristeides retreated to avoid this superior force, and, as the night came on, he ordered torches to be lighted. He removed these torches by degrees, and instead he lit others, which he floated upon large corks. Dionysius was distracted by the lighted corks, and directed his course so as to keep them in view, expecting to bring the enemy to battle in the morning. Meanwhile Aristeides tacked about, and steered for Caulonia.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.12.1  Alexander, son of Lysimachus: Alexander, the son of Lysimachus and Amastris, formed a plot to make himself master of Cotiaeum, a fortress in Phrygia. To that end, he secretly placed his army in a hollow way near the fortress. He disguised himself in simple Phrygian clothes, with a cap on his head, and took with him two youths with bundles of wood on their shoulders and swords concealed under their arms. In this way he passed through the gates, unsuspected by the guards, and entered the city. Then he laid aside his disguise, and showed himself publicly to the citizens. He shook then by the hand, and assured them, that he had come to protect and save the state. Believing this assurance, they threw open their gates as if they were completely safe. Then the forces which he had concealed rushed in, according to their instructions, and captured Cotiaeum.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.13.1  The Amphictyons: The Amphictyons, when they were besieging Cyrrha, discovered an aqueduct, which supplied the city with water. On the advice of Eurylochus, they poisoned the water with hellebore, which they procured in great quantity from Anticyra. The inhabitants of Cyrrha, who made constant use of the water, were seized by a violent sickness, and were unable to continue fighting. Under these circumstances, the Amphictyons easily defeated them, and made themselves masters of the place.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.14.1  The Samnites: The Samnites entered into a treaty of peace with their enemies, which was endorsed by mutual oaths; on condition that the enemy could take from the whole circuit of the Samnite walls, one single row of stones. The Samnites were exceedingly well satisfied with the terms, until they saw the enemy pick out the lowest row, which in effect demolished their walls, and left their city defenceless.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.15.1  The Campanians: The Campanians made a treaty with their enemies, on condition that they should deliver up to them half of their weapons. As a result of this, they cut their weapons in two; they kept one half, and they returned the other half to the owners of them.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.16.1  The Carthaginians: When the Carthaginians were blocked up by Dionysius in a spot, where they had no supply of water, they dispatched an embassy to him with proposals for peace. He agreed to this, on condition that they should evacuate Sicily, and reimburse him for the expenses of the recent war. The Carthaginian deputies agreed to the terms, but as they were not empowered to conclude the treaty without the authority of the admiral, they asked for leave to shift their camp to the place where the admiral lay; then the treaty, cleared of all obstacles, could be ratified. Dionysius, against the advice of Leptines, agreed to their request. As soon as they had changed the site of their camp, the Carthaginians sent back the ambassadors of Dionysius, and refused to conclude the treaty.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.16.2  When the Carthaginians had invaded Sicily, in order to be supplied with provisions and naval stores from Africa in the speediest manner, they made two water-clocks of exactly the same design, and drew round each of them an equal number of circles. One one of those circles was engraved "Need ships of war", on another "Need transport ships", "Need gold", on another "Machines", on another again "Corn", on another "Cattle", "Weapons", "Infantry" and "Cavalry". The circles were all filled up in this manner, and one of the water-clocks was kept by the forces in Sicily, while they sent the other to Carthage. They directed the Carthaginians, when they saw the second torch raised, to send the items described in the second circle; when the third torch was raised, to send what was in the third circle; and so on. By this means they received a steady supply of whatever they wanted.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.16.3  The Carthaginians fitted out a fleet for an expedition against Sicily, which consisted of triremes and transport ships. Dionysius received intelligence of this, and set out to oppose them with a numerous fleet. As soon as the Carthaginians found the enemy, they drew up their transport ships fully-manned in a circle, with a space between each ship sufficient for the easy passage of a ship of war; and in the middle of the circle they placed their triremes. In this formation, while the transport ships prevented the enemy from breaking in upon them in line of battle, the triremes could briskly push out between them and attack the enemy vessels singly. They sank many of them, and so crippled the rest, that they could no longer continue the battle.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.16.4  In their war with Hieron, the Carthaginians sailed by night to Messene, and anchored not far from the city, behind a headland. In the harbour the enemy had a number of ships of war, as well as transport ships, and at the mouth of it were stationed guard ships. The Carthaginian admiral ordered the captain of one of the swiftest triremes to pass the mouth of the harbour; and if the enemy pursued him, to stand out to sea, and to draw them as far out as possible after him. Accordingly, as soon as he was detected by the guard ships, who supposed him to have been sent to look into the harbour, they slipped their anchors and gave chase with all the speed they could make. The Carthaginians, when they saw the guard ships out at sea, and a sufficient distance away for their purpose, immediately sailed into the harbour. They cut loose several of the transport ships, and carried them off.

Event Date: -264 GR

§ 6.16.5  The Carthaginians found that the Romans had a much greater force in Sicily than themselves, and sought to divide it up. For that purpose, some of the citizens joined in a pretended conspiracy, and proposed to betray Lipara, an island next to Sicily, to the Roman general Cn.Cornelius. Cornelius accepted their proposal, and ordered half of his fleet to sail to Lipara, with a military force on board. The Carthaginians then put to sea; they advanced slowly toward the Roman fleet, and dispatched an embassy to the Roman general, imploring him to grant them a peace. When the ambassadors were admitted to see Cornelius, they asked him to go on board the ship of the Carthaginian admiral, who was at that time exceedingly ill; in order to conclude the treaty in person with them in the clearest and most unequivocal terms. The Roman agreed, and the Africans no sooner saw the enemy's general in their power, than they attacked the Romans in full force, and obtained an easy victory.

Event Date: -260 GR

§ 6.17.1  The Ambraciots: The Romans, after losing great numbers in the siege of Ambracia, decided to surprise the place by undermining the walls. They had made some progress before the Ambraciots discovered their operations. But when the quantity of earth which was thrown up made their intentions obvious, the defenders made an equal effort to stop them by countermining. They dug a deep ditch at the end of the enemy's works; and placed thin plates of brass in it, in such a way that, whenever the Romans fell into the ditch, the noise was heard by the sentinel. The defenders then entered the ditch, armed with a long spear, which they call sarissa, and engaged with the enemy. However, these subterranean conflicts, in a narrow dark passage, gave no great advantage to the Ambraciots; and they had recourse to another stratagem. They constructed a pot with a mouth as wide as the entrance to the ditch; and perforated the bottom, introducing into it an iron pipe, which they filled with small feathers. They set the feathers on fire, and stopped up the mouth of the pipe with sawdust; the fire was supplied from a brass container, which was fitted to it for that purpose. The enemy's mine works were thus filled with a constant succession of smoke and unbearable stench, which forced them to abandon their excavations.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.18.1  The Phocians: When the Phocians were hemmed in at Parnassus, they took advantage of a moonlit night, and poured down upon the enemy, spurred on by desperation, with their weapons gleaming. They struck the Thessalians with such a panic, that some supposed them to be a supernatural appearance, and others thought they were a new force coming to the aid of the Phocians. The Thessalians made such a poor resistance, that they suffered a complete defeat; and four thousand of them were left dead on the spot.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.18.2  As soon as it was known in the city, that the Thessalians had invaded Phocis, the Phocians dug a deep trench in front of the most accessible part of the walls. They threw pieces of broken pots and vases into the trench, and spread a covering of earth over them. When the enemy's cavalry advanced onto it, the earth gave way, and most of the horsemen, as well as their horses, were killed.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.19.1  The Plataeans: The Plataeans had some Theban prisoners in their power. When the Thebans invaded their territory, they send an envoy to them, declaring that if they did not evacuate the country, they would put all the prisoners to death., but nevertheless the Plataeans killed their prisoners.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.19.2  When the Plataeans were besieged by the Lacedaemonians, they sallied out in the night and attacked the Spartan camp. The Lacedaemonians raised the "hostile" torch, to bring the Thebans to their assistance. But the Plataeans in the city raised the "friendly" torch, so that the Thebans, confused by the conflicting lights, might postpone marching to the assistance of the Lacedaemonians, until they received a clearer indication that they needed it.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.19.3  The Plataeans were closely besieged by the Lacedaemonians and Thebans, and were at at a loss how to inform the Athenians of their situation. A body of two hundred men offered themselves for that service; they were determined, if they were detected by the enemy, to either fall in the attempt, or cut their way through them. A dark and stormy night was chosen for the venture, when the rest of the citizens mounted the walls and attacked the enemy's siege works. While the attention of the besiegers was attracted to the quarter, where the attack was being made, the two hundred men mounted the walls on the opposite side, and were let down by ladders, without being observed. Instead of taking the direct road to Athens, by which the enemy would be sure to pursue them, if they discovered their attempt, they took the road to Thebes. And that is what happened; the Lacedaemonians went in pursuit across Cithaeron, while the Plataeans, after turning a little off the road to Thebes, reached Hysiae; from there they escaped safely to Athens.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.20.1  The Corcyraeans: The Athenians marched out against the Corcyraean exiles, who had established themselves on mount Istone. The exiles considered it hopeless to offer any resistance; they delivered up their weapons, and surrendered themselves to the discretion of the Athenians. The Athenians accepted their submission, and granted them a truce, on condition that any attempt to escape should be regarded as a breach of the truce. The Corcyraeans, who were apprehensive that the Athenians would treat the exiles too humanely, secretly advised them to make their escape to Argos. They provided them with a boat for that purpose, in order to encourage them to infringe the truce that had been granted to them. When the exiles tried to escape, the Athenians delivered them up to the Corcyraeans as truce-breakers; and they put every one of them to death.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.21.1  The Egestaeans: The Egestaeans requested the assistance of the Athenians, and promised to give them large subsidies. The Athenians dispatched ambassadors to them, to see what prospect there was of the subsidies being paid. In the mean time, the Egestaeans borrowed from the neighbouring cities gold and silver, in whatever shape and quantity they could obtain it; with which they magnificently decorated the temples of their gods, and their private houses. When the ambassadors reported back at Athens what a profusion of weath they had seen, assistance was immediately sent to them.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.22.1  The Locrians: The Italian Locrians entered into a treaty with the Sicilians, which they confirmed by an oath. Under their garments they carried heads of garlic on their shoulders, and in their shoes they put earth under their feet. Then they swore that their state would remain faithful to the terms of the treaty, as long as they trod the earth that they walked on, or carried their heads on their shoulders. The next day, after throwing away their garlic, and the earth from their shoes, they made a general massacre of the Sicilians, who were thrown off their guard, believing that they were protected by the oath which the Locrians had taken.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.23.1  The Corinthians: The Corinthians had promised assistance to the Syracusans against the Athenians, and received information that the Athenians had anchored near Naupactus with twenty ships, in order to keep watch on the ships that passed by. The Corinthians equipped twenty five triremes, with orders to sail to Panormus in Achaea, and show themselves to the Athenian fleet. And while that squadron distracted the enemy, a number of Corinthian transport ships, with men and military stores on board, sailed from the Peloponnese to the assistance of the Syracusans, and arrived safely at Syracuse.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.24.1  The Lampsacenians: The Lampsacenians and the Parians, who had a dispute about the boundaries of their respective territories, agreed each to dispatch a certain number of persons from one city to the other at an early hour of the morning; and wherever the two groups met, that spot should be the common boundary between their territories. The Lampsacenians persuaded the fishermen, who were employed along the road where the Parians were due to travel, to cook some fish on that morning, and make libations of wine, as a sacrifice to Poseidon; and then they should ask the Parians, as they passed by, to share with them in the sacrifice, in honour of the god. The Parians agreed, but one mouthful of fish, and one glass of wine, induced them to take a second, and so on; until so much time was lost, that the Lampsacenians arrived first at the Hermaeum, which is seventy stades from Parium, and two hundred from Lampsacus. By this trick, the Lampsacenians gained a large territory from the Parians, and the Hermaeum was established as the boundary between the two states.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.25.1  The Chalcedonians: The Chalcedonians and Byzantines, who were at war with each other, agreed on a truce of five days, while a congress of each state was summoned to discuss the conditions of peace. Three days were spent in fruitless negotiations. On the fourth, the Chalcedonians pretended that important business obliged them to return home. After receiving permission to do this, they spent the night in equipping their ships, and the next day they attacked the Byzantines, who were completely unprepared for hostilities to be restarted, because the period of the truce had not yet expired.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.27.1  The Lacedaemonians: The Athenian and Lacedaemonian fleets were stationed opposite each other in Asia, and their moorings were in sight of each other. They used to set out to sea at the same time, and later they would both sail away and disembark their crews. On a moonless night, the Laconians ordered their crews to embark in silence, and then when it was daytime they openly put their peltasts on board, and remained in their ships without moving. When the Athenians saw this, they did the same. As soon as it was time for breakfast, the Laconians disembarked their peltasts, who prepared some food. Similarly, the Athenians disembarked their peltasts, and were busy about their breakfast. At that moment, the crews of the Laconian ships went into action, and sailed against their enemies' empty ships. They destroyed most of the Athenian ships, while their crews were still at breakfast.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.27.2  When the Phigalians were besieged by the Lacedaemonians, they sent a messenger to summon assistance from the Argives. After capturing the messenger, the Laconians changed their appearance to look like Argives, and marched along the road that led from Argos. When the Phigalians saw them, they thought that their allies had arrived, and opened their gates to let them in.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.36.1  The Eleans: The Eleans suspected that Xenias, the leader of their city, was a secret supporter of the Arcadians, but they had no form proof of it. Some of his political opponents persuaded a Laconian, who was living in the city, to claim an Arcadian boy as his slave. When the case went for judgement before the magistrates, they majority judged in favour of the Laconian, but Xenias took the side of the Arcadian. Because they could not agree, the case went to the public assembly, and there again Xenias spoke in favour of the Arcadian. The people were convinced that this was clear evidence that Xenias supported the Arcadians, and they sentenced him to death.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.38.1  Hannibal: The Numidians brought to Hannibal the body of (?) Gracchus, who had been killed in battle, and they suggested that he should maltreat the body. Hannibal did not permit this; he said that the man had been a good general, and, after giving him an appropriate funeral, he sent his remains to Rome. As a result, Hannibal earned the goodwill of the Romans.

Event Date: -212 GR

§ 6.38.2  Hannibal persuaded his soldiers that men who died bravely in battle would come back to life soon afterwards. Once, when a good soldier had died bravely, he found another man with an identical appearance, and persuaded him to say, that he was the same man who had recently died.

Event Date: -200 GR

§ 6.38.3  When Hannibal drew up his army, he placed his best troops on either side of of the main body of infantry, and his weakest troops in the centre, in front of the rest of the infantry. He gave instructions, that when the enemy pushed back the men in the centre and tried to pursue them, the wings of the army should move inwards. As a result, the enemy were surrounded, and fifty thousand of them were killed in the battle.

Event Date: -216 GR

§ 6.38.4  When Hannibal led out his army at Cannae, where the plain was sandy, he placed them with the wind blowing from behind them. The Romans could not bear the sand, which was blown into their eyes, and they were routed.

Event Date: -200 GR

§ 6.38.5  Hannibal defeated the Romans in Campania by the following stratagem. During a storm, he gave these instructions to his army: when he gave the signal for fighting, they should rest and sleep, but when he gave the signal for retiring, they should leave at about the second watch. When he gave the signal for fighting, the Romans were alarmed, and stood ready for battle. A long time later, Hannibal gave the signal for retiring. The Romans, who were worn out by standing in the storm and by lack of sleep, returned and fell asleep. Then Hannibal attacked them, and killed them all.

Event Date: -216 GR

§ 6.38.6  When Hannibal was near Casilinum on a stormy night, he split his army into several divisions, and led them out to battle. He gave instructions, that when he first gave the signal for fighting, the first division should attack the enemy; but when the trumpeters gave the signal for retiring, the first division should retreat and the second division should move to the attack; and so on with the third and fourth divisions. And by this stratagem he defeated the enemy.

Event Date: -215 GR

§ 6.38.7  Hannibal ambushed Flaccus, a Roman general, near Herdonea, and killed him along with all his army, by using a man from Herdonea, who pretended to desert to the Romans. When he went over to the Romans, this man persuaded Flaccus to advance to Herdonea, by telling him that the most eminent men in the city wanted him to come to their assistance, because they could not bear the way in which they were oppressed by the Carthaginians.

Event Date: -210 GR

§ 6.38.8  Hannibal was trapped by the Romans in a narrow valley, and they guarded the entrance to it. He gathered some cattle, and sent them towards the entrance, with blazing torches fixed to their horns. This startled the Roman guards, who fled away; and Hannibal escaped without loss.

Event Date: -217 GR

§ 6.38.9  When Hannibal wanted to retreat, he left his cavalry behind, so that the Roman general might see them and not notice his departure. The cavalry could easily ride off later on.

Event Date: -217 GR

§ 6.38.10  Hannibal was unable to capture a Roman city, which was situated by the sea. He sent some ships towards it, on which he placed Roman flags. When the citizens saw the flags, they came out of the city, as if to welcome the Romans, but they fell into an ambush, and were killed.

Event Date: -216 GR

§ 6.41.1  Hamilcar: Hamilcar noticed that a Greek tactician, whom he kept as an adviser, was disclosing all his plans to Agathocles. Therefore, he announced that he intended to send his fleet to capture the Olympium, near Syracuse. The tactician secretly passed on this information to Agathocles; but Hamilcar ordered his sailors, after sailing for part of the night, to turn round and return as quickly as possible. Agathocles was fooled into sending a force to Syracuse, to defend the Olympium. He led the rest of his army by night against Hamilcar, who he expected to be left with only a small force. But Hamilcar, after disembarking a large number of troops from the ships, with a loud yell attacked the enemy, and killed seven thousand of Agathocles' soldiers

Event Date: -310 GR

§ 6.41.2  Hamilcar, who was in command of a squadron of Carthaginian ships, gave the appearance when he sailed away that he was leading his ships backwards. But in the night he turned round and disembarked his troops. Four thousand of the enemy were slaughtered as they woke from their sleep, and the rest ran hastily out to battle. After capturing many prisoners, Hamilcar sailed off again.

Event Date: -300 GR

§ 6.45.1  Syloson: Syloson, the son of Calliteles, who was highly esteemed by the Samians, was appointed to be their general in a war against the Aeolians. During the preparations for war, they neglected to hold the festival in honour of Hera, which should have been celebrated in the temple of the goddess, a short distance from the city. But Syloson observed, that it was the duty of a general not to neglect the honour of the gods; if he forfeited their assistance, he would lose his best ally, but if had their assistance, he would meet his enemies with greater confidence. The Samians applauded the piety and true courage which he displayed. They immediately prepared for the celebration of the festival, and assembled at the temple of Hera. Syloson entered the city by night; he sent into it the sailors from the ships, and seized control of Samos.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.46.1  Alexander of Thessalian: Alexander of Thessalian, before a naval battle, placed a number of expert marksmen on the decks. He provided them with a quantity of stones and javelins, and ordered them to harass the enemy with a volley of them, whenever they should come within distance. The missiles fell like a shower on the sailors, and injured many of them so badly, that they were unable to carry on the fight.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.47.1  Thrasybulus: Halyattes had blockaded Miletus, and he expected to make himself master of the city by reducing the people to starvation. He dispatched a herald to conclude a truce with Thrasybulus, the tyrant of Miletus, while he built the temple of Athene Assesia. Thrasybulus immediately ordered the citizens to bring into the market all the corn which they had, and to entertain each other in great banquets. When the herald described the abundance of food which he had seen, Halyattes raised the siege, supposing from this report that the Milesians had ample provisions.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.48.1  Mentor: When Mentor captured Hermaeus, he wrote letters in his name to all the cities that were under Hermaeus' authority. He ordered them to receive as their governor the person, to whom he had entrusted the delivery of the respective letters; and he sealed the letters with Hermaeus' seal. The people recognised the seal, and in obedience to the instructions of the letters, they surrendered each of their cities into the hands of Mentor's officers.

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§ 6.49.1  Anaxagoras: Philoxenus, who governed Ionia for Alexander, demanded that the Ephesians should hand over Anaxagoras, Codrus, and Diodorus, the sons of Echeanax, because they had killed Hegesias, the tyrant of Ephesus. When the people did not comply with his demand, he entered the town with a body of troops. He seized the three brothers, threw them into chains, and imprisoned them in the citadel of Sardis. After a long and harsh imprisonment, they freed themselves from their chains with a file, which had been smuggled in to them by a friend. They dressed themselves in slaves' clothes, and escaped from the prison by night in the guise of servants. Then they cut their clothes into long strips, which they used instead of ropes, to let themselves down from the walls. Diodorus unfortunately fell down from the top of the walls, and injured himself. He was obliged to lie where he fell, until he was picked up by the Lydians, who sent him to Alexander, to be punished according to his wishes. After Alexander died at Babylon, he was sent to Perdiccas at Ephesus, to stand trial there. But in the meantime, Anaxagoras and Codrus, who had made a successful escape, arrived at Athens. When they heard of Alexander's death, they returned to Ephesus, and set their brother free.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.50.1  Pindarus: When Croesus of Lydian was besieging Ephesus, the tower, which was called the traitor, fell down; and this made the capture of the place inevitable. But Pindarus, who was the tyrant of the city, persuaded the Ephesians to run a rope around the walls and gates, and to fasten it to the pillars of the temple of Artemis; and thereby to consecrate the whole city to the goddess. Croesus spared the city in honour of the goddess, because it had been placed under her immediate protection. He granted the Ephesians their freedom, and made an alliance with them.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.51.1  Theron: Theron kept some men of Acragas in his pay, who were ready to obey his orders on all occasions. When he lacked the means to pay them, he seized a sum of money that had been raised for the erection of a temple to Athene, by using the following trick. He observed to the citizens that the work was progressing slowly, and suggested that the building work should be contracted out for a certain sum, and that a time should be stipulated for the completion of the work. They agreed to let out the work, and placed the money which had been raised for the purpose in the hands of Gorgus, Theron's son. As soon as the money had passed into Theron's hands, instead of hiring architects, stone-cutters, and other workmen, he employed the people's money against themselves. He paid his men, formed them into a bodyguard, and with their assistance he seized control of the government of Acragas.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 6.52.1  Sisyphus: Sisyphus, who suspected that Autolycus was frequently stealing his cattle, fitted them with lead shoes, and on the shoes he inscribed these words: "Autolycus is a thief." Autolycus, as was his habit, stole the cattle in the night. The next morning, Sisyphus traced them to the pastures of Autolycus; and showed the neighbouring farmers the footsteps of the cattle, which proved that Autolycus was indeed a thief.

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§ 6.53.1  Hagnon: Hagnon formed a plan to plant an Attic colony at that part of the river Strymon, which is called Nine-Ways (Ennea Hodoi). But this oracle appeared to warn against the attempt: "Athenians, why of late attempt to raise
The structure proud, and colonise Nine-Ways?
Vain the attempt, unauthorised by Heaven;
Dire the decree, that rigid Fate has given
Against the deed; till from the silent tomb
At Troy the carcass of old Rhesus come
To join its parent soil. Then, then proceed;
And Fate shall render it a glorious deed. "
As as result of this message from the god, Hagnon dispatched some men to Troy, to open up the grave of Rhesus by night, and carry away his bones. They wrapped his bones up in a purple robe, and brought them to the river Strymon. However the barbarians, who inhabited the country, would not permit him to cross the river. Hagnon, who was not able to force his way across the river, concluded a truce with them for three days. They retired to their own homes, and left him in peace, for the time stipulated between them. In the night he crossed the Strymon with his army. He carried with him the bones of Rhesus, which he buried by the side of the river; and there he defended himself with a ditch and palisades. He rested during the day, and worked on the fortifications every night; and within three nights, his defence works were completed. When the barbarians returned, and found what he had been doing during their absence, they accused him of infringing the truce. "I am certainly not guilty of that," replied Hagnon. "The truce was to remain inactive for three days, which I observed religiously. The defence works, which you see, were erected in the intervening nights." This was the origin of the city, which Hagnon built on the Nine-Ways, and he called it Amphipolis.

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§ 6.54.1  Amphiretus: Amphiretus of Acanthus was captured by pirates, and carried to Lemnos. There the pirates kept him under close guard, because they expected to be paid a considerable sum for his ransom. Amphiretus took little to eat, but he drank vermillion mixed with salt water. This coloured his stools in such a way, that his captors believed that he was suffering a haemorrhage. They were afraid that his death would rob them of the expected ransom, and they released him from imprisonment, in the hope that exercise might restore him to health. But as soon as Amphiretus was set free, he made his escape by night. He boarded a fishing-boat, and arrived safely at Acanthus.

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§ 7.0.1  I address this seventh book of Stratagems to your most sacred majesties, Antoninus and Verus. In this book you will observe that even the minds of barbarians are capable of military stratagems, deceptions, and tricks. And therefore you will see that you yourselves should not hold them in too great contempt, and your generals must be similarly cautious. For there is nothing against which they should guard more carefully than tricks, cunning and deception; the barbarians excel much more in these devices, than in military prowess. And nothing will protect them more effectively from the tricks of the barbarians, than a constant distrust of their promises and claims. By uniting this distrust with typical Roman valour, we can be still more superior to them, if we also add a knowledge of the stratagems which they have sometimes employed.

Event Date: 163 GR

§ 7.1.1  Deioces: Deioces the Mede seized power over the Medes in the following way. They were a nomadic people, and had no settled homes; they had no cities, no laws, knew no principles of justice; but plundered each other of whatever one wanted, and the other possessed. Deioces gave laws to his neighbours, and tried to establish the principles of justice in their minds. They were delighted with his regulations, and obeyed his decrees. His name soon became famous among the Medes; and many of them used to turn to him, to settle their disputes, as a most just and upright judge. As soon as his eminence and reputation had won him universal esteem, he obtained guards to protect him from the injuries, which his decisions might provoke. By the assistance of these guards, he filled his little house with stones during the night. He showed the stones to the Medes the next day, and claimed that they had been thrown at him, putting his life in danger, by those against whom he had adjudicated. The people were outraged at this treatment, which he had so undeservedly suffered. For his personal safety, they authorised him to live on the citadel at Agbatana. They gave him a bodyguard of his own choice, and they ordered his necessary expenses to be paid out of the sacred funds. He continually increased his guards, until eventually instead of a judge he became their king.

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§ 7.2.1  Alyattes: The Cimmerians, a people of great bodily size, made war on Alyattes. He marched against them, and ordered his men to take into battle with them a number of large fierce dogs. When the dogs were released, they fell on the barbarians, as they would on a herd of wild beasts. They injured many of them, so as to disable them from action, and put the others to flight.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.2.2  To weaken the cavalry of the Colophonians, in which they were very powerful, Alyattes entered into an alliance with them. And when they served under him, he always particularly favoured the cavalry in the distribution of gifts. At last, when he was at Sardis, he gave them sumptuous provisions and doubled their pay. As soon as the cavalry, who were encamped outside the city, heard that their pay had been doubled, they put their horses in the care of their grooms, and rushed off to the city, in great eagerness to receive their doubled pay. Alyattes suddenly ordered the gates to be shut, and he surrounded the Colophonians with a body of armed men, who cut them to pieces. Then he mounted his own men on the Colophonian horses.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.3.1  Psammetichus: Psammetichus overthrew Tementhes, king of Egypt, in the following way. Tementhes consulted the oracle of Ammon about the kingship, and the oracle told him to beware of cocks. Psammetichus was informed by Pigres of Carian, who was his close friend, that the Carians were the first people who wore plumes of feathers on their helmets. He immediately understood the meaning of the oracle, and took into his service a large number of Carians, with whom he advanced against Memphis. Psammetichus defeated Tementhes in a battle near the temple of Isis, which is about five stades away from the palace. A part of Memphis is called Caromemphitae, taking its name these Carians.

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§ 7.4.1  Amasis: When Amasis was fighting against the Arabs, he placed behind the Egyptians the statues of the gods which they held in most honour and veneration. This induced them to face danger more readily, because they supposed that they were in the immediate sight of their gods, who would not betray them, or leave them in the hands of their enemies.

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§ 7.5.1  Midas: Midas, pretending that he was going to perform a solemn sacrifice to the great gods, led out the Phrygians by night as if in a procession, with flutes, and timbrels, and cymbals; but each of them at the same time secretly carried swords. The citizens all left their houses to watch the procession; but the musical performers drew their swords, slew the spectators as they came out into the streets, took possession of their houses, and set up Midas as their ruler.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.6.1  Cyrus: Cyrus was defeated in three different battles with the Medes. He decided to risk a fourth battle with them at Pasargadae, where the Persians had left their wives and children. He was defeated again, but when the Persians fled to the city, and saw their wives and children there, they were struck by the thought of what would happen to them if they fell into the hands of the victorious enemy. Upon this, they rallied and attacked the Medes, who had lost all order in their eager pursuit. The Persians gained a victory which was so decisive, that the Medes never again ventured to face Cyrus in battle.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.6.2  Cyrus led his forces away from Sardis, in accordance with a treaty which he had agreed with Croesus. But as soon as night came, he returned, applied ladders to the walls which were unprepared for a siege, and took Sardis by storm.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.6.3  After Cyrus had captured Sardis, Croesus still held out in the citadel, hoping for assistance from the Greeks. Cyrus ordered the prisoners from Sardis, who were the friends and relations of the besieged, to be bound up and paraded in front of them. At the same time, a herald proclaimed that, if the besieged surrendered the citadel to Cyrus, they would receive their friends and relations safe and without ransom; but if they persisted in holding out against him, he would hang every man before their eyes. The besieged chose to save their friends, rather than wait for the outcome of the precarious hopes, which Croesus had of assistance from the Greek states; and so they surrendered the citadel.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.6.4  After Croesus had been defeated and captured, the Lydians revolted again. Cyrus, who was himself planning an expedition against Babylon, sent Mazares the Mede against Lydia. He ordered him, as soon as he had reduced the country into subjection, to take from them their weapons and horses; to force them to wear women's clothes; to forbid them to take part in hurling the javelin, or horse-riding, or any martial exercises; and to force them to take up female pastimes, such as spinning and singing. By these means he made their minds so effeminate, that the Lydians, who were once a very warlike people, became the most feeble of all the barbarians.

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§ 7.6.5  When Cyrus was besieging Babylon, he dug a channel, through which he intended to turn away the river Euphrates, which ran through the city. When he had completed the channel, he marched his army a considerable distance away. The Babylonian were induced by this to believe that he had given up all hope of capturing their city, and therefore they became more careless in their defence of it. But Cyrus suddenly diverted the course of the river, and secretly marched his army through the old channel. In this way, while the Babylonian thought themselves perfectly safe, he made himself master of the place.

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§ 7.6.6  In a battle with Croesus, Cyrus observed that the Lydian depended greatly on his cavalry. To render them useless, in front of his hopliteshe placed a number of camels; the nature of these animals is such, that horses can bear neither the sight nor the smell of them. The horses therefore became ungovernable, and fled away. They cast down the Lydians in their flight, and broke their ranks, so that Cyrus had won the victory, even before he had come to grips with the enemy.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.6.7  To persuade the Persians to throw off their subservience to the Medes, Cyrus used the following device. He pointed out to them a barren, thorny spot, and ordered them to clear and cultivate it. When with great labour and fatigue they had completed this task, the next day he ordered them to bathe and clean themselves, and come to a sumptuous feast which he had prepared for them. After they had spent the day in such luxury, he asked them which of the two days they preferred. They replied that the present day was as much preferable to the former, as happiness is to misery. "It is in your power then," said Cyrus, "to obtain happiness. Free yourselves from your slavery under the Medes." The Persians, struck by the greatness of this proposal, revolted and appointed Cyrus to be their king. Under his rule, they not only crushed the power of the Medes, but acquired for themselves the empire of all Asia.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.6.8  When Cyrus was besieging Babylon, the Babylonians, who had plenty of provisions of all kinds within the city, derided his efforts. But he soon discovered the means by which to attack them; he turned the river Euphrates, whose natural course ran through the city, into a neighbouring lake. Because their supplies were thus cut off, they had no alternative, but to surrender to Cyrus, or die of thirst.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.6.9  Cyrus, after having been defeated by the Medes, retreated to Pasargadae, and found that many of the Persian were deserting to the enemy. He informed his army that the next day he would receive from allied powers, who were hostile to the Medes, reinforcements amounting to a hundred thousand men. He told them all, therefore, to take a bundle of wood to welcome their allies. The Persian deserters informed the Medes about the expected reinforcements. As soon as night came on, Cyrus ordered every man to light his bundle of wood. The Medes, seeing the great number of fires burning, assumed that the reinforcements had arrived; and instead of pursuing the defeated foe, thought it better to retreat.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.6.10  At the siege of Sardis, Cyrus constructed machines of wood which were as high as the walls. He placed statues on them, in Persian clothes, with beards, quivers on their shoulders, and bows in their hands. He moved these machines forwards at night, until they were so close to the walls, that they seemed to be above the citadel. Early in the morning, Cyrus began his attack in a different quarter; and the whole force that Croesus had in the town was immediately directed against this attack. But when some of then looked round and saw the statues on the opposite side of the city, a general panic took hold of the besieged, as if the citadel was already captured by the enemy. Throwing open the gates, each made his escape in the best manner he could; and Cyrus captured Sardis by storm.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.7.1  Harpagus: Harpagus, in order to convey a letter to Cyrus in secret, gutted a hare, and sewed up the letter in its belly. The bearer, equipped with hunter's nets, passed the guards of the roads without suspicion, and delivered the letter safely.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.8.1  Croesus: Croesus, finding that his Greek allies were slow in coming to his aid, chose out some of the ablest and stoutest of the Lydians, and armed them in the Greek manner. Cyrus' men, who were unaccustomed to Greek weapons, were at a loss how either to attack, or to guard against them. The clang of the spears upon the shields struck them with terror; and the splendour of the bronze shields so terrified the horses, that they could not be brought to charge. Cyrus was defeated by this stratagem, and made a truce with Croesus for three months.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.8.2  Croesus, after having been defeated by Cyrus in Cappadocia, in order to make good his retreat, ordered his men to carry with them as much wood as they possibly could. They deposited this wood in a narrow defile, through which Croesus led his forces, and continued his march throughout the night with all possible speed. He left some of his light horse, to set fire to the wood, as soon as day appeared. By this means Croesus achieved his retreat, because Cyrus was greatly hindered in his pursuit by the fire.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.9.1  Cambyses: When Cambyses attacked Pelusium, which guarded the entrance into Egypt, the Egyptians defended it with great resolution. They advanced formidable engines against the besiegers, and hurled missiles, stones, and fire at them from their catapults. To counter this destructive barrage, Cambyses ranged before his front line dogs, sheep, cats, ibises, and whatever other animals the Egyptians hold sacred. The Egyptians immediately stopped their operations, out of fear of hurting the animals, which they hold in great veneration. Cambyses captured Pelusium, and thereby opened up for himself the route into Egypt.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.10.1  Oebares: After killing the Magi, who had usurped the government of Persia, Dareius and his seven colleagues consulted about who was to become king. They decided, at a specified time, to meet on horseback at a place fixed for the purpose outside the city; and that the man, whose horse neighed first, should be king. Oebares, the groom of Dareius, as soon as he heard what they had decided, brought his horse to the appointed place the day before the contest was due to take place. There he introduced him to a mare, and then he took the horse back to the stable. The next morning, they all mounted their horses and met at the place as had been agreed. Dareius' horse remembered the place, and the pleasure he had enjoyed there, and instantly neighed for his mare. The rest of the seven immediately dismounted, and did homage to Dareius, saluting him as king of Persia.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.11.1  Dareius: When Dareius was confronting the Scythians in battle, and both armies were ready to fight, a hare rose from its seat and ran close to the Scythian line. Several of the Scythians started to pursue it. Dareius saw what was happening, and concluded that it was the wrong time to fight, if the Scythians were so confident in their superiority, that they could pursue a hare in front of the Persian army. Accordingly he ordered his trumpets to sound a retreat.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.11.2  When Dareius and the seven other Persians agreed to attack the Magi by night, he suggested that they wore the button, that usually fastens the tiara behind, on their forehead; so that by feeling the button, they might recognise their friends.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.11.3  Dareius was the first king, who imposed taxes on the people. To remove the odium of such a measure from himself, he ordered the satraps to raise the taxes in each of their provinces. In accordance with their ordered, they collected large amounts of money, which they handed over to Dareius. But Dareius kept only half of it for himself, and gave back the other half to the people.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.11.4  Dareius undertook an expedition into Scythia, but he was unable to gain any advantages there, and when his provisions ran short, he began to think of a retreat. In order to conceal his intentions from the enemy, and thereby to retreat with the least loss, he directed his tents to be left standing, just as they had been for some time before. In the tents there were many wounded soldiers, asses, mules and dogs; and a great many fires were lighted, which those who were left behind were ordered to keep burning constantly throughout the night. The Scythians, seeing the fires and the tents, and hearing the confused noise of the animals, assumed that the Persians were still encamped; whereas they had in fact secured their retreat. As soon as Dareius' movements were known to the Scythians, they pursued him as quickly as they could; but he was too far ahead, to be overtaken by them.

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§ 7.11.5  When Dareius besieged Chalcedon, the Chalcedonians neglected to make the exertions, which so formidable an enemy required, because they relied on the strength of their walls, and their great store of provisions. Nor did Dareius on the other hand make any attack upon the walls. He contented himself with ravaging a large part of the country around, pretending that he was waiting for reinforcements, before he attempted to attack the city directly. But while the whole attention of the Chalcedonians was directed towards their walls, the Persians dug a mine from a hill called Aphasium, which was about fifteen stades distant from the city, and continued digging as far as the market-place. As soon as they reached that spot, which they identified from the roots of olive trees, which grew there, they waited for the approach of night. Then they entered the forum, and took possession of the city without the loss of a man, while the Chalcedonians were still wholly intent on the defence of their walls.

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§ 7.11.6  When Dareius made an expedition against the Sacae, he found himself in danger of being surrounded by three armies. Therefore he advanced with all possible speed against the army which was nearest to him, and defeated it in battle. Then he dressed his men in the clothes and weapons of the Sacae, and marched against another army of the Sacae, slowly and confidently as if to meet their friends. But as soon as they came within a spear's length of them, the Persians, according to their orders, instead of friendly greetings, fell upon the enemy, and cut them to pieces. After having defeated two divisions of the enemy in this way, Dareius advanced against the third, but they had already heard about the fate of the other two armies, and surrendered to him without risking a battle.

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§ 7.11.7  The Egyptians revolted, on account of the cruelties inflicted on them by Aryandes, their satrap. In order to reduce them to obedience, Dareius himself marched through the Arabian desert and arrived at Memphis, at the very time when the Egyptians were commemorating the death of Apis. Dareius immediately made a proclamation, that he would give a hundred talents of gold to the man who could produce Apis. The Egyptians were so impressed by the piety of the king, that they took decisive action against the rebels, and entirely devoted themselves to support of Dareius.

Event Date: -1 GR

§ 7.12.1  Siraces: When Dareius attacked the Sacae, their three kings — Sacesphares, Amorges and Thamyris — retired to consult about the measures which they should take to face this emergency. A certain stable-keeper, called Siraces, was introduced to them, and he promised to destroy the Persian force by himself, if they pledged themselves by oath, to give to his children and family all the horses and treasure, which would fall into their hands as a result of the destruction of the enemy. After this had been agreed, he drew out his knife and cut off his nose and ears, and maimed himself also in other parts of his body. Thus disfigured, he deserted to Dareius, who believed his complaints about the cruel treatment which he had received from the king of the Sacae. "But", added Siraces, "by the eternal fire, and the sacred water, I swear that I will have my revenge, with the help of the Persians. And it is in your power to give the glorious revenge which I ask for, as I will explain to you. Tomorrow night the Sacae intend to move their camp to a spot, which I know; and I can lead you to it by a more direct way, than the one they will take, so that you can trap them as in a net. I am a horse-keeper, and know every step of the country for many miles around. But it will be necessary for us to take with us water and provisions for seven days; order preparations to be made for this, because there is no time to lose." Accordingly, he led the army in a march of seven days, into the most barren and sandy part of Media. When both their water and their provisions began to run out, the chiliarch Rhanosbates, suspecting his treachery, took him aside and rebuked him. "What could induce you," he said, "to deceive so powerful a monarch, and so numerous an army? You have brought us to a place destitute of every necessity of life. Neither beast, nor bird inhabits it; nor do we know whither to proceed, or how to return." Siraces clapped his hands, and answered him with a laugh, "I have gained a noble victory. I have saved my country from impending danger, and I have consigned the Persian army to destruction by famine and thirst." In his anger, the chiliarch immediately struck off his head. Dareius fixed his sceptre in the ground, and tied around it his tiara and the royal diadem. Then he climbed up a hill, and implored Apollo in this moment of distress to save his army by giving them water. The god heard his prayers, and there followed a plentiful shower of rain, which the army collected on hides, and in vases. They survived on the water, until they reached the river Bactrum, where they acknowledged that they owed their preservation to the favour of the gods. But though the ruse of the horse-keeper failed in this instance, Zopyrus later copied it with success against the Babylonians.

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§ 7.13.1  Zopyrus: Dareius besieged Babylon for a long time, without being able to capture it. Then Zopyrus, one of his satraps, mangled his face horribly and fled to the enemy, in the guise of a deserter. He pretended that the had been cruelly treated by Dareius, and the Babylonians believed his complaints, which were so clearly supported by his appearance. They took him under their protection, and their confidence in him increased by degrees, until at last they entrusted him with the government of the city. After he had been invested with this power, he soon found the means to throw open the gates by night, and allowed Dareius to take possession of Babylon. Dareius expressed himself on that occasion in a manner worthy of a great and generous a king. "I would not," said he, "even for twenty Babylons, wish to see Zopyrus so disfigured as he is."

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§ 7.14.1  Orontes: Artaxerxes ordered Orontes to send to him Teribazus, the satrap of Cyprus. Orontes was afraid of Teribazus, and did not dare to attack him by force, but he captured him by the following trick. Under one of the rooms in his house there was a dungeon. He ordered a couch to be placed over the mouth of the dungeon. The couch was covered with an embroidered tapestry, and was not fastened down. He invited Teribazus to this spot, on the pretence of having some private business to conduct with him. When Teribazus threw himself onto the couch that was prepared for him, the couch fell down into the dungeon with him on it. In this way he was captured, and sent in chains to the king.

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§ 7.14.2  After rising in revolt, Orontes fought against king's generals. He was driven to mount Tmolus, where he strongly entrenched himself. As soon as the enemy caught up with him, and encamped against him, he dug a very deep ditch, and ordered the guard to be doubled on all the paths leading to his camp. Then he sallied out in the night with a picked body of cavalry. He took the road towards Sardis, and found a large supply of provisions, which were intended for the enemy's camp. He seized the provisions, along with a considerable amount of booty from the inhabitants of Sardis. He sent news of these events to his camp, and ordered his army to come out on the next day and advance against the enemy. His army marched out with great confidence, and as soon as they had come to battle, Orontes with his cavalry fell upon the enemy' rear. In this way he gained a complete victory with little loss. The enemy left many dead on the field, and many others were taken prisoner.

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§ 7.14.3  Orontes, with ten thousand Greek hoplites, fought at Cyme against Autophradates, who advanced against him with the same number of cavalry. Orontes ordered his men to look around, and observe the extensiveness of the plain. He told them that, if they loosened their ranks, it would be impossible to withstand the charge of the enemy's cavalry. Accordingly, they kept their ranks compact and close, and received the cavalry upon their spears. When the cavalry found that they could make no impression on them, they retreated. Orontes ordered the Greeks, when the cavalry made a second attack upon them, to advance three paces forward to meet them. The cavalry supposed that they meant to charge them, and fled away from the battlefield.

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§ 7.14.4  After losing a great number of his allies, who had been cut off in an ambush by Autophradates, Orontes spread a report that a group of mercenaries were on the march to join him. He took care that this message, with every mark of confirmation that he could give it, was communicated to Autophradates. By night he armed the strongest of the barbarians in Greek armour; and as soon as it was day, he posted them in his army amongst the rest of the Greeks, along with interpreters who knew both languages and could repeat the Greek commands in the barbarian language. Autophradates, seeing such a large number of men in Greek armour, assumed that Orontes had received the reinforcements, of which he had been informed. Not wishing to risk a battle at so great a disadvantage, he broke up his camp and retreated.

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§ 7.15.1  Xerxes: When Xerxes undertook an expedition against Greece, he persuaded a number of nations to join in the enterprise, by spreading a report that he had gained the support of some of the principal Greeks, who were willing to betray the country to him. The others supp