Homer, Odyssey

The Odyssey of Homer, translated by James E. Huddleston (1952-2007), a work in copyright, placed online by the Chicago Homer and generously made available for non-commercial scholarly purposes. This version is useful for attempting to stay faithful to the line structure and naming conventions (e.g., heavy use of patronymics) of the original. This text has 574 tagged references to 108 ancient places.
CTS URN: urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0012.tlg002; Wikidata ID: Q35160;     [Open Greek text in new tab]

§ OD.1.1  BOOK 1
Tell me, Muse, about the wily man who wandered
long and far after he sacked the sacred citadel of Troy.
He saw the cities and knew the minds of many men,
but suffered at sea many sorrows in his heart,

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§ OD.1.5  struggling for his life and comrades' return home.
But he didn't save his comrades, much though he wanted to,
for by their own recklessness they perished,
childish fools, who devoured the cattle of the Sun, Hyperion,
who then deprived them of their homecoming day.

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§ OD.1.10  Tell us also, goddess, daughter of Zeus, of sundry things.
Then all the rest, all who had escaped sheer destruction,
were home and had escaped both war and sea.
Him only, yearning for his wife and return home,
the nymph, lady Calypso, a goddess divine,

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§ OD.1.15  detained in hollow caves, eager that he be her husband.
But as the years went round, there came a year at last
when the gods spun his destiny to return home
to Ithaca, but he wasn't safe from trials there,
even among his loved ones. All the gods felt pity for him

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§ OD.1.20  except Poseidon. He was incessantly incensed
at godlike Odysseus until he reached his own land.
But Poseidon had gone to visit the far-off Ethiopians,
the Ethiopians, most remote of men, who are divided in two,
some at Hyperion's setting, others at his rising,

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§ OD.1.25  to partake of a hecatomb of bulls and rams.
He sat there enjoying himself at the feast. The others by now
were together in the halls of Olympian Zeus.
The father of men and gods began speaking to them,
for in his heart he recalled noble Aegisthus,

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§ OD.1.30  whom far-famed Orestes Agamemnonides had slain.
Remembering him, he addressed these words to the immortals:
“Humph! How mortals now blame gods,
for they say that evils are from us. Yet they themselves
have woes beyond their lot by their own recklessness,

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§ OD.1.35  as even now, beyond his lot, Aegisthus
married Atreides' wedded wife and killed him when he came home,
sure of sheer destruction, after we told him beforehand,
sending Hermes, sharp-sighted Argeiphontes,
to neither woo his wife nor kill him,

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§ OD.1.40  for there'd be revenge, from Atreides' son Orestes,
when he came of age and longed for his own land.
So Hermes said, but he didn't win over the mind of Aegisthus,
though he meant well. Now he's paid for it all all together.”
Then bright-eyed goddess Athena answered him:

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§ OD.1.45  “Our father Cronides, your highness most supreme,
just as that one lies in fitting destruction,
may also any other one who does such things so perish!
But my heart is troubled about skilled Odysseus, the ill-fated one,
who, away from his loved ones a long time already, suffers misery

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§ OD.1.50  on a sea-girt island, where the sea's navel is.
The island is forested, and on it a goddess makes her home,
the daughter of malign Atlas, he who knows the depths
of every sea and by himself holds the tall pillars
that hold apart heaven and earth.

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§ OD.1.55  His daughter detains the unfortunate lamenter,
and ever with soft and wheedling words
enchants him in such a way that he'll forget Ithaca.
But Odysseus, eager for even the sight of smoke rising
from his land, longs to die. But there's now no care at all for him

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§ OD.1.60  in your dear heart, Olympian. Did not Odysseus
please you he when he offered sacrifice beside the Argive ships
in wide Troy? Why now, Zeus, are you so incensed with him?”
Cloud-gatherer Zeus said to her in reply:
“My child, what kind of talk has fled your wall of teeth?

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§ OD.1.65  How could I ever forget godlike Odysseus,
who is superior among mortals in mind and in giving sacrifice
to the immortal gods who hold wide heaven?
But earth-embracing Poseidon is ever relentless
in his rage because of the Cyclops whose eye Odysseus blinded,

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§ OD.1.70  godlike Polyphemus, whose strength is greatest
of all Cyclops. The nymph Thoosa bore him.
Daughter of Phorkys, ruler of the barren sea,
she joined in hollow caves with Poseidon.
Earth-shaker Poseidon does not kill Odysseus on his account,

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§ OD.1.75  but does drive him away from his father's land.
But come, let all of us contrive his return for him,
as he wishes. Poseidon will let go
of his anger, for he'll no way be able to contend
alone, opposed to all immortals, against the will of the gods.”

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§ OD.1.80  Then bright-eyed goddess Athena answered him:
“Our father Cronides, your highness most supreme,
if this is now pleasing to the blessed gods,
that ingenious Odysseus would return to his home,
then let's dispatch Hermes, the runner Argeiphontes,

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§ OD.1.85  to the island of Ogygia, to clearly speak
most quickly to the fair-haired nymph our will,
the return home of steadfast Odysseus, so that he may go.
Then I'll go to Ithaca, to spur his son on
more, and I'll put the courage in his heart

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§ OD.1.90  to call the hairy-headed Achaeans to assembly
and speak out to all the suitors, who are always slaughtering
his thick-thronging sheep and shambling curved-horned cattle.
I'll send him to Sparta and to sandy Pylos,
to learn of his dear father's return home, in hope he'll somehow hear

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§ OD.1.95  and so he'll have good repute among men.”
So saying, beneath her feet she tied fine sandals,
ambrosial, golden ones, that bore her, over water
and boundless land, with the breezes of the wind.
She grabbed a sharp spear, edged with sharp bronze,

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§ OD.1.100  heavy, long, and thick, with which she routs regiments of men,
heroes against whom the great father's daughter bears resentment.
In a rush she came down from the peaks of Olympus,
and in the kingdom of Ithaca stood at the doorway of Odysseus,
at the courtyard's threshold. She held the bronze spear in her palm,

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§ OD.1.105  disguised as a stranger, the Taphian chief Mentes.
Next she found the manly suitors, who were then
amusing their hearts with pebbles in front of the gate,
sitting on hides of oxen that they'd killed.
They had heralds and deft henchmen,

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§ OD.1.110  some who mixed wine and water in mixing bowls,
while some, with sponges full of holes, cleaned
and set the tables and others cut up lots of meat.
Godlike Telemachus was first by far to see her,
for he sat among the suitors, dear heart grieving,

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§ OD.1.115  seeing in his mind his good father, in hope he'd come from somewhere,
make a scattering of the suitors throughout the house,
and himself have honor and rule over his possessions.
Sitting among the suitors thinking this, he caught sight of Athena.
He made straight for the front doorway, displeased at heart

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§ OD.1.120  that a stranger stand a long time at the door. He stood close,
took her right hand, and accepted her bronze spear.
And, voicing winged words, he said to her:
“Welcome, stranger, you'll be treated kindly by us, then
when you've eaten supper, you can tell us what you need.”

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§ OD.1.125  So saying, he led the way, and Pallas Athena followed.
When they were inside the lofty dwelling
he stood the spear he carried against a tall pillar,
inside a well-wrought spear rack, where many spears
of steadfast Odysseus stood as well.

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§ OD.1.130  He led her to a fine ornamented chair, spread a cloth beneath her,
and sat her down. There was a footstool underneath her feet.
He set himself a variegated couch beside her, apart from the others,
the suitors, lest the stranger, distressed by the din
and coming among the haughty, not be satisfied with supper

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§ OD.1.135  and so he could ask her about his absent father.
A handmaid brought water for washing in a
fine golden pitcher and poured it above a silver basin
so they could wash, then pulled a polished table beside them.
A venerable housekeeper brought bread and set it before them

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§ OD.1.140  placing many foods on it, pleasing them from her stores.
A carver raised and placed before them platters of meats
of all kinds and put golden cups beside them.
A herald came often and poured wine for them.
In came the manly suitors. Then, as they

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§ OD.1.145  sat down in rows on chairs and couches,
heralds poured water on their hands,
slaves heaped bread in baskets beside them,
and boys filled mixing bowls to the brim with drink.
They threw their hands on the good things laid ready before them.

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§ OD.1.150  Then after the suitors had dispatched desire for food
and drink, other things caught their minds' attention,
the performance and the dance, for they accompany a feast.
A herald placed a gorgeous cithara into the hands
of Phemius, who sang, under duress, for the suitors.

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§ OD.1.155  Playing the lyre, he began to sing beautifully,
but Telemachus said to bright-eyed Athena,
holding his head close so others couldn't hear him:
“Dear stranger, will you resent me for what I'm going to say?
These things, the cithara and song, interest them

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§ OD.1.160  easily, since they eat without payment the substance of another,
of a man whose white bones rot somewhere in a storm,
lying on dry land or rolling in the waves of the sea.
If they saw that one returning home to Ithaca,
all would pray to be lighter on their feet

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§ OD.1.165  than to be richer in raiment and gold.
Now he's perished by an evil fate, and we have no
comfort, even if some earthly man
tells us he will come. His day of homecoming is done for.
But come, tell me this, and recount it exactly.

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§ OD.1.170  What man and from where are you? Where are your city and parents?
In what kind of ship did you arrive and how did sailors
bring you to Ithaca? Who did they claim to be?
For I don't at all think you reached here on foot.
And speak this truly to me, so I may know well

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§ OD.1.175  whether you're just visiting or are also a hereditary
guest-friend, since many other men used to come to our house
when that one too was one who had dealings with mankind.”
Bright-eyed goddess Athena said back to him:
“So then, I'll tell this to you quite exactly.

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§ OD.1.180  I claim I'm Mentes, son of skilled Anchialus,
and I rule over the oar-loving Taphians.
I've come this way now with my ship and comrades,
sailing on the wine-dark sea to men of another language,
to Temese, after copper, and I bring gleaming iron.

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§ OD.1.185  My ship stands over there, in the country, away from the city,
in Rheithron harbor beneath wooded Neion.
We claim that we're hereditary guest-friends of each other
from of old. Just go and ask the old man,
hero Laertes, whom they say no longer comes

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§ OD.1.190  to town, but suffers misery on his farm far away,
with an old woman handmaid who puts food and drink
beside him whenever exhaustion takes hold of his limbs,
as he crawls up the hill of his wine-bearing plot.
Now I've come, for they said your father was at home,

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§ OD.1.195  but, indeed, the gods impede him on his path.
For divine Odysseus has not yet died on land,
but still alive somewhere, he's held back by the wide sea
on a sea-girt island. Hard men hold him,
savages, who detain him against his will.

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§ OD.1.200  But I'll now prophesy to you, as the immortals
put it in my heart and as I think that it will happen,
though I'm neither a seer nor clearly know about birds of omen.
He surely won't be away much longer from his beloved
fatherland, not even if bonds of iron hold him.

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§ OD.1.205  Since he's resourceful, he'll figure out how to return.
But come, tell me this, and recount it exactly,
whether, big as you are, you're the son of Odysseus himself.
You're terribly like him in your head and fine eyes,
since we every so often got together with each other

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§ OD.1.210  before he went to Troy, where the rest
of the best of the Argives went in their hollow ships.
Since then, I've not seen Odysseus nor has he seen me.”
Astute Telemachus said back to her in answer:
“Well then, I'll tell you, stranger, quite exactly.

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§ OD.1.215  My mother says I'm his, but I don't know,
for no one ever knows for sure his parentage.
Would that I were the blessed son of some man
whom old age came upon among his possessions.
But, he who's been the unluckiest of all men,

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§ OD.1.220  his they say I am, since you ask me about this.”
Bright-eyed goddess Athena said back to him:
“The gods did not establish your line to be nameless
hereafter, since Penelope gave birth to such as you.
But come, tell me this, and recount it exactly.

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§ OD.1.225  What meal, what gathering is this? What has it to do with you?
A banquet or a wedding, since this is not a meal hosted by many?
They seem to me to dine haughtily, like wantons,
throughout the house. Any sensible man who came to visit
would be outraged seeing these many shameful deeds!”

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§ OD.1.230  Astute Telemachus said back to her in turn:
“Stranger, since you question me and ask about this,
once upon a time this house was going to be
rich and noble, when that man was at home.
Now the gods, scheming evil, have willed otherwise;

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§ OD.1.235  they've made him the most invisible of all
men. I wouldn't grieve so for him even if he'd died,
if he'd been tamed among his comrades in the Trojans' land
or in the hands of loved ones after he wound up the war.
The Panachaeans would have made a grave mound for him

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§ OD.1.240  and he'd have won great fame hereafter even for his son.
But now the Snatchers [Harpies] have snatched him without tidings.
He goes, unseen, unheard of, and has left me pain
and lamentation. But I don't only lament and grieve for him
now, since the gods have made other evil troubles for me,

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§ OD.1.245  for all the nobles who rule over the islands
of Doulichion, Same, and wooded Zacynthus,
and all who hold sway throughout rugged Ithaca,
all these woo my mother and consume my house.
She neither refuses hateful marriage nor can make

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§ OD.1.250  an end of it. They, by their eating, are wasting away
my house. Quite soon they'll smash me to pieces, too.”
Finding this intolerable, Pallas Athena said to him:
“Humph! You fall far short of absent Odysseus,
who'd lay his hands on shameless suitors,

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§ OD.1.255  if he came and stood now in the front door
of his home, holding a helmet, a shield and two spears,
as he was when I first saw him
drinking and enjoying himself in our house,
on his return from Ephyre and Ilus Mermerides.

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§ OD.1.260  For he'd gone there in a swift ship
searching for a man-killing drug, to have it
to rub on bronze-tipped arrows. Ilus didn't
give it to him, since he feared the gods who are forever,
but my father gave it to him, for he loved him terribly.

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§ OD.1.265  Should such an Odysseus engage the suitors,
all would be bitterly betrothed and swiftly doomed.
But indeed, these things lie on gods' knees,
whether he'll return, and make them pay in his palace,
or he won't. I urge you to consider

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§ OD.1.270  how to drive the suitors out of the palace.
Come now, hear and heed my words.
Tomorrow, call the Achaean heroes to assembly,
declare your will to all, and the gods will be witnesses to it.
Order the suitors to disperse to their own places,

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§ OD.1.275  and order your mother, if her heart moves her to marry,
to go immediately to her powerful father's great palace.
They'll arrange the wedding and assemble many bride gifts,
just as many as should follow a dear daughter.
I'll advise you shrewdly, if you'll trust me.

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§ OD.1.280  Rig a ship, the best you can, with twenty oars,
and go inquire about your father, so long on his way.
Perhaps some mortal may tell you, or you may hear a rumor
from Zeus, which very often carries news to men.
First go to Pylos and ask divine Nestor,

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§ OD.1.285  and from there go to Sparta, to blond Menelaus,
for of the bronze-clad Achaeans he was last to come home.
If you hear of your father's survival and return,
though you'd be impoverished, you should still hold out a year,
but if you hear he's dead and no longer alive,

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§ OD.1.290  you should then return to your beloved fatherland,
pile up a barrow for him on which to pay his last rights,
as many, very many, as are fitting, and give your mother to a husband.
But once you've carried these things out and done them,
consider then in your mind and heart

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§ OD.1.295  how to slay the suitors in your palace
by guile or openly. You must not in any way indulge
in childish ways, since you're no longer of an age for that.
Haven't you heard what kind of fame divine Orestes won
among all mankind, after he slew his father's killer,

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§ OD.1.300  cunning Aegisthus, who'd slain his famous father?
You too, my friend, for I clearly see you're big and handsome,
be staunch, so those born after will speak well of you.
But I'll go down to my swift ship and comrades,
who are likely quite impatient waiting for me.

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§ OD.1.305  Keep this in your mind and heed my words.”
Astute Telemachus said back to her in answer:
“Stranger, truly, you say these things with kindly thought,
like a father to his son, and I will never forget them.
But come now, stay a while, though you're eager for your journey,

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§ OD.1.310  so that bathed and with dear heart at ease,
you'll go to your ship glad at heart, with a gift,
a precious, very fine one, that you'll have as a keepsake
from me, the kind dear guest-friends give to guest-friends.”
Then bright-eyed goddess Athena answered him:

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§ OD.1.315  “Detain me now no longer, as I do want to be on my way.
Whatever gift your dear heart bids you give me,
give it, to be taken home, on my way back,
and pick a very fine one. You'll get one worth it in exchange.”
So saying, bright-eyed Athena departed,

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§ OD.1.320  as a bird flies up and away, and she put in his heart
confidence and courage, and caused him to think of his father
even more than before. When he thought it over in his mind
he was astounded in his heart, for he supposed it was a god.
The godlike man at once approached the suitors.

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§ OD.1.325  The far-famed singer sang to them, and they sat
listening in silence. He sang of the Achaeans'
sad return from Troy, that Pallas Athena imposed.
From an upper chamber, Icarius' daughter, prudent Penelope,
heard in her heart his wondrous song.

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§ OD.1.330  She descended her home's high staircase,
not alone, but two handmaids followed with her.
When the woman divine reached the suitors,
she stood beside a column of the densely-built roof,
holding a shiny veil against her cheeks,

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§ OD.1.335  and a devoted handmaid stood on either side.
Then, in tears, she said to the godlike singer:
“Phemius, since you know many other things that enchant mortals,
the deeds of men and gods that singers celebrate,
sing one of those, as you sit beside them, and let them drink

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§ OD.1.340  their wine in silence. Cease this sad song
that ever distresses the dear heart in my chest,
since sorrow not to be forgotten comes especially upon me,
for I always long for such a head, when reminded of my husband,
whose fame is wide from Hellas to the middle of Argos.”

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§ OD.1.345  Astute Telemachus said back to her in turn:
“My mother, why do you begrudge the trusty singer
entertaining whatever way his mind is spurred? Singers
are not at fault, but Zeus is probably to blame, who gives
to men who work for bread, to each one, however he wishes.

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§ OD.1.350  This one's singing Danaans' evil doom is no cause
for reproach, for people more applaud the song
that's newest to float about the hearers.
Let your heart and soul endure the hearing of it.
For Odysseus was not the only one to lose his day of homecoming

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§ OD.1.355  in Troy, but many other men also perished.
So go into the house and tend to your own work,
the loom and distaff, and bid your handmaids
go about their work. Speaking is of concern to men,
to all, especially to me, for the power in this house is mine.”

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§ OD.1.360  Astonished, she went back to the house,
for she put in her heart the astute words of her son.
When she'd gone up to the upper floor with her handmaid women,
she then wept for Odysseus, her beloved husband,
until bright-eyed Athena cast sweet sleep upon her eyelids.

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§ OD.1.365  The suitors raised an uproar throughout the shadowy palace,
and all prayed to lie in bed beside her.
Then astute Telemachus was first to speak among them:
“Suitors of my mother, with your arrogant wantonness,
let's now enjoy our feasting, and let there be no uproar,

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§ OD.1.370  since it is a fine thing, listening to a singer
such as this one is, in voice just like the gods.
But at dawn let's go and sit down in assembly,
all of us, so I may declare outright my will to you,
that you leave my palace. Find other meals,

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§ OD.1.375  and eat your own possessions, and take turns at your houses.
But if this seems more desirable and better to you,
to destroy one man's substance without compensation,
then consume it. I'll cry out to the everlasting gods,
in hope that somehow Zeus grant that there be deeds of requital.

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§ OD.1.380  Then, without compensation, inside this house you'll perish!”
So said he, and all bit their lips and marveled
at Telemachus, because he spoke undaunted.
Eupeithes' son Antinous said back to him:
Telemachus, it must be that the gods themselves teach you

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§ OD.1.385  to be a bold talker and to speak undaunted.
Let Cronion not make you king in sea-girt Ithaca,
which is hereditary to your family!”
Astute Telemachus said back to him in turn:
Antinous, even if you'll be offended by what I say,

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§ OD.1.390  I'd be willing to take this for myself, if Zeus should give it.
Do you think this the worst thing in the world that can happen?
For there's nothing bad in being king. Suddenly, one's house
becomes wealthy and oneself more esteemed.
But, there are indeed Achaean kings, and also many

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§ OD.1.395  others in sea-girt Ithaca, young and old,
any of whom may have this, once divine Odysseus has died.
But I'll be lord of our house and of the slaves
whom divine Odysseus took by pillage for me!”
Polybus' son Eurymachus said back to him in turn:

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§ OD.1.400  “Telemachus, indeed, these things lie on gods' knees,
whichever Achaean will be king in sea-girt Ithaca,
but may you yourself have your property and rule over your house.
For let the man not come, to take by force against your will
your property from you, while Ithaca is still a place to live in.

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§ OD.1.405  But I want to ask you, most noble sir, about the stranger.
This man, where is he from, from what country does he claim to be,
where is his father's farm and family,
and did he bring some news of your father's coming,
or did he come here wanting to do business of his own?

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§ OD.1.410  How quickly he sprang up and left and didn't hang around
to be recognized, for he seemed nothing like a coward to my eye.”
Astute Telemachus said back to him in turn:
Eurymachus, my father's return home is surely done for.
So, I neither believe news, if it comes from anywhere,

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§ OD.1.415  nor attend to prophecy, whatever my mother
may ask about when she calls a prophet to our hall.
This stranger is of my father's family from Taphos
and claims he's Mentes, son of wise Anchialus,
and that he rules the oar-loving Taphians.”

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§ OD.1.420  So said Telemachus, but in his heart he recognized the immortal goddess.
Turning to dancing and delightful song,
they enjoyed themselves and waited for evening to come.
Dark evening came upon them as they enjoyed themselves.
Then each went home to rest.

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§ OD.1.425  Telemachus, where a chamber had been built for him
in an open place high above the gorgeous courtyard,
went to bed, and in his mind he pondered many things.
Devoted Eurycleia, daughter of Ops Peisenorides,
carried burning torches by his side.

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§ OD.1.430  Laertes had bought her with his own possessions once upon a time,
when she was still in the bloom of youth. He'd given twenty oxen,
and in his palace valued her as equal to his devoted wife,
but he avoided his wife's anger and never took her to bed.
She carried burning torches by his side. Of the bondswomen,

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§ OD.1.435  she had loved him the most and nursed him when he was little.
He opened the door of the carefully made room,
sat down on the bed, took off his soft tunic,
and dropped it into the crafty old woman's hands.
Smoothing and folding his tunic,

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§ OD.1.440  she hung it on a peg beside the perforated bedframe,
made her way from the room, pulled the door closed
by its silver handle, and shot the bolt by its strap.
There through the night, wrapped in sheep's wool,
he considered in his mind the path Athena had shown him.

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§ OD.2.1  BOOK 2
When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
Odysseus' beloved son arose from bed,
put on his clothes, slung a sharp sword around his shoulder,
tied fine sandals beneath sleek feet,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.5  and made his way from the bedroom looking like a god.
At once he bid his clear-voiced heralds
to summon to assembly the hairy-headed Achaeans.
They summoned, and they assembled very quickly.
Then after they assembled and were together,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.10  he made his way to the assembly holding a bronze spear in his palm,
not alone; flashing-footed dogs followed with him.
Athena poured abundant grace upon him,
so all men gazed at him as he approached.
He sat in his father's seat as the old men gave way.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.15  The hero Aegyptius, who was bent with old age
and had seen countless things, was the first of them to speak,
for his beloved son had gone with godlike Odysseus
in the hollow ships to fine-foaled Ilium,
the spearman Antiphus, whom the savage Cyclops killed

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.20  in his hollow cave, the last he made a meal of.
He had three others, and while one, Eurynomus, consorted
with the suitors, the other two always kept their father's farm,
but even so, in grief and lamentation, he did not forget him.
Shedding tears for him, he spoke and said:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.25  “Hear me now, Ithacans, hear what I say!
Neither an assembly or session of ours has ever occurred
from when divine Odysseus left in his hollow ship.
Who's gathered us this way now? On whom has such a need come,
either of the young men or of those who are older?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.30  Or has he heard a message of the army on the way,
which he might clearly tell us, that he'd heard before us?
Or does he declare and speak about some other public matter?
He seems a good one, a blessed one, to me. Would that Zeus
accomplish good for him, whatever he has on his mind.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.35  So said he, and Odysseus' dear son rejoiced at the omen,
and did not stay seated long. He meant to speak,
and stood in the middle of the assembly. The herald Peisenor,
wise in astute counsel, put a scepter in his hand.
Then he addressed the old man first and said to him:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.40  “Old man, this man is not far off, as you'll soon know yourself.
I'm the one who gathered the men, and sorrow comes especially to me.
I neither heard any message of an army on the way
that I could tell you clearly, that I'd heard before you,
nor do I declare or speak about some other public matter,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.45  but of business of my own, that evil has befallen my house,
in two ways. I've lost my good father, who once upon a time
was king among you here and was kind as a father to you.
Now an even much greater evil will soon dash my entire house
completely to pieces and completely destroy my substance.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.50  Suitors harass my mother, who doesn't want them,
beloved sons of the men who are the best here,
who've shrunk shivering from going to the house of her father
Icarius, so he could accept bride gifts for his daughter
and give her to whom he wished, the one who came and pleased him,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.55  but they come and go every day to our house,
and slaughter our cattle and fat goats and sheep,
and drink our sparkling wine in revelry with reckless abandon.
These many things are wasted, for there's no man here,
such as Odysseus used to be, to keep this curse from our house.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.60  We're not, in any way, such as to ward it off. Yes, in that case
we'll be pitiful, not even trained in martial prowess.
Yes, I'd ward it off myself, if the power were in me,
for deeds bearable no longer have been done, and more unfairly,
my house has been destroyed. You yourselves should be indignant too,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.65  and be ashamed before the other neighbor men
who live around you and cower in dread of the gods' wrath,
lest they in some way turn in anger to punish evil deeds.
I beg you, by both Olympian Zeus and Themis,
who both seats and breaks up men's assemblies,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.70  check them, friends, and let me be afflicted by wretched sadness
by myself, unless by chance in some way my good father,
Odysseus, in ill will did evil to the well-greaved Achaeans,
for whom you take revenge on me and in ill will do me evil
by urging on those men. It would be better for me

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.75  that you yourselves eat both my treasures and my herds.
If you were to eat them, there'd sometime soon be compensation too,
for we'd accost you throughout the city with words,
demanding our possessions until all were given back,
but now you cast impossible pains upon me!”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.80  So said he in anger and threw the scepter to the ground,
breaking out in tears. Sympathy seized each and every man.
Then all the rest were silent, and none dared
answer Telemachus with harsh words,
but only Antinous said to him in answer:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.85  “Telemachus, you blowhard, unrestrained in fury, what kind of thing
you've said, defaming us, as you wished to fasten blame.
But the Achaean suitors aren't at all at fault regarding you,
but your beloved mother is, who exceedingly knows wiles.
For it's the third year already, and the fourth is coming soon,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.90  since she's wronged the heart in the Achaeans' chests.
She offers hope to all, and makes promises to each man,
sending messages, but her mind is intent on other things.
In her mind she devised this other trick.
She set up a great web in the palace, delicate and long-threaded,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.95  started to weave, then soon said among us:
'Young men, my suitors, since Odysseus has died,
wait, though eager for my wedding, until I can complete
this cloth, lest my weaving be ruined and in vain,
a burial cloth for hero Laertes, for the time when

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.100  baneful doom, of death that brings long woe, takes him down,
lest any Achaean woman throughout the kingdom resent me,
should he who won many things lie without a shroud.'
So said she, and our manly spirit yielded in turn.
Then by day she wove her great web,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.105  but at night, when she had torches placed beside it, she unraveled it.
Three years she went unnoticed in her trick, and so persuaded
the Achaeans, but when a fourth year came, and seasons came round,
right at that time, one of her women who knew it clearly told us,
and we discovered her unraveling the splendid web.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.110  So, she finished it, albeit unwillingly, under compulsion.
The suitors answer you this way, so you yourself know it
in your heart, and all Achaeans know.
Send away your mother, and order her to marry
whomever her father bids her, who also pleases her.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.115  But if she annoys the son of the Achaeans much longer,
though she knows in her heart what Athena has given her
exceedingly, skill in making gorgeous works, a good disposition,
and cunning wiles, such as none we've ever heard of, not even
of the ancients, who were fair-haired Achaean women of old,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.120  Tyro, Alcmene, and fair-crowned Mycene,
none of whom knew thoughts like those of Penelope,
but in this, at least, she has not rightly thought.
For they'll therefore eat your substance and possessions
as long as that one holds to this idea, that certain one the gods

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.125  place in her chest now. She makes great fame for herself,
but the loss of much substance for you,
and we won't go back, either to our fields or anywhere else,
until she gets married to the Achaean she wishes.”
Astute Telemachus said back to him in turn:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.130  “Antinous, it's not possible to drive away unwilling from our home
she who bore me, who raised me. My father, whether he's alive or dead,
is somewhere else on earth. It would be bad, for me to pay much back
to Icarius, if I myself of my free will sent my mother back.
For I'll suffer evils from her father, and a divinity will give me others,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.135  after my mother has prayed to the loathsome Furies
when she leaves our house. There'll be righteous anger
for me from men. So, I'll never speak this command to her.
If your heart feels indignation at your own conduct,
leave my palace. Find other meals

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.140  and eat your own possessions, as you take turns at your houses.
But if this seems to you more desirable and better,
to destroy one man's substance without compensation,
then consume it. I'll cry out to the everlasting gods,
that Zeus somehow grant that there be deeds of requital,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.145  then, without compensation, inside this house you'll perish!”
So said Telemachus, and far-seeing Zeus sent two eagles
for him from on high, flying from a mountain peak.
The two flew a while with the breezes of the wind,
with outstretched wings, next to each other,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.150  but when they reached the middle of the loud-voiced assembly,
they whirled around, flapping their thick wings,
then came toward the heads of all, and foreboded destruction.
Tearing about with their talons at their cheeks and throats,
they shot off to the right, across the homes and city of the men.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.155  They were astounded at the birds when they saw them with their eyes,
and pondered in their heart just what was going to happen.
And among them spoke an old man, the hero Halitherses
Mastorides, for he uniquely surpassed those of his generation
in understanding birds and explaining omens.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.160  With good intent, he spoke and said to them:
“Hear me now, Ithacans, hear what I say!
I speak mostly to the suitors when I declare these things,
since great trouble rolls toward them, for Odysseus
will not long be far from his loved ones, instead, he's likely near

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.165  already, planting death and doom for all of them.
There'll be evil too, for many others of us
who live in clear Ithaca. So, long before then
let's consider how we can stop them. But let them rather stop
themselves, for right now that is even better for them.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.170  For I don't prophesy unproven, but I know it well.
For I say to him that each and every thing has been fulfilled,
as I told him when the Argives went up into Ilium
and resourceful Odysseus went with them.
I said that after he suffered many evils and lost all his comrades

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.175  he'd come home in the twentieth year,
unbeknown to all. All this is now coming to pass.”
Eurymachus, the son of Polybus, said back to him in turn:
“Come on, old man, go home and prophesy to your children,
lest they by chance suffer any evil in the future.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.180  I'm much better than you in prophesying this.
Many birds go to and fro beneath the bright rays of the sun,
but not all are ominous. Odysseus, though, has perished
far away, and how I wish that you had perished with him!
You wouldn't speak so many oracles,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.185  nor incite Telemachus this way in his anger,
looking to get a gift for your house, if he'll give one.
But I'll speak out to you, and it'll be fulfilled too.
If you, knowing things ancient and many, advise a younger man
and spur him on with words to be violently angry,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.190  first, for him himself it will be more distressing,
but all the same, he won't be able to do anything because of them,
and on you, old man, we'll set a penalty that you'll be grieved
at heart to pay and hard will be your sorrow.
I myself, among you all, admonish Telemachus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.195  Let him order his mother go back to her father's.
They'll arrange the wedding and assemble many bride gifts,
just as many as should follow a dear daughter.
For I don't think the sons of the Achaeans will cease from
grievous wooing beforehand, since we fear no one, at any rate

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.200  not Telemachus, though he's very full of words,
nor do we care about an oracle that you, old man,
may tell of, that won't happen, as you become hated still more.
His possessions will still be cruelly eaten, and things will never be
equal as long as she puts off the Achaeans

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.205  from her marriage and we in expectation vie every day
for the sake of her excellence and don't go after others
whom it's suitable for each of us to marry.”
Astute Telemachus said back to him in turn:
Eurymachus, and the rest of you illustrious suitors,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.210  I no longer beg you and speak of these things,
for the gods and all Achaeans know them already.
But come, give me a swift ship and twenty comrades
to take me on a voyage there and back.
For I'm going to Sparta and sandy Pylos,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.215  to inquire about the return of my father, so long on his way.
Perhaps some mortal may tell me or I'll hear a rumor
from Zeus, which very often carries news to men.
If I hear of my father's survival and return,
yes, though I'd be impoverished, I'd still hold out a year,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.220  but if I hear he's dead and no longer alive,
I'd then return to my beloved fatherland,
pile up a barrow for him on which to pay his last rights,
as many, very many, as are fitting, and give my mother to a husband.”
So saying, he sat down, and up among them rose

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.225  Mentor, who was a noble comrade of Odysseus,
and to whom, when he went in his ships, he handed his entire house,
that it obey the old man and that Mentor preserve everything intact.
With good intent he spoke and said among them:
“Hear me now, Ithacans, hear what I say!

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.230  Let no sceptered king ever be earnestly
gentle and kind or know justice in his mind,
but may he always be hard and do injustice,
seeing that none of the people whom he ruled
remembers godlike Odysseus, who was kind as a father to them.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.235  But in truth I don't at all begrudge the manly suitors
their doing deeds of violence in the evil scheming of their mind,
for they place at risk their own heads and violently devour
the house of Odysseus, whom they say returns no more.
Now I hold it against the rest of the kingdom, how all of you sit

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.240  in silence and don't with words in any way accost
the few suitors and restrain them, many as you are.”
Leocritos Eunorides said to him in turn:
Mentor, mischief maker, crazed in mind, what a thing
you've said, urging them to stop us. It's difficult

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.245  to battle with more men than you about a feast.
For if even Ithacan Odysseus himself came,
eager in his heart to drive from his hall
the illustrious suitors who are dining in his home,
his wife, despite her great longing, would have no joy

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.250  at his coming, but right where he was he'd meet unseemly fate
if he battled with a greater number. You have not duly spoken.
But come, people, scatter, each one to his fields,
then Mentor and Halitherses will speed this one on his journey,
who are comrades of his father from the start.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.255  But I think he'll sit quite a long time, learning things
from messages in Ithaca, but he'll never make that journey!”
So said he, and immediately broke up the assembly.
Then while they scattered, each to his own house,
the suitors went to the house of godlike Odysseus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.260  Telemachus went far off to the sea's shore,
washed his hands in the gray water, and prayed to Athena:
“Hear me, you who came yesterday to our house as a god,
and bid me go in a ship upon the misty sea,
to find out about the return of my father, long on his way.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.265  But the Achaeans hinder me in all of this,
especially the suitors, evilly wanton in their arrogance!”
So said he in prayer, and Athena came near him,
disguised as Mentor both in form and voice,
and voicing winged words, she said to him:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.270  “Telemachus, you'll be neither a coward nor a dolt hereafter,
if your father's spirit is well instilled in you,
such a man was he in fulfilling word and deed,
then your journey will be neither in vain nor without result.
But if you're not the offspring of him and of Penelope,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.275  then I don't suppose you'll accomplish what you mean to.
For few sons are truly like their father.
A few are better than their father; the majority are worse.
But since you'll be neither a coward nor a dolt hereafter,
and the shrewdness of Odysseus has not completely failed you,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.280  then there's hope you'll accomplish these deeds.
“So, let the plan and purpose of the senseless suitors be,
since they're not at all thoughtful or just
and know nothing of the death and black doom
that's near them, that they'll all perish in a day.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.285  You won't much longer be without the journey that you're bent on,
for I'm surely such a comrade of your father
that I'll equip a swift ship for you and come along myself.
But, you, go home and mingle with the suitors,
prepare provisions, and store them all in containers,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.290  wine in two-handled jugs and men's marrow, barley,
in thick leather bags. I'll go through the kingdom and quickly
gather comrades, volunteers. There are many ships
in sea-girt Ithaca, new ones and old.
I'll look at them for you, for the one that's best,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.295  then we'll quickly stow things and launch her on the wide sea.”
So said the daughter of Zeus, Athena, and Telemachus
delayed no longer when he heard the goddess's voice.
He made his way to his house, his dear heart sorrowing,
and found the manly suitors in his palace

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.300  flaying goats and singeing hogs in the courtyard.
With a laugh, Antinous went straight for Telemachus,
put his hand in his, called out his name, and said:
Telemachus, you blowhard, unrestrained in fury, don't let any
other evil, either word or deed, concern you in your chest,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.305  but eat and drink with me, as we used to before.
The Achaeans will very fully make these things happen for you,
a ship and chosen oarsmen, so you can the more quickly
go to sacred Pylos after news of your illustrious father.”
Astute Telemachus said back to him in turn:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.310  “Antinous, it's no way possible to dine in silence
and make merry at my ease among you haughty ones.
Suitors, isn't it enough that in the past you wasted my possessions,
good and many, when I was still a child?
Now, when I'm big, and learn by listening to the words

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.315  of others, and my temper grows inside me,
I'll try to loose the evil spirit of death upon you,
either by going to Pylos or in this kingdom here.
I'm going, and the trip I speak of won't be without result,
as a passenger, for I don't have at my disposal oarsmen

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.320  or a ship, as no doubt seemed better to you.”
He spoke and drew his hand easily from the hand of Antinous,
as throughout the house the suitors worked at getting dinner ready.
They taunted and mocked him with their words,
and one of the wantonly arrogant young men kept saying so:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.325  “Very surely, Telemachus plans murder for us.
Either he'll bring some supporters from sandy Pylos
or even from Sparta, since he's so grimly eager for it,
or he wants to go to Ephyre, the rich farmland,
so he can bring life-destroying drugs from there,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.330  to throw them in the mixing bowl and destroy us all!”
Another of the wantonly arrogant young men kept saying back:
“Who knows? If he himself goes on a hollow ship far from his loved ones,
he too may wander and perish, just like Odysseus.
That way he'd make our hard work even harder,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.335  for we'd have to divide his possessions and give his house back
to his mother, and whoever marries her, to have.”
So said they, and Telemachus went down to the high-roofed chamber
of his father, the wide one where gold and bronze lay piled,
and clothing in chests, and fragrant olive oil in abundance.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.340  Jars of vintage wine, sweet to drink, stood in there,
holding the unmixed divine drink inside,
fastened in rows against the wall, in case Odysseus should ever
return home even after suffering many sorrows.
There was a double door that could be fastened tightly to close it,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.345  a doubly-folding one, and a housekeeper woman stayed in it
night and day, who guarded everything with the wisdom of her mind,
Eurycleia, the daughter of Ops Peisenorides.
Telemachus then called toward the chamber and said to her:
“Madam, come, draw wine for me into two-handled jars,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.350  sweet wine, the best tasting after that which you guard
with that ill-fated one in mind, in hope he'll come from somewhere,
Zeus-born Odysseus, escaping death's spirits and death.
Fill twelve, and fit each and every one with covers,
then pour barley for me into well-stitched leather bags,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.355  and let there be twenty measures of mill-ground barley meal.
But only you must know. Let all this be brought together,
for I'll pick it up this evening when my mother
goes to her upper chamber and has her mind on bed.
For I'm going to Sparta and sandy Pylos, to inquire

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.360  about the return of my dear father, in hope I'll hear of it somewhere.”
So said he, and dear nurse Eurycleia shrieked
and spoke winged words to him in lamentation:
“Dear child, why has this thought come into your mind?
Where on the wide earth do you want to go,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.365  alone and beloved as you are? He perished far from his fatherland,
Zeus-born Odysseus, in a foreign kingdom.
They'll devise evils for you, as soon as you go, for later,
so you'll be killed by guile and they'll divide all of this themselves.
Sit right here upon your own things instead. There's no need at all

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.370  that you wander the barren sea and suffer evils!”
Astute Telemachus said back to her in turn:
“Take heart, madam, since this plan of mine is not without a god's
approval. But swear to not tell these things to my dear mother
at least until the eleventh or the twelfth day comes

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.375  or she misses me and hears that I've departed,
so she won't mar her fair flesh with weeping.”
So said he, and the old woman swore a great oath on the gods.
Then after she'd sworn and completed the oath,
she then at once drew wine for him into jars with two handles

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.380  and poured barley groats for him into well-stitched leather bags.
Telemachus now went into the house and joined the suitors.
Then bright-eyed goddess Athena thought of something else.
Disguised as Telemachus, she went throughout the city, everywhere,
and to each man she stood beside she spoke a word,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.385  and ordered them to gather at the swift ship in the evening.
Then she asked Noemon, the brilliant son of Phronius,
for a swift ship, and he in earnest promised it to her.
And the sun went down, and all the ways were dark.
Right then she hauled the swift ship to the sea and stowed

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.390  in it all the gear that well-benched ships carry.
She moored it at the edge of the harbor, then the good comrades
gathered together around her, and the goddess spurred each on.
Then bright-eyed goddess Athena thought of something else
and made her way to the home of godlike Odysseus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.395  There she poured sweet sleep upon the suitors,
dazed them as they drank and knocked cups from their hands.
They got up to go to sleep throughout the city and didn't stay seated
much longer, once sleep fell upon their eyelids.
Then bright-eyed Athena said to Telemachus,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.400  when she called him out of his well-placed palace,
disguised as Mentor both in form and voice:
Telemachus, your well-greaved comrades sit
already at their oars and await your signal to start,
so let's go, let's not long delay our journey!”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.405  So saying, Pallas Athena led quickly
and he followed in the footsteps of the goddess.
Then after they'd gone down to the ship and sea,
they then found their hairy-headed comrades on the shore.
The sacred force of Telemachus spoke among them:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.410  “Come, friends, let's fetch our provisions, for they're all
already gathered in my hall and my mother knows nothing of it,
nor do the rest of the slave women, but only one has heard my word.”
So saying, he led, and they followed with him.
They fetched everything and stowed it

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.415  on the well-benched ship, as Odysseus' dear son ordered.
As Telemachus went aboard the ship, Athena led
and sat down in the ship's stern, then Telemachus sat
near her. They freed the stern cables,
then went aboard and sat down at the oarlocks.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.420  Bright-eyed Athena sent them a favorable fair wind,
steady West Wind, blustering over the wine-dark sea.
Telemachus urged his comrades on and bid them
secure the rigging. They heard his urging,
raised the fir mast, set it inside the hollow mast box,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.425  tied it down with the forestays,
and hoisted the white sail with the well-twisted ox-leather halyards.
The wind swelled out the middle of the sail, the waves
splashed loudly about the prow of the ship as she went on her way,
and she sped through the waves and completed her voyage.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.2.430  When they'd secured the rigging throughout the swift black ship,
they set up mixing bowls filled to the brim with wine
and made libation to the immortal everlasting gods,
but most of all to Zeus's bright-eyed daughter.
She cleaved her way all night and through the dawn.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.1  BOOK 3
Leaving the gorgeous surface of the sea, the sun rose
into the coppery sky to shine for immortals
and mortal men upon grain-giving farmland.
They'd now reached Pylos, the well-built citadel

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.5  of Neleus. On the sea's shore some were making sacrifice
of pitch-black bulls to the dark-haired Earthshaker.
There were nine companies, and five hundred sat in each,
and at each place they had nine bulls before them.
While these tasted the entrails and burned the thighs to the god,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.10  they made straight in, raised and furled the balanced ship's sail,
moored her, and went ashore themselves.
Telemachus stepped from the ship, and Athena led him.
Bright-eyed goddess Athena spoke to him first:
Telemachus, you need no longer feel bashful, not a bit,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.15  for you've sailed upon the sea just for this, to find out about
your father, where the earth covered him and what fate he met.
But come now, go straight to Nestor, the tamer of horses.
Let's see what counsel he has hidden in his chest.
Entreat him yourself, so he'll speak infallibly.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.20  Since he's very astute, he will not tell a lie.”
Astute Telemachus said back to her in turn:
Mentor, how should I go to him, how should I greet him?
I've never had any experience with cunning words,
and it's disgraceful for a young man to interrogate his elder.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.25  Bright-eyed goddess Athena said back to him:
Telemachus, you'll figure out some of this yourself, in your own mind,
and a divinity will advise you on the rest, for, no, I don't think
that you were born and raised against the will of the gods.”
So saying, Pallas Athena led

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.30  quickly, and he followed in the footsteps of the goddess.
They came to a gathering and companies of men of Pylos.
Nestor sat there with his sons, as his comrades about him
were preparing a feast, roasting some meat and spitting the rest.
When they saw the strangers, they came all together,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.35  took their hands in greeting and bid them to sit down.
Peisistratus Nestorides came close first,
took each one's hand, and seated them at the feast
on soft fleeces on the sea's sand,
beside his brother Thrasymedes and his father.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.40  He gave them portions of the entrails, poured wine
into a golden goblet, and toasting her, said
to Pallas Athena, daughter of Aegis-bearer Zeus:
“Pray now to lord Poseidon, stranger,
for it's his feast that you've come upon in coming here.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.45  Then once you've prayed and made libation, as is the custom,
then give the goblet of honey-sweet wine to that one
to make libation, since I think he also prays to the immortals.
All men need the gods.
Since he's younger, the same age as I myself,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.50  I'll therefore give you the golden chalice first.”
So saying, he put the goblet of sweet wine in her hand
and Athena rejoiced at the astute man, the just one,
because he'd given her the chalice first.
She immediately prayed hard to lord Poseidon:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.55  “Listen, Earthshaker Poseidon, and don't begrudge
those of us who pray for them the doing of these deeds.
First of all, to Nestor and his sons, grant glory,
then to the rest, grant graceful recompense,
to each and every Pylian, for their glorious hecatomb.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.60  Further, grant that Telemachus and I go home, having done
that which we came here, in a swift black ship, to do.”
So she then prayed, while she herself was making it all happen.
She gave Telemachus the fine double-handled goblet
so the dear son of Odysseus could pray in the same way.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.65  After they'd roasted the outer meats and pulled them off,
they divided the portions and dined at a glorious feast.
Then after they'd dispatched desire for food and drink,
Gerenian horseman Nestor was the first of them to speak:
“It's now more fitting to inquire and ask

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.70  the strangers who they are, since they've enjoyed their food.
Who are you, strangers? From where did you sail the watery ways?
On some business, or did you roam at random,
even as pirates over the sea, who roam
and risk their lives and bring evil to foreigners?”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.75  Astute Telemachus said back to him in turn,
emboldened, for Athena herself had put courage in his heart
so he would ask about his absent father
and so he'd have good repute among men:
Nestor Neleides, great glory of Achaeans,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.80  you ask where we're from, and I'll tell you.
We've come from Ithaca, under mount Neion.
This business that I speak of is my own, not the kingdom's.
I'm after the wide rumor of my father, in hope I'll hear somewhere
of divine Odysseus, the steadfast one, whom they say

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.85  fought along with you and sacked the Trojans' city once upon a time.
For we've heard of all the other ones, all who warred with Trojans,
where each perished in wretched destruction,
but of that one Cronion has made unknown even his destruction.
For no one can tell us clearly where he died,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.90  whether he was tamed by hostile men on land
or even on the sea among the waves of Amphitrite.
I've come to your knees because of this, in hope you'd be willing
to tell of his wretched destruction, if perhaps you saw it
with your eyes or heard a story from another

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.95  of his wandering, for his mother bore him to be unhappy beyond others.
Don't, out of respect, soften your words in any way and don't pity me,
but tell me well how you got sight of him.
I beg you, if ever my father, good Odysseus,
promised and fulfilled either any word or deed

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.100  in the Trojan kingdom, where you Achaeans suffered sorrows,
recall them for me now and tell me infallibly.”
Then Gerenian horseman Nestor answered him:
“Friend, since you remind me of the sorrow we endured
in that kingdom, we sons of the Achaeans, irresistible in fury,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.105  all the things, when we roamed upon the misty sea
with our ships, wherever Achilles led us,
and all the things, when we fought around lord Priam's
great city, how many of the best men were killed there then!
There lies warlike Ajax; there, Achilles;

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.110  there, Patroclus, a counselor equal to the gods;
there, my beloved son, both noble and mighty,
Antilochus, swift in running beyond others and a warrior.
We suffered many other evils besides these.
What mortal man could tell them all?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.115  Not even if you stayed here five years or even six
and asked how many evils the divine Achaeans suffered there,
until you'd be vexed and go to your fatherland.
For nine years we plotted evils for them and busied ourselves
with all kinds of stratagems, and Cronion at last brought them to pass.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.120  There no one wished to match him face to face in counsel,
since divine Odysseus very much surpassed them
in all kinds of stratagems, your father, if it's true
that you're his son. Wonder holds me when I look at you.
For yes, your words at least are like his, nor would you think

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.125  a younger man would say things so like his.
Yes, all the time divine Odysseus and I were there
we never spoke at odds in either assembly or council,
but had one temperament, in mind and sage counsel,
and thought out how things could happen best by far for Argives.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.130  Then after we sacked Priam's lofty city
and went off in our ships, a god scattered the Achaeans.
Right then Zeus in his mind resolved a wretched homecoming
for Argives, since not at all reasonable or righteous
were all. So, many of them met an evil fate

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.135  from the wrath of the bright-eyed daughter of a powerful father,
who caused discord between both of the Atreidae.
The two called all Achaeans to assembly,
recklessly and not in an orderly way, at sunset.
The sons of the Achaeans came, heavy with wine,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.140  and the two spoke their speech, for which they'd gathered the men.
There Menelaus ordered all Achaeans
to remember their return home upon the broad back of the sea,
but he didn't at all please Agamemnon, for he planned
to detain the men and offer sacred hecatombs

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.145  to appease the dread anger of Athena.
The fool, he didn't know he wasn't going to persuade her,
for the mind of the gods who are forever is not turned suddenly.
So while the two stood there exchanging hard words
the well-greaved Achaeans got up

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.150  with an awful din, and the council pleased them in two different ways.
That night we rested, contemplating in our minds hard things
against each other, for Zeus was preparing a calamity of evil.
At dawn, some of us hauled our ships to the divine sea
and loaded both possessions and deep-girdled women aboard.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.155  Then, half the men held back and stayed
beside Atreides Agamemnon, the shepherd of men.
Half of us got aboard and drove our ships, which very quickly
sailed, and a god smoothed the great-mawed sea.
We came to Tenedos and offered victims to the gods,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.160  eager to go home, but Zeus did not yet intend our return,
stubborn one, who sent evil discord to us a second time again.
Some turned their double-curved ships around and left,
skilled lord Odysseus, the wily conniver, and his company,
back to Atreides Agamemnon, showing their support.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.165  Then I fled with the ships that followed me, crowded together,
since I knew that a divinity intended evil,
and Tydeus' warlike son fled and urged on his comrades.
Blond Menelaus came after us long afterwards
and caught up with us in Lesbos debating our long voyage,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.170  whether we should sail north of rugged Chios,
by the island of Psyria, keeping it on our left,
or south of Chios, past windy Mimas.
We asked god to show us a sign. Then he showed one
to us, and ordered us to cut the middle of the sea

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.175  to Euboea, so we'd escape the soonest from distress.
A whistling fair wind at once began to blow. Our ships
very quickly crossed the fishy ways and brought us at night
into Geraestus. We offered many bulls' thighs
to Poseidon, since we'd measured the great sea.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.180  It was the fourth day when the comrades of Tydeides,
Diomedes the tamer of horses, moored their balanced ships
in Argos. Then I held on course toward Pylos, and the fair wind
never quelled, after the god first sent it out to blow.
So I came, dear child, without tidings, and I know nothing

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.185  of the others, which Achaeans were saved and which perished.
Now, as much as I've heard sitting in my palace,
you'll learn it, that's right, and I won't hide it from you.
They say the Myrmidons came safely, the raging spearmen
whom the brilliant son of great-hearted Achilles led,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.190  and safely Philoctetes, Poias' splendid son.
Idomeneus brought to Crete all his comrades
who'd escaped from war, and the sea took no one from him.
Even you yourselves, distant as you are, heard of Atreides,
how he came and how Aegisthus meant wretched destruction.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.195  But, yes indeed, that one paid miserably for it,
how good it is that even a child of a man who's died be left behind,
since even that one took vengeance on his father's killer
cunning Aegisthus, who'd slain his famous father.
You too, my friend, for I clearly see you're big and handsome,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.200  be staunch, so those born after will speak well of you.”
Astute Telemachus said back to him in turn:
Nestor Neleades, great glory of Achaeans,
in truth that one took revenge, and the Achaeans
will carry his fame widely, even as a song for those to be.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.205  If only the gods would cast such strength about me
to take vengeance on the suitors for their grievous trespass,
who in their wanton arrogance devise reckless things for me,
but the gods have not spun such happiness for me,
for me or for my father. And now we must endure it nonetheless.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.210  Then Gerenian horseman Nestor answered him:
“Friend, since you've spoken these things and reminded me of them,
they do say that many suitors for the hand of your mother,
in your palace against your will, are devising evils.
Tell me whether you accept subjection willingly, or do the people

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.215  throughout the kingdom hate you, following the voice of a god?
Who knows if Odysseus will ever come and repay them
for their violence, either he all by himself, or all Achaeans too?
If only bright-eyed Athena cared to love you as much
as she cared about gloried Odysseus then,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.220  in the kingdom of the Trojans, where we Achaeans suffered sorrows.
For I never saw gods love as openly
as when Pallas Athena openly came to Odysseus' aid.
If she cared to love you this way and cared for you in her heart,
then at least some of the suitors might as well forget marriage!”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.225  Astute Telemachus said back to him in turn:
“Old man, I doubt this word of yours will ever come to pass.
What you've said is much too big. Wonder holds me. What I hope for
wouldn't happen to me, not even if the gods were to will it so.”
Bright-eyed goddess Athena said back to him:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.230  “Telemachus, what kind of talk has fled your wall of teeth?
It's easy for a god to save a man, if he wishes, even from afar.
Even if I suffered many sorrows, I would rather
go home and see homecoming day,
than be slain at the hearth on coming home, as Agamemnon

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.235  was killed by Aegisthus and the guile of his own wife.
But yes, not even gods can ward off death,
common to all, even from a dear man, when
baneful doom, of death that brings long woe, takes him down.”
Astute Telemachus said back to her in turn:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.240  “Mentor, let's speak of this no longer, despite our sorrow.
His return is real no longer, but immortals
have already devised black doom and death for him.
Now I want to inquire about a different story and ask Nestor,
since he beyond others knows righteousness and wisdom.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.245  For they say he's ruled three men's generations
and he seems to me like an immortal to behold.
You, Nestor Neleides, tell the truth.
How did wide-ruling Atreides Agamemnon die?
Where was Menelaus? What destruction did cunning Aegisthus

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.250  devise for himself, since he killed a much better man?
Wasn't Menelaus in Achaean Argos, or was he wandering
somewhere else among mankind, so Aegisthus took heart and killed?”
Then Gerenian horseman Nestor answered him:
“Well then, child, I'll tell you the whole truth.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.255  Yes, you can imagine for yourself how it would have gone
had he found Aegisthus still alive in his palace,
Atreides, blond Menelaus, on his return from Troy.
They'd not have heaped a mound of earth upon him, even dead,
but the dogs and birds of prey would have devoured him

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.260  lying on the plain far from the city, and no Achaean woman
would have mourned him, for he devised a very monstrous deed.
For while we sat over there and completed many trials,
he, at his ease in a corner of horse-grazing Argos,
often tried to charm the wife of Agamemnon with his words.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.265  Yes, at first divine Clytemnestra disdained
the shameful deed, for she was endowed with good judgment,
and there was also a singer man beside her, whom Atreides
on his way to Troy had ordered many times to keep watch on his wife.
But when at last the gods' doom bound her to be tamed,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.270  then Aegisthus led that singer to a desert island
and left him behind to become the spoil and carrion for birds of prey,
then he brought her, as willing as he was, to his own house.
He burned many thighs on altars of the gods
and hung up many ornaments, woven webs and gold,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.275  on accomplishing a monstrous deed he'd never expected in his heart.
Now we sailed together on our way from Troy,
Atreides and I, with friendly feelings toward each other,
but when we reached the cape of Athens, sacred Sunium,
there Phoebus Apollo attacked with his gentle darts

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.280  and killed Menelaus' steersman
as he held in his hands the steering oar of the running ship,
Phrontis Onetorides, who surpassed the tribes of men
in steering a ship when storm winds blow.
So he stopped there, though eager for the way,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.285  to bury his comrade and perform funeral rites over him.
But when at last he too went on the wine-dark sea
in his hollow ships and on the run reached the steep mount
of Maleia, far-seeing Zeus then contrived a loathsome voyage
and poured the breaths of whistling winds upon him

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.290  and waves swollen monstrously, like mountains.
Then he split his ships in two and drove some to Crete
where the Cydonians lived about Iardanus' streams.
There is a certain smooth rock, sheer into the sea,
on the edge of Gortyn, in the misty sea.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.295  There South Wind pushes a great wave against the headland
on the left toward Phaestus, and a small stone holds back the great wave.
The ships got there, and with great effort the men avoided destruction,
but waves shattered the ships against the reefs.
Then wind and water carried and drove

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.300  the other five dark-prowed ships to Egypt.
So he gathered much substance and gold there
and wandered with his ships through foreign men,
while Aegisthus devised these maleficent things at home.
He ruled for seven years over Mycenae, rich with gold,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.305  after he killed Atreides, and the people were tamed beneath him.
But in the eighth divine Orestes came back from Athens
as an evil for him and slew his father's killer,
cunning Aegisthus, who'd slain his famous father.
Yes, he killed him and held a funeral banquet for the Argives,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.310  for his loathsome mother and cowardly Aegisthus.
Battle-cry-brave Menelaus came to him the same day,
bringing many possessions, all that his ships held as cargo.
And you, friend, don't wander for a long time far away from home,
having left in your house your possessions

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.315  and such haughty men, lest they divide and devour
all your possessions and you make a fruitless journey.
Instead, I bid and order you to go to Menelaus,
for he's newly come from elsewhere,
from the men from whom one wouldn't hope in his heart

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.320  to return, whomever storm winds drive off course
into a sea so big not even birds of prey get out of it
in a single year, since it's great and terrible.
But go now with your ship and your comrades.
If you want to go on foot, a chariot and horses are before you,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.325  and before you are my sons, who'll be your escorts
to divine Lacedaemon, where blond Menelaus is.
Entreat him yourself, so he'll speak infallibly.
Since he's very astute, he will not tell a lie.”
So said he, and the sun went down and dusk came on,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.330  and bright-eyed goddess Athena said among them:
“Yes, old man, you've recounted this duly,
but come, cut their tongues and mix the wine,
so we can make libation to Poseidon and other immortals
and think of rest, since it's time for it.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.335  For the light already goes under the darkness, and it's not fitting
to sit long at a feast of the gods, but to go.”
Zeus's daughter spoke, and they listened as she spoke.
Heralds poured water on their hands,
and boys filled mixing bowls to the brim with drink

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.340  then passed it out to all after pouring drops in their goblets.
They threw the tongues in the fire, stood up, and poured libation on them.
Then after they'd made libation and drunk as much as hearts desired,
right then Athena and godlike Telemachus
both got up to go to their hollow ship.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.345  Nestor held them back and addressed them with these words:
“May Zeus and the rest of the immortal gods avert this,
that you'd go from my house to your swift ship
as from someone poor and completely without clothing,
who hasn't cloaks and many rugs in his house

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.350  for either him or his guests to sleep on softly.
But I do have robes and beautiful blankets beside me.
Surely now, the dear son of that man Odysseus
won't lie down on a ship's deck, as long as I'm alive
and sons are left in my palace after me

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.355  to treat strangers as guests, whoever may come to my house!”
Bright-eyed goddess Athena said back to him:
“You've said this well, dear old man. It's fitting that Telemachus
obey you, since it's much better this way.
But while he'll now follow with you, so he can sleep

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.360  in your palace, I'm going to our black ship
to encourage our comrades and tell them every thing.
For I claim to be the only older one among them,
but the others, younger men, follow him in friendship,
all of them the same age as great-hearted Telemachus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.365  I'll lie there beside the hollow swift ship now.
Then at dawn I'll go after the great-hearted Cauconians,
where a debt is owed me, nothing new
or small. You, send this one, since he's reached your house,
with a chariot and also your son. Give him horses,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.370  the nimblest you have in running and best in strength.”
So saying, bright-eyed Athena departed,
disguised as a vulture. Wonder took hold of all the Achaeans,
and the old man marveled at what his eyes had seen.
He grabbed Telemachus' hand, called out his name, and said:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.375  “Friend, I don't suppose that you'll be mean and cowardly
if the gods already go with one as young as you as escorts.
For this one is none other, of those who have Olympian homes,
than Zeus's daughter, most glorious Tritogeneia,
who honored your good father too among the Argives.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.380  So, my queen, be gracious and grant me good fame,
to me myself and my children and my venerable wife.
I'll sacrifice a heifer to you, a wide-browed yearling,
an unbroken one, that no man's ever led beneath a yoke.
I'll sacrifice her to you and pour gold around her horns!”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.385  So said he in prayer, and Pallas Athena heard him.
Gerenian horseman Nestor acted as their guide,
for his sons and sons-in-law, to his beautiful home.
But when they reached the lord's very famous home,
they sat down in rows on chairs and couches

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.390  and the old man mixed up a mixing bowl for them when they came,
of wine, sweet to drink, which, in the eleventh year,
the housekeeper loosened the lid string and opened.
The old man mixed a mixing bowl of it, and prayed hard to Athena,
to Aegis-bearer Zeus's daughter, as he made libation.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.395  Then after they'd made libation and drunk as much as hearts desired,
they each went home to rest,
but Gerenian horseman Nestor put him to bed there where he was,
Telemachus, the dear son of divine Odysseus,
beneath the echoing portico in a perforated bed,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.400  and a leader of men beside him, Peisistratus of the good ash spear,
who still unwed was one of his sons in the palace.
He himself slept back in an inner room of the lofty house
and his mistress wife shared his bed and bedding.
When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.405  Gerenian horseman Nestor arose from bed,
went out and sat down upon the smooth stones
that he had in front of the lofty doors,
white stones, that glistened with oil, on which Neleus,
a counselor equal to the gods, used to sit before.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.410  But, tamed by fate, he'd already gone to Hades.
Now in turn Gerenian Nestor, Achaean watchman, sat
holding a scepter. His sons gathered in a throng around him,
when they came from their chambers: Echephron and Stratius,
Perseus and Aretus, and godlike Thrasymedes too.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.415  Then came their sixth, the hero Peisistratus,
and they led and seated godlike Telemachus beside him.
Gerenian horseman Nestor was the first of them to speak:
“Quickly, dear children, make my wish come true for me,
so I can first, of all the gods, seek the favor of Athena

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.420  who came incarnate to me to the god's abundant feast.
So come, have one go to the plain for a cow, so it may come
very soon, and let a man, a cattle herdsman, drive it.
Have one go to great-hearted Telemachus' black ship
and bring all his comrades leaving only two behind.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.425  Have one order the goldsmith Laerces to come here
to pour gold around the cow's horns.
The rest of you, stay here together, and tell the slave women
inside to prepare a splendid feast throughout the house,
seats and logs on both sides, and to carry shining water!”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.430  So said he, then all of them got busy. The cow came
from the plain. From the swift balanced ship came the comrades
of great-hearted Telemachus. The smith came,
holding smith's tools in his hands, implements of his art,
anvil, hammer, and well-made tongs,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.435  with which he worked gold. Athena came
to take part in the sacred rites. The old man, horseman Nestor,
gave him gold, and the smith then fashioned it, and poured it around
the cow's horns, so the goddess would be gloriously glad at its sight.
Stratius and divine Echephron led the cow by the horns,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.440  Aretus came from his chamber, bringing water for washing
in a flowery basin, and he had barley groats in a basket
in his other hand. Valiant Thrasymedes stood by,
holding a sharp axe in his hand for striking the cow.
Perseus held a bowl for the blood. The old man, horseman Nestor,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.445  began the rite with the groats and water, then prayed hard to Athena
as he cut hairs from the cow's head and threw them in the fire.
Then after they prayed and threw barley groats before it,
Nestor's son, high-spirited Thrasymedes, at once
stood near and struck. The axe cut away the tendons

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.450  of the neck and broke the cow's strength. They ululated now,
Nestor's daughters, sons' daughters, and venerable wife,
Eurydice, the eldest of the daughters of Clymenus.
The men then lifted it up from the wide-wayed earth
and held it, then Peisistratus, a leader of men, cut its throat.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.455  After the black blood flowed from her and life left her bones
they carved her up, immediately cut out the thighs,
all in due order, covered them with fat,
making a double fold, then laid raw flesh upon them.
The old man burned them on wooden sticks and poured sparkling wine

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.460  upon them. Young men beside him held five-pronged forks in their hands.
Then after the thighs were burned up and they'd tasted the entrails,
they cut up the rest, pierced them with spits on both sides,
and roasted them, holding the sharp-pointed spits in their hands.
Meanwhile, beautiful Polycaste, youngest daughter

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.465  of Nestor Neleides, bathed Telemachus.
Then after she bathed him and anointed him richly with olive oil,
she threw a fine cloak and tunic about him,
then he went from the tub like immortals in form
and went and sat down beside Nestor, the shepherd of men.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.470  After they'd roasted the outer meats and pulled them off,
they sat and dined, as good men waited on them
pouring wine in golden goblets.
Then after they'd dispatched desire for food and drink,
Gerenian horseman Nestor was the first of them to speak:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.475  “Come, my sons, bring fair-maned horses for Telemachus
and yoke them under a chariot, so he can get on his way!”
So said he, and they listened to him with care and obeyed
and quickly yoked swift horses under a chariot.
A woman, the housekeeper, put food and wine in it,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.480  and cooked meats, the kinds Zeus-nurtured kings eat.
Telemachus then got on the gorgeous chariot
and Peisistratos Nestorides, a leader of men,
got into the chariot beside him and took the reins in his hands.
He whipped the horses to drive them, and the two flew, not unwilling,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.485  into the plain and left the sheer citadel of Pylos.
Now all day long they shook the yoke as they held it on both sides.
And the sun went down, and all the ways were dark.
They came to Pherae, to the house of Diocles,
the son of Ortilochus, whom Alpheius fathered as his son.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.490  They rested there for the night, and he showed them hospitality.
When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
they yoked the horses and climbed into the ornamented chariot,
drove out of the gateway and the echoing portico, and Peisistratus
whipped the horses to drive them, and the two flew, not unwilling.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.3.495  They reached the wheat-bearing plain, then after that
finished their journey, so fast their swift horses sped on.
And the sun went down, and all the ways were dark.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.1  BOOK 4
They now reached hollow hilly Lacedaemon,
then rode toward the house of gloried Menelaus.
They found him hosting many clansmen for a wedding
in his own house for his son and noble daughter.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.5  He was sending her to the son of man-breaker Achilles,
for in Troy he'd first nodded assent and promised to give her,
and the gods were making the wedding happen for them.
He was sending her there, to go with horses and chariots
to the far-famed city of the Myrmidons over whom he ruled.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.10  He was bringing Alector's daughter from Sparta for his son,
mighty Megapenthes, grown up, who'd been borne him
by a slave. The gods no longer made a child appear for Helen
after she gave birth to her first child, lovely Hermione,
who had the form of golden Aphrodite.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.15  So while the neighbors and clansmen of gloried Menelaus
feasted throughout the big high-roofed house
in enjoyment, a divine singer performed among them
on the lyre. Two tumblers whirled through them,
through the middle of them, beginning the performance.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.20  The hero Telemachus and Nestor's splendid son
stood with their two horses in the house's doorway,
and his majesty Eteoneus, deft cohort of gloried Menelaus,
came out and saw them, then made his way
through the house to announce them to the shepherd of people.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.25  He stood close by and spoke winged words to him:
Zeus-nurtured Menelaus, there are some strangers over there,
two men, and they seem like the seed of great Zeus.
But tell me whether we should unharness their swift horses
or send them on their way to someone else who'd welcome them.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.30  Vexed greatly, blond Menelaus said to him:
“You weren't a fool before this, Eteonus Boethoides,
but now you babble nonsense like a child.
We'd eaten many guest-meals of other men
before we got here, in hope that Zeus would

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.35  somehow stop our sorrow. So, free the strangers' horses
and bring the men forward to be feasted inside.”
So said he, and he sped through the palace and bid
the other deft cohorts to follow along with him.
They freed the sweating horses from under the yoke,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.40  tethered them to the horse mangers,
threw grain before them, mixed white barley in it,
leaned the chariot against the gleaming inner wall,
and led the men into the divine house. They beheld
with wonder the house of the Zeus-nurtured king.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.45  For there was a radiance, as of the sun or moon,
throughout gloried Menelaus' high-roofed house.
Then after they'd looked and satisfied their eyes,
they stepped into well-polished tubs and bathed.
After slave women washed them, and anointed them with olive oil,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.50  and threw about them woolen robes and tunics,
they sat on chairs beside Atreides Menelaus.
A handmaid brought water for washing in a
fine golden pitcher and poured it above a silver basin
so they could wash then pulled a polished table beside them.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.55  A venerable housekeeper brought bread and set it before them,
placing many foods on it, pleasing them from her stores.
A carver raised and placed before them platters of meats
of all kinds, and put golden cups beside them.
Blond Menelaus said to them in greeting:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.60  “Take food for yourselves and be welcome. Then after
you've tasted supper we'll ask what men you are.
For your fathers' race is not lost in you,
but you're of the race of Zeus-nurtured men, of sceptered kings,
since mean ones couldn't father such as you.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.65  So said he, and lifting the roast in his hands he placed the bull's
fat back beside them, the prize they'd set before him for himself.
They threw their hands on the good things laid ready before them.
Then after they'd dispatched desire for food and drink,
right then Telemachus spoke to Nestor's son,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.70  holding his head close so others couldn't hear him:
“Dear to my heart Nestorides, observe
the flash of bronze throughout the echoing house,
of gold and amber, of silver and ivory.
Such, I suppose, is Olympian Zeus's courtyard inside,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.75  untold many things as these. Wonder holds me as I behold them!”
Blond Menelaus heard him talking
and voicing winged words, he said to them:
“Dear children, no, no mortal could compete with Zeus,
for his houses and possessions are immortal.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.80  Some man might compete with me, or might not,
in property. For yes, suffering much and wandering far,
I brought it in my ships and came back in the eighth year.
I wandered to Cyprus and Phoenicia, and to the Egyptians,
and reached the Ethiopians, Sidonians, and Erembi,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.85  and Libya, where rams become horned suddenly,
for the sheep give birth three times in the course of a year.
There neither lord nor shepherd lacks any
cheese and meat, or sweet milk either,
but the sheep always produce ample milk for suckling.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.90  While I wandered around those places collecting
much substance, another murdered my brother
by stealth, unexpectedly, by a ruinous wife's treachery,
so I rule over these possessions without joy.
And you probably heard this from your fathers, whoever

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.95  yours are, since I suffered very much and lost a house,
a very well-settled one containing many good things.
Would that I lived in my house with just a third part of it,
and that my men were safe, who perished then
in wide Troy, far from horse-grazing Argos.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.100  But as it is, I mourn and grieve for all of them
often, as I sit in our palace.
At times I soothe my mind with weeping, at other times
I stop. It's quick to come, one's fill of chilling lamentation.
Despite my grief, I don't mourn all of them as much as I do

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.105  one of them, who makes food and sleep hateful to me
when I recall him, since no Achaean toiled as much
as Odysseus toiled, undertook, and achieved. But for that one
himself there'd be troubles, and for me an ever unforgettable sorrow
for him, that he's been gone so long and we don't know at all

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.110  whether he's dead or alive. They must mourn him, I suppose,
the old man, Laertes, and discreet Penelope,
and Telemachus, whom he left newborn in his home.”
So said he, and roused in Telemachus the desire to weep for his father.
He let tears fall from his eyelids to the ground on hearing of his father,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.115  holding up his purple robe in front of his eyes
with both hands. Menelaus noticed him,
then pondered in his mind and heart
whether to let him mention his father himself
or first ask about every thing and test him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.120  While he was turning this over in his mind and heart,
Helen came out of her fragrant chamber
looking like golden-bowed Artemis.
Along with her Adreste set up a well-made couch,
Alcippe brought a blanket of soft wool,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.125  Phylo brought a silver basket, that Polybus' wife,
Alcandre, who lived in Egyptian Thebes, where the most
possessions lie in houses, had given Helen.
Polybus gave Menelaus two silver bathtubs,
two tripods, and ten talents of gold.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.130  Besides this, his wife in turn gave beautiful gifts to Helen.
She sent with her a golden distaff and a basket with wheels
underneath, a silver one finished on its edges with gold.
Her handmaid Phylo brought it and placed it beside her,
stuffed with artfully fashioned yarn. The distaff,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.135  holding violet-dark wool, was laid out upon it.
She sat on the couch and a footstool was under her feet.
At once she asked her husband about every thing:
“Do we know, Zeus-nurtured Menelaus, who these men
who've come to our house claim to be?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.140  Will I speak wrong, or will I speak the truth? But my heart bids me speak,
for I don't think I've ever seen one who seems so alike,
neither a man nor a woman, and wonder holds me as I behold him,
as this one seems like the son of great-hearted Odysseus,
Telemachus, whom that man left newborn in his home,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.145  when you Achaeans, for the sake of dog-eyed me,
came under Troy, pondering brash war.”
Blond Menelaus said to her in reply:
“I notice it now too, wife, the same resemblance you see,
for such were that one's feet, such his hands,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.150  and the glances of his eyes, and his head and hair above it.
Yes, just now I spoke about Odysseus as I remembered him,
all that that one suffered and toiled at for my sake,
then this one shed thick tears from under his eyebrows
and held up his purple robe in front of his eyes.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.155  Peisistratus Nestorides said back to him in turn:
Atreides Menelaus, Zeus-nurtured leader of men,
it's true, this one is indeed the son of that one, as you say,
but he's discreet, and rejects as improper,
coming here for the first time, displaying words uninvited

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.160  in front of you, whose voice we delight in as in a god's.
But Gerenian horseman Nestor sent me
to go with him as a guide, since he wished to see you
so you might suggest to him some word or deed.
For a son of an absent father has many sorrows

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.165  in his palace, when he has no other helpers,
as now Telemachus has one who's gone and has no others
who might ward off evil throughout the kingdom.”
Blond Menelaus said to him in reply:
“Ah, yes, the son of a very, very dear man has come to my house,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.170  a man who suffered many trials on my account,
and whom I thought I'd welcome beyond other Argives
when he came, if the Olympian, far-seeing Zeus, granted
there be a return home for both of us in swift ships over the sea.
And I'd have established a city and built a house for him,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.175  brought him from Ithaca with his possessions, his son,
and his people, clearing out one of the cities
that stand about here and are ruled by me.
And being here, we'd have visited often, and nothing else
would have separated us in our friendship and enjoyment,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.180  until at last death's black cloud covered us.
But a god himself, I guess, must have begrudged him this,
who made that wretched one alone without homecoming.”
So said he, and roused in all the desire to weep.
Argive Helen, born of Zeus, wept.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.185  Telemachus wept, and Atreides Menelaus,
and Nestor's son did not have tearless eyes,
for he remembered in his heart noble Antilochus,
whom the splendid son of shining Dawn had slain.
He spoke winged words as he thought of him:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.190  “Atreides, that you're astute beyond other mortals
the old man, Nestor, used to say, when we spoke of you
in his palace and questioned each other.
And now, if it's at all possibly possible, oblige me, for I at least,
don't enjoy weeping after dinner. For that, the dawn

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.195  will be early-born instead. I find nothing wrong with
crying for a mortal who's died and met his fate.
Indeed, this is the only prize at all for wretched mortals,
to cut one's hair and let tears fall from one's cheeks.
For my brother too has died, not at all the meanest

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.200  of Achaeans. You probably knew him. As for me,
I never met or saw him, but they say Antilochus surpassed others,
surpassed them in running fast and as a warrior.”
Blond Menelaus said to him in reply:
“My friend, since you've said all that an astute man

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.205  would say and do, even one who's older,
for you're from such a father also, so you speak astutely too.
Easily recognized is the line of a man to whom Cronion
spins happiness when he's born and when he marries,
as he's given Nestor now continuously all his days,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.210  that he himself grow old gently in his palace,
that his sons in turn are sensible and the best with spears.
Let's put aside the weeping that occurred before
and let's think again of supper and have them pour water
on our hands. There'll be stories too, from daybreak on,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.215  for Telemachus and me to tell completely to each other.”
So said he, and Asphalion, deft cohort
of gloried Menelaus, poured water on their hands.
They threw their hands on the good things laid ready before them.
Then Helen, born of Zeus, thought of another thing

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.220  and immediately threw a drug into the wine which they were drinking,
a drug that relieves pain, calms anger, and makes one forget all evils.
He who swallowed it, once it was mixed in the mixing bowl,
would not throughout the day let tears fall from his cheeks,
not if his mother and his father died,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.225  not if in front of him they cleaved with bronze his brother
or beloved son and he saw it with his eyes.
Zeus's daughter had such helpful drugs,
good ones that an Egyptian, Thonus' wife Polydamna, gave her.
There grain-giving farmland bears drugs greatest in number,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.230  many good, when mixed; many others, maleficent.
Each Egyptian is a healer, surpassing all mankind
in knowledge, for they're of Paeeon's race.
Then after she threw it in and bid them pour the wine,
she said back to them in answer:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.235  “Zeus-born Atreides Menelaus, and you here,
good men's sons, since god Zeus at one time or another
gives both good and bad, for he can do everything,
sit now and dine in our palace
and enjoy my stories, for I'll tell ones suitable for you.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.240  I couldn't name and tell them all,
so many are the trials of steadfast Odysseus,
but what a thing this was the mighty man dared and did
in the Trojan kingdom where you Achaeans suffered sorrows!
He disfigured himself with grievous blows,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.245  threw a cloth around his shoulders, and disguised as a servant
entered the broad-streeted city of the enemy men,
then concealed himself as a different man, and pretended to be
a beggar, he who was no such thing at the Achaean ships.
He entered the Trojan city like that, and everyone ignored him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.250  I alone recognized him, such as he was,
and I questioned him, but he eluded me with cunning.
But when at last I'd bathed him and anointed him with olive oil,
dressed clothing about him, and swore a great oath
not to make him known among the Trojans as Odysseus

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.255  before he reached his huts and swift ships,
right then he told me in detail the Achaeans' intent.
He then killed many of the Trojans with sharp bronze,
went back among the Argives, and brought back much information.
Then the rest of the Trojan women shrieked loudly, but my heart

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.260  rejoiced, since by now my heart had changed about going
back home and I regretted my mad blindness, that Aphrodite gave me,
when she led me there from my beloved fatherland,
and I deserted my daughter, my bedroom, and my husband,
who lacked nothing in either looks or wits.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.265  Blond Menelaus said to her in reply:
“Yes, wife, you've said all these things duly.
By now I've learned the mind and will of many
hero men and traversed much of the earth,
but with my eyes I've never seen such a one

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.270  as was the dear heart of steadfast Odysseus.
What a thing this was, that a mighty man dared to do and did
inside the polished horse, where we, all the best of the Argives,
sat bearing death and doom for Trojans.
Then you came there. A divinity, who planned to grant glory

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.275  to the Trojans, must have urged you on,
and godlike Deiphobus went with when you came.
Three times you walked around and felt about the hollow ambush,
and called out to the best of the Danaans by their names,
making your voice like the voices of the wives of all the Argives.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.280  Then divine Odysseus, Tydeides, and I,
sitting in the middle, heard you as you shouted.
We were both eager, and set out to
either get out or immediately answer from inside,
but Odysseus restrained and checked us despite our eagerness.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.285  Then the rest of the sons of the Achaeans were silent.
Anticlus was the only one who wanted to answer,
but Odysseus pressed on his mouth continuously
with his mighty hands and saved all the Achaeans.
He held him until Pallas Athena led you off far away.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.290  Astute Telemachus said back to him in turn:
Zeus-nurtured Atreides, Menelaus, leader of men,
it's worse, for this in no way kept sad destruction from him,
nor would it, even if he had a heart of iron inside him.
But come, turn us toward bed, so we can right now

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.295  take our pleasure and be lulled to sleep by sweet sleep.”
So said he, then Argive Helen bid the slave women
set beds beneath the portico, throw fine purple cloths
upon them, spread blankets on top of them,
and put woolen cloaks on top to wrap in.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.300  They came out of the hall holding torches in their hands
and spread the beds. A herald led the guests out.
They went to bed right there in the doorway of the house,
the hero Telemachus and Nestor's splendid son.
Atreides slept in an inner part of his lofty house,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.305  and a woman divine, long-robed Helen, lay beside him.
When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
battle-cry-brave Menelaus arose from bed,
put on his clothes, slung a sharp sword around his shoulder,
tied fine sandals beneath sleek feet,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.310  and made his way from the bedroom looking like a god.
He sat beside Telemachus, spoke his name, and said:
“What need brought you here, hero Telemachus,
to divine Lacedaemon, upon the broad back of the sea,
the kingdom's or your own? Tell me this infallibly.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.315  Astute Telemachus said back to him in turn:
Atreides Menelaus, Zeus-nurtured leader of men,
I came in hope you'd tell me some tidings of my father.
My house is being eaten, my rich fields destroyed.
My home is full of hostile men, who are always slaughtering

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.320  my thick-thronging sheep and lumbering curved-horned cattle,
suitors of my mother, with their arrogant wantonness.
I've come to your knees because of this, in hope you'd be willing
to tell of his wretched destruction, if perhaps you saw it
with your eyes, or heard a story from another

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.325  of his wandering, for his mother bore him to be unhappy beyond others.
Don't out of respect soften your words in any way and don't pity me,
but tell me well how you got sight of him.
I beg you, if ever my father, good Odysseus,
promised and fulfilled either any word or deed

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.330  in the Trojan kingdom, where you Achaeans suffered sorrows,
recall them for me now and tell me infallibly.”
Vexed greatly, blond Menelaus said to him:
“Damn it! Yes indeed, in the bed of a strong-minded man
they wished to sleep, though they themselves are weaklings.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.335  As when a deer puts her newborn suckling fawns to sleep
in a mighty lion's woody lair
and forages the foothills and grassy glens
to graze, and afterwards the lion goes into his den
and sends disgraceful doom against both of them,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.340  so Odysseus will send disgraceful doom against those men.
For I wish, father Zeus, Athena, and Apollo,
that just as he was in well-founded Lesbos once upon a time
when on a dare he stood up and wrestled Philomeides
and threw him mightily, and all Achaeans were delighted,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.345  such an Odysseus would engage the suitors.
All would be bitterly betrothed and swiftly doomed.
About these things that you ask and entreat me, I won't speak
off point of other things besides them nor will I deceive you,
but of what the infallible old man of the sea told me

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.350  I'll hide nothing from you and won't conceal a word.
“The gods kept me yet in Egypt, though I yearned to come here,
since I hadn't offered perfect hecatombs to them.
Gods always want their behests to be remembered.
Now there's an island in the much-surging sea

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.355  in front of Egypt, and they call it Pharos,
as far off as a hollow ship goes in a whole day
when a whistling fair wind blows behind it.
On it is a harbor with good mooring, from which they send
balanced ships off into the sea, once they've drawn black water.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.360  The gods kept me twenty days there, and fair winds
never appeared or blew over the sea, the ones that are
ships' escorts on the broad back of the sea.
And indeed all my provisions and men's strength would have been spent
had not some god taken pity on me and been merciful to me,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.365  Eidothea, the daughter of mighty Proteus, the old man of the sea,
for I'd moved her heart most of all,
who met me wandering alone apart from my comrades,
for they always roamed around the island fishing
with curved fishhooks and hunger afflicted their bellies.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.370  She stood near me, spoke a word, and said:
'Are you a fool, stranger, and such a very slack-minded one,
or did you give up of your free will and enjoy suffering sorrows?
You've been held back on the island so long now and can't find
any end to it, as your comrades' heart grows smaller.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.375  So said she, then I said to her in answer:
'I'll speak out and tell you, whatever goddess you are,
that I'm not held back at all by my free will, instead I surely must
have sinned against the immortals who hold wide heaven.
But you tell me, since gods know everything,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.380  what immortal binds me and kept me from my journey,
and of my return home, how I'll go upon the fishy sea.'
So said I, and the goddess divine immediately answered:
'Well then, stranger, I'll speak to you very exactly.
An infallible old man of the sea comes here often,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.385  immortal Proteus, the Egyptian, Poseidon's underling,
who knows the depths of every sea.
They say that he's my father and begot me.
If you can somehow capture him in ambush,
he'll tell you the way and stages of your journey,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.390  and of your return home, how you'll go upon the fishy sea.
And he'd tell you, Zeus-nurtured one, if you wanted,
what good and evil has been done in your palace
while you've been on your long and grievous journey.'
So said she, then I said to her in answer:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.395  You yourself devise now the divine old man's ambush,
lest he somehow see or learn beforehand and elude me,
for a god is difficult for a mortal man to tame.'
So said I, and the goddess divine immediately answered:
'Well then, I'll speak these things to you very exactly.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.400  When the sun straddles the midst of heaven,
then the infallible old man of the sea comes out of the sea
under West Wind's breath, hidden by a black ripple,
and when he comes out he sleeps beneath the hollow caves,
and seals, young ones of beautiful Halosydne,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.405  come up out of the sea and sleep huddled around him,
breathing out the very deep sea's pungent stench.
I'll take you there at the same time dawn appears
and set you in orderly ambush, and, you, choose three comrades
carefully, who are the best beside your well-benched ships.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.410  I'll tell you all the wiles of that old man.
First he'll go to the seals and count them,
then after he's seen them all and counted them by fives,
he'll lie in their midst like a herdsman with flocks of sheep.
As soon as you see he's lain down to rest,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.415  right then thereafter you must be careful of his might and power
and hold him right where he is, though he strives and rushes to escape.
He'll test you, becoming all things, all there are
that move upon the ground, and water, and wondrous fire,
then you must hold him firmly and squeeze harder.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.420  But when at last he speaks to you with words, as himself,
when he's like you saw him when he was lying down,
right then, hero, stop, and free the old man from your power,
then ask him what god oppresses you,
and of your return home, how you'll go upon the fishy sea.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.425  So saying, she plunged under the billowing sea.
Then I went to the ships, where they stood on the sands,
and my heart was much troubled on my way.
Then after I came down to the ship and sea,
we made supper and ambrosial night came upon us.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.430  We laid down then to sleep at the edge of sea's surf.
When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
right then I went along the shore of the wide-wayed sea
and prayed hard to the gods. Then I brought the three comrades
I'd trusted most in every enterprise.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.435  Meanwhile, she'd plunged beneath the wide bosom of the sea
and out of the sea brought four seal skins,
and all were newly flayed. She was devising a trap for her father.
She scooped out beds in the sea sand
and sat waiting. We now came very close to her,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.440  and she bedded us in a row then threw a skin on each of us.
Then our ambush would have been most terrible, for the baneful stench
of the sea-bred seals oppressed us terribly.
For who would be laid beside a monster of the sea?
But she devised a great help and saved us.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.445  She brought ambrosia, put the very sweetly smelling stuff
under each one's nose, and destroyed the monster's stench.
With resolute hearts we waited there all morning.
The seals came in a herd out of the water, then bedded
in a row beside the edge of sea's surf.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.450  At noon the old man came out of the sea, found his well-fed seals,
went to them all, and counted their number.
He counted us first among the monsters and didn't at heart
think it was a trap. Then he laid himself down too.
We rushed at him with a shout and threw our arms

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.455  around him, but the old man didn't forget his crafty art,
instead he first of all became a well-bearded lion,
then after that a serpent, a leopard, and a great boar,
then he became fluid water and a lofty, leafy tree.
But we held him firmly with resolute hearts.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.460  But when at last the old man, endowed with wily ways, grew weary,
right then he spoke to me and questioned me:
'What god took counsel with you, son of Atreus,
so you could seize me against my will in ambush? What do you need?'
So said he, then I said to him in answer:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.465  'You know, old man. Why speak of this misleadingly?
I've been held back on the island so long now and can't find
any end to it as my heart grows smaller inside me.'
But you tell me, since gods know everything,
what immortal binds me and kept me from my journey,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.470  and of my return home, how I'll go upon the fishy sea.'
So said I, and he immediately said to me in answer:
'Well, you really ought to have gone aboard after offering
fine victims to Zeus and other gods, so you'd soonest
reach your fatherland as you sailed the wine-dark sea.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.475  But it's not your lot to see your loved ones
and reach your well-built house and your fatherland
before you go back to the water of Egypt,
the Zeus-fallen river, and offer sacred hecatombs
to the immortal gods who hold wide heaven.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.480  Right then the gods will grant you the journey you desire.
So said he. Then my dear heart was broken,
because he'd bid me go again upon the misty sea
to Egypt, a long and grievous journey.
But even so, I said to him in answer:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.485  I'll do these things in this way, old man, as you bid,
but come, tell me this and recount it exactly,
whether all came unharmed with their ships, the Achaeans
whom Nestor and I left when we left Troy,
or did any perish in cruel destruction upon his ship

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.490  or in the hands of loved ones after he wound up the war?'
So said I, and he immediately said to me in answer:
'Atreides, why ask me about this? There's no need at all
to know it or to learn my mind and I don't think
you'll be tearless for long after you've heard it all well.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.495  For while many were tamed, many others were left.
Only two of the leaders of the bronze-clad Achaeans
perished on their return home, and you too were at the battle.
One, still alive somewhere, is detained on the wide sea.
Ajax was tamed among his long-oared ships.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.500  First Poseidon drove him against the great rocks
of Gyrae and saved him from the sea,
and he'd indeed have escaped doom, though hateful to Athena,
if he hadn't been made mighty mindless and thrown out a haughty word.
He said he'd escaped, against gods' will, the great gulf of the sea.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.505  Poseidon heard him speaking loudly,
then at once took his trident in his well-knit hands,
drove it against the Gyraean rock and split it.
And one piece stayed where it was while the other fell into the sea,
the one on which Ajax first sat when he was made mighty mindless,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.510  and it bore him down into the boundless billowing sea.
So there he perished after he drank the briny water.
Your brother fled death's agents and escaped
in his hollow ships and lady Hera saved him.
But, as he was just about to reach the sheer mount

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.515  of the Maleians, a windstorm snatched him up then
and bore him, groaning heavily, upon the fishy deep
to the border of the land where Thyestes had a home
before, but Aegisthus Thyestiades lived then.
But when at last even from there a safe return appeared,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.520  and the gods turned back a fair wind, and they reached home,
yes indeed, he set foot upon his fatherland with joy
and he took hold of his fatherland and kissed it. Many hot tears
poured from him when he saw his welcome land.
A lookout saw him from a lookout, whom cunning Aegisthus

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.525  brought and posted and promised two talents of gold
as pay. He'd been watching for a year, lest he miss him
passing by and Agamemnon remember his impetuous prowess.
He made his way to the palace to report to the shepherd of men.
Aegisthus at once contrived a cunning design.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.530  He chose twenty of the best men throughout the kingdom
and set an ambush, then bid a feast be prepared elsewhere.
Then he went to summon the shepherd of people Agamemnon
with horses and a chariot, pondering shameless things.
He led him, unaware of destruction, made him dinner,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.535  and killed him, as one kills an ox at a trough.
Neither any of Atreides' comrades who were with him were left
nor any of Aegisthus', but they were killed in the palace.'
So said he. Then my dear heart was broken,
and I sat weeping on the sand, and truly my heart

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.540  no longer wished to live and see sun's light.
Then after I'd had enough of weeping and writhing,
right then the infallible old man of the sea said to me:
'No longer, son of Atreus, weep a long time unrelentingly
this way, since we find that no accomplishment. But try

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.545  very soon to reach your fatherland at last.
For either you'll find him alive or Orestes got to him before you
and killed him, and you might be present at his funeral.'
So said he, and my heart and manly spirit
again warmed in my chest even though I grieved.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.550  And voicing winged words, I said to him:
'Now at last I know of them, but name the third man,
who's held back by the wide sea still alive
or dead, for even though I grieve, I want to hear it.'
So said I, and he immediately said to me in answer:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.555  'The son of Laertes, who has a house in Ithaca,
whom I saw shedding thick tears on an island,
in the palace of nymph Calypso, who holds him back
by force. He's unable to reach his fatherland,
for he hasn't oared ships or comrades at his side

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.560  to convoy him on the broad back of the sea.
But it's not ordained for you, Zeus-nurtured Menelaus,
to meet your fate and die in horse-grazing Argos,
but to the Elysian plain and the limits of the earth
the immortals will send you, where blond Rhadamanthus is,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.565  there where life is easiest for men,
no snow, and not much winter, and never rain,
but always gusts of clearly blowing West Wind
Ocean sends up to cool off men,
because you have Helen and are a son-in-law of Zeus to them.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.570  So saying, he dove beneath the surging sea,
then I went to the ships with my godlike comrades
and my heart was much troubled on my way.
Then after we'd gone down to the ship and sea
and made dinner, and ambrosial night came on,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.575  we laid down then to sleep at the edge of sea's surf.
When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
we first of all hauled our ships into the divine sea,
then in our balanced ships we put the masts and sails.
Then they went aboard and sat down at the oarlocks,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.580  and seated in rows beat the gray sea with their oars
back to Zeus-fallen river Egypt's water.
I moored my ships and offered perfect hecatombs.
Then after I ended the anger of the gods who are forever,
I heaped a grave mound for Agamemnon, so his fame be inextinguishable.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.585  When I'd done this I departed, and the immortals granted me
a fair wind and sent me swiftly to my beloved fatherland.
But come now, stay in my palace
until the eleventh and twelfth day come to be.
Right then I'll send you off well and give you splendid gifts,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.590  three horses and a well-polished chariot. Then afterward
I'll give you a beautiful chalice, so you can make libation to the gods
immortal and all your days remember me.”
Astute Telemachus said back to him in turn:
Atreides, don't keep me here a long time

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.595  even though I'd be content to sit beside you for a year
and longing for either home or parents wouldn't seize me,
since I terribly enjoy hearing your stories and your words.
But by now my comrades are becoming impatient
in sacred Pylos, and you do keep me here a while.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.600  Whatever gift you'd give me, let it be one to be treasured.
I won't take the horses to Ithaca, but I'll leave them here for you
yourself, as honors, for you rule over a wide plain
in which is much lotus and galingale
and wheat and spelt and broad-eared white barley.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.605  In Ithaca are neither wide courses nor any meadowland.
It's goat-grazing land and more lovely than horse-grazing,
for none of the islands are for good for horses or well-meadowed,
the islands that slope to the sea, Ithaca even more than all.”
So said he, and battle-cry-brave Menelaus smiled,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.610  caressed him with his hand, called out his name, and said:
“You're of good blood, dear child, in what you say,
therefore I'll change these things for you, since I can.
Of all the gifts that lie as treasures in my house,
I'll give the one that's most beautiful and honored.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.615  I'll give you a well-crafted mixing bowl. The whole thing's
silver, and the rim is finished with gold,
a work of Hephaestus. The hero Phaedimus, the Sidonian king,
gave it to me when his house sheltered me there
on my return, and I want to send it with you.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.620  So while they said such things to one another,
the guests came to the home of the divine king.
They brought sheep and carried hearty wine,
and their finely-veiled wives sent food with them.
So they busied themselves about dinner in the palace

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.625  while the suitors in front of Odysseus' hall
enjoyed themselves throwing with discuses and javelins
on leveled flat ground, where they had before, with wanton arrogance.
Antinous and godlike Eurymachus were seated,
the leaders of the suitors they were far the best in prowess.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.630  The son of Phronius, Noemon, came near them,
spoke to Antinous, and asked:
Antinous, do we know it at all in our minds, or don't we,
when Telemachus may come from sandy Pylos?
He took my ship and left, but I need her

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.635  to cross over to spacious Elis, where I have twelve horses,
females with untamed drudging mules under them,
one of whom I'd drive out and tame.”
So said he, and in their hearts they wondered, for they hadn't thought
he'd gone to Neleian Pylos, but was somewhere

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.640  on his farm or with the swineherd.
Eupeithes' son Antinous said back to him:
“Tell me infallibly, when did he go and what young men
went with him? Chosen ones of Ithaca, or his own
hired hands and slaves? Even he would be able to do that.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.645  And tell me this truly, so I know it well,
whether he took away your black ship by force against your will
or you gave it to him willingly when he implored you.”
The son of Phronius, Noemon, said to him in turn:
“I gave it to him myself, willingly. What would any other do,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.650  when a man like this, with cares in his heart,
makes a request? It would be hard to refuse the giving.
Young men who are best among us throughout the kingdom
went with him. I noticed one getting on board as their leader,
Mentor, or a god who looked completely like him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.655  But I wonder about it. I saw divine Mentor here
early yesterday, but at that time he'd boarded ship for Pylos.”
So saying, he departed to his father's house,
and the manly heart in both of them marveled.
They had the suitors stop their games and sit down together.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.660  Eupeithes' son Antinous spoke among them,
grieving. Both sides of his heart were filled black, full
of fury, and his eyes were like flashing fire:
“Damn it! Yes, a horrible deed has been haughtily done,
this journey by Telemachus. We didn't think he'd do it.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.665  A young boy goes out on his own, against the will of so many,
selects the best throughout the kingdom, and launches a ship.
He'll begin to be an even further evil. May Zeus instead destroy
his life for him before he reaches the measure of young manhood.
But come, give me a swift ship and twenty comrades,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.670  so I can watch and wait in ambush for him as he comes
in the strait between Ithaca and rugged Samos,
so to his own cost he sails for his father!”
So said he, and all concurred and commanded,
then got up at once and went into the house of Odysseus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.675  Nor was Penelope for a long time without knowledge
of the words the suitors were brooding over in their minds,
for a herald told her, Medon, who was outside in the courtyard
and heard their plans as they wove their scheme inside.
He made his way through the palace to report to Penelope,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.680  and as he stepped down from the threshold Penelope said to him:
“Why have the illustrious suitors sent you, herald?
Was it to tell the slave women of divine Odysseus
to stop their work and get dinner ready for them?
Neither wooing me nor gathering another time,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.685  may they dine here for the last and final time!
You who gather often and shear away much substance,
the property of skilled Telemachus. Nor did you hear anything
from your fathers in the past when you were children,
how Odysseus was among your parents,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.690  neither doing or saying anything unfair
in his kingdom, which is the custom of divine kings,
who may hate one mortal and love another,
but Odysseus never did a completely wicked thing to any man.
But your heart and unseemly deeds are obvious

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.695  nor is there any thanks for good deeds afterwards.”
Medon, endowed with wisdom, said back to her:
“Would that this were the greatest evil, my queen,
but the suitors are devising another much greater
and more grievous. May Cronion not bring it to pass!

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.700  They intend to kill Telemachus with sharp bronze
on his way home. He went after news of his father
to sacred Pylos and divine Lacedaemon.”
So said he, and right there her knees and dear heart were undone,
and for a long time speechlessness took her words from her. Her two eyes

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.705  were filled with tears, and her rich voice was held in check.
A long time later she said to him in answer:
“Why is my son gone, herald? There was no need at all
for him to board swift-sailing ships, that are horses of the sea
for men and make their way upon great water,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.710  so not even his name be left among mankind.”
Then Medon, endowed with wisdom, answered her:
“I don't know whether some god incited him or even if
his own heart was spurred to go to Pylos so he could find out
about his father, either of his return or whatever fate he met.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.715  So saying, he departed through the house of Odysseus.
Heart-destroying grief poured over her, and she could no longer stand
to sit upon the seats, though there were many throughout the house,
and sat instead upon the threshold of her well-made chamber,
weeping pitifully. Her slave women all whimpered around her,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.720  all, young and old, who were in the house.
Sobbing thickly, Penelope said to them:
“Listen, dear ones, for the Olympian has given me sorrows
surpassing all who were born and bred along with me,
I, who first lost my lion-hearted husband,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.725  who excelled among Danaans in all kinds of good qualities,
a good man, whose fame is wide throughout Hellas and middle Argos.
Now again, windstorms have snatched up my lovable son,
without tidings, from our palace, but I heard not of his leaving.
Hard-hearted ones, not even one of you put it in your mind

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.730  to wake me out of bed, though you knew it clearly,
when that one went aboard a hollow black ship.
For if I'd found out he was pondering this journey,
then surely he'd have either stayed, though eager for his way,
or left me dead in our palace.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.735  But let someone summon old man Dolios,
my slave whom my father gave me when I was on my way here
and who keeps for me an orchard full of trees, so he can very quickly
sit beside Laertes and recount all these things,
in the hope he may at last weave some plan in his mind

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.740  and go out and complain to the people, who are minded
to waste away his and godlike Odysseus' progeny.”
Dear nurse Eurycleia said back to her:
“Dear bride, kill me with ruthless bronze
or let me live in your palace, but I won't conceal the story from you.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.745  I knew all of this, and gave him all he commanded,
food and sweet wine. He took from me a mighty oath,
not to tell you before the twelfth day came to be
or you yourself missed him and heard of his starting out,
so you wouldn't mar your beautiful flesh with weeping.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.750  But wash yourself with water, take clean clothes for your flesh,
go up into the upper chamber with your handmaid women,
and pray to Athena, daughter of Aegis-bearer Zeus,
for she might then save him, even from death.
And don't trouble a troubled old man. For I don't think

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.755  the offspring of Arceisiades is wholly hated by the blessed gods,
but there'll still be one left, I imagine, who'll hold
the high-roofed house and rich fields far away.”
So said she, and stilled her weeping, and kept her eyes from weeping.
She washed herself with water, took clean clothes for her flesh,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.760  went up into the upper chamber with her handmaid women,
put barley groats in a basket, and prayed to Athena:
“Hear me, Atrytone, child of Aegis-bearer Zeus,
if ever for you in his halls adroit Odysseus burned
the fatty thighs of ox or sheep,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.765  recall this now for me and save my dear son for me.
Ward off the suitors in their evil arrogance.”
So saying, she ululated, and the goddess heard her prayer.
The suitors raised an uproar throughout the shadowy palace.
In this way, one of the young men, in wanton arrogance, would say:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.770  “Yes, very surely, our much-wooed queen's preparing a wedding
for us, but doesn't know at all that murder's prepared for her son.”
So one of them would say, but they didn't know how it happened.
Now Antinous spoke and said among them:
“Possessed ones, refrain from haughty speech,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.775  all of it alike, lest someone perhaps also report it inside.
But come, let's get up in silence then and carry out
our decision that suited all of us just now in our minds.”
So saying, he chose the twenty best men
and they made their way to the swift ship and sea's shore.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.780  First of all they hauled the ship toward the sea's depths,
put mast and sails on the black ship,
positioned oars in leather oar straps,
all in good order, and hoisted the white sail,
as their high-spirited cohorts carried their gear for them.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.785  They anchored her offshore in the south then went ashore themselves.
They had supper there as they waited for evening to come.
Back in the upper chamber, prudent Penelope
lay fasting, not tasting food and drink,
pondering whether her noble son would escape death

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.790  or be tamed by the haughty suitors.
As much as a lion in a crowd of men broods anxiously
with fear when they draw their crafty circle around him,
that much she was pondering when sweet sleep came upon her.
All her joints were relaxed, she leaned back, and slept.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.795  Then bright-eyed goddess Athena thought of something else.
She created a phantom and in shape it looked like a woman,
Iphthime, the daughter of great-hearted Icarius,
whom Eumelus, who had a house in Pherae, wed.
She sent it to the home of divine Odysseus,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.800  to stop the wailing and lamenting Penelope
from her weeping and tearful lamentation.
It entered the bedroom past the bolt's strap,
stood above her head, and said to her:
“Are you sleeping, Penelope, your dear heart sorrowing?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.805  No, the gods who live easily won't let you
grieve and cry, since your son is still to have homecoming,
for he's not at all a sinner in gods' eyes.”
Then prudent Penelope answered her,
as she very sweetly slumbered at the gate of dreams:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.810  “Why have you come here, sister? You didn't visit much at all
before, since you have a home so very far away.
And you bid me cease from my grief and the many sorrows
that distress me in my mind and heart,
I, who first lost my lion-hearted husband,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.815  who excelled among Danaans in all kinds of good qualities,
a good man, whose fame is wide throughout Hellas and middle Argos.
Now again, my lovable son has gone aboard a hollow ship,
a child who knows well neither hard works nor assemblies.
I grieve for him even more than for the other.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.820  I tremble for him and fear lest he suffer something
in the kingdom of those where he's gone or on the sea.
For many enemies are plotting against him,
eager to kill him before he reaches his fatherland.”
The faint phantom said to her in reply:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.825  “Take heart, and don't in any way at all fear too much in your mind,
for such an escort goes with him, whom even other men
would pray to stand beside them, for she has power,
Pallas Athena. She feels pity for you in your lamentation.
She sent me now to tell these things to you.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.830  Prudent Penelope said back to her:
“If then you are a god and have heard the goddess's voice,
then come tell me also of that wretched one,
whether he's still alive somewhere and sees the light of the sun
or is already dead and in the house of Hades.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.835  The faint phantom said to her in reply:
“I won't tell you in detail about that one,
whether he's dead or alive. It's bad to talk like empty wind.”
So saying, it glided past the bolt of the doorpost
into gusts of winds. The daughter of Icarius got up

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.840  from sleep and her dear heart was warmed
that a clear dream had sped to her in the gloom of night.
The suitors went aboard and sailed on the watery ways,
pondering in their minds sheer slaughter for Telemachus.
There's a certain rocky island in the middle of the sea,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.4.845  between Ithaca and rugged Samos,
not a big one, Asteris, with ship-sheltering harbors on it
on each side. The Achaeans waited for him there in ambush.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.1  BOOK 5
Dawn, from bed beside illustrious Tithonus,
arose to bring light to mortals and immortals.
The gods sat down in council, among them
Zeus whose power is the greatest.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.5  Athena spoke to them, Odysseus' many troubles
on her mind, for his being in the nymph's home troubled her:
“Father Zeus, and other blessed gods who are forever,
Let no sceptered king ever be earnestly
gentle and kind, or know justice in his mind,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.10  but may he always be hard and do injustice,
seeing that none of the people whom he ruled
remembers godlike Odysseus, who was kind as a father to them.
But he lies on an island, suffering mighty sorrows
in the palace of nymph Calypso, who holds him back

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.15  by force. He's unable to reach his fatherland,
for he hasn't oared ships or comrades at his side
to convoy him on the broad back of the sea.
Now they intend to kill his lovable son
on his way home. He went after news of his father,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.20  to sacred Pylos and divine Lacedaemon.”
Cloud-gatherer Zeus said to her in reply:
“My child, what kind of talk is this that's fled your wall of teeth?
Didn't you yourself recommend this plan,
that Odysseus surely come and take vengeance on those men?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.25  Escort Telemachus skillfully, since you can,
so, quite unscathed he gets to his fatherland
and the suitors in their ship go back where they came from.”
He spoke, then facing Hermes, his beloved son, he said:
Hermes, since you're our messenger for other things,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.30  to the fair-haired nymph clearly speak our will,
the return home of steadfast Odysseus, so he may go,
without escort of gods or mortal men.
Instead, he'll suffer miseries on a well-bound raft
and reach fertile Scheria on the twentieth day,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.35  the land of the Phaeacians, who are close to the gods,
who will honor him exceedingly in their heart like a god,
then will send him in a ship to his beloved fatherland,
and give him bronze, and gold aplenty, and clothing,
lots of it, and Odysseus could never have taken this much from Troy

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.40  even if he'd gone unharmed and obtained his share of spoils.
For it's his lot to see his loved ones and reach
his high-roofed house and fatherland.”
So said he, and runner Argeiphontes did not disobey him.
At once he tied fine sandals underneath his feet,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.45  ambrosial, golden ones, that bore him, over water
and boundless land, with the breezes of the wind.
He raised his wand, with which he enchants the eyes of men,
of those he wishes, and wakes up again the sleeping.
Mighty Argeiphontes held it in his hands and flew.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.50  Stepping on Pieria from the upper air he fell upon the sea,
then sped over the waves like a bird, a cormorant,
that as it catches fish, down through the deep gulfs
of the barren sea, wets its thick feathers in the brine.
Like this, Hermes rode the many waves.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.55  But when he reached that island, which was far away,
then he stepped out of the violet sea upon the land
and went until he reached the great cave in which
the fair-haired nymph lived. He found her inside.
A great fire was burning on the hearth, and the scent

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.60  of split cedar and pine spread throughout the island
as they burned. She was singing in a beautiful voice inside
as she plied the loom and wove with a golden shuttle.
A luxuriant wood grew around the cave,
alder, and aspen, and fragrant cypress.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.65  Birds with long wings nested there,
owls, and hawks, and long-tongued crows,
sea crows, who care about works upon the sea.
Right there, around the hollow cave, stretched
a vine in youthful vigor blooming with clusters of grapes.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.70  Four fountains in a row flowed with white water,
next to each other, but turned in different directions.
Soft meadows of violet and parsley
bloomed about them. Even an immortal, after coming there,
would gaze in admiration at what he saw and be delighted in his mind.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.75  Runner Argeiphontes stood there and gazed in admiration.
Then after he'd gazed at it all with his heart,
he went at once into the wide cave, and when she saw him
face to face, the goddess divine, Calypso, did not not recognize him,
for gods are not unknown to each other

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.80  as immortals, not even if one lives in a home far away.
But he didn't see great-hearted Odysseus inside,
since he was sitting on the shore crying, there as before,
rending his heart with tears and groans and sorrows,
shedding tears as he looked out upon the barren sea.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.85  The goddess divine, Calypso, questioned Hermes
when she'd seated him in a shiny bright chair:
“Why have you come to me, Hermes of the golden wand,
venerable and dear one? You haven't often come at all before.
Speak whatever's on your mind. My heart orders me do it,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.90  if do it I can, and if it can be done.
But come further, so I can lay guest fare beside you.”
So saying, the goddess set a table beside him,
filled it with ambrosia, and mixed red nectar.
Then runner Argeiphontes ate and drank.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.95  Then after he'd dined and satisfied his appetite with food,
right then he said to her in answer:
“You ask me, goddess, why a god has come, so I'll tell you
the story infallibly, since you bid me.
Zeus ordered me to come here, though I didn't want to.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.100  Who'd run across so much briny water?
It's immense! Nor is there nearby any mortals' city,
who offer sacrifices and choice hecatombs to gods.
But there's surely no way for another god
to transgress or disappoint the mind of Aegis-bearer Zeus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.105  He says the man with you is the most wretched of those others,
of the men who battled around Priam's city
for nine years, then sacked the city in the tenth, and headed home.
But on their return home they sinned against Athena,
who roused an evil wind and tall waves against them.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.110  All the rest of his good comrades perished there,
but wind and waves bore and drove him here.
Zeus has ordered that you send him off as soon as possible,
for it's not this one's destiny to perish far away from his loved ones,
but it's still his lot to see his loved ones and reach

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.115  his high-roofed house and fatherland.”
So said he, then the goddess divine, Calypso, shuddered,
and voicing winged words, she said to him:
“You are merciless, you gods, jealous beyond others,
who resent goddesses that bed beside men

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.120  openly, if any makes a beloved one her spouse.
So, when rose-fingered Dawn took Orion for herself,
you gods who live easily resented her
until in Ortygia chaste golden-throned Artemis
attacked with her painless darts and killed him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.125  So, when fair-haired Demeter yielded to her heart
and mixed with Iasion in making love and love
in a thrice-plowed fallow field, but not for long was Zeus
unhearing of it, who struck him with white lightning and killed him.
So again now, gods, you resent me for being with a mortal man,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.130  whom I saved when he was sprawled around his keel,
alone, after Zeus impeded and split his swift ship
with white lightning in the midst of the wine-dark sea.
All the rest of his good comrades perished there,
but wind and waves bore and drove him here.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.135  I loved and cared for him and promised
to make him immortal and ageless all his days.
But, since there's no way for another god
to transgress or disappoint the mind of Aegis-bearer Zeus,
let him be gone, if he urges and bids it,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.140  upon the barren sea, but I won't convoy him anywhere,
for I haven't oared ships or comrades at my side
to convoy him on the broad back of the sea,
but I'll earnestly advise him, and not conceal it,
so, quite unscathed, he'll get to his fatherland.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.145  Runner Argeiphontes said back to her:
“Send him off now in this way, and respect the wrath of Zeus,
lest he somehow in resentment be hard with you hereafter.”
So saying, mighty Argeiphontes departed.
The lady nymph went to great-hearted Odysseus

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.150  after she heard Zeus' message.
She found him sitting on the shore, but his eyes were never dry
of tears and his sweet lifetime was passing from him
as he mourned for his return, since the nymph no longer pleased him.
But, yes, he spent the nights, by necessity,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.155  in her hollow caves, the unwilling beside the willing,
then by day he sat on the rocks and spits,
rending his heart with tears and groans and sorrows,
shedding tears as he looked out upon the barren sea.
The goddess divine stood close by and said to him:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.160  “Ill-fated one, mourn here no longer, and don't have your lifetime
waste away, for I'll quite sincerely send you off now.
But come, cut long timbers with bronze and join them
into a wide raft. Then fasten a deck on it, up high,
so it can carry you upon the misty sea.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.165  Then I'll put food, and water, and red wine in it,
in abundance, to keep hunger from you,
and dress you in raiment, then send a fair wind behind you,
so, quite unscathed, you can reach your fatherland,
if the gods who hold wide heaven are willing,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.170  who are mightier than I in both intention and fulfillment.”
So said she, and long-suffering divine Odysseus shuddered,
and voicing winged words, he said to her:
“Goddess, you intend this as something else, but not at all a convoy,
you who bid me cross upon a raft the great gulf of the sea,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.175  dread and grievous, over which swift-sailing balanced ships
don't pass, even glorying in a fair wind from Zeus.
But I won't set foot on a raft despite you,
unless, goddess, you dare to swear a great oath to me,
that you won't plan another evil misery for me.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.180  So said he, and the goddess divine, Calypso, smiled,
caressed him with her hand, called out his name, and said:
“Yes, you're a wicked one, and not unsagacious,
to have the wit to speak such talk as this.
Let the earth now see this, and wide heaven above,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.185  and the flowing water of Styx, who is the greatest and most dread
witness to an oath among the blessed gods,
that I don't plan another evil misery for you.
Instead, I'm thinking of and will advise the things I'd have in mind
even for myself, should such a need come upon me.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.190  For my mind is righteous, and I myself don't have a heart
of iron in my chest, but one of compassion.”
So saying, the goddess divine led
quickly, and he followed in the footsteps of the goddess.
They reached the hollow cave, the goddess and the man,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.195  and he then sat upon the chair from which Hermes
had arisen, and the nymph laid all kind of food beside hi,
to eat and drink, such kinds as mortal men eat.
She sat opposite divine Odysseus
and her slave women set ambrosia and nectar beside her.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.200  They threw their hands on the good things laid ready before them.
Then after they'd had their fill of food and drink,
the goddess divine, Calypso, was the first of them to speak:
Zeus-born Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus,
Do you wish to go homeward this way, right now,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.205  to your beloved fatherland? Then, fare you well, nonetheless.
If you only knew in your mind how many sorrows make up
your destiny before you reach your fatherland,
you'd stay right here with me, guard this home,
and be immortal, despite your eagerness to see

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.210  your wife, whom you long for every day.
Surely, I claim I'm no worse than she
in either form or stature, since it's no way fitting
that mortals vie with immortals in form and appearance.”
Adroit Odysseus said to her in reply:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.215  “Lady goddess, don't be angry with me for this. I know this all
myself very well, because prudent Penelope is weaker than you
in appearance and size, when one sees her face to face,
for she is mortal, but you're immortal and unaging.
But even so, I want and wish for, every day,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.220  to go home and see homecoming day.
If some god again wrecks me on the wine-dark sea,
I'll endure it, with a heart in my chest that endures sorrows,
for I've already suffered very many and toiled much
in waves and war. Let this also be among them.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.225  So said he, and the sun went down, and dusk came on.
The two, going to an inner recess of the hollow cave,
stayed by each other's side and delighted in love.
When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
Odysseus at once put on his cloak and tunic

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.230  and the nymph herself put on a great white cloak,
delicate and lovely, threw a fine golden girdle
around her waist and a veil above her head.
Right then she planned the departure of great-hearted Odysseus.
She gave him a big axe that fit in his palms,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.235  a bronze one, sharpened on both sides, and a handle
of gorgeous olivewood was strongly fastened in it.
Then she gave him a well-made adze. She led the way
to the border of the island, where the tall trees grew,
alder and poplar, and where fir was reaching to the sky,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.240  dry long ago, very dry, that would float lightly for him.
Then after she showed him where the tall trees grew,
the goddess divine, Calypso, went to her home,
but he started cutting timbers, and took care of his work quickly.
He struck down twenty in all, then trimmed them with the bronze,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.245  planed them expertly and made them straight to the line.
Meanwhile the goddess divine, Calypso, brought augers,
and he bored all of them and fit them to each other,
then with pegs and cords pounded it together.
As wide as some man well skilled in carpentry

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.250  would mark off the bottom of a wide freighter,
just as wide Odysseus made his raft.
Setting up the deck, fitting it to the closely-set ribs,
he worked, then finished it with long side planks.
He made a mast and yardarm that fit in it,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.255  then made a steering oar besides so he could steer.
He fenced it in throughout with wickerwork of willow
to be a defense against the waves, then piled up much wood for himself.
Meanwhile the goddess divine, Calypso, brought cloth
to make a sail. He fashioned that well too.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.260  On it he secured the braces, halyards, and sheets,
then he hauled the raft with levers down into the divine sea.
It was the fourth day, and everything he had to do was done.
Then on the fifth, divine Calypso sent him from the island
after she'd bathed him and dressed him in fragrant raiment.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.265  The goddess put a leather bag of black wine on board for him,
and another one, a big one of water, and provisions too,
in a sack in which she put many cooked meats in abundance,
and sent forth a fair wind, warm and gentle.
Joyful at the fair wind, divine Odysseus spread the sail.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.270  Then he sat and steered skillfully with the steering oar,
and sleep didn't fall upon his eyelids
as he looked at the Pleiades, and late setting Bootes,
and the Bear, which they also call the Wagon as another name,
that turns in its place and watches Orion,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.275  and is the only one without a share of Ocean's baths.
For the goddess divine, Calypso, had bid him keep it
on his left hand as he sailed the sea.
Seventeen days he sailed, sailing on the sea,
and on the eighteenth, the shadowy mountains of the Phaeacians'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.280  land appeared, where it was closest to him,
and it looked like a shield in the misty water.
Coming back from the Ethiopians, his majesty the Earth-shaker saw him
from far away, from the mountains of the Solymi, for he could be seen
sailing over the sea. He became the more enraged at heart,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.285  and with a shake of his head said to his own spirit:
“Humph! Yes, the gods have surely changed their minds
about Odysseus while I was among the Ethiopians,
and he's near the Phaeacians' land at last, where it's his destiny
to escape the great bond of misery that's come to him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.290  But I think I'll yet drive him to his fill of evil.”
So saying, he gathered clouds, grasped his trident in his hands,
and stirred the sea into confusion. He incited all the gusts
of winds of every kind, and hid with clouds
both land and sea, as night rushed from heaven.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.295  East Wind and South Wind, and ill-blowing West Wind, and North Wind,
born of the upper air and rolling a great wave, fell together.
Right then Odysseus' knees and dear heart were undone,
and troubled, he said to his own great-hearted spirit:
“Oh my, wretched me, what surely may become of me at last?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.300  I fear the goddess spoke everything infallibly,
who said that on the sea, before I reached my fatherland,
I'd have my fill of sorrows, which are now all come to pass.
Zeus wreathes wide heaven with such clouds
and troubles the sea, and windstorms, of all kinds of winds,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.305  rush upon me. Sheer destruction is certain now for me!
Three and four times blessed were the Danaans, who perished
back then in wide Troy bringing favor to the Atreidae,
as I wish I'd died and met my fate
on that day when the greatest number of Trojans

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.310  threw bronzed-tipped spears at me around the dead Peleion.
Then I'd have had funeral honors and Achaeans would have spread
my fame, but it had been fated that I now be caught by dismal death.”
As he said so, a great wave drove down on him from above,
and rushing at him dreadfully, spun his raft around.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.315  He himself fell far away from the raft and threw the steering oar
from his hands. A dread windstorm came,
of winds mixing together, and snapped his mast in the middle,
and the sail and yardarm fell far off into the sea.
The storm kept him underwater for a long time, and he wasn't able

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.320  to emerge from under the wave's great onset very soon,
for the clothing divine Calypso gave him weighed him down.
He came up at last, and spit brine from his mouth,
bitter brine that gushed in great quantity from his head.
But even so, he didn't forget his raft despite his distress,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.325  but he rushed after it in the waves, grabbed hold of it,
and sat down in the middle to avoid the doom of death.
A great wave carried her to and fro through the current.
As when in late summer North Wind carries thistles
over the plain, and they hold on in clusters to each other,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.330  so the winds bore her to and fro on the sea.
At one time South Wind would cast it to North Wind to carry,
at another, East Wind would yield to West Wind to drive it.
Cadmus' daughter, fair-ankled Ino, saw him,
Leucothea, who was a mortal of human speech before,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.335  but in the sea's depths now has her share of honor from the gods.
She felt pity for Odysseus, as he wandered and had sorrows,
and disguised as a gull she went up in flight from the sea,
sat on the raft, and said to him:
“Ill-fated one, why does Earth-shaker Poseidon hate you

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.340  so terribly, that he plants evils aplenty for you?
He won't destroy you, though he's very eager to.
You don't seem to me to be without sense, so act in just this way.
Strip off these clothes, abandon the raft to be borne by winds,
then swim with your hands and strive for a return

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.345  to the Phaeacians' land, where it's your lot to escape.
Take this veil and stretch it under your chest.
It's immortal. Don't have any fear that you'll suffer or perish.
Then after you've laid hold of land with your hands,
loosen it from you and cast it back into the wine-dark sea,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.350  far from the land, and turn yourself away.”
So saying, the goddess gave him the veil,
then herself dove back into the billowing sea,
disguised as a gull, and dark wave covered her.
Then long-suffering divine Odysseus pondered,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.355  and troubled, he said to his own great-hearted spirit:
“Oh my me, may it not be that some immortal again weaves
a trap for me, whoever orders me get off my raft?
But I won't obey just yet, since I myself saw with my eyes
the land is far away, where she said I'd have safe refuge.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.360  Instead I'll do it just this way, as it seems best to me.
As long as the timbers are held together by the cables,
I'll stay where I am and endure it, suffering sorrows,
but after the waves break my raft into pieces,
I'll swim, since there's nothing better to plan besides that.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.365  While he was turning this over in his mind and heart,
Earth-shaker Poseidon raised a great wave,
dread and grievous, overarching, and drove it against him.
As a stormy wind shakes a heap of dried chaff
and scatters it in one direction and another,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.370  so it scattered the long timbers. Then Odysseus
straddled one timber, as if riding a horse,
and took off the clothes divine Calypso gave him.
At once he stretched the veil beneath his chest,
dropped down headfirst into the sea, and spread out his arms,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.375  eager to swim. His majesty Earth-shaker saw him,
and with a shake of his head, said to his own spirit:
“So now, suffering many evils, wander on the sea
until you mingle with Zeus-nurtured men.
But even so, I don't expect you'll take your badness lightly.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.380  So saying, he whipped his fair-maned horses
and went to Aegae, where he has a splendid home.
Then Zeus's daughter Athena thought of other things.
She tied down the courses of the other winds
and bid all of them to stop and go to sleep.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.385  She roused swift North Wind and broke the waves before him
until he could mingle with the oar-loving Phaeacians,
Zeus-born Odysseus, escaping death's spirits and death.
Then for two nights and two days he was driven off course
by the solid wave, and many times his heart foresaw destruction.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.390  But when fair-haired Dawn brought the third day on,
right then after that the wind stopped and there was
a windless calm. He caught sight of land nearby,
looking forward very keenly when lifted by a great wave.
As when life appears welcome to the children

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.395  of a father who lies in sickness and suffers mighty pains,
wasting away a long time as some loathesome divinity assails him,
and then welcomely, the gods free him from the badness,
so welcome to Odysseus seemed the land and woodland,
and he swam in eager haste to set foot on the land.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.400  But when he was as far away as one shouting can be heard,
he heard the thud of the sea against the reefs,
for a great wave was crashing against the dry land,
belching terribly, and all was wrapped in sea's spray.
For there were no harbors, ships' holders, not even roadsteads,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.405  but there were jutting spits, rocks, and reefs.
Right then Odysseus' knees and dear heart were undone,
and troubled, he said to his own great-hearted spirit:
“O my, after Zeus has granted that I see unhoped for land,
and I've managed at last to cut through this gulf,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.410  no exit out of the gray sea appears anywhere.
For outside there are sharp rocks, and dashing waves
bellow about them, then the rock runs up smooth,
the sea is deep near shore, and it's not possible
to stand with both feet and escape distress,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.415  lest a great wave perhaps snatch me as I get out and throw me
against the stony rock and my effort will be in vain.
But if I swim along still further, in hope of finding
beaches, angled to the waves and harbors from the sea,
I'm afraid a windstorm may snatch me up again

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.420  and bear me, groaning heavily, over the fishy sea,
or a divinity may set upon me some great monster
out of the sea, such as the many famed Amphitrite breeds,
for I know how the famed Earth-shaker hates me.”
While he was turning this over in his mind and heart,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.425  a great wave carried him to the rugged shore.
His skin would have been stripped off there, and his bones crushed with it,
if bright-eyed goddess Athena hadn't put this in his mind.
He rushed at the rock and grabbed it with both hands.
He held onto it, groaning, until the great wave passed.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.430  And this way he escaped it, but as it flowed back again
it rushed at him and struck him, then threw him far out on the sea.
As when pebbles cling thickly to the suckers
of an octopus pulled out of its hole,
so the skin was stripped away from his bold hands

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.435  against the rocks. The great wave now covered him.
Then, wretched beyond his lot, Odysseus would have perished
had not bright-eyed Athena given him prudence.
Emerging from the wave as it belched toward the mainland,
he swam out along it, looking toward land in hope he'd find

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.440  beaches, angled to the waves and harbors from the sea.
But when he swam and reached the mouth
of a fair-flowing river, there the place seemed best,
free of rocks, and there was shelter from the wind.
He recognized him flowing forth and in his heart he prayed:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.445  “Listen, lord, whoever you are. I reach you, long prayed for,
as I flee out of the sea from the threats of Poseidon.
He's worthy of compassion, even for immortal gods,
any man who comes as a wanderer, as I come too now
to your current and to your knees, after much toil.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.450  So have mercy, lord. I claim that I'm your suppliant.”
So said he, and he immediately stopped his current, held the wave,
made a calm before him, and brought him safely
into the river's outlet. He bent both his knees
and his well-knit hands, for his dear heart had been tamed by the sea.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.455  All his flesh was swollen, and much sea oozed
up through his nose and mouth. He lay breathless and speechless,
with barely strength to move, and grim exhaustion had reached him.
But when he came to and his spirit gathered in his heart,
right then he loosened the god's veil from him

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.460  and threw it into the river as it flowed into the sea.
A great wave carried it back down the current, and Ino at once
received it in her dear hands. He drew back from the river,
leaned under a bed of reeds, kissed the grain-giving earth,
and troubled, said to his own great-hearted spirit:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.465  “Oh my me, what am I to suffer? What surely may become of me at last?
If I keep watch in the river through the uncomfortable night,
I'm afraid evil frost and fresh dew together will tame me,
when from weakness I gasp out my spirit,
and the breeze from the river blows chill early in the morning.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.470  If I climb the hillside to the thickly-shaded woods,
and lie down to sleep in the thick bushes, in hope that cold and exhaustion
let go of me and sweet sleep come upon me,
I'm afraid I'll become the spoil and prey for wild beasts.”
Upon consideration, this seemed better to him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.475  He made his way to the woods. He found it near the water
in a clearing. He went under two bushes
growing out of the same place, one a wild olive, one an olive.
Neither the strength of wetly blowing wind would blow through them
nor would the shining sun ever beat them with its rays,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.480  nor would rain penetrate through them, they grew so thickly,
intertwined with each other. Odysseus crawled under them.
At once he scraped together a bed with his dear hands,
a wide one, for there was a pile of leaves big enough
to shelter either two or three men

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.485  in wintertime, even if it was very hard.
Long-suffering divine Odysseus saw it and was glad,
then lay in the middle and poured a pile of leaves upon himself.
As when someone hides a firebrand in a black pile of ashes,
on a remote farm with no other neighbors beside him,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.5.490  to save a seed of fire, so not to get a light from somewhere else,
so did Odysseus hide himself with leaves. Then Athena
poured sleep upon his eyes, so she might most quickly give him rest
from toilsome exhaustion by shrouding his dear eyelids.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.1  BOOK 6
So, while long-suffering divine Odysseus slept there
worn out by sleep and exhaustion, Athena
came to the district and city of Phaeacian men,
who once upon a time dwelt in broad-lawned Hypereia,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.5  close by the Cyclopes, overbearing men,
who were stronger and used to harass them violently.
Getting them to migrate, godlike Nausithous led them from there
and settled them in Scheria far from men who work for bread.
He drove a wall around the city, had houses built,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.10  made temples of the gods, and parceled out fields.
But, tamed by fate, he had already gone to Hades.
Alcinous, wise in counsel from the gods, ruled then.
Bright-eyed goddess Athena made her way to his house
with a scheme for the return home of great-hearted Odysseus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.15  She made her way to a richly-adorned chamber, in which a girl,
like immortals in shape and form, slept,
the daughter of great-hearted Alcinous, Nausicaa;
and beside her, two handmaids, having beauty from the Graces,
on each side of the doorposts. The shining doors were shut.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.20  Like a breath of wind, she rushed to the girl's bed,
stood above her head, and said to her,
disguised as ship-famed Dymas' daughter,
who was the same age and dear to her heart.
Imitating that one, bright-eyed Athena said to her:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.25  “Nausicaa, why did your mother bear you, careless one?
Your glittering clothes lie neglected,
but your wedding is nigh, so you must wear fine clothes
yourself and provide them to those who attend you.
For, from these things, good credit rises up for you

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.30  among men, and your father and lady mother rejoice.
So let's go do laundry as soon as dawn appears,
and I'll come along with you as workmate, so you can get ready
very quickly, since you won't be a maiden much longer.
For already, throughout all Phaeacian districts,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.35  nobles woo you, since their race is yours, too.
But come, urge your famous father early in the morning
to ready mules and wagon, to take
girdles, robes and glittering fabrics.
And, going this way is much better for you than on foot,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.40  since the washing places are quite far from the city.
So saying, bright-eyed Athena departed
for Olympus, where they say the gods' abode is firm forever.
It is not shaken by winds or ever wet by rain,
and snow does not come near it, rather, cloudless clear air

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.45  spreads, and white sunlight plays, upon it.
In it the blessed gods take pleasure every day.
There the bright-eyed one departed, after she talked to the girl.
Straightaway came fair-throned Dawn, who woke fair-robed
Nausicaa. She marveled much at once about the dream,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.50  then made her way through the house to report it to her parents,
her beloved father and mother. She found them inside.
Her mother was sitting at the hearth with handmaid women
spinning sea-purple yarn. She met her father
coming through a door with renowned kings

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.55  to a council where illustrious Phaeacians had called him.
Standing very close to him, she said to her dear father:
“Daddy dear, won't you ready me a wagon,
a high, well-wheeled one, so I can take my splendid clothes,
that lie dirty, to the river to wash them?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.60  And, for you yourself it's fitting, when you're among the first ones
taking counsel of their counsels, you have clean clothes for your flesh.
In your halls you have five dear sons,
two who are married, three lusty ones, unmarried,
who always like having fresh-washed clothes

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.65  to go dancing. All this is on my mind.”
So said she, for she was ashamed to mention lusty marriage
to her beloved father, but he understood all and with a word answered:
“Child, I begrudge you neither mules nor anything else.
Go. The servants will ready a wagon for you,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.70  a high, well-wheeled one, equipped with a cover.”
So saying, he gave the servants orders and they obeyed him.
While outside they equipped a well-wheeled mule-drawn wagon
and led the mules under and yoked them to the wagon,
the girl brought her shining clothing from the bedroom

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.75  and placed it in the well-polished wagon.
Her mother placed in a chest abundant food
of all kinds, then put cooked meat in it, then poured wine
into a goatskin pouch. Then the girl got into the wagon.
Then she gave her liquid olive oil in a gold oil flask

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.80  so she, with her handmaid women, could be anointed.
She grabbed the whip and glittering reins
and used the whip to drive them. There was the tramping sound of mules
as they pulled ceaselessly forward and carried the clothing and her,
not alone. The rest of her handmaids went along with her, too.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.85  When they reached the gorgeous current of the river,
where places for washing were always available and much water
welled up, fine for cleaning even very dirty things,
there they unharnessed the mules from the wagon
and herded them beside the eddying river

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.90  to graze on honey-sweet clover. Then from the wagon they lifted
the clothes with their hands and carried them into the dark water,
and stomped on them rapidly in the basins, making a contest of it.
Then after they'd washed and cleaned all the dirt away,
they spread them in rows along the sea's shore, where the sea

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.95  had most washed pebbles upon dry land.
They bathed and anointed themselves richly with olive oil,
then took lunch beside the river's bank
and waited for the clothes to dry in the bright light of the sun.
Then after she and her servants had enjoyed the food

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.100  they threw off their veils and played with a ball,
and white-armed Nausicaa led them in the sport.
Just as arrow-shedding Artemis comes down from the mountains,
from either Erymanthus or lofty Teugetus,
and amuses herself with wild boars and swift deer,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.105  and, along with her, nymphs, daughters of aegis-bearer Zeus,
haunt the fields in play, and Leto rejoices at heart,
as she holds her head and brows above them all
and is easy to distinguish, though all are beautiful,
so the unwedded maiden stood out among her handmaids.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.110  But when she was just about to head back home,
and had folded the fine clothes and yoked the mules,
then bright-eyed goddess Athena thought of something else,
how Odysseus should awaken and see the lovely girl
who would guide him to the city of Phaeacian men.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.115  Then the princess threw the ball toward a handmaid
but missed the handmaid and threw it into a deep whirlpool.
They shouted at length. Divine Odysseus awoke,
sat up, and pondered in his mind and heart:
“Oh my me, in what mortals' land have I arrived?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.120  Are they wanton, unjust, and wild,
or hospitable and have god-fearing minds?
How a female battle cry surrounds me, of girls,
of nymphs, who hold mountains' sheer peaks,
and rivers' headwaters, and grassy meadows.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.125  Or, am I somewhere close to men of mortal voice?
But come, I'll try to find out for myself.”
So saying, divine Odysseus emerged from the bushes,
and with a thick hand broke off from the thicket a limb
of leaves, to pull over his body to cover his genitals.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.130  He made his way like a mountain-bred lion, sure in strength,
who comes, though rained and blown upon, and in whom
eyes blaze. He comes after sheep and cattle
or deer in the wild, and his belly commands him
to go, even into a fenced sheepfold, to try for sheep and goats.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.135  So Odysseus was about to mix with the fair-haired girls,
though he was naked, for the need had arrived.
But, disfigured with brine, he seemed horrific to them,
and they fled, here and there, to the spits.
Only Alcinous' daughter remained, for Athena

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.140  had put courage in her heart and taken terror from her limbs.
She stood and held her ground in front of him, as Odysseus pondered
whether to clasp her knees and plead with the lovely girl
or, keeping his distance, plead with words meant to win her
if she'd give him clothes and show him the city.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.145  Upon consideration, this seemed better to him,
to plead at a distance with words meant to win her,
lest the girl become angry at him clasping her knees.
At once he spoke a cunning speech meant to win her:
“I entreat you, my queen. Are you a god or mortal?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.150  If you are a god, who holds wide heaven,
I think you nearest Artemis, great Zeus's daughter,
in figure, form, and stature.
If you are a mortal, who dwells on the earth,
thrice blessed are your father and lady mother,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.155  thrice blessed your bothers. No doubt their heart
is ever gladdened with happiness because of you,
when they see such a young shoot going to join the dance.
But that one, far beyond others, will be most blessed at heart
who, weighed down with your bride price, leads you home.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.160  For with my eyes I've never seen such
a man or woman. Wonder holds me as I look at you.
I saw such once, at Delos, beside the altar of Apollo,
a young sapling of a palm tree shooting up.
For I'd gone there, and a great throng had gone with me,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.165  on that journey where I was to have bad trouble.
In the same way that I marveled for a long time in my heart
when I saw that, since such a shoot had never shot up from the earth,
so, my lady, I wonder and marvel at you and am terribly afraid
to clasp your knees. Hard sorrow comes upon me.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.170  Yesterday, on the twentieth day, I escaped the wine-dark sea.
That long had the waves and blustering storms borne me ever on
from the island of Ogygia. Now destiny has cast me down here,
so here I'll no doubt suffer evil too, for I don't think
it will stop, but the gods will still bring much about beforehand.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.175  But, my queen, take pity, for I've suffered many evils,
and to you first I've come, but I know none of the others,
the men who hold this land and city.
Show me the city, and give me a rag to throw about me,
if by chance you had a wrapper for cloths when you came here.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.180  May the gods give you as much as your heart desires.
May they grant you a husband, and also a house,
and good like-mindedness, for nothing is better or stronger
than when two, like-minded in disposition, keep a house
as husband and wife. Many sorrows for enemies,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.185  joys for well-wishers, they hear of especially.
White-armed Nausicaa said back to him in turn:
“Stranger, since you seem neither mindless nor evil,
Olympian Zeus himself allots to men good fortune,
to good and bad, to each as he wishes,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.190  and he's given this by chance to you, so you surely must endure it.
Now, since you've reached our land and city,
you'll not want for clothing or anything else
that is fitting for one who comes as a long-suffering supplicant.
I'll show you the city, and tell you the name of its people.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.195  The Phaeacians hold this land and city,
and I am the daughter of great-hearted Alcinous,
by whom both power and might are held from the Phaeacians.
She spoke, and bid her fair-haired handmaids:
“Stand with me, handmaids. To where do you flee on seeing a man?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.200  Can it be you think he's one of the enemy men?
This man is not, and a living mortal will not come to be,
who'll come to the land of Phaeacian men
bearing warfare, for we are very dear to the immortals.
We dwell at a distance from the loud-breaking sea,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.205  most remote, and not any other mortal mixes with us.
But this one arrives here as a wretched wanderer
whom we ought to take care of, for all strangers and beggars
are from Zeus, and a gift both small and welcome.
So, handmaids, give the stranger food and drink,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.210  and wash him in the river, where there's shelter from the wind.
So said she, and they stood giving each other orders,
then sat Odysseus down at a sheltered spot, as Nausicaa,
daughter of great-hearted Alcinous, had bidden.
They placed beside him a cloak, a tunic, and clothing,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.215  and gave liquid olive oil in a golden oil flask,
then urged him to wash himself in the river's streams.
Then divine Odysseus said to the handmaids:
Handmaids, stand off a way, please, so I myself
can wash the brine off my shoulders and rub them

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.220  with olive oil, for ointment is a long time off my flesh.
I would not wash myself in front of you, for I am ashamed
to find myself naked among fair-haired girls.”
So said he, and they went off a distance and told the girl.
Then in the river divine Odysseus washed from his flesh

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.225  the brine that covered his back and broad shoulders
and wiped off his head the barren sea's scum.
Then after he'd washed and richly anointed everything
and put on the clothes the unwedded maiden gave him,
then Athena, born of Zeus, made him

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.230  appear bigger and thicker and caused curly hair
to fall from his head like a hyacinth flower.
As when someone pours gold around silver, a skillful man
whom Hephaestus and Pallas Athena have taught
every kind of art, and fashions pleasing works,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.235  so she poured grace upon his head and shoulders.
Then he went a way off and sat on the shore of the sea,
glistening in grace and beauty, and the girl gazed at him.
Then she said to her fair-haired handmaids:
“Hear me, white-armed handmaids, so I can say something.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.240  Not against the will of all the gods who hold Olympus
does this man commerce with the godlike Phaeacians.
Though he seemed to me to be shameful before,
now he's like the gods who hold wide heaven.
If only such a one were to be called my husband,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.245  one who abides here, and whom it pleases to remain here.
So, handmaids, give the stranger food and drink.”
So said she, and they heard well and obeyed her,
and placed beside Odysseus food and drink.
Long-suffering divine Odysseus ate and drank greedily

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.250  indeed, for he had not tasted food for a long time.
Then white-armed Nausicaa thought of other things.
She folded the clothes and put them in the fine wagon,
yoked the strong-hoofed mules, and got in herself,
then roused Odysseus, called him by name, and said this:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.255  “Get up now, stranger, to go to the city, so I can send you
to my skilled father's house, where I think
you'll be seen by all the Phaeacians, all the best.
But do it just this way, as you seem to me not without sense.
While we're going through men's fields and farms,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.260  go quickly with the handmaids, behind the mules
and wagon. I will guide the way.
Then when we come to the city, there's a lofty tower
around it, and on either side of the city a fine harbor
and a narrow entrance. Double-oared ships are drawn up

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.265  on the way, for all have a slip for each.
There they have an assembly, a fine Posideum at its sides,
the stones hauled in, fit together, and embedded.
There they care for the black ships' equipment,
cables and sails, and taper the oars.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.270  For neither bow nor quiver matter to Phaeacians,
but ships' masts and oars and ships are equal,
with which in exultation they traverse the gray sea.
I shun their unkind speech, lest someone censure us
hereafter. They are very haughty throughout the district,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.275  and one of the crueler, if he met us now by chance, might say so:
“Who is this big handsome stranger who follows
Nausicaa? Where did she find him? He's sure to be her husband,
or perhaps she's rescued one who's wandered from his ship
of men who live far off, since there none are nearby.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.280  Or did some god, long prayed to, come down to her
from heaven, and will he have her all her days?
It's better, even if she went about herself and found a husband
elsewhere, for throughout the district she slights her own
Phaeacians, the many good ones who woo her.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.285  So they'd say, and these would be censures for me.
I, too, would resent another who did such things,
who, while her dear father and mother are alive, against their will
mixes with men before she goes to her public wedding.
Stranger, quickly heed my words, so you may very quickly

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.290  obtain escort and return home from my father.
You'll find Athena's splendid grove of poplars near the road.
A spring flows in it, with a meadow on both sides.
My father's property and luxuriant garden are there,
as far from the city as one who shouts is heard.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.295  Sit there and wait for time for us
to come to the city and reach my father's house.
Then, when you suppose we've arrived at the house,
go to the Phaeacians' city then and ask for
the house of my great-hearted father Alcinous.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.300  It's easily recognized. Even a foolish child could lead
the way, for it's not built at all like theirs,
the Phaeacian's houses, such is the house of Alcinous
the hero. But when the house and courtyard cover you,
go very quickly through the hall until you reach

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.305  my mother, seated in firelight at the hearth,
spinning sea-purple wool, a wonder to behold,
as she leans against a pillar and her slaves sit behind her.
There, leaning on the same, is the throne of my father,
on which he sits and drinks wine like an immortal.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.310  Go past him and throw your hand around our mother's
knees, so you might quickly rejoice to see
your homecoming day, even if you're from very far away.
For if she, in her heart, thinks friendly thoughts for you,
then there's hope for you, that you'll see your loved ones

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.315  and reach your well-built house and your fatherland.
So saying, with a shiny lash she whipped
the mules, who swiftly left the river's stream.
They ran well and pranced well on their feet,
but she drove so those on foot could follow,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.320  her handmaids and Odysseus, and laid on the whip with discretion.
The sun set, and they reached the famed sacred grove
of Athena, where Odysseus sat down.
Then he prayed at once to great Zeus's daughter:
“Hear me, Atrytone, child of aegis-bearing Zeus,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.325  and hear me right now, since, before, you never heard me,
battered, when the famed earthshaker battered me.
Grant that I come welcomed and pitied to the Phaeacians.”
So said he in prayer, and Pallas Athena heard him
but did not yet appear to him in person, for she revered

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.6.330  her father's brother, who was furiously incensed
at godlike Odysseus until he reached his own land.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.1  BOOK 7
So, while long-suffering divine Odysseus prayed there,
the mules' strength carried the girl toward the city.
When she arrived at the renowned home of her father
she stood in the gateway and her brothers took places

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.5  around her, like immortals. They freed the mules
from under the wagon and carried the clothing inside.
She went into her own chamber. An old Apeirean woman,
the chambermaid Eurymedusa, lit a fire for her.
Double-oared ships had brought her from Apeire once upon a time.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.10  They had chosen her as a prize for Alcinous, because he ruled
all Phaeacians, and the district listened to him like a god.
This one had nursed white-armed Nausicaa in the palace.
This one lit up the fire for her and prepared her dinner inside.
Just then Odysseus got up to go to the city. Athena poured

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.15  much mist about him, with dear thoughts for Odysseus,
lest any great-hearted Phaeacian, meeting him,
might taunt him with words and ask him who he was.
But when he was about to enter the fair city,
bright-eyed goddess Athena met him

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.20  in the guise of a young maiden woman holding a pitcher.
She stood in front of him, and divine Odysseus asked her:
“Child, won't you guide me to the house of the man
Alcinous, who rules among these people?
For I've come here a much-suffering stranger,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.25  from afar, from a distant country. I therefore know none
of the people who inhabit this city and farmland.
Bright-eyed goddess Athena said back to him:
“So then, father stranger, the house you bid me
I'll show you, since he lives close by my noble father.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.30  But go in total silence, and I'll lead the way,
and neither look at nor question any person,
for they do not gladly suffer stranger men
nor hospitably welcome one who comes from elsewhere.
With confidence in their swift fleet ships,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.35  they traverse the great gulf, since the earth-shaker gave it to them.
Their ships are fleet as feather or thought.
So saying, Pallas Athena led
quickly, and he followed in the footsteps of the goddess.
The ship-famed Phaeacians did not notice him

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.40  going among them through their city, for fair-haired
Athena, dread goddess, did not allow it, so she poured on him
a marvelous mist, with dear thoughts in her heart.
Odysseus marveled at the trim ships and the harbors,
the assembly places of the heroes themselves, and the long

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.45  lofty walls, joined by palisades, a wonder to behold.
But when he reached the house of the renowned king,
bright-eyed Athena was the first of them to speak:
“This, father stranger, is the house you bid me
show you. You'll find Zeus-nurtured kings there

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.50  dining at dinner. Go in, and don't be at all frightened
at heart, for the undaunted man turns out to be better
in all actions, even if he comes from somewhere else.
First, go find the mistress in the palace.
Arete is the name she's named by, and she's from the same

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.55  ancestors who gave birth to king Alcinous.
First earth-shaker Poseidon and Periboea,
the best looking of women, gave birth to Nausithous.
She was the youngest daughter of great-hearted Eurymedon,
who once was king over the insolent Giants.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.60  Though he lost his reckless people and perished himself,
Poseidon mixed with her, and she bore a son,
great-hearted Nausithous, who ruled over the Phaeacians.
Nausithous fathered Rhexenor and Alcinous.
Silverbow Apollo struck him down in his hall, newly married

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.65  and without a son, and he left only one child,
Arete, whom Alcinous made his wife.
And he valued her as no other woman on earth is valued,
of all who now keep house under husbands.
So she has been, and still is, honored above them,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.70  in the heart of her dear children, Alcinous himself,
and her people, who view her as a goddess
and welcome her with speeches when she walks through the city.
For she herself in no way lacks good sense, and she dissolves
disputes for those, even men, to whom she's well disposed.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.75  For if she, in her heart, thinks friendly thoughts for you,
then there's hope for you, that you'll see your loved ones
and reach your high-roofed house and fatherland.”
So saying, bright-eyed Athena departed
over the barren sea. She left lovely Scheria,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.80  reached Marathon and broad-streeted Athens, and entered
the strongly-built house of Erechtheus. But Odysseus
went toward the splendid house of Alcinous. His heart pondered
much as he stood there before reaching the bronze threshold,
for there was a radiance, as of the sun or moon,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.85  throughout great-hearted Alcinous' high-roofed house.
For walls of bronze had been driven here and there,
from the threshold to the inner room, with a cyan coping about it.
Golden doors kept the strongly-built house closed.
Silver doorposts stood on the bronze threshold,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.90  a silver lintel upon them, and the door handle was of gold.
There were dogs of gold and silver on each side,
that Hephaestus had fashioned with expert ingenuity
to guard the house of great-hearted Alcinous,
that were ageless and immortal all their days.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.95  Inside, chairs were pressed against the wall, here and there,
from the threshold straight through to the inner room. Delicate,
well-woven cloths, works of women, had been thrown upon them.
Phaeacian leaders sat there
eating and drinking, for they had endless abundance.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.100  Boys of gold stood on well-shaped pedestals,
holding burning torches in their hands,
lighting nights throughout the house for diners.
Throughout the house he had fifty slave women,
some at the mill, who grind grain of apple color,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.105  others, who weave webs and spin yarn,
sitting, like leaves of a tall poplar,
as liquid olive oil trickles from the close-woven linen.
Just as Phaeacians are skilled beyond all men
in driving a swift ship on the sea, so are their women

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.110  in weaving at the loom, for Athena granted them, beyond others,
skill in making gorgeous works and good dispositions.
Outside the courtyard near the doors is a large orchard,
four measures big, and a wall is driven round it on both sides.
Trees grow there, tall and luxuriant,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.115  splendid-fruited pear, pomegranate, and apple,
sweet fig, and luxuriant olive.
Their fruit never perishes or fails
winter or summer, all through the year, but always and ever
West Wind, blowing, grows some and ripens others.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.120  Pear ripens on pear, apple on apple,
grape cluster on grape cluster, fig upon fig.
His vineyard, full of fruit, takes root there,
part of it, a sunny spot in a level place,
dries in the sun, in another part, they gather some

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.125  while stomping others. Unripe grapes are at the front,
some shedding blossoms, others darkening.
There, beside the lowest row, trim beds of herbs
of all kinds grow and are perennially green.
In it are two springs. One spreads through the whole garden,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.130  and, on the other side, one flows under the courtyard threshold
toward the lofty house, from which cityfolk draw water.
Such were the splendid gifts of gods in the palace of Alcinous.
Long-suffering divine Odysseus stood there gazing,
then after he'd gazed at it all with his heart,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.135  he quickly went over the threshold and into the house.
He found the Phaeacian chiefs and commanders
pouring libations from goblets to sharp-sighted Argeiphontes
to whom they used to pour last, when their minds were on bed.
Long-suffering divine Odysseus went through the house,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.140  in the thick haze that Athena had poured around him,
until he reached king Alcinous and Arete.
Odysseus threw his hands around Arete's knees,
and right then the marvelous haze shed from him,
and throughout the house they became silent when they saw the man,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.145  and marveled as they watched him. Then Odysseus entreated:
Arete, daughter of godlike Rhexenor,
I've suffered much and come upon my knees to you, your husband,
and these diners'may the gods grant them prosperity
in life, and may each pass to his children

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.150  the property in his palace and whatever honor the people have given.
Urge for me an escort, so I can reach my fatherland
faster, since, a long time away from loved ones, I suffer misery.”
So saying, he sat down at the hearth, in the dust
beside the fire. All then became silent in silence.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.155  At last, an old man spoke, the hero Echeneus,
who was by far the elder of Phaeacian men
and excelled in speaking, knowing things many and old.
With good intent, he spoke and said to them:
Alcinous, this is neither fine nor fitting,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.160  that a stranger sit at the hearth, on the ground, in the dust.
These here await in eager expectation your command.
But come, get the stranger to stand and have him sit upon
a seat studded with silver, then bid the heralds
mix the wine with water, so we can make libation to Zeus,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.165  the thunderbolt hurler, whose favor goes with venerable supplicants.
Let the housekeeper give the stranger dinner from what there is inside.”
When the sacred soul of Alcinous heard this,
he took skilled Odysseus, the wily conniver, by the hand,
lifted him from the hearth, and sat him on a shiny seat,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.170  getting his son, kindly Laodamas, to stand,
who was sitting close to him and loved him the most.
A handmaid brought water for washing in a
fine golden pitcher and poured it above a silver basin
so he could wash, then pulled a polished table beside him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.175  A venerable housekeeper brought bread and set it before him
placing many foods on it, pleasing him from her stores.
Long-suffering divine Odysseus ate and drank,
and good soul Alcinous then said to a herald:
Pontonous, once you've mixed it in the wine bowl, pass the wine out

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.180  to all throughout the hall, so we can make libation to Zeus,
the thunderbolt hurler, whose favor goes with venerable supplicants.”
So said he, and Pontonous mixed the honey-hearted wine,
and passed it out to all, after pouring a few drops in their goblets.
Then after they'd made libation and drunk as much as hearts desired,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.185  Alcinous spoke and said among them:
“Hear me, Phaeacian leaders and commanders,
while I say what the heart in my chest commands me.
Now that you've dined, go home to rest,
and in the morning we'll call more elders here,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.190  receive the stranger as a guest in the palace, make fine sacrifices
to the gods, and then deliberate about an escort,
so the stranger, without distress and toil,
may quickly, with our escort, reach his fatherland
rejoicing, even if he's from very far away,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.195  and not suffer woe or evil in the meantime
before he sets foot on his land. There then
he'll suffer whatever Fate and the heavy Spinners
spun for him with thread at his birth, when his mother bore him.
But if he's some immortal come down from heaven,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.200  then this is something different that the gods are contriving,
for always before, the gods appeared clearly
to us, when we make renowned hecatombs,
and they dine beside us and sit right where we do.
If some lone traveler meets one on his way,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.205  they do not conceal at all, since we are close to them,
just as the Cyclopes and the savage tribes of Giants.”
Adroit Odysseus said to him in reply:
Alcinous, let something else concern your mind, for I'm
not like immortals, who hold wide heaven,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.210  in either form or figure, but like mortal mortals.
Whatever men you know that most bear a burden
of woe, I'd equal them in sorrow,
Yes, I could describe still more evils
that I suffered, each and every one, by the will of the gods.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.215  But let me have dinner, though I'm in distress,
for nothing else is more like a dog than the hateful belly,
that commands it be remembered, of necessity,
even by one sorely afflicted and with sorrow in his heart,
just as I have sorrow in my heart, that always and ever

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.220  bids me eat and drink, makes me forget all
I've suffered, and demands it be stuffed full.
When dawn appears, take action
to land me, this wretched one, in my fatherland,
though I've suffered much. And may life leave me

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.225  when I see my property, my slaves, and my great high-roofed house.”
So said he, and all concurred and commanded
they convoy the stranger since he'd spoken properly.
Then after they'd made libation and drunk as much as hearts desired,
they each went home to rest,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.230  But divine Odysseus remained in the hall,
and Arete and godlike Alcinous sat beside him
as handmaids cleared away the dinner dishes.
White-armed Arete was the first of them to speak,
for she recognized the cloak and tunic, when she saw

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.235  the fine clothing she'd made with her handmaid women,
and, voicing winged words, she said to him:
“Stranger, first, I'll ask you this myself:
Who and from where are you? Who gave you this clothing?
Didn't you say you got here roving on the sea?”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.240  Adroit Odysseus said to her in reply:
“It's hard, my queen, to recount at length
my troubles, since the heavenly gods have given me many.
But I'll tell you this, because you ask and question me.
An island, Ogygia, lies far off on the sea.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.245  Atlas' daughter lives there, crafty fair-haired Calypso,
a dread goddess. No one mixes with her,
neither gods nor mortal men.
But a divine one led this wretched one, me, to her hearth
alone, after Zeus impeded and split my swift ship

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.250  with white lightning in the midst of the wine-dark sea.
All the rest of my good comrades perished there,
but in my arms I grabbed the double-curved ship's keel
and for nine days I was carried. On the tenth dark night
the gods brought me to the island of Ogygia. There lives

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.255  fair-haired Calypso, a dread goddess, who kindly
took and loved and cared for me and promised
to make me immortal and ageless all my days,
but never persuaded the heart in my chest.
I stayed in place there seven years, and ever wet

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.260  with tears the immortal clothes Calypso gave me.
But when at last the eighth year, in its turning, came to me,
right then at last she ordered and urged me go,
by order of Zeus or because her mind had changed.
She sent me off on a tightly corded raft and gave me many things,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.265  food, sweet wine, and immortal clothes to wear,
and sent forth a fair wind, warm and gentle.
Seventeen days I sailed, sailing on the sea,
and on the eighteenth, the shadowy mountains of your land
appeared, and my dear heart rejoiced,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.270  ill-fated me, for I would still meet with much hardship
that earthshaker Poseidon sent against me,
who roused the winds against me, hindered my progress,
and raised the sea unspeakably. And no wave
let me be carried on my raft, as I groaned incessantly.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.275  Then the storm scattered it to bits, but I swam
and crossed that gulf, until wind and water
bore and brought me to your land.
The waves would have overcome me getting out on dry land there,
and thrown me against great rocks in a gruesome place,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.280  but I swam back in retreat until I came
to a river, where the place seemed best,
free of rocks, and there was shelter from the wind.
I got out and fell, rallying my spirit, and ambrosial night
came on. I went off a distance from the Zeus-fallen river

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.285  and went to sleep in the bushes, drawing leaves about me,
and god poured down boundless sleep.
There in the leaves, dear heart heavy,
I slept all night, even to dawn and midday,
and the sun declined, and sweet sleep relaxed its hold on me.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.290  I noticed your daughter's handmaids playing
on the shore, and she was like the goddesses among them.
I supplicated her. She in no way lacked good sense,
as one wouldn't expect of a young one just met
to act, for young ones ever act unthoughtfully.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.295  She gave me sparkling wine and food aplenty,
had me bathe in the river, and gave these clothes to me.
Despite my grief, what I've told you is the truth.”
Alcinous in turn replied to him and said:
“Stranger, surely my daughter did not observe proprieties,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.300  because she didn't bring you with her handmaid women
to our house, yet you came first as a supplicant to her.”
Adroit Odysseus said to him in reply:
“Don't reproach your noble daughter on account of me,
for she bid me follow with her handmaids,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.305  but I was ashamed and fearful, and did not want to,
lest somehow your heart become indignant at the sight,
for we are quick to anger, we tribes of humankind upon the earth.”
Alcinous in turn replied to him and said:
“Stranger, the dear heart in my chest is not the sort

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.310  that angers without reason. Everything is better in due measure.
By father Zeus, Athena, and Apollo,
would that such a one as you are, thinking even as I do,
have my daughter and remain here to be called
my son-in-law. I'd give you property

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.315  if you were willing to stay. But let no Phaeacian detain you
against your will. Let that not be acceptable to father Zeus!
So you may well know it, I decree this time for your escort,
and that time is tomorrow. Then, tamed by sleep,
you'll rest as they drive the calm, until you reach

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.320  your home and fatherland, or anywhere that's dear to you,
even if it's much, much farther away than Euboia,
which those of our people who saw it, when they took
blond Rhadamanthus to see Tityus,
son of Gaea, say is farthest off.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.325  They went there, and made it without effort,
and made it back home that very day.
You too will see, for yourself and in your mind, how much
my ships are best and with the oar my boys toss up the sea”
So said he, and long-suffering divine Odysseus rejoiced,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.330  then spoke a word, called out a name, and said in prayer:
“Father Zeus, if only Alcinous would do everything
he said! His fame, on the grain-giving earth, would be
inextinguishable, and I would reach my fatherland!”
So as they spoke such things to each other,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.335  white-armed Arete bid her handmaids
set beds beneath the portico, throw fine purple cloths
upon them, spread blankets on top of them,
and put woolen cloaks on top to wrap in.
They came out of the hall holding torches in their hands,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.340  then after they'd hurriedly spread the strongly-built bed,
they stood next to Odysseus and roused him with these words:
“Get up, stranger, and go rest. The bed's been made for you!”
So said they, and going to sleep seemed welcome to him.
So, while long-suffering divine Odysseus slept there

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.7.345  beneath the echoing portico in a perforated bed,
Alcinous lay in an inner room of the lofty house,
and his mistress wife shared bed and bedding beside him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.1  BOOK 8
When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
Alcinous' sacred soul arose from bed,
and Zeus-born city-sacking Odysseus got up.
Then Alcinous' sacred soul guided them

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.5  to the Phaeacian assembly, built by them beside the ships.
When they got there they sat down close together
on polished stones. Pallas Athena went in search throughout the city,
in the guise of skilled Alcinous' herald,
with a scheme for the return home of great-hearted Odysseus,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.10  and as she stood beside each person, she said to him:
“Come on, Phaeacian chiefs and commanders,
go to the assembly, to find out about the stranger,
who recently reached the house of skilled Alcinous
after wandering the sea, one like immortals in form!”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.15  So saying, she spurred on each one's heart and soul.
Quickly the seats and assembly were filled with mortals
come together, and many gazed in wonder at the sight
of Laertes' skilled son, upon whose head and shoulders
Athena poured abundant grace.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.20  And she made him seem taller and thicker,
so he'd be, to all Phaeacians, beloved,
awe-inspiring, and worthy of honor, and succeed in the many
games with which the Phaeacians would test Odysseus.
Then after they assembled and were together,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.25  Alcinous spoke and said among them:
“Hear me, Phaeacian leaders and commanders,
while I say what the heart in my chest commands me.
This stranger, I know not who he is, has reached my house
a wanderer from either eastern or western men.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.30  He urges a convoy and begs it be certain.
Let us, as ever before, recommend a convoy,
for no one else who's reached my house
has stayed here long in sorrow because of a convoy.
But come, let's haul a black ship into the divine sea

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.35  for it's first voyage, and let fifty-two young men be selected,
who've been the best before throughout the kingdom.
When you've all tied your oars well to the oarlocks,
come ashore. Then afterward, come to my house
and have a quick dinner, and I will provide well for all.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.40  I charge the young men with this, but you other
sceptered kings, come to my beautiful home
so we can welcome the stranger in my palace.
Let no one decline. Summon the divine singer Demodocus,
for god has granted him surpassing power to entertain

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.45  in song, in whatever way his heart spurs him to sing.
So saying, he led, and the sceptered ones followed
with him, while a herald went for the divine singer.
Fifty-two young men were chosen and went
as he'd ordered, to the shore of the barren sea.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.50  Then after they'd gone down to the ship and sea,
they hauled the black ship toward the sea's depths,
put mast and sails on the black ship,
positioned oars in leather oar straps,
all in good order, and hoisted the white sail.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.55  They anchored her offshore in the south. Then afterwards
they made their way to the great home of skilled Alcinous.
The porticos, courtyards, and rooms were full of men
gathering. Many, young and old, were there.
Alcinous sacrificed for them twelve sheep,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.60  eight white-toothed pigs, and two shambling oxen.
They skinned and prepared them, and made a lovely dinner.
The herald came near, leading the trusty singer,
whom the muse loved exceedingly but gave both good and bad.
She'd deprived him of his eyes, but given him sweet song.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.65  Pontonous placed a silver-studded chair for him
in the midst of the diners, and propped it against a tall pillar.
A herald hung a clear-toned lyre on a peg
above his head and showed him how to take it
with his hands. He placed a basket and fine table beside him,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.70  and a goblet of wine to drink when his heart bid him.
They threw their hands on the good things laid ready before them.
Then after they'd dispatched desire for food and drink,
the muse inspired the singer to sing the famous deeds of men,
from a song whose fame had then reached wide heaven,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.75  the quarrel of Odysseus and Peleides Achilles,
how they'd once argued, at a bountiful feast for the gods,
with vehement words, and lord of men Agamemnon
in his mind was glad that the best of the Achaeans were arguing,
for Phoebus Apollo had told him so in prophecy

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.80  in sacred Pytho, when he'd stepped over the stone threshold
to ask the oracle. For at that time the start of misery was rolling,
toward Danaans and Trojans, on account of great Zeus' will.
This the far-famed singer sang, but Odysseus
grasped the great purple cloak with his well-knit hands,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.85  pulled it over his head, and hid his handsome face, for he was ashamed
to shed tears from under his eyebrows in front of the Phaeacians.
Indeed, each time the divine singer stopped singing,
Odysseus took the cloak from his head, wiped his tears,
grasped a goblet with two handles, and made libation to the gods.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.90  But each time he began again, and the best of the Phaeacians
spurred him on to sing since they enjoyed his stories,
Odysseus immediately covered his head and cried.
He went unnoticed there by all the others, shedding tears,
and Alcinous alone noticed him and understood.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.95  He sat near him and he heard him moaning deeply,
then said at once to the oar-loving Phaeacians:
“Hear me, Phaeacian leaders and commanders,
we've already satisfied our hearts with an equal meal
and the lyre that goes with a bounteous feast.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.100  Let's go out now and make a try at all the games,
so the stranger can tell his loved ones,
on his return home, how much we surpass others
in boxing, wrestling, jumping, and running.
So saying, he led, and they followed with him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.105  A herald hung Demodocus' clear-toned lyre on a peg,
then took his hand and led him from the hall.
He started him on the same way as the others,
the best of the Phaeacians, went to watch the games.
They made their way to the assembly, as a big throng followed,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.110  countless, and many good young men stood up.
Acroneos arose, and also Ocyalus and Elatreus,
Nauteus and Prymneus, Anchialus and Eretmeus,
Ponteus and Proireus, Anabesineos and Thoon,
and Amphialus, son of Polyneus Tectonides.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.115  Up also, one equal to the bane of mortals Ares, Euryalus
Naubolides, who was best in form and figure
of all Phaeacians after noble Laodamas.
Three sons of noble Alcinous stood up,
Laodamas, Halius, and godlike Clytoneus,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.120  and they indeed were first to make a try at running.
The course stretched for them from the starting line, and all
flew quickly together, raising dust, over the plain.
Noble Clytoneus was by far the best of them in running,
and, by as far as the range of mules in a fallow field,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.125  he outran them and reached the people, and they were left behind.
Then they made a try at painful wrestling,
in which Euryalus once more vanquished all the best.
Amphialis was best of all in jumping.
Elatreus was again far strongest of all with the discus;

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.130  Laodamas, good son of Alcinous, again in boxing.
Then after all had heartily enjoyed the games,
Alcinous' son Laodamas said to them:
“Here, friends, let's ask the stranger if he has learned
and knows some games. In physique he's not that bad,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.135  in thighs, in calves, and, up top, in both arms,
sturdy neck, and greatness of strength. Nor does he lack any
youthful vigor, though he's been broken down by many evils.
For I say that nothing else confounds a man
worse than the sea, even if he's very strong.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.140  Euryalus in turn replied to him and said:
Laodamas, you've said this very duly.
Now go yourself, declare your will, and challenge him.”
Then after he heard this, the good son of Alcinous
went and stood in their midst and said to Odysseus:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.145  “Come here, father stranger, you too try the games,
if somewhere you learned some, since it's fitting you know games,
for, while he's alive, a man's fame is no greater
than what he does with his own hands and feet.
But come, make a try, and scatter troubles from your heart.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.150  Your trip still won't be long far off, for your ship
has already been launched and your comrades are ready.”
Adroit Odysseus said to him in reply:
Laodamas, why bid me do these things and mock me?
Troubles are much more on my mind than games,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.155  I, who suffered very much and labored much before,
and now sit in your assembly, in need of return home,
begging all the kingdom and the king.”
Euryalus replied back and taunted him to his face:
“No, stranger, I don't fancy you a man experienced

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.160  in games, of the many kinds held among men,
but as one who is accustomed to a ship with many oarlocks,
a captain of sailors who are traders,
you're mindful of cargo and an overseer of freight
and greedy gains, but you don't seem like an athlete.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.165  Then adroit Odysseus said to him with a scowl:
“You spoke unwisely, stranger. You seem a reckless man.
It's so, the gods do not give all men gracious things,
neither physique nor mind nor eloquence.
For though a man may be inferior in appearance,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.170  but a god crowns his form with words, then those
who see him enjoy it, as he speaks without faltering,
with winning modesty, and stands out among those gathered,
and, when he goes through town, they view him as a god,
while another may be like immortals in appearance,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.175  but grace is not placed as a crown around his words,
so also your appearance is outstanding, and not even a god
would make it otherwise, yet you're misshapen in your mind.
You've aroused the heart within my dear chest
by speaking inappropriately. I'm not ignorant of games

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.180  as you purport, on the contrary, I think I used to be among
the first, as long as I had trust in youthful vigor and my hands.
But now I'm held by evil and by sorrow, for I've endured a lot,
cutting through men's wars and painful waves.
But even so, though I've suffered many evils, I'll try the games,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.185  for your word bites at my heart and you've incited me by speaking.”
He spoke, and, leaping up with cloak still on, grabbed a discus,
a bigger, massive one, thicker, not by a little, than the one
with which Phaeacians competed with each other.
Then he whirled and threw it from his well-knit hand,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.190  and the stone whizzed, and they ducked to the ground,
the long-oared Phaeacians, ship-famed men,
beneath the stone's flight. It overflew the marks of all,
running swiftly from his hand. Disguised as a man, Athena
placed a marker, called out his name, and said:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.195  “Even a blind man, stranger, could make out this mark
by groping for it, since it's not at all mixed in the group,
but is the first by far. Take heart, at least for this game.
None of the Phaeacians will reach or throw beyond it.”
So said she, and long-suffering divine Odysseus rejoiced,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.200  glad to find a kind comrade in the crowd,
and then, feeling lighter, he said to the Phaeacians:
“Reach that one now, young men, and I think I'll throw
another one soon after, just as far or even farther!
Any of you others, whose heart and soul commands,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.205  come now and make a try, since you've much angered me,
in boxing or wrestling or running, since I begrudge nothing,
of all Phaeacians, except, of course, Laodamas himself,
for he's my host. Who would battle one who welcomes him?
That man lacks sense and is of no account

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.210  who offers rivalry in games to his host
in a foreign kingdom and cuts off all that's his.
I neither spurn nor slight any of the rest,
I want instead to get to know, and test him, face to face.
For I'm not bad at all, in all the games among men.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.215  I know well how to handle a finely-polished bow,
and I'd be first to shoot an arrow and strike a man
in a throng of hostile men, even if very many comrades
stood close by and shot the bow at men.
Philoctetes alone surpassed me with the bow,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.220  in the Trojan kingdom, when Achaeans shot the bow,
and I say I'm much farther ahead of all other
mortals who now live on the earth and eat bread.
I wouldn't want to compete with men of times before,
with neither Hercules nor Eurytus the Oechalean,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.225  who used to compete in archery even with immortals.
Eurytus died quite suddenly for it and didn't come
to old age in his palace, for Apollo, in rage,
killed him because he'd challenged him in archery.
I throw a spear as far as any other does an arrow.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.230  Only in running do I fear some Phaeacian might surpass
me, for I was tamed, in a way that weakened me too much,
on the many waves, since aboard ship there was no constant
care, and due to that my dear legs have collapsed.”
So said he, and all became silent in silence.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.235  Alcinous alone said to him in answer:
“Stranger, since you say these things not gracelessly among us,
but want to show your prowess, which attends you,
angered that this man stood at your side and mocked you
in the assembly, as no mortal would slur your prowess

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.240  who knew in his mind how to speak soundly,
come now, heed my words, so you may also tell
another hero, when in your palace
you dine beside your wife and children
and remember our prowess, what kind of works

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.245  Zeus has ordained for us straight from our fathers' time.
For we're not noble boxers or wrestlers,
but we run swiftly with our feet and are the best with ships,
and ever dear to us are dinner, the cythara, and dances,
changing clothing, hot baths, and beds.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.250  But come, you who are the best Phaeacian dancers,
dance, so the stranger can tell his loved ones,
on his return home, how much we surpass others
in sailing, singing, dancing, and running.
Let someone go at once and bring Demodocus

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.255  his clear-toned lyre that lies somewhere in our house.”
So said godlike Alcinous, and a herald rose
to bring the hollow lyre from the home of the king.
All nine stewards, chosen by the public, who used to
carefully arrange the details for assemblies, stood up,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.260  spread out the fine assembly and smoothed a place for dancing.
A herald came near and brought the clear-toned lyre
to Demodocus, who then went to their midst. Boys in early youth
stood around him, ones experienced in dancing,
and beat the divine dance place with their feet. Then Odysseus

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.265  beheld the twinkling of their feet and marveled in his heart.
Then Demodocus played the lyre and began to sing beautifully
about the love of Ares and fair-crowned Aphrodite,
how in stealth they mixed the first time in the home
of Hephaestus. Ares gave much to her and defiled the bed

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.270  and bedding of lord Hephaestus, to whom a messenger soon came,
Helios, who'd noticed them mingling in love.
Hephaestus heard the story, so painful to his heart,
then made his way to the forge, brooding evil in his mind,
placed a great anvil on the anvil block, and hammered bonds,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.275  unbreakable, indissoluble, so they'd stay fast in place.
Then after he fashioned the snare, enraged at Ares,
he made his way to the chamber where his dear bed lay,
and spread the bindings about the bedposts in a circle all around.
Many hung down from the ceiling, too,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.280  as fine as spider webs, that not even a blessed god
could see, for with exceeding cunning they'd been made.
Then after he'd spread the snare all around the bed,
he left to go to Lemnos, the well-built citadel
which is to him by far the most beloved of all lands.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.285  But gold-reined Ares did not keep a blind man's watch,
so he saw the famed artisan Hephaestus as he went away.
He made his way to the house of far-famed Hephaestus,
craving faired-crowned Cytherea's love.
She'd just come from the side of mighty Cronion, her father,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.290  and was sitting down as Ares came into the house.
He put his hand in hers, called out her name, and said:
“Come here, my dear, to bed. Let's lie down and take pleasure,
for Hephaestus is no longer home, but is already gone,
to Lemnos, I believe, to see the savage-speaking Sintians.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.295  So said he, and going to bed seemed welcome to her.
The two climbed into bed and fell asleep. About them flowed
the cunningly contrived bonds of ingenious Hephaestus,
and there was no way to either move or lift their limbs.
Right then they realized there would be no escape.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.300  Then the far-famed twice-lamed one came near them,
having turned back before he reached the land of Lemnos,
for Helios was keeping lookout for him and sent word.
He made his way home, his dear heart grieving,
stood in the doorway, and fierce anger seized him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.305  He cried out terribly and made himself heard by all the gods:
“Father Zeus, and the rest of you blessed gods who are forever,
come here, to see ludicrous and intolerable things,
how Zeus' daughter Aphrodite always dishonors me,
because I'm lame, and loves annihilating Ares,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.310  because he's handsome and sound-footed but I myself
was born infirm. But I have no one else to blame
but my two parents, whom I wish had never had me.
But you'll see for yourselves, how these two climbed into my bed
and went to sleep in love, and I'm in grief at the sight.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.315  I don't expect they'll lie this way a moment longer,
though very much in love. Both soon won't want to sleep,
but the bonds and snare will restrain them
until her father pays back to me fully the whole bride price,
all I put in his palm for his dog-eyed girl,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.320  since he has a beautiful daughter, but she has no self-restraint.”
So said he, and the gods gathered at the bronze-floored house.
Earth-holder Poseidon came. Helper Hermes
came. Far-worker lord Apollo came.
The female goddesses each stayed home out of shame.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.325  The gods, givers of good things, stood in the doorway.
Uncontrollable laughter broke out among the blessed gods
as they looked at the handiwork of ingenious Hephaestus.
In this way, glancing at another near him, one would say:
“Bad deeds do not prosper. The slow, indeed, overtakes the swift,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.330  as even now Hephaestus, slow as he is, lame as he is,
by craft has seized Ares, though he's the swiftest of the gods
who hold Olympus, so Ares owes the fine for adultery.”
So they said such things to one another,
then the son of Zeus lord Apollo said to Hermes:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.335  “Hermes, son of Zeus, runner, giver of good things,
would you really be willing, crushed in mighty bonds,
to sleep in bed beside golden Aphrodite?”
Then the runner Argeiphontes answered him:
“If only this would happen, far-shooter lord Apollo!

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.340  Three times as many inextricable bonds could be about me,
and all you gods and goddesses could watch,
but I'd sleep beside golden Aphrodite!”
So said he, and laughter broke out among the gods immortal.
But laughter did not hold Poseidon, who ever implored

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.345  the famed worker Hephaestus to free Ares.
And, voicing winged words, he said to him:
“Free him. I promise you he'll pay as you demand,
all that's just among the gods immortal.”
The far-famed twice-lamed one said back to him:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.350  “Earth-holder Poseidon, don't bid me do this.
The guarantees of wretches are wretched guarantees.
How would I bind you among the gods immortal
if Ares leaves and avoids his bond and obligation?”
Earth-shaker Poseidon said back to him:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.355  “Hephaestus, if Ares does avoid his obligation
and leaves in flight, I myself will pay you.”
Then the far-famed twice-lamed one answered him:
“It's not possible or proper that your word be denied.”
So saying, good soul Hephaestus released the bonds.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.360  After he'd freed them from bondage, mighty as it was,
the two sprang up at once, and Ares made his way to Thrace
while smile-loving Aphrodite went to Cyprus,
to Paphos, where she had an estate and fragrant altar.
There the Graces bathed and anointed her with immortal

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.365  olive oil, such as bedecks the gods who are forever,
and put lovely raiment round her, a wonder to behold.
This the far-famed singer sang, and Odysseus
in his mind enjoyed listening, as did the others,
the long-oared Phaeacians, ship-famed men.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.370  Alcinous bid Halius and Laodamas to dance
by themselves, since no one rivaled them.
They then picked up a beautiful ball in their hands,
a glittering one that skilled Polybus had made them,
which one of them, bending backwards, would throw toward

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.375  the shadowy clouds, and the other, rising high above the ground,
would catch with ease before his feet reached the ground.
Then after they'd tried it with the ball straight upward,
they danced upon the ground that feeds many,
changing places continually, as other boys, standing throughout

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.380  the assembly, beat time and a loud din gradually arose.
Right then divine Odysseus said to Alcinous:
“Your majesty Alcinous, most exalted of all men,
You promised your dancers are the best,
and your promise has been kept. Wonder holds me as I watch them.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.385  So said he, and Alcinous' sacred soul rejoiced,
and he said at once to the oar-loving Phaeacians:
“Hear me, Phaeacian leaders and commanders,
the stranger seems quite astute to me.
But come, let's give him a guest gift, as is fitting.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.390  For throughout the kingdom twelve preeminent kings
act as rulers, and I myself am the thirteenth.
Each of you bring for him a well-washed cloak
and tunic and a talent of precious gold.
Let's bring it all together soon, so he can hold it

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.395  in his hands and go to dinner glad at heart.
But let Euryalos make amends to him with words
and with a gift, since he spoke in no way properly.”
So said he, and all concurred and commanded,
and each dispatched a herald to bring gifts.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.400  Euryalus in turn replied to him and said:
“Your majesty Alcinous, most exalted of all men,
I'll make amends to the stranger, accordingly, as you bid.
I'll give him this sword, all bronze, a silver hilt
upon it, and a sheath of just-sawed ivory

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.405  that wraps tightly around it. It'll be worth a lot to him.”
So saying, he placed the silver-studded sword in his hands,
and, voicing winged words, said to him:
“Farewell, father stranger. If a dreadful word's been said
in any way, may storm winds snatch it up at once and carry it away.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.410  And may the gods grant to you that you see your wife and reach
your fatherland, since, long away from loved ones, you suffer misery.”
Adroit Odysseus said to him in reply:
“Fine farewell to you, too, friend. May the gods grant you
prosperity and may you hereafter never miss this sword,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.415  that you gave me as you made amends with words.”
He spoke, then slung the silver-studded sword around his shoulder.
The sun went down, the splendid gifts for him were there,
and Alcinous' illustrious heralds carried them in.
Then the sons of noble Alcinous took the gorgeous gifts

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.420  and placed them beside their venerable mother.
Then Alcinous' sacred soul guided them,
and they sat on high chairs when they got there.
Right then good soul Alcinous said to Arete:
Here, woman, bring an ornamented chest, your best one,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.425  and put in yourself a well-washed cloak and tunic.
Heat a copper cauldron for him on the fire, and heat water
so he can bathe, and see, all laid out well,
the gifts the noble Phaeacians have brought here,
and enjoy himself at dinner listening to the hymn of song.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.430  And I myself will present him this gorgeous golden goblet
of mine, so he'll remember me each day,
when he makes libation in his hall to Zeus and other gods.
So said he, and Arete told her handmaids
to stand a large tripod on the fire as soon as possible.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.435  They stood a tripod for filling the bath on the burning fire,
poured water in it, and took and lit wood beneath it.
Fire lapped around the tripod's belly and the water heated.
Meanwhile Arete brought a gorgeous chest from her bedroom
for the stranger and put the beautiful presents in it,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.440  the gold and clothing that the Phaeacians gave him,
then she herself put a cloak and fine tunic in it,
and, voicing winged, words said to him:
“See to the lid yourself, and quickly tie a knot on it,
lest someone on your journey do it harm, when later

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.445  you sleep sweet sleep on your way in the black ship.”
Then after long-suffering divine Odysseus heard this,
he at once fit on the lid and quickly tied a knot,
an intricate one lady Circe had once had his mind learn.
Straightway a housekeeper ordered him to get into the tub

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.450  and bathe. With gladness in his heart, he looked at
the hot bath water, since he hadn't been accustomed
to any care, since he left the home of fair-haired Calypso
and had had constant care all that time as a god.
After the slaves bathed and anointed him with olive oil,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.455  they threw a tunic and beautiful cloak about him,
and he got out of the tub and went among the men,
the wine-drinkers. Nausicaa, with beauty from the gods,
stood beside a column of the densely-made roof,
marveled at Odysseus as she looked in his eyes,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.460  and, voicing winged words, said to him:
“Farewell, stranger. Sometime, when you're in your fatherland,
remember me, that you owe to me first the price for your life.”
Adroit Odysseus said to her in reply:
Nausicaa, great-hearted Alcinous' daughter,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.465  Would Hera's loud-thundering husband Zeus now make it so,
that I go home and see homecoming day,
I'd pray to you then, even there, as to a goddess,
always, every day, for you, my girl, have saved me!”
He spoke and sat on a chair beside king Alcinous.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.470  They were already mixing wine with water and serving portions.
A herald came near, leading the trusty singer,
Demodocus, one honored by the people. He sat him
in the midst of the diners, and propped him against a tall pillar.
By then adroit Odysseus had spoken to a herald,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.475  and cut a slice from the chine of a white-toothed pig,
where more was left and had thick fat around it.
“Herald, take and give this meat to Demodocus, so he may eat,
and, I, despite my grief, may pay him homage.
For among all men upon the earth, singers

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.480  deserve respect and honor, because the Muse
has taught them melodies and loves the singers' tribe.”
So said he, and a herald took and put it in the hands
of hero Demodocus. He took it and was glad at heart.
They threw their hands on the good things laid ready before them.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.485  Then after they'd dispatched desire for food and drink,
just then adroit Odysseus said to Demodocus:
Demodocus, above each and every mortal I commend you,
whether the Muse, Zeus's daughter, or Apollo taught you,
for truly, in due order, you sing the fate of the Achaeans,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.490  all they did and experienced, all the Achaeans suffered,
as if either you were there yourself or heard it from another.
But come, shift, and sing the artifice of the Wooden Horse,
that Epeius made with the help of Athena,
that divine Odysseus once brought, as a trap, to the acropolis,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.495  and filled with men who ravaged Ilium.
If you recount these things to me in the proper way,
I'll at once declare to all mankind
how generously god granted you inspired song.”
So said he, and, inspired by god, Demodocus began, and showed

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.500  his song, taking it up as some Argives boarded well-benched ships,
cast fire on the huts, and sailed away,
while others sat already, beside renowned Odysseus
in the Trojan assembly, hidden in the horse,
for the Trojans themselves had dragged it to the acropolis.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.505  So it stood, and the Trojans voiced many differing opinions
as they sat around it. Plans pleased them in three ways:
to split the hollow tree, with ruthless bronze, to pieces,
to drag it to the highest point and throw it from the rocks,
or let it be a talisman, a great glorious gift to the gods,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.510  the very way that, even then, it was about to happen,
for it was their destiny to be destroyed, after the city enfolded
the great Wooden Horse, where all the best of the Argives
sat, bearing death and doom for Trojans.
He sang how the sons of the Achaeans sacked the city,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.515  when they left their hollow ambush and poured out of the horse.
He sang that they sacked the steep city, in one place, then another,
but Odysseus made his way to the home of Deiphobus,
like Ares, with godlike Menelaus.
He said Odysseus endured the grimmest war there

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.520  and won in the end on account of great-hearted Athena.
This the far-famed singer sang, but Odysseus
melted, as tears from under eyelids wet his cheeks.
As a woman weeps, when she falls on her dear husband,
who's fallen in front of his city and people,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.525  warding off ruthless day from his city and children,
and as she sees him gasping and dying, she throws her
arms around him, and loudly wails, but those behind her
strike her back and shoulders with their spears
and lead her into bondage, to have hard work and hardship,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.530  and her cheeks waste away with the most piteous grief,
so Odysseus let piteous tears fall from under his brows.
He went unnoticed there by all the others, shedding tears,
and Alcinous alone noticed him and understood.
He sat near him and heard him moaning deeply,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.535  then said at once to the oar-loving Phaeacians:
“Hear me, Phaeacian leaders and commanders,
let Demodocus now hold his clear-toned lyre,
for he no way pleases everyone with what he sings.
From the moment we had supper and the divine singer started,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.540  never since then has the stranger ceased
woeful lamentation. Very likely, sorrow encompasses his heart.
But come, let Demodocus hold, so all, hosts and guest,
may equally enjoy, for that way is much better,
since for the venerable stranger's sake these are prepared,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.545  the dear gifts and convoy that we give him in friendship.
A stranger and supplicant is as good as a brother
to a man who has even a little contact with his wits.
Therefore, don't, with cunning designs, conceal
what I ask you. It's better you reveal it.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.550  Tell me the name that your mother and father, and the others
who live in your town and around it, call you there.
For no man, neither bad nor good, is altogether
nameless, from the moment he is born,
but parents give names to every one after they give birth.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.555  Tell me your land and home and city,
so our ships, directing their minds there, can convey you,
for Phaeacian ones don't have pilots,
and there aren't any steering oars that other ships have,
since the ships themselves know men's thoughts and minds,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.560  know also all their rich farmlands and cities,
and cross the sea's gulf with the greatest speed,
wrapped in mist and cloud, and never have
any fear at all of being damaged or destroyed.
But this I heard, as once upon a time my father Nausithous

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.565  told it, who used to say Poseideon bore a grudge
against us, because we're safe convoys for each and every one.
He said that someday Poseidon would wreck a well-made ship
of Phaeacian men returning from a convey on the misty sea
and would wrap a great mountain round our city.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.570  So the old man said. The god will bring this to fulfillment,
or it will be left undone, as it is pleasing to his heart.
But come, tell me this, and recount it exactly,
where you went off course, what men's lands you came to,
and the men themselves and their well-settled cities,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.575  how many were hard, unjust, and wild,
or were hospitable and had god-fearing minds.
Tell me why you weep and grieve inside your heart
when you hear of the Argive Danaans, and the fate of Ilium.
The gods brought this about, and spun the thread of destruction

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.580  for the men, so there'd be a song for those yet to be.
Or did some in-law perish in front of Ilium,
brave as he was, your wife's son or her father, those who become
most worthy of affection after one's own blood and family?
Or perhaps it was even some comrade, an agreeable man,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.8.585  a brave one? For surely he becomes nothing less than a brother,
one who, as a comrade, knows and understands you.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.1  BOOK 9
Adroit Odysseus said to him in reply:
“Your majesty Alcinous, most exalted of all men,
it's surely a fine thing, listening to a singer
such as this one is, in voice just like the gods.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.5  For I say that no occasion is in any way more pleasant
than when merriment takes hold, throughout the whole kingdom,
and guests, throughout the house, sit in rows
listening to a singer, while beside them tables are full
of bread and meat, and, drawing wine from the mixing bowl,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.10  the wine bearer brings and pours it into goblets.
In a way, this seems to my mind the finest thing there is,
but your heart is inclined to ask about my woeful troubles,
so that I'll groan still more in lamentation.
What first, what last, will I recount for you then,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.15  since the heavenly gods have given me many troubles?
First, I'll speak my name now, so you'll know it, too,
and, once I've escaped the ruthless day, I may be
your host, though I live in a home that's far away.
I am Odysseus Laertiades, who am of interest to all men

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.20  for my wiles, and my fame reaches heaven.
I live in clear Ithaca. On it is a mountain,
Neriton, conspicuous with trembling leaves. Around it
many islands lie very close to one another,
Doulichion, Same, and wooded Zacynthus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.25  It lies low on the sea, farthest off toward
the gloom, with the others off toward sun and dawn,
rugged, but a good nurse of youths. Indeed, I can't see
that anything else is sweeter than one's own land.
Indeed, a goddess divine, Calypso, detained me in her place,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.30  in hollow caves, eager that I be her husband.
Likewise, the crafty Aeaean, Circe, held me back
in her palace, eager that I be her husband,
but never persuaded the heart in my chest.
So, nothing becomes sweeter than one's fatherland

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.35  and parents, even if one lives in a rich house far away,
in a foreign country, far from his parents.
But come, let me tell you of my return, full of troubles
that Zeus sent to me on my way from Troy.
“The wind carried and drove me from Ilium to the Ciconians,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.40  at Ismarus. There I sacked the city and destroyed them.
We took their wives and many possessions from the city,
and divided up so none would go cheated of a fair share by me.
Then indeed I ordered that with nimble feet we flee,
but, greatly foolish, they did not obey.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.45  Then much wine was drunk, and by the shore they slaughtered
many sheep and lumbering curved-horn cattle.
Meanwhile, the Ciconians had gone and cried out to Ciconians
who were were more numerous and stronger,
their neighbors living inland, skilled in fighting men

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.50  from horses, and where needed, on foot.
They came then, in the morning, as many as leaves and flowers
come in season. Then Zeus's evil destiny was with us,
grimly doomed, so that we would suffer many sorrows.
Setting up for battle, they fought beside the swift ships,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.55  and threw bronze spears at each other.
While it was morning and sacred day was growing,
we stayed and fought them off though there were more of them.
But when the sun had passed beyond the time to unyoke oxen,
right then Ciconians turned and tamed Achaeans,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.60  and six well-greaved comrades from each ship
were killed, but the rest of us escaped death and doom.
“We sailed on from there with grief in our hearts
at the loss of our dear comrades, glad to have escaped death.
But my double-curved ships sailed no further

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.65  until someone called out three times to each of our wretched comrades
who died on the plain, cut down by the Ciconians.
Cloud-gatherer Zeus aroused North Wind against the ships,
with a marvelous furious storm, and hid with clouds
both land and sea, as night rushed from heaven.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.70  The ships were borne sideways, and the wind's force
tore our sails into three and even four pieces.
We lowered them into the ships, fearing destruction,
and hurriedly rowed our ships toward the mainland.
For two days and two nights we lay there, without ever a break,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.75  eating our hearts in pain and exhaustion.
But when fair-haired Dawn brought the third day on,
we set up the masts, hoisted the white sails,
and took our seats, then wind and pilots steered them.
And now I would have reached my fatherland unscathed,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.80  but current, wave, and North Wind drove me back
rounding Malea and pushed me off course past Cythera.
“Nine days I was carried by baneful winds
over the fishy sea, but on the tenth we landed
in the land of the Lotus Eaters, who eat a flowery food.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.85  We went ashore there and drew water,
and my comrades soon took dinner beside our swift ships.
Then after they partook of food and drink,
I then sent comrades to go and find out
who the men were who ate bread upon the earth.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.90  I chose two men, and sent a third with them as a herald,
who went and soon mingled with the Lotus Eater men,
and the Lotus Eaters did not intend destruction
for our comrades, but gave them lotus to partake of.
Whoever of them ate the honey-sweet fruit of the lotus

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.95  no longer wished to report or come back,
but wanted to stay there among the Lotus Eater men
to feed on lotus and forget return home.
I brought them by force, weeping, to the ships, then,
dragged them in the hollow ships and tied them under the benches.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.100  Then I ordered the rest of my trusty comrades
to board the fast ships in a hurry,
lest by chance anyone eat lotus and forget return home,
then they went aboard at once and sat down at the oarlocks,
and, seated in rows, beat the gray sea with their oars.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.105  “We sailed on from there with grief in our hearts.
We reached the land of the haughty, lawless Cyclopes,
who, trusting in the gods immortal,
neither plow nor plant trees with their hands,
but everything grows unplowed and unsown,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.110  wheat and barley, and vines that bear clusters of grapes
for wine, and Zeus's rain makes them grow for them.
They have neither advisory councils nor established laws,
but they live on the peaks of high mountains,
in hollow caves, and each one is the judge

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.115  of his wives and children, but they don't heed one another.
“A rough island stretches outside the harbor,
neither near nor far from the Cyclopes' land,
a wooded one, on which there are countless wild goats,
for the coming and going of men does not drive them away,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.120  nor do hunters enter it, who in forests
suffer sorrows as they haunt mountain peaks.
So, filled with neither flocks nor fields,
all its days unplowed and unsown instead,
the island is without men but feeds bleating goats.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.125  For the Cyclopes have no vermilion-cheeked ships,
nor are men among them shipwrights, who would have built
well-benched ships that could fulfill each one's needs
and take them to cities of mankind, much as men
often cross the sea with ships to each other,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.130  and who would have made the island well-settled for them.
For the island isn't bad at all and would bear all things in season.
For on it, by the gray sea's banks, there are meadows,
watered, soft ones. Vines would be very hardy there.
On it there's smooth land for plowing. They would always reap

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.135  a deep crop in season, since beneath the surface it is very fertile.
The harbor in it is safe anchorage, so there's no need for moorings,
neither to cast anchors nor secure stern cables,
instead, those who bring a ship to shore can await the time
when sailors' hearts urge them and breezes favorably blow.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.140  Then, at the harbor's head, splendid water flows,
a spring from under a cave, around which poplars grow.
We sailed down there, and some god guided us
through the murky night, and there was no light to see,
for a deep mist was around the ships, and the moon

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.145  didn't shine from heaven, but was shrouded in clouds.
No one saw the island with his eyes then,
nor did we see the great waves rolling toward dry land,
before we brought our well-benched ships to land.
When the ships landed, we lowered all the sails

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.150  and went ashore ourselves at the edge of sea's surf.
We fell asleep there and awaited divine Dawn.
“When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
we marveled at the island as we roamed thoughout it.
Nymphs, aegis-bearer Zeus's daughters,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.155  roused mountain goats so my comrades could have dinner.
At once we grabbed curved bows and goat spears
with long collars from the ships, split into three groups,
and threw. God soon gave us abundant game.
Twelve ships followed me, and nine goats fell by lot

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.160  to each. For me alone they picked out ten.
So then all day until the sun went down,
we sat feasting on boundless meat and sweet wine.
For the red wine wasn't yet used up from the ships,
but was still in them, for each had drawn much into jars

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.165  with two handles when we took the Ciconians' sacred citadel.
We gazed at the land of the Cyclopes, who were nearby,
saw their smoke and heard the cry of goats and rams.
When the sun went down and dusk came on,
we laid down then to sleep at the edge of sea's surf.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.170  When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
right then I held an assembly and said among them all:
'Trusty comrades of mine, the rest of you stay here now,
while I go with my ship and my comrades
to find out about these men, whoever they are,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.175  whether they're wanton, unjust, and wild,
or hospitable and have god-fearing minds.'
“So saying, I boarded my ship and bid my comrades
get aboard themselves and free up the stern cables.
Then they went aboard at once and sat down at the oarlocks,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.180  and, seated in rows, beat the gray sea with their oars.
But when we reached the place, nearby as it was,
there at the edge, near the sea, we saw a cave,
a high one overgrown with laurels. Many sheep,
rams and goats, too, spent the night there. A high fence

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.185  had been built around it, with embedded stones,
tall pines, and lofty, leafy oaks.
A monstrous man spent the night there, who used to tend
his sheep alone and far away, and did not go among others,
but kept his distance and had a mood for lawlessness.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.190  For he'd been made a monstrous wonder, and did not seem
like a man who eats bread but like a wooded peak
of high mountains that appears apart from others.
“Then I ordered the rest of my trusty comrades
to stay where they were beside the ship and guard it.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.195  Then I chose twelve of the best of my comrades
and went. But I had a goatskin bag of sweet black wine,
that Maron, Euantheus' son, a priest of Apollo,
who straddles Ismarus, had given me
because out of respect we protected him, with his wife

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.200  and child, for he lived in a wooded grove
of Phoebus Apollo. He gave me splendid gifts.
He gave me seven talents of well-worked gold,
gave me a solid silver mixing bowl, and then,
into double-handled jars, twelve in all, he drew

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.205  sweet unmixed wine, a drink divine. None
of the slaves or handmaids in his house,
but only he, his wife, and one housekeeper, knew it.
Whenever they would drink that honey-sweet red wine,
he'd fill a goblet full with twenty measures of water and pour

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.210  it in, then a sweet smell would spread from the mixing bowl,
a marvelous smell, and it would please no one to abstain.
I filled a big wineskin full of it and brought provisions, too,
in a leather sack, for my manly heart imagined
I would soon come upon a man clad in great might,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.215  a wild one, who knew well neither law nor justice.
“We arrived quickly at the cave, but didn't find him
inside, since he was herding his fat sheep through pasture.
We went into the cave and gazed at every single thing.
Baskets were loaded with cheeses, and pens were crowded

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.220  with kids and lambs, and each kind was sorted out and penned,
the yearlings separately, the ones born after separately,
and, again, the ones just born. All the crafted vessels, the pails
and buckets he milked into, flowed with whey.
Then my comrades begged me, first of all,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.225  that they help themselves to the cheeses and go back,
then later, drive the kids and lambs out of their pens
to our swift ship and sail over the briny water.
But I didn't give in, though that would've been much better,
so I could see him and in hope he'd give me guest gifts.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.230  As it turned out, he'd be no welcome sight for my comrades.
“We lit a fire there, made an offering to the gods, helped ourselves
to the cheese and ate, sat down inside and waited for him,
until the herder neared. He carried a heavy load
of dry wood to be of use to him at dinner,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.235  and made a loud crash throwing it inside the cave.
We scurried off in fear to the innermost part of the cave.
Then into the wide cavern he drove his fat sheep,
all the ones he milked, but left the males at the door,
the billy goats and rams, outside in the deep courtyard.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.240  But then he lifted high and put in place a big door rock,
a mighty one. Twenty-two good four-wheeled wagons
would not have heaved it from the ground.
Such a steep rock he put in place in the doorway.
He sat and milked the sheep and bleating goats,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.245  completely properly, and under each he pushed its young.
Soon he curdled half the white milk,
collected it in plaited baskets, and put it away,
but the other half he let stand in the vessels, so it'd be his
to take and drink and be used at dinner by him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.250  Then after he'd quickly done his work,
right then he lit a fire, caught sight of us, and asked:
'Who are you, strangers? From where did you sail the watery ways?
On some business, or did you roam at random,
even as pirates over the sea, who roam,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.255  and risk their lives, and bring evil to foreigners?'
“So said he, and in turn our dear heart snapped
in fear of his deep voice and monstrous body.
But even so, I said to him in answer:
'We're Achaeans, driven off course from Troy

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.260  by all kinds of winds over the great gulf of the sea,
and on our way home we took a different route, wrong ways,
as I suppose Zeus wished to contrive it.
We claim we're people of Atreides Agamemnon,
whose fame is now greatest under heaven,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.265  for he sacked so great a city and destroyed many men.
Now we've reached your knees in supplication,
in hope you'll give some guest gift or even in a different way
give a present, which is the right of strangers.
But revere the gods, most noble one. We are supplicants to you.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.270  Zeus is the avenger of supplicants and strangers,
the guest god, who attends venerable strangers.'
“So said I, and he answered me at once with a ruthless heart:
'Stranger, you're a fool, or come from far away,
to bid me to either avoid or fear the gods,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.275  for Cyclopes don't heed aegis-bearer Zeus
or the blessed gods, since, indeed, we are far better.
I wouldn't avoid Zeus' hatred, and spare
either you or your comrades, unless my heart bid me.
But tell me where you moored your ship when you came here,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.280  at the border, perhaps, or just nearby, so I'll know it.'
“So said he, testing me, but with my great experience I didn't
miss it, instead, with guileful words, I said back to him:
'Earth-shaker Poseidon shattered my ship,
throwing it against the rocks at the border of your land,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.285  driving it against headland, and wind from the sea took it.
But, with the ones here, I escaped sheer destruction.'
“So said I, but with a ruthless heart, he answered me nothing,
instead, he sprang up and threw his hands upon my comrades,
grabbed two at once and dashed them, like puppies,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.290  to the ground. Brain flowed out on the ground and wet the earth.
He cut through them, limb from limb, and prepared dinner.
He ate, like a mountain-bred lion, and left nothing,
entrails, flesh, and marrowy bones.
We held our hands up to Zeus and wailed, when we saw

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.295  his reckless deeds, and helplessness took hold of our hearts.
Then after the Cyclops had filled his great stomach,
eating human meat and drinking unmixed milk on top of it,
he lay inside the cave and stretched out among the sheep.
I planned in my great-hearted heart

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.300  to get closer to him, draw my sharp sword from beside my thigh,
and stab him in the chest, where the midriff holds the liver,
feeling for it with my hand. But a second thought restrained me,
for, where we were, we too would perish in sheer destruction,
since we would not be able, with our hands, to push

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.305  from the lofty door the mighty stone he'd put there.
So then, with groans, we awaited divine Dawn.
“When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
right then he lit a fire and milked his famous sheep,
completely properly, and under each he pushed its young.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.310  Then after he'd quickly done his work,
he again grabbed two at once and prepared breakfast.
He ate his meal and drove his fat sheep from the cave
and easily removed the great door rock. But then at once
he put it in place, as if he were putting a lid in place on a quiver.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.315  With much whistling, the Cyclops turned his fat sheep
toward the mountains. Then I was left, deeply contemplating evil,
in hope I'd somehow make him pay and Athena'd grant me glory.
And in my heart this plan seemed best.
For Cyclops' big club lay beside the pen,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.320  a green one of olive wood that he'd cut, to carry
when it dried. We looked at it and made it out to be
as big as the mast of a black ship with twenty oars,
a wide cargo ship that goes out on the great gulf,
such was it in length, such in thickness, to behold.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.325  I stood next to it, cut off a fathom's length,
set it next to my comrades, and bid them taper it.
They made it smooth, as I stood by and sharpened
the end, then I quickly took and hardened it in burning fire
and put it well away, hiding it under dung,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.330  which in exceedingly great amount was spread throughout the cave.
Then I ordered the others to cast lots
to see who'd dare to lift the stake with me
to grind it in his eye when sweet sleep came upon him.
They chose by lot the ones I myself would have wanted chosen,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.335  four of them, then I counted fifth among them.
He came at evening, herding his fine-fleeced sheep
and at once drove his fat sheep into the wide cave,
all of them, and left none in the deep courtyard outside,
either suspecting something or as a god so bid him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.340  But then he lifted high and put in place the big door rock,
sat, and milked the sheep and bleating goats,
completely properly, and under each he pushed its young.
Then after he'd quickly done his work,
he again grabbed two at once and prepared dinner.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.345  Right then I went close and spoke to the Cyclops,
holding a wooden cup of black wine in my hands:
'Cyclops, take it, drink the wine, after you've eaten human meat,
so you can see what kind of drink our ship contained.
I brought it for you now as a libation, that you would pity me

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.350  and send me home, but now you're intolerably angry.
Reckless one, why would anyone else, of multitudes of men,
ever come to you later, since you haven't acted properly?'
“So said I, and he took and drank it, and was terribly pleased
drinking the sweet drink, and in turn asked me for seconds:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.355  'Give me some more, freely, and tell me your name
right now, so I can give you a guest gift which you'll enjoy,
since for Cyclopes the grain-giving earth bears clusters of grapes
for wine, and Zeus's rain makes them grow for them,
but this is like a bit of ambrosia and nectar!'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.360  “So said he, then I handed him in turn the sparkling wine.
Three times I brought and gave it and three times he drank in folly.
Then after the wine had gone around the Cyclops' mind,
right then I spoke to him with words meant to win him:
'You ask me my famous name, Cyclops? Then I'll tell you,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.365  but give me a guest gift, just as you promised.
My name is Nobody. And they call me Nobody,
my mother and father and all my comrades as well.'
“So said I, and he answered me at once with a ruthless heart:
'I'll eat Nobody last among his comrades,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.370  and the others before him. That'll be my guest gift to you.'
“He spoke, leaned back, fell on his back, then afterwards
lay, thick neck drooping, and sleep, the tamer of all,
seized him. Wine, and bits of human flesh, burst
from his gullet, and, drunk with wine, he belched.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.375  Right then I drove the stake under deep ashes
until it got hot, and with words encouraged all
my comrades, lest any of mine flinch in fear.
But when, before long, the olive-wood stake in the fire,
green as it was, was about to catch fire and glowed terribly,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.380  right then I brought it nearer, out of the fire, and my comrades
stood about me. Then a divinity breathed great confidence in us.
While they lifted the olive-wood stake, sharp at the end,
and thrust him in his eye, I pressed my weight from above
and twisted it, as when some man bores a ship's plank

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.385  with an auger, while others below rotate it with a strap
they clasp at either end, so it always runs continuously.
So we took the fire-sharpened stake and twisted it
in his eye, and blood, hot as it was, flowed around it.
The breath of his burning pupil singed all around his eyelids

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.390  and eyebrows, and the roots of his eye crackled with fire.
As when a smith man plunges a big axe or adze
in cold water to temper it, and it hisses greatly,
for this is how it has again the strength of iron,
so his eye sizzled around the olive-wood stake.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.395  He let out a great horrifying cry, the rock echoed,
and we scurried off in fear. He pulled the stake,
stained with lots of blood, out of his eye,
then, in a frenzy, threw it from him with his hands,
and called loudly to the Cyclopes who lived

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.400  about him in caves along the windy hilltops.
They heard his cry, came from one place or another,
stood around his cave, and asked what distressed him:
'What's hurt you so, Polyphemus, that you've cried out this way,
through the ambrosial night and made us sleepless?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.405  No one mortal drives away your sheep, against your will, does he?
No one's killing you, by guile or violence, is he?'
“From his cave mighty Polyphemus said back to them:
'My friends! Nobody is killing me, by guile and not by violence!'
“They spoke winged words in reply:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.410  'If, alone as you are, no one does you violence,
there's no way to avoid sickness from great Zeus,
so, pray to your father lord Poseidon.'
“So said they and then went away, and my dear heart laughed,
at how my name and noble cunning had tricked him.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.415  The Cyclops, groaning in the throes of agony,
felt around with his hands, took the stone from the door,
sat down in the doorway, and spread out his arms
in hope he'd catch someone walking out the door with his sheep,
for in his mind he hoped I was so foolish.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.420  But I was pondering how the best by far could happen,
in the hope of finding some release from death for my comrades
and myself. I wove all my tricks and cunning,
as it meant our lives, for great evil was at hand.
And in my heart this plan seemed best.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.425  The male sheep were well-fed, thick-fleeced,
big and beautiful, with violet-dark wool.
I tied them together in silence, with well-plaited willow branches
on which the Cyclops, monster with a mood for lawlessness, used to sleep,
taking them three at a time. The one in the middle carried a man,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.430  and the other two went on either side, saving my comrades,
and three sheep carried each man, but for me
there was a ram, the best by far of all the sheep,
that I grabbed by the back and lay curled beneath his shaggy belly.
Then, turned around, I held onto his abundant fleece

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.435  with my hands continuously with a steadfast heart.
So then, with groans, we awaited divine Dawn.
“When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
Right then the male sheep scurried out to pasture
but the unmilked females bleated about their pens

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.440  for their udders were bursting. Their master, worn out
by evil agonies, felt along the backs of all the sheep
standing upright, but the fool didn't notice it,
how they were tied beneath the breasts of his woolly-fleeced sheep.
Last of the sheep, the ram walked through the door,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.445  encumbered by wool and shrewdly scheming me.
Mighty Polyphemus felt him and said:
'Pet ram, why have you gone this way through my cave,
last of the sheep? You never before went left behind by sheep,
but were first by far to graze on smooth blades of grass,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.450  taking long strides, first to reach rivers' streams,
first eager to depart for the sheepfold
at evening. But now you're last of all. Surely, you miss
your master's eye, that an evil man, with his wretched comrades,
blinded, when tamed my mind with wine,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.455  Nobody, whom I think has not yet escaped destruction.
If you but thought as I, and became able to speak,
to tell where that one skulks away from my fury,
then his brain would be dashed to the ground here and there
throughout the cave, when he was smashed, and my heart

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.460  would recover from the evils no-account Nobody gave me.'
“So saying, he sent the ram from him through the door.
When we'd gone a little way away from the cave and courtyard,
I first freed myself from under the ram, then released my comrades.
We quickly rounded up many of the long-shanked sheep,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.465  fat with fat, and drove them, until we reached our ship.
We were a welcome sight to our dear comrades, those of us
who'd escaped death. They groaned and wept for the others.
But I did not let them cry, and raised my brows to each to tell
him so. Instead, I bid them quickly load in the ship

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.470  the many fine-fleeced sheep and set sail on the briny water.
Then they went aboard at once and sat down at the oarlocks,
and, seated in rows, beat the gray sea with their oars.
But when I was as far away as one shouting can be heard,
right then I spoke to the Cyclops with mocking words:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.475  'Cyclops, you weren't just going to eat a defenseless man's
comrades in your hollow cave with mighty violence.
Surely, your evil deeds were going to catch up with you,
reckless one, since you did not shrink from eating strangers
in your house, so Zeus and other gods have made you pay!'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.480  “So said I, then he became more enraged at heart,
broke off the peak of a big mountain and hurled it,
threw it down beyond our cyan-prowed ship,
and barely missed reaching the tip of the rudder.
The sea was dashed up by the stone as it went down,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.485  and the wave that rushed back soon carried the ship to the mainland,
and the flood from the sea drove it to come to dry land.
Then taking a very long pole in my hands,
I pushed off and along, then, by nodding my head to my comrades,
urged and bid them lay on the oar handles, so we'd get out of danger,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.490  and they threw themselves forward and rowed.
But when we passed over the sea and were twice as far away,
right then I spoke to the Cyclops, as my comrades about me,
from one place or another, restrained me with words meant to win me.
'Reckless one, why do you want to provoke a wild man,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.495  who just now threw a missile at the sea and brought our ship
back to dry land, and we thought right there we'd perished?
If he'd heard one of us speaking or making a sound,
he'd have thrown, and smashed our heads and the ship's timbers
at the same time with a jagged rock, for that's how far he throws.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.500  “So said they, but did not persuade my great-hearted heart,
instead, with a resentful heart I spoke back to him again:
'Cyclops, if any mortal man ever asks you
about the shameful blinding of your eye,
say that Odysseus the sacker of cities blinded you,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.505  Laertes' son who has a house in Ithaca!'
“So said I, and he cried out and answered me:
'Oh no! Very surely, the prophesies, spoken long ago, have come upon me.
There used to be a certain seer here, a man good and great,
Telemus Eurymides, who excelled in the art of prophecy

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.510  and grew old prophesying to the Cyclopes,
who told me all this would come to pass in time to come,
that I'd lose my sight at the hands of Odysseus.
So, I always took it that some big and handsome man
would come here, clothed in great prowess.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.515  But now, small and feeble and worthless as he is,
he blinded my eye after he tamed me with wine.
But come here, Odysseus, so I can put a guest gift beside you
and urge the earth-shaker to grant you convoy,
for I am his son, and he claims to be my father.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.520  He himself, not any other blessed god or mortal man,
will heal me, if he wants to.'
“So said he, then I said to him in answer:
'If only it were as certain I'd be able, once I made you bereft
of life and lifetime, to send you into the house of Hades

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.525  as it's certain not even the earth-shaker is going to heal your eye!'
“So said I, and he then prayed to lord Poseidon,
stretching out both arms to the starry sky:
'Hear me, earth-holder Poseidon, dark-haired one,
if I am truly yours, and you claim to be my father,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.530  grant that Odysseus the sacker of cities not reach home,
Laertes' son who has a house in Ithaca!'
But if it's his lot to see his loved ones and reach
his well-built house and his fatherland,
may he get there cruelly late, having lost all his comrades,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.535  on someone else's ship, and may he find trouble in his house!'
“So said he in prayer, and the dark-haired one heard him.
Then the Cyclops again picked up a much larger stone,
whirled, threw, put immeasurable muscle into it,
threw it down behind our cyan-prowed ship,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.540  and barely missed reaching the tip of the rudder.
The sea was dashed up by the stone as it went down,
and wave carried the ship forward and drove it to come to dry land.
But when we reached that island where the rest of our well-benched
ships had stayed together, about them our companions

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.545  sat in mourning, ever waiting for us
When we got there we beached the ship on the sand
and went ashore ourselves at the edge of sea's surf.
We took the Cyclops' sheep out of the hollow ship,
and divided up so none would go cheated of a fair share by me.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.550  My well-greaved comrades gave the ram to me alone,
as an honor, when the sheep were divided. I sacrificed him
to Zeus, dark-clouded Cronides, who rules over all,
and burned the thighs. He did not heed my offerings,
but pondered how all the well-benched ships

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.555  and my trusty comrades would be destroyed.
So then all day until the sun went down,
we sat feasting on boundless meat and sweet wine.
When the sun went down and dusk came on,
we laid down then to sleep at the edge of sea's surf.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.560  When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
I then roused my comrades and bid them
get aboard themselves and free up the stern cables.
Then they went aboard at once and sat down at the oarlocks,
and, seated in rows, beat the gray sea with their oars.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.9.565  “We sailed on from there with grief in our hearts
at the loss of dear comrades, glad to have escaped death.”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.1  BOOK 10
“We reached the island of Aeolia. There lived
Aeolus Hippotades, dear to gods immortal,
on a floating island, a wall of unbreakable bronze
all around it, and the smooth rock ran sheer up.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.5  His twelve children were also in the palace,
six daughters and six sons in their prime.
He gave his daughters to his sons to be their wives.
They always dine beside their dear father and devoted mother.
Countless good things lie beside them, and the house,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.10  steaming with sacrifice, echoes around the courtyard
by day, and at night they sleep again beside their venerable wives
in blankets and in corded beds.
And when we reached their fine home and city,
he welcomed me a whole month and asked about each thing,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.15  Ilium, the Argive ships, and the return home of the Achaeans,
and I duly recounted everything to him.
But when I also asked the way and bid him dispatch me,
that one refused nothing, and made me a convoy.
He gave me a leather bag, of a nine year-old ox he'd skinned,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.20  and bound the ways of the blustering winds in it,
for Cronion had made him master of the winds,
both to start and stop the ones he wishes.
He tied it tight in our hollow ship with a shiny silver cord,
so nothing would blow out even a little,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.25  then he sent forth West Wind's breath to blow for me,
to carry the ships as well as ourselves. But he wasn't going
to succeed, for by our own folly we perished.
“Nine days we sailed, day and night alike,
and on the tenth our fatherland appeared,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.30  and we caught sight of them tending fires, near as they were.
Then sweet sleep came upon me in my weariness,
for I always controlled the ship's sheet and didn't give it
to another comrade, so we'd reach our fatherland faster.
My comrades talked to one another,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.35  and said I was bringing home gold and silver,
gifts from great-hearted Aeolus Hippotades.
In this way, glancing at another near him, one would say:
'Humph! How dear and honored this one is to all mankind,
whoever's land and city he arrives at.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.40  While from Troy he brings many beautiful treasures
from the spoils, we, who made the same journey,
return home holding empty hands together.
Just now Aeolus favored him with friendship and gave him
this. But come, let's quickly see what these things are,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.45  how much of any gold and silver's in the leather bag.'
So said they, and my comrades' evil plan prevailed.
They loosened the leather bag and all the winds rushed out,
and storm at once snatched them and carried them,
crying, out to sea, away from fatherland. Then I

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.50  awoke and pondered in my noble heart
whether to throw myself from the ship and perish in the sea
or submit in silence and stay still among the living.
But I submitted and stayed, covered myself, and lay
in the ship. The ships were borne by the evil windstorm

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.55  to the island of Aeolia, as my comrades groaned.
“We went ashore there and drew water,
and my comrades soon took dinner beside our swift ships.
Then after they partook of food and drink,
I then took a herald and comrade with me

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.60  and went to Aeolus' famous home. I came upon him
dining beside his wife and his children.
We came into the house and sat on the threshold
by the doorposts. They were amazed at heart and asked:
'Why have you come, Odysseus? What cruel divinity assailed you?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.65  We sent you off kindly, so you could reach
your home and fatherland, or anywhere that's dear to you.'
“So said they. Then with a grieving heart I answered:
'Evil comrades, and reckless sleep to boot, have harmed me,
so, heal me, friends, for the power is in you!'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.70  “So said I, addressing them with words meant to win them,
but they were silent. Then their father answered:
'Get off this island quickly, most contemptible of the living,
for I don't have the right, to see on his way or aid,
that man who's hated by the blessed gods.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.75  Go, since you've come here most hated by immortals!'
“So saying, he sent me, groaning heavily, from his house.
We sailed on from there with grief in our hearts,
and my men's spirit was afflicted by painful rowing
for our foolishness, since a convoy no longer appeared.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.80  “Six days we sailed, day and night alike,
and on the seventh we reached the sheer citadel of Lamus,
Laestrygonian Telepylus, where herdsman greets herdsman:
the one driving in hails and the one driving out answers.
A sleepless man there could earn two wages,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.85  one tending cattle, the other pasturing white sheep,
for the paths of day and night are close together.
Then when we entered the famous harbor, around which
steep rock extends continuously on both sides,
and, at its mouth, jutting headlands protrude,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.90  opposite each other, and the entrance is narrow,
all of them kept their double-curved ships inside.
They were moored close together inside the hollow harbor,
for waves never grew in it, neither great nor small,
but there was a white calm about it.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.95  But I alone kept my black ship outside,
at its edge, tied the cables to the rock,
climbed to a rugged lookout, and stood.
Works of neither men nor oxen appeared there,
and we saw only smoke spurting from the ground.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.100  I then sent comrades to go and find out
who the men were who ate bread upon the earth.
I chose two men, and sent a third with them as a herald,
They went ashore and went along a smooth road, where wagons
brought wood down from the lofty mountains to the city.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.105  In front of the city they met a girl fetching water,
Antiphates the Laestrygonian's mighty daughter,
who'd gone down to the fair-flowing spring Artacia
from where they carried water to the city.
They stood beside and spoke to her, and asked

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.110  who their king was and over whom he ruled.
She very quickly pointed out her father's high-roofed house.
But when they entered the famous house, they found a woman,
as big as a mountain peak, and they shrank from the sight of her.
She immediately called from assembly famous Antiphates,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.115  her husband, who devised wretched destruction for them.
At once he seized one of my comrades and prepared him for dinner.
The other two jumped up and came in flight to the ships.
Then he made a cry throughout the city, and the mighty
Laestrygonians heard, and stalked from one place and other,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.120  countless ones, not like men, but like Giants.
They threw from the rocks with boulders big as a man can carry,
and at once an evil din arose throughout the ships,
of ships being smashed and men being killed.
Piercing them like fish, they carried off their gruesome meal.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.125  While they were destroying them in the very deep harbor
I drew my sharp sword from beside my thigh
and with it cut away my cyan-prowed ship's cable.
At once I urged and bid my comrades
lay on the oar handles, so we'd get out of danger,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.130  and they all tossed up the sea in fear of destruction.
My ship gladly fled the overhanging rocks to the sea,
but the others were all destroyed together where they were.
We sailed on from there with grief in our hearts
at the loss of dear comrades, glad to have escaped death.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.135  We reached the island of Aeaea, and there lived
the dread goddess with human speech, fair-haired Circe,
sister of malign Aeetes.
Both were born of Helios, who brings light to mortals,
and of their mother Perses, whom Oceanus bore as his daughter.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.140  There, we headed with our ship down to the beach in silence,
into a ship-sheltering harbor, and some god led the way.
We got out then and lay there for two days and two nights,
eating our hearts in pain and exhaustion.
But when fair-haired Dawn brought the third day on,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.145  right then I grabbed my spear and a sharp sword
and climbed quickly from the ship to a vantage point,
in the hope I'd somehow see the works and hear the sound of mortals.
I climbed to a rugged lookout, and stood,
and smoke from the wide-wayed ground was visible to me,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.150  in Circe's palace, through dense thickets and a forest.
Then I considered in my mind and heart
whether to go and find out, since I'd seen the sparkling smoke.
This way seemed better to me as I pondered,
to go first to my swift ship and the sea's shore,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.155  give my comrades dinner, and send them to find out.
But when, on my way, I was near my double-curved ship,
right then some god, alone as I was, took pity on me,
and sent a high-horned hart, a big one, right into my path.
He'd come down to the river from his pasture in the forest,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.160  to drink, for the sun's strength already held him.
I struck him, down on the spine, in the middle of the back,
and the bronze spear pierced right through.
He fell down squealing in the dust, and his spirit flew away.
Stepping on him, I pulled the bronze spear from the wound,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.165  leaned it down, and left it on the ground.
Then I plucked twigs and willow branches, braided a rope
a fathom's length long, well-plaited over and across,
tied the feet of the dread monster together,
and, carrying him on my neck, went to my black ship,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.170  leaning on my spear, since there was no way to carry him
on my shoulder with either hand, for he was a very big beast.
I threw him down in front of the ship, and, going to each man,
roused my comrades with words meant to win them:
'Friends, despite our grief, we won't go down

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.175  to the house of Hades before the destined day comes on us.
But come, as long as there's food and drink in our swift ship,
let's remember food and not let ourselves be consumed by hunger!'
“So said I, and they quickly obeyed my words.
Uncovering themselves beside the barren sea's shore,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.180  they beheld the hart with wonder, for he was a very big beast.
Then after they'd looked and satisfied their eyes,
they washed their hands and made a sumptuous feast.
So then all day until the sun went down,
we sat feasting on boundless meat and sweet wine.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.185  When the sun went down and dusk came on,
we laid down then to sleep at the edge of sea's surf.
When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
right then I held an assembly and said among them all:
'Comrades, though you're suffering evil, listen to my words!

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.190  Friends, since we don't know which way darkness is, which way dawn,
which way sun that shines on mortals goes beneath the earth,
or which way it comes back up, then let's consider quickly
it there's still some course of action, though I don't think there is.
For I climbed to a rugged lookout and saw the island,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.195  around which the boundless sea is encircled.
The island itself lies low, and in its center I saw smoke
with my eyes, through dense thickets and a forest.'
“So said I, and their dear heart was broken
as they recalled the deeds of the Laestrygonian Antiphates

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.200  and the violence of the man-eater, the great-hearted Cyclops.
They cried shrilly, letting thick tears fall,
but no good result came of their weeping.
“Then I counted into two all my well-greaved comrades
and assigned to both of them a leader.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.205  I led one of them; godlike Eurylochus, the other.
We quickly shook lots in a bronze helmet
and out popped the lot of great-hearted Eurylochus.
He made his way with twenty-two crying companions,
and they left us, weeping, behind.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.210  In a glen they found the house of Circe, built of
polished stones, in an open place,
and about it were mountain wolves and lions,
whom she'd enchanted, since she gave them evil drugs.
But they didn't attack the men. They stood up on them

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.215  instead, and fawned over them wagging their long tails.
As when dogs fawn about their master coming from a feast,
for he always carries tidbits to please their appetite,
so the strong-clawed wolves and lions fawned about them,
but they were afraid when they saw the dread monsters.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.220  They stood in the doorway of the fair-haired goddess
and heard Circe singing in a beautiful voice
as she plied a great immortal web, such as the works
of goddesses are: delicate, lovely, and splendid.
The first of them to speak was leader of men Polites,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.225  who was the dearest and most devoted of my comrades:
'Friends, someone inside, either woman or goddess,
is plying a great web and singing beautifully,
and the whole floor is echoing, so let's quickly cry out to her.'
“So said he, and they cried out and called.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.230  She soon came out, opened the shiny doors,
and called them in, and they all, in ignorance, followed,
but Eurylochus stayed behind, suspecting it was a trick.
She led them in and sat them down on chairs and couches
and in their presence stirred cheese, barley groats,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.235  and pale green honey in Pramnean wine, then mixed baneful drugs
into the food, so they'd completely forget their fatherland.
Then after she gave it and they drank, right then
she struck them with her wand and confined them in pigsties.
They had the head, voice, hair, and shape

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.240  of pigs, but their minds were intact, as they were before.
So they'd been confined, crying. Now Circe threw to them
oak and ilex acorns and cornel fruit to eat,
such as pigs that sleep on the ground always eat.
Eurylochus at once came to my swift black ship

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.245  and told the news of my comrades and their bitter fate.
But he couldn't speak a word at all, much though he wanted to,
stricken at heart with great sorrow. The eyes in him
were filled with tears, and his heart was set on weeping.
But when we all questioned him in amazement,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.250  right then he told of the destruction of the rest of his comrades:
'We went, as you bid, through the thickets, brilliant Odysseus.
In a glen we found a beautiful house, built of
polished stones, in an open place,
and someone there, either woman or goddess, was plying a great web

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.255  and singing clearly, and cried out and called her.
She soon came out, opened the shiny doors,
and called them in, and they all, in ignorance, followed,
but I stayed behind, suspecting it was a trick.
Then they all together disappeared, and none of them

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.260  reappeared, though I sat and watched a long time.'
“So said he. Then I slung a silver-studded sword
over my shoulder, a big bronze one, and a bow about me,
then ordered him to guide me back the same way.
But he clasped my knees with both his hands and begged,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.265  and, in lamentation, spoke winged words to me:
'Don't take me there against my will, Zeus-nurtured one, but leave me
where I am, for I know you'll neither come yourself
nor bring any other of your comrades. Let's flee quickly
with those here, for we may still avoid the evil day!'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.270  “So said he. Then I in answer said to him:
'Eurylochus, surely, stay where you are in this place,
eating and drinking beside my hollow black ship,
but I'm going, and have a mighty need to.
“So saying, I went up from the ship and sea.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.275  But when, going up through the sacred glens, I was about
to reach the great house of Circe of the many drugs,
then Hermes of the golden wand met me
as I was going toward the house, in the guise of a young man
with his first beard, whose youthful manhood is most graceful.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.280  He put his hand in mine, spoke my name, and said:
'Why now, wretched one, do you go alone through the hilltops,
ignorant of the place as you are? Your comrades are confined there
in Circe's home, like pigs with crowded hiding places.
Are you coming here to free them? But I don't think that you'll

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.285  return yourself, no, you'll stay there like the others.
But come, I'll rescue you from evils and save you.
Here, take this good drug and enter Circe's house.
It might keep the evil day away from your head.
Now I'll tell you all the malign designs of Circe.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.290  She'll make you a potion and throw drugs in your food,
but won't be able so to enchant you, for the good drug
I gave you won't permit it. Now I'll tell every thing.
When Circe strikes you with her very long wand,
draw your sharp sword then from beside your thigh,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.295  and rush at Circe as if eager to kill her.
She'll cower in fear and urge you sleep with her,
and don't then afterwards reject the bed of the goddess,
so she'll free your comrades and take care of you.
But make her swear a great oath on the blessed ones,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.300  that she won't plan another evil misery for you,
lest she make you, stripped naked, unmanly and a coward.'
“So saying, Argeiphontes gave me the drug,
pulling it from the ground, and showed me its nature.
It was black at the root, and its flower was like milk.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.305  Gods call it moly, and it's hard for mortal men
to dig it up, but gods are able to do everything.
“Then Hermes departed to tall Olympus
through the wooded island, and I went to the house
of Circe, and my heart was much troubled on my way.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.310  I stood in the door of the fair-haired goddess.
I stood there and shouted, and the goddess heard my voice.
She soon came out, opened the shiny doors,
and called me in, then I followed with grief in my heart.
She brought me in and sat me on a silver-studded chair,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.315  beautiful, intricately worked. A foot-rest for my feet was under it.
She made me a potion in a golden goblet, so I would drink,
and threw a drug in, with evil intent in her heart.
Then after she gave and I drank but it didn't enchant me,
she struck me with her wand, called out my name, and said:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.320  'Go now to the pigsty, lie with the rest of your comrades!'
“So said she, but I drew my sharp sword from beside my thigh
and rushed at Circe as if eager to kill her.
With a great cry she ran under, clasped my knees,
and, wailing, spoke winged words to me:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.325  'What man and from where are you? Where are your city and parents?
Wonder holds me that you drank this drug but weren't at all enchanted,
for no other man ever withstood this drug
the first time he drank it and it passed his wall of teeth.
In your chest you have some kind of mind that can't be charmed.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.330  Surely you're Odysseus, the wily one that
Argeiphontes of the golden wand ever told me would come
with a swift black ship on his way back from Troy.
But come, put your sword in its sheath, and then
let the two of us get in our bed, so, mixing

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.335  in making love and love, we'll get to trust each other.'
“So said she. Then I in answer said to her:
'Circe, how can you bid me be gentle with you,
who made my comrades pigs in your palace,
and with a wily mind, since you have me here, bid me

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.340  go into your bedroom and get in your bed,
so you can make me, stripped naked, unmanly and a coward?
And I won't be willing to get into your bed
unless, goddess, you dare to swear a great oath to me,
that you won't plan another evil misery for me.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.345  “So said I, and she at once swore as I'd bid her.
Then after she'd sworn and completed the oath,
right then I got into Circe's gorgeous bed.
“Meanwhile, handmaids worked in the palace,
four of them, who were the maidservants in her house.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.350  They were born of springs, and of groves,
and of sacred rivers that flow toward the sea.
One of them threw fine purple blankets on the chairs,
on top, then threw cloths under them below.
The second one pulled silver tables in front of the chairs

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.355  and placed golden baskets on them.
The third mixed sweet honey-hearted wine
in a silver bowl and set out golden goblets.
The fourth brought water and lit a big fire
under a great tripod, and the water heated.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.360  The after the water boiled in the dazzling bronze,
she sat me in a tub and bathed me from the great tripod,
over my head and shoulders, once she'd mingled it to suit me,
until she took the heart-wasting weariness from my limbs.
Then after she bathed me and anointed me richly with olive oil,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.365  she threw a fine cloak and tunic about me,
brought me in and sat me on a silver-studded chair,
beautiful, intricately worked. A foot-rest for my feet was under it.
A handmaid brought water for washing
in a fine golden pitcher and poured it above a silver basin

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.370  so we could wash, then pulled a polished table beside us.
A venerable housekeeper brought bread and set it before us
placing many foods on it, pleasing us from her stores,
and bid us eat, but I was not pleased at heart,
and I sat there, my mind on something else, my heart foreboding evil.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.375  “Now Circe noticed, how I sat but did not throw my hands
upon the food and how a mighty sorrow held me,
then stood close by and spoke winged words to me:
'Why do you sit this way, Odysseus, like a mute,
eating your heart but touching neither food nor drink?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.380  Perhaps you suspect another trick? You needn't fear
at all, for I've sworn a mighty oath to you.'
“So said she. Then I in answer said to her:
'Circe, what man who is right-minded
would dare partake of food and drink

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.385  before he freed his comrades and saw them in his eyes?
but, if you bid me eat and drink in earnest,
free them, so I can see my trusty comrades with my eyes.'
“So said I, and Circe walked directly through her hall,
holding her wand in her hand, opened the doors of the pigsty,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.390  and drove them out, looking like hogs nine years old.
Then they stood opposite, and she went through them
and smeared on each another drug.
From their limbs bristles flowed, the ones the ruinous drug
that lady Circe'd given them made grow before,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.395  and they soon became men. They were younger than before,
and handsomer by far, and bigger to look at.
They knew me, and each clasped my hands.
A longing to weep came on us all, and about us the house
echoed horribly. The goddess herself felt pity for us.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.400  The goddess divine stood near and said to me:
'Zeus-born Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus,
go now to your swift ship and sea's shore.
First of all, haul your ship onto land,
then stow all your goods and gear in caves,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.405  then come back yourself and bring your trusty comrades.'
“So said she. Then my manly heart obeyed,
and I made my way to my swift ship and sea's shore.
Then on my swift ship I found my trusty comrades,
grieving pitiably, shedding thick tears.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.410  As when calves in the barnyard all frisk opposite
the cows of the herd, coming to the dunghill
once they've had their fill of fodder, and the pens
no longer hold them, but mooing constantly they run
about their mothers, so they, when they saw me with their eyes,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.415  poured over me in tears. Then it seemed they felt
as if they'd reached their fatherland and the city itself
of rugged Ithaca, where they were born and bred,
and as they wept they spoke winged words to me:
'We rejoice as much at your returning, Zeus-nurtured one,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.420  as if we'd reached our fatherland, Ithaca.
But come, recount the destruction of the rest of our comrades!'
“So said they. Then I spoke to them with words meant to win them:
'First of all, we'll haul our ship onto land,
then we'll stow all our goods and gear in caves,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.425  then all of you spur yourselves to follow me
so you can see your comrades in Circe's sacred home,
eating and drinking, for they have an abundance.'
“So said I, and they quickly obeyed my words.
Only Eurylochus held back all my comrades,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.430  and, voicing winged words, he said to them:
'Ah, wretched ones, where are we going? Why are you eager
for these evils, going down to the hall of Circe, who'll make
each and every one of us either pigs or wolves or lions,
to guard her big house under compulsion,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.435  even as the Cyclops penned them, when our comrades went
to his courtyard, and bold Odysseus followed with them,
for by by this man's recklessness they perished!'
“So said he, then I pondered in my mind
drawing my sharp-edged sword from beside my thick thigh

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.440  and cutting off his head with it to bring him to the ground
though he was very close kin to me by marriage, but my comrades,
from one place or another, restrained me with words meant to win me:
'Zeus-born, if you order it, we'll let this one
stay where he is beside the ship and guard it.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.445  Then, guide us to Circe's sacred home.'
“So saying, they went up from the ship and sea.
And Eurylochus was not left beside the hollow ship,
but followed, for he feared my vehement rebuke.
“Meanwhile, with kind care, Circe bathed and richly anointed

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.450  with olive oil my other comrades in her house,
then threw about them fleecy cloaks and tunics.
We found them all dining well in her palace.
When they saw and recognized each other face to face,
they wept in lamentation, and the house echoed all around.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.455  The goddess divine stood near and said to me:
'Zeus-nurtured Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus,
raise loud lamentation no longer. I know myself
how many sorrows you've suffered on the fishy sea
and how much hostile men have harmed you on dry land,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.460  but come, eat food and drink wine,
so that in your chest you'll get again the heart
you had when you first left your native land
of rugged Ithaca. Now, you're withered and heartless,
with hard wandering always on your mind, and your heart

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.465  is never in happiness, since you've surely suffered very much.'
“So said she, and our manly spirit yielded in turn.
There every day, until a year came to its end,
we sat feasting on boundless meat and sweet wine.
But when a year was over, and seasons turned around

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.470  as the months passed, and long days brought about,
right then my trusty comrades summoned me and said:
'Possessed one, remember now your fatherland,
if it's ordained that you be saved and reach
your well-built house and your fatherland.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.475  “So said they. Then my manly heart obeyed,
So then all day until the sun went down,
we sat feasting on boundless meat and sweet wine.
When the sun went down and dusk came on,
they lay down to sleep throughout the shadowy hall.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.480  “Then I climbed on Circe's gorgeous bed
and entreated her by the knees. The goddess heard my voice,
and, voicing winged words, I said to her:
'Circe, fulfill for me the promise that you promised,
to send me home. My heart is eager now,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.485  and my comrades' hearts as well, who make my dear heart pine,
lamenting around me, when you're somewhere away.'
“So said I, and the goddess divine immediately answered:
'Zeus-nurtured Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus,
stay no longer in my house against your will.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.490  But, first you need to complete a different journey, and go
to the house of Hades and dread Persephone,
to consult the soul of Teiresias the Theban,
the blind seer whose mind is intact.
To him, even after dying, Persephone gave mind,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.495  that he alone has wits, while others flit about as shadows.'
“So said she. Then my dear heart was broken,
and I sat weeping on the bed, and, truly, my heart
no longer wished to live and see sun's light.
Then after I'd had enough of weeping and writhing,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.500  right then I said to her in answer:
'Circe, who'll guide us on this journey?
No one's ever reached the house of Hades in a black ship!'
“So said I, and the goddess divine immediately answered:
'Zeus-nurtured Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.505  don't let the absence of a guide bother you beside your ship,
but set up the mast, spread the white sails,
and sit. North Wind's breath will bear her for you.
But when you drive through Ocean with your ship,
there will be a rough headland and groves of Persephone,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.510  tall poplars and willows losing their fruit.
Land your ship at that spot, by deep-eddying Ocean,
but go yourself to the dank house of Hades.
There Pyriphlegethus and Cocytus, which is a branch
of the water of the Styx, flow into Acheron,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.515  and there is a rock and the junction of two roaring rivers.
Then draw near there, hero, as I bid you,
and dig a pit a cubit's length this way and that,
and pour a libation to all the dead about it,
first with milk and honey, thereafter with sweet wine,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.520  a third time with water, then sprinkle white barley groats upon it.
Entreat repeatedly the helpless heads of the dead,
that when you get to Ithaca you'll offer a cow that's not yet calved,
your best one, in your palace, and will fill the pyre with good things,
and that you'll sacrifice separately, to Teiresias alone,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.525  a solid-black ram, that stands out among your sheep.
Then after you've entreated the famous tribes of corpses
with your prayers, offer sheep there, a ram and a black female,
turning them toward Erebus, but turn yourself away
and face the river's streams. There, many souls

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.530  of the dead who've died will come.
Then at that moment urge and order your comrades
to skin and burn the sheep that lie there slaughtered
by ruthless bronze, and to pray to the gods,
to mighty Hades and dread Persephone.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.535  You yourself, draw your sharp sword from beside your thigh
and sit, but don't let the helpless heads of the dead
go close to the blood before you question Teiresias.
Then soon the seer, the leader of men, will come to you,
who'll tell you the way and stages of your journey,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.540  and of your return home, how you'll go upon the fishy sea.'
“So said she, and golden-throned Dawn immediately came.
She dressed a cloak and tunic about me as clothing,
and the nymph herself put on a great white cloak,
delicate and lovely, threw a fine golden girdle

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.545  around her waist, and put a veil on her head.
Then I went throughout the house, and, going to each man,
spurred on my comrades with words meant to win them:
'Sleep no longer now, drowsing in sweet sleep,
but let's go, for lady Circe's shown me the way!'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.550  “So said I, and their manly hearts were persuaded.
But not even from there did I lead my comrades unharmed.
The youngest was a certain Elpenor, none too
brave in war or sound in mind,
who'd lain down far away from my comrades, in Circe's

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.555  sacred home, wanting cool air and heavy with wine.
He heard the noise and clamor of his comrades moving,
got up suddenly, and in his mind completely forgot
to go to the long ladder to come back down,
so he fell straight down from the roof. His neck was broken

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.560  from the vertebrae and his soul went down to Hades.
I said to them as they went on their way:
'Perhaps you think you're going home to your beloved fatherland,
but Circe has ordained a different journey,
to the house of Hades and dread Persephone

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.565  to consult the soul of Teiresias the Theban.'
“So said I, and their dear heart was broken,
and sitting down where they were, they wept and pulled out their hair,
but no good result came of their weeping.
“But when we were going to our swift ship and sea's shore,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.10.570  in grief, letting our thick tears fall,
Circe came then and tethered beside the black ship
a ram and a black female sheep,
passing by us easily. Who with his eyes can perceive
a god unwilling going either here or there?”

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.1  BOOK 11
“Then after we'd gone down to the ship and sea,
we first of all hauled the ship into the divine sea,
then put the mast and sail in the dark ship,
took and put aboard the sheep, and got aboard

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.5  ourselves, in grief, shedding thick tears.
For us, back behind our dark-prowed ship,
a favorable, sail-filling, fair wind, a good companion,
the dread goddess with human speech, fair-haired Circe, sent.
We saw to each piece of gear throughout the ship,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.10  then sat, and the wind and pilot steered her.
The sails were stretched as she moved on the sea all day,
and the sun went down, and all the ways were dark.
“She reached deep-flowing Ocean's boundary.
The kingdom and the city of Cimmerian men are there,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.15  covered in mist and cloud. And the shining sun
never looks down on them with his rays,
neither when he goes to starry heaven
nor when he heads back from heaven to the earth,
but pernicious night spreads over wretched mortals.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.20  We beached our ship when we got there, unloaded
the sheep, and went back ourselves along Ocean's stream
until we reached the place Circe had described.
“There Eurylochus and Perimedes held the sacred victims,
and I drew my sharp sword from beside my thigh,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.25  dug a pit a cubit's length this way and that,
and poured a libation to all the dead about it,
first with milk and honey, thereafter with sweet wine,
a third time with water, then sprinkled white barley groats upon it.
I repeatedly entreated the helpless heads of the dead,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.30  that when I got to Ithaca I'd offer a cow that's not yet calved,
my best one, in my palace, then I'd fill the pyre with good things,
and that I'd sacrifice separately, to Teiresias alone,
a solid-black ram, that stands out among our sheep.
After I'd implored with prayers and vows the tribes of corpses,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.35  I took the sheep and cut their throats
and the cloud-dark blood flowed into the pit. Up out of Erebus
they gathered, the souls of the dead who'd died,
brides, young men never married, old men who'd suffered much,
tender maidens with hearts new to sorrow,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.40  and many wounded by bronze spears,
men killed in battle, holding armor stained with gore.
They stalked about the pit in throngs from one place and another
with an awful screeching, and green terror seized me.
Then at that moment I urged and ordered my comrades

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.45  to skin and burn the sheep that lay there slaughtered
by ruthless bronze, and to pray to the gods,
to mighty Hades and dread Persephone.
I myself drew my sharp sword from beside my thigh
and sat, but didn't let the helpless heads of the dead

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.50  get close to the blood before I questioned Teiresias.
“The soul of my comrade Elpenor came first,
for he'd not yet been buried under the wide-wayed earth,
since we'd left his body in Circe's hall,
unwept for and unburied, since other work bore down on us.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.55  I wept when I saw him, felt pity in my heart,
and, voicing winged words, said to him:
'Elpenor, how did you come beneath the gloomy darkness?
you got here on foot sooner than I with my black ship!'
“So said I, and he cried out in pain and answered me:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.60  'Zeus-born Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus,
a divinity's evil doom and abundant wine confused me.
I laid down in Circe's hall and did not think
to go to the long ladder to come back down,
so I fell straight down from the roof. My neck was broken

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.65  from the vertebrae and my soul came down to Hades.
Now I supplicate you by those behind, the ones not by our side,
by your wife and your father, who raised you when you were little,
and by Telemachus, whom you left alone in your palace.
For I know that when you go from here, out of the house of Hades,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.70  you'll take your well-built ship to the island of Aeaea.
There, then, my lord, I urge that you remember me.
Don't go back, and turn your back on me, and leave me unwept for
and unburied, lest I in some way become a cause of gods' wrath for you,
but burn me with my trappings, any that I have,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.75  and heap a grave mound for me on the gray shore of the sea,
the mound of a wretched man, that those yet to be will know me.
Do this for me, and stick upon the mound the oar
with which I rowed among my comrades when I was alive.'
“So said he, then I said to him in answer:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.80  'O wretched one, I'll do and carry out these things for you.'
“So we sat taking turns with dreadful words,
as I, with my sword over the blood, kept him away,
and my comrade's phantom spoke much on the other side.
“The soul of my dead mother came to me,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.85  the daughter of Autolycus, great-hearted Anticlea
whom I'd left alive when I went to sacred Ilium.
I wept when I saw her, felt pity in my heart,
but even so, despite my intense grief, I wouldn't let her
get close to the blood before I questioned Teiresias.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.90  “Then came the soul of Teiresias the Theban,
holding a golden scepter, and he knew me and said to me:
'Zeus-born Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus,
why, wretched one, have you left sun's light
and come to see the dead and this gruesome place?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.95  But withdraw from the pit and withhold your sharp sword,
so I can drink the blood and speak infallibly to you.'
“So said he, and I drew back and thrust my silver-studded
sword firmly into its sheath, and after he drank the dark blood,
right then the noble seer said to me:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.100  'You seek, brilliant Odysseus, a honey-sweet return,
but a god will make that difficult for you, for I don't think
Earth-shaker will miss it, who's put resentment in his heart
for you, enraged that you blinded his beloved son.
But even so, though you suffer evils, you may still reach home,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.105  if you're willing to restrain your heart and your comrades',
when you first put in your well-built ship
at the island of Thrinacia, and flee the violet sea,
and find the grazing cattle and plump sheep
of Helios, who sees all and hears all.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.110  If you keep your mind on your return and leave them unharmed,
you may even yet reach Ithaca, though you suffer evils,
but if you harm them, I predict destruction for you then,
for your ship, and for your comrades. Even if you yourself avoid it,
you'll get home evilly late, having lost all your comrades,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.115  on someone else's ship. In your house you'll find misery,
haughty men, who are devouring your substance,
wooing your godlike wife, and giving her bride gifts.
But, you'll surely make them pay for their violence when you come.
Then after you've killed the suitors in your palace,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.120  by guile or with sharp bronze openly,
then take a well-shaped oar and go
until you reach them, those men who don't know the sea
and don't eat food mixed with salt.
They know neither red-cheeked ships

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.125  nor well-shaped oars that are the wings for ships.
I'll tell you a sign, a very clear one, and it won't escape your notice.
When another wayfarer meets you
and says you have a winnowing fan on your dazzling shoulder,
right then stick your well-shaped oar into the ground

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.130  and offer fine sacred victims to lord Poseidon,
a ram, a bull, and a boar that mates with pigs.
Depart for home and offer sacred hecatombs
to the immortal gods, who hold wide heaven,
to all, one right after another. Death will come to you yourself,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.135  such a very gentle one, out of the sea, and will slay you,
worn out with sleek old age, but your people will be
prosperous about you. I tell this you infallibly.'
“So said he, then I said to him in answer:
'Teiresias, no doubt the gods themselves have spun this.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.140  But come, tell me this and recount it exactly.
Look at that soul there, of my dead mother,
who sits in silence near the blood, and hasn't dared
to look at or to speak to her own son.
Tell me, my lord, how can she recognize that I'm that one?'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.145  “So said I, and he immediately in answer said to me:
'I'll tell you something simple and put it in your mind.
Whomever of the dead who've died you let
get near the blood will speak to you infallibly,
but whomever you begrudge will indeed go back again.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.150  “So said I, and the soul of lord Teiresias went
into the house of Hades, after he recounted his prophecy.
But I stayed in place where I was, so my mother
could come and drink the cloud-dark blood. She knew me
immediately, and, wailing winged words, she said to me:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.155  'My child, how did you come beneath the gloomy darkness,
alive as you are? It's hard for those alive to see these things,
for in between are great rivers and dread streams,
Ocean first, which it's no way possible for one on foot
to cross, unless one has a well-built ship.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.160  Have you just come here from Troy after wandering a long time
with your ship and comrades? Haven't you gone yet
to Ithaca or seen your wife in your palace?'
“So said she, then I said to her in answer:
'My mother, necessity brought me to Hades,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.165  to consult the soul of Teiresias the Theban.
For I never came near Achaean land, or ever set foot
on my own, but I've wandered always and had sorrow,
from the very first moment I followed divine Agamemnon
to fine-foaled Ilium to do battle with the Trojans.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.170  But come, tell me this, and recount it exactly.
What doom of death that brings long woe has tamed you?
A protracted disease? Or did Arrow-shedder Artemis
attack with her painless darts and kill you?
Tell me of my father and the son I left behind.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.175  Does my place of honor still belong to them, or does some other
man already have it, who says that I'm no longer coming home?
Tell me the mind and will of my wedded wife.
Does she remain beside my son and keep all my things intact,
or has one of the best of the Achaeans already married her?'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.180  “So said I, and my lady mother immediately answered:
'In truth, she waits with a patient heart
in your palace, but forever for her, unhappy days
and nights pass by as she sheds tears.
No one any longer holds your fine place of honor, but Telemachus,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.185  undisturbed, occupies your estates and dines at equal meals,
which it's fitting that a man who gives judgment attend,
for all invite him. Your father stays where he is,
on the farm, and doesn't go down to the city, and has no
bed and bedding, or shining sheets, or blankets,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.190  but sleeps in winter where the slaves do in the house,
in the dust near the fire, and wears foul clothing on his flesh.
But when summer and blooming harvest time have come,
all about, down the hill of his wine-bearing vineyard,
beds of fallen leaves are thrown upon the ground.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.195  He lies there in grief, greatly fosters sadness in his heart,
and pines for your return. A hard old age has come upon him.
For in this way I, too, met my fate and perished.
Neither did the sharp-sighted Arrow-shedder
attack with painless darts and kill me in the palace,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.200  nor did any any disease come upon me, which most often
takes life out of the limbs with dreadful wasting,
but yearning for you, and your counsels, brilliant Odysseus,
and your gentleness, robbed me of my honey-sweet life.'
“So said she, then I pondered in my mind

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.205  and wanted to embrace my dead mother's soul.
Three times I rushed, and my heart urged me to hold her,
and three times she flew from my hands like a shadow
or even a dream, and the pain became sharper in my heart,
and, voicing winged words, I said to her:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.210  'My mother, why don't you stay still for me, eager to hold you,
so even in the house of Hades we can throw our dear arms
about each other and have our fill of chilling lamentation?
Or, is this some phantom that illustrious Persephone spurs on
to me, so that I'd groan yet more in lamentation?'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.215  “So said I, and my lady mother immediately answered:
'Oh my, my child, ill-fated beyond all men,
Zeus's daughter Persephone is in no way tricking you,
but this is the way of mortals when one dies.
For sinews no longer hold flesh and bones together,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.220  but the mighty fury of blazing fire consumes them,
as soon as life leaves the white bones,
and the soul, like a dream, flies about and flies away.
So speed toward the light most quickly, and keep all these things
in mind, so you may even after tell your wife.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.225  “So the two of us exchanged words, then the women came,
for illustrious Persephone spurred them on,
all wives and daughters of aristocrats.
They gathered all together around the dark blood,
while I considered how I'd question each.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.230  And in my heart this plan seemed best,
to draw my sharp-edged sword from beside my thick thigh
and not let them all drink the dark blood at one time.
They came near one after another, and each
declared her birth. I questioned each and every one.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.235  “I then saw Tyro first, daughter of a noble father,
who claimed she was the offspring of noble Salmoneus,
and claimed to be the wife of Cretheus Aeolides.
She'd fallen in love with a river, divine Enipeus,
who is by far the handsomest of rivers on the earth,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.240  and she used to haunt Enipeus' beautiful streams.
Earth-holder, the Earth-Shaker, appeared like Enipeus,
and lay beside her in the mouth of the eddying river,
and a purple wave stood around them, high as a mountain,
curved over them, and hid the mortal woman and the god.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.245  He loosed her maiden girdle, then poured sleep down upon her.
Then after he'd completed his acts of love,
he put his hand in hers, called out her name, and said:
'Woman, rejoice in our love. When the year goes round,
you'll give birth to splendid children, since immortals' beddings

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.250  are not without results. Then, you, take care of them and rear them.
But go home now, and keep quiet, and don't give my name,
but I am indeed the Earth-shaker, Poseidon!'
“So saying, he dove beneath the surging sea.
She conceived and gave birth to Pelias and Neleus,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.255  both of whom became mighty cohorts
of great Zeus. Pelias dwelt in spacious Iolcus
and was rich in sheep, and the other dwelt in sandy Pylos.
The queen of women then bore others to Cretheus,
Aeson, Pheres, and Amythaon the chariot-fighter.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.260  “Then after her I saw Antiope, daughter of Asopus,
who boasted that she'd slept even in the arms of Zeus,
and bore two sons, Amphion and Zethus,
who were first to found the seat of seven-gated Thebes,
and walled it, since they could not live in spacious Thebes

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.265  without a wall, even mighty as they were.
“Then after her I saw Alcmene, wife of Amphitryon,
who bore bold-spirited lion-hearted Heracles,
and mixed in great Zeus' arms,
and Megara, high-spirited Creon's daughter,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.270  whom Amphitryon's son, ever untiring in courage, had as wife.
“I saw Oedipus' mother, beautiful Epicaste,
who in ignorance of mind did a monstrous deed
and married her own son, who'd killed his own father
and married her, and the gods at once made this well known to men.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.275  But while he suffered sorrows and ruled in much-loved Thebes
over the Cadmeans through the fatal plans of gods,
she came to the house Hades, the mighty Gatekeeper,
having fastened a noose high from a lofty rafter,
hung by her own sorrow. She left behind for Oedipus

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.280  so many sorrows, all that the Avengers of a mother make happen.
“And I saw gorgeous Chloris, whom Neleus once married
because of her beauty, after he gave her countless bride-gifts,
the youngest daughter of Amphion Iasides, who ruled in power
in Minyean Orchomenus once upon a time.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.285  She was the queen of Pylos and bore Neleus splendid children,
Nestor, Chromius, and lordly Periclymenus.
In addition to them she bore mighty Pero, a wonder to mortals,
whom all those who dwelt about Pylos wooed. But Neleus
gave her to no one who wouldn't drive the broad-browed

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.290  curved-horned cattle of mighty Iphicles out of Phylace,
ones difficult to drive. Only a noble seer undertook
to drive them, but a god's harsh fate, hard bonds
and rustic herdsmen, tied him down.
But when at last days and months came to an end,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.295  a year came round again, and seasons arrived,
right then mighty Iphicles freed him,
since he'd told him all his prophecies, as Zeus's will was done.
“And I saw Leda, the spouse of Tyndareus,
who bore by Tyndareus two stouthearted sons,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.300  Castor the tamer of horses and Pollux good at boxing,
The life-giving earth covers them both, alive,
and even beneath the earth they have honor from Zeus,
every other day they live, on the other day they die,
and they've been granted honor equal to the gods.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.305  “After her I beheld Iphimedea, the spouse of Aloeus,
who used to say she'd mixed with Poseidon,
and she'd given birth to two sons, but they were short-lived,
godlike Otus and far-famed Ephialtes,
whom the grain-giving earth bred tallest

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.310  and handsomest by far after only famed Orion.
For at nine years old, they were at least nine cubits wide,
then they became at least nine fathoms tall.
They threatened even the immortals on Olympus,
that they'd cause the combat of impetuous war.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.315  They meant to put Ossa on top of Olympus,
then trembling-leaved Pelion on Ossa, so heaven could be scaled.
And they'd surely have done it, if they'd reached the full measure
of manhood, but the son of Zeus, whom fair-haired Leto bore,
destroyed them both, before whiskers bloomed

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.320  beneath their temples and covered their chins with budding down.
“I saw Phaedra and Procris and beautiful Ariadne,
the daughter of malevolent Minos, she whom Theseus brought
from Crete to the hill of sacred Athens once upon a time,
but had no joy of her before Artemis killed her

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.325  on sea-girt Dia, on the testimony of Dionysus.
“I saw Maera and Clymene and loathsome Eriphyle,
who accepted precious gold for her beloved husband's life.
I couldn't name or tell the story of them all,
all the heroes' wives and daughters that I saw,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.330  before immortal night would wane. But it's now time
to sleep, either at my swift ship, going to my comrades,
or here where I am. My convoy is up to you and to the gods.”
So said he, and all became silent in silence,
spellbound throughout the shadowy hall.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.335  White-armed Arete was the first of them to speak:
“Paeacians, how does this man appear to you,
in shape and stature and balanced mind inside him?
He's my guest-friend, but each of you shares in the honor.
Don't send him off in haste, or stint on gifts

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.340  to one so much in need, for much property
is laid up in your palaces by the will of the gods.”
An old man also spoke among them, the hero Echeneus,
who was long an elder of Phaeacian men:
“Friends, certainly our prudent queen speaks

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.345  neither off the mark nor short of expectation, so obey her.
But from here on word and deed depend on Alcinous.”
Alcinous in turn replied to him and said:
“This word will be so, as long as
I'm living and rule the oar-loving Phaeacians.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.350  Let the guest be patient, though he very much longs for his return,
to wait until tomorrow, until I can complete
the whole gift. His convoy is a matter for all men,
especially for me, for the power in this kingdom is mine.”
Adroit Odysseus said to him in reply:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.355  “Your majesty Alcinous, most exalted of all men,
If you ordered me to stay here even for a year,
and urged a convoy and gave splendid gifts,
I'd even prefer that, and it would be much better,
to reach my fatherland with fuller hands,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.360  and I'd be more revered and welcome to all men
who saw me coming home to Ithaca.”
Alcinous in turn replied to him and said:
Odysseus, looking at you, we in no way think
that you're deceptive or dissembling, such as many

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.365  that the dark earth breeds, men spread all about,
who make up lies from what no one can see.
But the grace of words is upon you, and a good heart in you,
and you've told your story skillfully, as when a singer does,
the wretched woes of yourself and all the Argives.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.370  But come, tell me this and recount it exactly,
whether you saw any of your godlike comrades, who followed
along with you to Ilium and met their fate there.
This night is very long, marvelously long, and it's not yet
the hour to sleep in my palace. Keep telling me of wondrous deeds.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.375  I'd even stay up until divine dawn, if in my hall
you'd bring yourself to tell me the story of your sorrows.”
Adroit Odysseus said to him in reply:
“Your majesty Alcinous, most exalted of all men,
there's time for many stories, and time for sleep, too.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.380  If you still desire to listen, I wouldn't begrudge
telling you of things even more piteous than these,
the troubles of my comrades, who perished afterwards,
who escaped the Trojans' woeful battle cry,
but were destroyed on their return by an evil woman's will.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.385  “Then after pure Persephone scattered the souls
of the female women to one place and another,
the soul of Atreides Agamemnon came near,
in grief. Others gathered around him, all who'd died
with him and met their fate in Aegisthus' house.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.390  He knew me immediately, after he drank the dark blood.
He was weeping loudly, and shedding thick tears,
and he spread out his hands toward me, eager to reach me.
But he no longer had any strength or sinew
as there was before in his supple limbs.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.395  I wept when I saw him, felt pity in my heart,
and, voicing winged words, said to him:
'Most glorious Atreides, lord of men Agamemnon,
what doom of death that brings long woe has tamed you?
Did Poseidon tame you on your ship

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.400  by raising the miserable blast of grievous winds,
or did hostile men harm you on dry land
as you cut out for yourself cattle and fine flocks of sheep
or as you battled over a city and women?'
“So said I, and he immediately in answer said to me:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.405  'Zeus-born Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus,
neither did Poseidon tame me on my ship
by raising the miserable blast of grievous winds,
nor did hostile men harm me on dry land,
but Aegisthus made death and doom for me,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.410  killed me with the help of my ruinous wife, called me
to his house and made me dinner, as one kills an ox at a trough.
So I died a most pitiful death. The rest of my comrades around me
were killed without hesitation, like white-toothed pigs
in the house of a rich, very powerful man,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.415  at a wedding or a shared meal or a luxurious feast.
You've been present at the slaying of many men,
killed them yourself in single combat and in mighty battle,
but you'd have been most sad at heart to see those things,
how we lay, around full tables and the mixing bowl,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.420  in the hall, and the whole floor ran with blood.
I heard the most pitiful voice of Priam's daughter
Cassandra, whom cunning Clytemnestra killed
beside me. Then, on the ground, I raised my hands
and threw them around the sword as I died, but the dog-eyed one

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.425  turned away, and, though I was on my way to the house of Hades,
she didn't dare close my eyes or shut my mouth with her hands.
So nothing else is more dreadful or more dog-like than a woman
who contrives such actions with her mind,
just as that one devised her disgraceful deed,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.430  and made murder for her wedded husband. Indeed, I thought
I'd come home welcomed by my children
and my slaves, but she intended exceptional malice
and poured shame on herself and on females, on women
yet to be, even one who may be honorable.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.435  “So said he, then I said to him in answer:
'Ah yes, very surely far-seeing Zeus has strongly hated
the race of Atreus from the beginning, because of
women's designs. Many of us perished on account of Helen,
and Clytemnestra devised a trap for you when you were far away.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.440  “So said I, and he immediately in answer said to me:
'So, you, too, never be gentle, even to your wife,
or declare to her each and every thought you might know well,
but tell her some and let the rest be hidden.
But, you, Odysseus, won't have murder from your wife,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.445  for Icarius' daughter, prudent Penelope,
has exceedingly good sense and good intentions in her mind.
Indeed, we left her a young bride
when we went to war, and she had a child at her breast,
a boy, who now no doubt sits numbered among men,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.450  happy, for his dear father will see him when he comes,
and he'll embrace his father, as is right.
But that one, my wife, didn't let my eyes be filled
by my son, but she murdered me, even me, beforehand.
I'll tell you something else, and, you, put it in your mind.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.455  Take your ship to your beloved fatherland
secretly, not openly, since there's faithfulness in women no more.
But come, tell me this and recount it exactly,
if you've heard somewhere that my son's still alive,
perhaps in Orchomenus, or sandy Pylos,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.460  or maybe in wide Sparta at Menelaus' side,
for divine Orestes has not yet died on earth.'
“So said he, then I said to him in answer:
'Atreides, why do you ask me this? I don't know at all
whether he's dead or alive. It's bad to talk like empty wind.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.465  “So we sat taking turns with dreadful words,
in grief, shedding thick tears.
Then the soul of Peleides Achilles came near,
and of Patroclus and noble Antilochus,
and of Ajax, who was best in form and figure

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.470  of the other Danaans after Peleion.
The soul of fleet-footed Aeacides knew me,
and spoke winged words to me in lamentation:
'Zeus-born Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus,
you reckless one, what still greater deed will your mind devise?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.475  How dared you come down to Hades' house, where
the numb dead live, phantoms of exhausted mortals?'
“So said he, and I said to him in answer:
'Achilles, son of Peleus, by far mightiest of Achaeans,
I came on business with Teiresias, in hope he'd speak

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.480  some plan, by which I might reach rocky Ithaca.
For I never came near Achaean land, or ever set foot
on my own, but always had sorrow. But no man,
before or after, is more blessed than you, Achilles,
for we Argives valued you alive as equal to the gods,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.485  and you now again wield great power, among the dead,
since you're here. So don't at all be sorry that you're dead, Achilles.'
“So said I, and he immediately in answer said to me:
'Don't console me about death, brilliant Odysseus.
I'd rather be a hired farmhand, slaving for another,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.490  for a landless man who hasn't much substance,
than rule all the dead who've perished.
But come, tell me word of my illustrious son,
whether he went to war to be a chief or not.
Tell me of noble Peleus, if you've found anything out,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.495  whether he still has honor among all the Myrmidons
or whether they dishonor him thoughout Hellas and Phthia
because old age holds back his hands and feet,
for I'm not his protector under the bright light of the sun,
as I was when, once upon a time, in wide Troy,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.500  I slew the best men to protect the Argives.
If only I could come like that to my father's house, even for a while,
in that case I'd make my fury and invincible hands bitter
to anyone who did him violence or barred him from his honor.'
“So said he, then I said to him in answer:

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.505  'In truth, I've found out nothing about noble Peleus,
but of your dear son Neoptolemus
I'll tell you the whole truth, as you bid me,
for I myself brought him on my balanced hollow ship
from Scyrus to the well-greaved Achaeans.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.510  In truth, when we considered counsels around the Trojan city,
he was always first to speak and did not miss with his words.
Only godlike Nestor and I bested him.
But whenever we Achaeans fought on the Trojan plain,
he never stayed in the crowd or in the throng of men,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.515  but ran far forward and yielded to no one in his fury.
He slew many men in the dread hostilities.
I could not tell about or name them all,
he slew so many to protect the Argives,
but what a one was that Telephides whom he killed with the bronze,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.520  the hero Eurypylos! Many of his comrades, the Ceteians,
died about him because of gifts made to a woman.
He was the handsomest I ever saw after divine Memnon.
Then when we, the best of the Argives, went into the horse
that Epeius made, and all was laid upon me,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.525  both to open and to close our close-packed ambush,
then the other Danaan leaders and commanders
wiped away their tears, and each one's limbs trembled under him,
but my eyes never ever saw
his fair complexion pale or him wipe tears

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.530  from his cheeks. He many times implored me
to let him leave the horse, as he clutched his sword hilt
and his spear heavy with bronze, bent on evil for the Trojans.
But when we sacked Priam's lofty city,
he boarded his ship with his portion and a good prize,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.535  unscathed, neither struck by sharp bronze
nor wounded in hand-to-hand fighting, as so often
happens in war, as Ares rages indiscriminately.'
“So said I, and the soul of fleet-footed Aeacides
went with long strides through the asphodel meadow,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.540  joyous that I'd said his son was outstanding.
“The other souls of the dead who'd died
stood grieving, and each told of its troubles.
Only the soul of Ajax Telamoniades
kept away, angry because of the victory

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.545  I won over him, when I sought judgment by the ships
for Achilles' armor. His lady mother set it as a prize.
The sons of the Trojans and Pallas Athena decided.
I so wish I hadn't won in such a contest,
for the earth covered such a head because of it,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.550  Ajax, who surpassed in form and surpassed in deeds
the rest of the Danaans after noble Peleion.
I spoke to him with words meant to win him:
'Ajax, son of noble Telamon, weren't you, even in death,
going to forget your anger toward me because of the ruinous

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.555  armor? The gods gave this as a misery to the Argives,
that such a tower for them as you perished, and we Achaeans
grieve ceaselessly for you as much as for the head of dead
Peleides Achilles. And no one else is to blame
but Zeus, who hated the army of Danaan spearmen

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.560  terribly, and laid doom upon you.
But come here, lord, so you can hear our word and speech.
Tame your manly spirit and your fury.'
“So said I, but he answered me nothing, and went
with the other souls of the dead who'd died to Erebus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.565  There, though angry, he would have spoken to me, or I to him,
but my heart in my dear chest wanted
to see the souls of others who had died.
“Then I indeed saw Minos, splendid son of Zeus,
holding a golden scepter, seated and giving judgment

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.570  to the dead, who sought judgments from the lord, as they
sat and stood about him throughout the wide-gated house of Hades.
“After him I looked at monstrous Orion
herding wild beasts together through the asphodel meadow,
ones he'd killed himself in the lonely mountains,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.575  holding in his hands a club of solid bronze, ever unbroken.
“I also saw Tityus, Gaea's most glorious son,
lying on the ground. He sprawled over nine acres,
and two vultures, one on each side, sat and tore at his liver
and dove into his bowels, and he couldn't repel them with his hands.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.580  For he'd assaulted Leto, Zeus's glorious spouse,
as she went to Pytho through fine-lawned Panopeus.
“I even beheld one who had hard sorrows, Tantalus,
standing in a pool that dashed against his chin.
He thirsted and tried to drink, but had nothing to take,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.585  for as often as the old man bent and meant to drink,
that often the water was swallowed up and vanished, and about his feet
dark earth appeared, and a divine one dried it up.
Trees, lofty and leafy, poured fruit down on his head,
splendid-fruited pear, pomegranate, and apple,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.590  sweet fig, and luxuriant olive.
Whenever the old man straightened to touch them with his hands,
the wind cast them to the shadowy clouds.
“I even beheld one who had mighty sorrows, Sisyphus,
raising a monstrous stone with both his hands.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.595  Yes, thrusting with his hands and feet,
he'd push the stone upward toward a hilltop, but when it was
about to go over the top, a mighty force at that time turned it back,
then the shameless stone rolled back down to the ground.
But he'd strain and push it once again, as sweat poured

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.600  from his limbs and dust rose from his head.
“After him I caught sight of mighty Heracles,
a phantom. He himself delights among the gods immortal,
in their festivities, and has for his wife fair-ankled Hebe,
daughter of great Zeus and golden-sandaled Hera.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.605  The clamor of the dead about him was like that of birds
fleeing in every direction in fright. He was like dark night,
holding his naked bow, and an arrow on the bowstring,
glaring dreadfully, like one just about to shoot.
Round about his chest was a horrifying belt,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.610  a golden baldric, where wondrous things were fashioned:
bears, wild boars, and lions with bright eyes,
fights and battles, murders and manslaughters.
Would that he hadn't made it and that he make no other,
he who designed that baldric with his art.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.615  Heracles knew me immediately, when he saw me with his eyes,
and spoke winged words to me in lamentation:
'Zeus-born Laertiades, resourceful Odysseus,
ah, wretched one, do you too endure an evil destiny,
just like the one I suffered beneath the bright light of the sun?

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.620  I was the son of Zeus Cronion, but had immeasurable
misery, for I was made subject to a very much worse man,
who laid hard trials upon me.
He even sent me here once, to fetch the dog, for he thought
there'd never be any trial more difficult than that for me.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.625  I fetched him and brought him up out of Hades,
and Hermes and bright-eyed Athena guided me.'
“So saying, he went back into the house of Hades,
but I stayed in place where I was, in hope that someone
of the hero men, those who'd died before, would still come.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.630  And I would still have seen earlier men, whom I really wanted to,
Thesus and Perithous, glorious children of gods,
but before that countless tribes of dead ones gathered
with an awful sound. Green terror seized me,
lest illustrious Persephone send to me out of Hades

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.635  the head of Gorgon, the dread monster.
Then I went aboard my ship at once and bid my comrades
get aboard themselves and free up the stern cables.
Then they went aboard at once and sat down at the oarlocks,
and the current's wave carried her through river Ocean,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.11.640  rowing first, then afterwards a beautiful fair wind.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.1  BOOK 12
“Then after our ship left river Ocean's current,
it reached the waves of the wide-wayed sea
and the island of Aeaea, where early-born Dawn's
house and dancing places and Helios' risings are.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.5  We beached the ship on the sand when we got there,
and went ashore ourselves at the edge of sea's surf.
Falling asleep there, we awaited divine Dawn.
“When early-born rose-fingered Dawn appeared,
I sent my comrades then to Circe's home,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.10  to bring the corpse, Elpenor, dead.
At once cutting timber, where the beach jutted farthest,
we held his rites in grief, shedding tears profusely.
Then when the corpse and corpse's trappings burned,
we heaped a burial mound, dragged a tombstone on it,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.15  and at the mound's top stuck a well-made oar.
“While we went about our business, Circe was not unaware
that we'd come back from Hades, but very quickly
came, adorned, and her handmaids brought with her
food, much meat, and sparkling red wine.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.20  The goddess divine stood in our midst and said:
'You reckless ones, who entered Hades' home alive,
you're twice to die, when other men die once!
But come, eat food and drink wine
here all day. When Dawn appears

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.25  you'll sail. I'll show the way and specify each thing,
so you won't in any way, through a woefully bad plan,
suffer misery and pain on either land or sea.'
“So said she, and our manly spirit yielded in turn.
So then all day until the sun went down,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.30  we sat feasting on boundless meat and sweet wine.
When the sun went down and dusk came on,
while my men lay down to sleep beside the ship's stern cables,
she took me by the hand, sat me down apart from my dear comrades,
lay beside me, and asked about each thing.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.35  Then I duly recounted everything for her.
And right then lady Circe spoke these words to me:
'All this has been accomplished in this way, but listen,
as I'll tell you, and a god himself will remind you, too.
You'll first come to the Sirens, who enchant

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.40  all men that come upon them.
Whoever comes in ignorance and hears the Sirens' voice,
his wife and little children don't ever stand beside him
or rejoice when he comes home,
but the Sirens enchant him with their clear song,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.45  as they sit in a meadow, a big pile of bones about them,
of rotting men, skin shriveling around them.
So drive on past them. Knead honey-sweet wax
and anoint your comrades' ears, lest any of the others
hear, but you listen if you'd like to.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.50  Have them tie you on the swift ship by your hands and feet,
upright in the mast step, and let ropes be fastened from it,
so you can hear, and enjoy, the Sirens' voice.
If you beg and bid your comrades free you,
let them bind you then in more bonds.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.55  'Then after your comrades have driven past them,
I'll no longer tell you distinctly there and then
which way of two you'll take, but you yourself
must think it over in your mind, and I'll tell you about both.
For one way, there are overhanging rocks, and against them

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.60  the great wave of dark-eyed Amphitrite clashes with a roar.
The blessed gods call them the Planctae.
Not even winged things pass by there, not even the timid doves
that carry ambrosia to father Zeus,
but the smooth rock always snatches even one of them away,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.65  then our father sends in another to keep the count complete.
No ship of men has ever escaped there, any one that's come there,
but waves of sea and storms of destructive fire
carry ships' planks and men's bodies off together.
The only seafaring ship that ever passed that place

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.70  was the Argo, known to all, sailing from Aeates,
and waves would have swiftly thrown even her against the great rocks,
but Hera guided her past them, since Jason was dear to her.
'The other way are two cliffs. One reaches wide heaven
with its sharp peak, and dark cloud surrounds it

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.75  and never streams off it, and clear air never
holds its peak in either summer or harvest time.
And no mortal man could climb it or step upon its top,
not even if he had twenty hands and feet,
for the rock is smooth, as though highly polished.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.80  In the middle of the cliff is a misty cave,
turned toward the west, to Erebus, right where you'll be steering
your hollow ship along, brilliant Odysseus.
Not even a lusty man could shoot an arrow with a bow
from his hollow ship and reach into the hollow cave.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.85  Scylla lives in there, howling terribly.
Her voice is as loud as a newborn puppy's,
but she herself is nonetheless an evil monster, and no one
would rejoice in seeing her, not even if a god should meet her.
She has twelve feet, that all wave around,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.90  and six very long necks, and on each one
a horrible head, three rows of teeth in it,
densely packed and close together, full of black death.
Her middle extends down into the hollow cave,
but she sticks her heads out from the dread pit,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.95  and fishes from it, seeking about the cliff
for dogfish and dolphins, and in hope she might catch a bigger
sea beast, those that much-moaning Amphitrite breeds countlessly.
Sailors never ever boast they pass her by unharmed
with their ships, but with each head she carries off a man

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.100  she's snatched out of a dark-prowed ship.
'You'll see, Odysseus, the other cliff is closer to the ground.
They're near each other. You could even shoot an arrow between them.
There's a big fig tree on it, lush with leaves.
Below it divine Charybdis swallows down black water.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.105  Three times a day she throws up, three times she swallows
down dreadfully. May you not happen there when she swallows,
for not even the Earth-shaker could save you from that evil!
So, stay very close to Scylla's cliff and quickly
drive your ship past it, since it's much better

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.110  to miss six comrades on your ship than all of them together.'
“So said she, then I said to her in answer:
'Come, goddess, if you can tell me this infallibly,
if somehow I can stay out of the reach of baneful Charybdis
but ward off Scylla when she assails my comrades.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.115  “So said I, and the goddess divine immediately answered:
'Reckless one, even now your mind is on warlike deeds
and hard work. Won't you yield to gods immortal?
She's not mortal, but is an immortal evil,
dread, horrifying, savage, and not to be battled.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.120  And there's no defense. To flee from her is best.
For should you linger and arm yourself beside the rock,
I'm afraid she'll attack again, and reach you
with just as many heads, and snatch off just as many men.
So drive very forcefully, and call for help to Crataeis,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.125  Scylla's mother, who bore her as a misery for mortals.
She'll then keep Scylla from attacking again.
'You'll reach the island of Thrinacia. Many cows
and fat sheep of the sun feed there,
seven herds of cattle, and as many fine flocks of sheep,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.130  fifty in each. Young are not born of them,
nor do they waste away. Goddesses are their shepherds,
the fair-haired nymphs Phaethusa and Lampetia,
whom divine Neara bore to the sun, Hyperion.
Their lady mother bore and raised them

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.135  and sent them off to the island of Thrinacia, to live far away
and guard the sheep and curved-horned cattle of their father.
If you keep your mind on your return and leave them unharmed,
you may surely yet reach Ithaca, though you suffer evils,
but if you harm them, I predict destruction for you then,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.140  for your ship and for your comrades. Even if you yourself avoid it,
you'll get home evilly late, having lost all your comrades.'
“So said she, and golden-throned Dawn immediately came.
The goddess divine then departed up the island.
Then I went aboard my ship and urged my comrades

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.145  get aboard themselves and free up the stern cables.
Then they went aboard at once and sat down at the oarlocks,
and, seated in rows, beat the gray sea with their oars.
For us, back behind our dark-prowed ship,
a favorable, sail-filling, fair wind, a good companion,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.150  the dread goddess with human speech, fair-haired Circe, sent.
We saw at once to each piece of gear throughout the ship,
then sat, and the wind and pilot steered her.
Then, my heart grieving, I said to my comrades:
'Friends, since it's not right that one or even two alone

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.155  know the awful things that the goddess divine Circe told me,
I'll tell of them instead, so we can either die
with knowledge or escape doom and avoid death.
She orders us first to avoid the wondrous Sirens'
voice and flowered meadow.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.160  She orders that I only hear their voice. So tie me
in grievous bonds, that I may remain in place where I am,
upright on the mast step, and let ropes be fastened from it.
If I beg and bid you free me,
you must secure me tightly then in more bonds.'

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.165  “I spoke of and made known each thing to my comrades
while our well-built ship quickly reached
the Sirens' island, for a harmless fair wind drove her on.
The wind stopped soon after, and a windless calm
followed, and a divinity lulled the waves to sleep.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.170  My comrades stood up and furled the sail,
stowed it in the hollow ship, then sat down at the oars
and made the water white with polished pines.
Then I cut through a big round cake of wax
and kneaded a little bit of it in my well-knit hands.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.175  The wax soon melted, since the sun's mighty force
and the bright light of lord Hyperionides compelled it,
and I rubbed it on the ears of all my comrades, one after another.
They bound me on the ship, my hands and feet together,
upright in the mast step, and fastened ropes from it,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.180  then they themselves sat and beat the gray sea with their oars.
But when I was as far away as one shouting can be heard,
quickly making way, the Sirens did not miss our sea-swift ship
drawing near and prepared their clear-toned song.
'Come here, much-praised Odysseus, great glory of Achaeans,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.185  and land your ship so you can hear our voice.
For no one ever passes by here with a black ship
before he hears the honey-toned voice from our mouths,
then after he enjoys it, he departs, knowing more,
since we know everything, all that in wide Troy

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.190  Argives and Trojans suffered by the will of the gods.
And we know whatever happens on the earth that feeds many.'
“So said they as they cast their beautiful voice. Then my heart
wished to hear them and I bid my comrades free me,
by nodding with my eyebrows, but they fell forward and rowed.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.195  Eurylochus and Perimedes stood up at once,
bound me in more bonds, and squeezed them tighter.
Then after they'd driven past them and we could then
no longer hear the Sirens' voice or song,
my trusty comrades immediately removed the wax

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.200  I'd rubbed upon their ears and released me from my bonds.
“But when we'd left the island, soon afterward,
I saw smoke and a great wave and heard a thud.
Oars flew from the hands of the terrified
and all then banged against the current. Our ship was held there,

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.205  where it was, since they no longer pressed on tapered oars with hands.
Then I went throughout the ship, and, going to each man,
spurred on my comrades with words meant to win them:
'Friends, since we've never been ignorant in any way of evils,
this now is no greater evil than when the Cyclops

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.210  penned us in his hollow cave with mighty violence.
But even as we escaped from there, by my excellence, plan,
and mind, I think we'll also remember this someday.
But come now, let's all obey as I may say.
Sit at the oarlocks and beat the deep surf of the sea

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.215  with oars, in hope that somehow Zeus will grant
that we avoid and escape this destruction.
Steersman, this I order you, so stow it in your heart,
since you control the steering oar of our hollow ship.
Keep our ship at a distance from this smoke and wave

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ OD.12.220  and head for the cliff, lest you miss her veering
off course over there and cast us into evil.'
“So said I, and they quickly obeyed my commands.
I had not yet told of Scylla, a danger that couldn't be helped,
lest my comrades somehow be frightened, leave off