Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses

The Metamorphoses of Antoninus Liberalis, translated by Francis Celoria (Routledge 1992), still in copyright, permission requested from the publishers. This text has 186 tagged references to 104 ancient places.
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§ 1  CTESYLLA: Nicander tells this tale in the third book of his Metamorphoses. Ctesylla, born on the island of Ceos, was daughter of Alcidamas and came from a family at Iulis. At the Pythian feast Hermochares the Athenian saw her dancing round the altar of Apollo at Carthaea and fell in love with her. He wrote on an apple and threw it inside the sanctuary of Artemis. Ctesylla picked it up and read out what was on it. Written on it was an oath: 'Yes, by Artemis, 1 will marry Hermochares the Athenian.' Ctesylla then hurled away the apple, blushing, badly upset at being tricked as Acontius had tricked Cydippe. Hermochares went to her father for her hand and received approval for the marriage. Her father swore an oath to Apollo about this, grasping a laurel tree. But after the period of the Pythian feast was over, Alcidamas forgot the oath he had sworn and betrothed his daughter to someone else. The girl was already taking part in prenuptial sacrifices in the temple of Artemis. Angry at being thwarted of his marriage, Hermochares raced to the Artemisium. Seeing him, the girl fell in love with him, as was divinely intended. With the help of her nurse she came to an understanding with him and, evading her father, sailed off by night to Athens where she married Hermochares. When Ctesylla gave birth to a child, she badly miscarried — by divine will — and died because her father had been false to his oath about her. They took her body and carried it away to prepare it for burial. But a dove flew up from the bier and the body of Ctesylla disappeared. Hermochares went to consult the oracle and the god declared that he should set up at Iulis a temple in the name of Ctesylla. He also enjoined the same to the people of Ceos. To this day the people of Iulis offer sacrifices, addressing her as Aphrodite Ctesylla, while others call her Ctesylla Hecaerge.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 2  THE MELEAGRIDES: Nicander tells this tale in the third book of his Metamorphoses. Oineus, son of Portheus the son of Ares, was king of Calydon. His wife Althaea, daughter of Thestius, gave him as sons Meleager, Phereus, Ageleos, Toxeus, Clymenus and Periphas, and as daughters, Gorge, Eurymede, Deianira and Melanippe. Once, when he was sacrificing first-fruits on behalf of his country, he forgot about Artemis. In her anger she set on them a savage boar that ravaged the land, slaying many. Then Meleager and the sons of Thestius assembled the flower of Greece against the boar. They arrived and slew the beast. Meleager assigned the flesh of the boar to the heroes, keeping the head and the hide as his privilege. Because they had slain a boar sacred to her, Artemis was even more angry and inflicted discord among them. So the sons of Thestius and the other Curetes seized the hide declaring that it was the half-share of the perquisites due to them. Meleager took it away from them forcibly and killed the sons of Thestius. Because of this war arose between the Curetes and the Calydonians. But Meleager did not go out to war, full of reproaches because his mother had put a curse on him for the killing of her brothers. By this time the Curetes were just on the point of capturing the city when Cleopatra, his wife, persuaded Meleager to defend the Calydonians. He rose up against the army of the Curetes and himself died because his mother had burnt the brand which had been given to her by the Fates. For they had assigned him a stretch of life to last only as long as the brand. The other sons of Oineus also died in battle. A great sorrow came upon the Calydonians because of Meleager. His sisters mourned continually at his tomb until Artemis touched them with her wand and changed them into birds which she settled on the isle of Leros, calling them Meleagrides. It is said that up to now they make mourning for Meleager when the due season of the year comes. Two of the daughters of Althaea, Gorge and Deianira, were not changed, it is said, by the good will of Dionysus because Artemis granted this favour.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 3  HIERAX: In the land of the Mariandyni lived Hierax, a man of justice and distinction. He set up temples to Demeter and received plenteous harvests from her. But when the Teucrians omitted neglectfully to make sacrifices to Poseidon at the due season, the god became angry and destroyed the crops of the goddess. And he set on them a prodigious monster that came out of the sea. Unable to endure the monster and the famine, the Teucrians sent a message to Hierax begging him to save them from the famine. He sent them barley as well as wheat and other foods. Poseidon, infuriated with Hierax for doing away with his prerogatives, turned him into a bird which to this day is called the hierax [hawk]. In making him disappear he also changed his character. He who had been greatly loved by mankind was made most hateful to birds. He who had saved many of mankind from death was turned into a slaughterer of many a bird.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 4  CRAGALEUS: Nicander tells this tale in the first book of his Metamorphoses, as does Athanadas in his Ambracica. Cragaleus, son of Dryops, lived in the land of Dryopis near the Baths of Heracles which, tellers of myths say, Heracles caused to well up when he struck the mountain's table-top with his club. This Cragaleus was at this time already an old man and was considered by his countrymen to be just and wise. While he was pasturing his cattle, Apollo, Artemis and Heracles introduced themselves to him since they wanted a decision about Ambracia in Epirus. Apollo said that the city belonged to him because Melaneus — his son — had become king of the Dryopes having taken in war the whole of Epirus. Melaneus had as sons Eurytus and Ambracias, after whom the city of Ambracia is named. Apollo himself had shown great favour to this city. At his behest the Sisyphides had arrived to help the Ambracians win the war they had started against the Epirotes. It was because of his oracular answers that Gorgus, brother of Cypselus, led a settlement of colonists from Corinth to Ambracia. Also, because of his oracles the Ambraciotes arose against Phalaecus, tyrant of the city. And as a result of this, Phalaecus lost many of his men. On the whole, though Apollo had many a time stirred up intestinal war, discord and factions in the city, he had also, in contrast, created order, law and justice, for which to this day he was lauded by Ambracians as the Pythian Saviour in feasts and ceremonies. Artemis on her part was for keeping her dispute with Apollo within bounds, but claimed that she had acquired Ambracia with his consent. She wanted to have the city on the following argument. When Phalaecus had ruled as tyrant over the city, no one could kill him because they feared him. But it was she who one day made a lion cub appear before Phalaecus when he was hunting. The moment he took it up into his hands, its mother raced out of the forest, fell on him and ripped open his chest. The Ambraciotes, having escaped his enslavement, made expiatory offerings to her as Artemis the Queen and set up an image of the Huntress by which they placed a bronze statue of the animal. Heracles in his turn put forward the argument that Ambracia and the whole of Epirus belonged to him. All the peoples that had made war with him, Celts, Chaonians, Thesprotians and all the Epirotes, had been defeated by him after they had formed an alliance to steal the cattle of Geryon. Some time after, a settlement of colonists from Corinth had expelled the original settlers and founded Ambracia. All the Corinthians are descended from Heracles. Cragaleus heard these arguments through to the end and recognized that the city belonged to Heracles. Apollo became enraged, touched Cragaleus with his hand and turned him into a stone where he stood. The Ambraciotes sacrifice to Apollo as the Saviour, but they have acknowledged that the city was that of Heracles and his sons. To this day they make sacrifices to Cragaleus after the feast of Heracles.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 5  AEGYPIUS: Antheus, son of Nomion, had a son Aegypius, who lived on the furthermost borders of Thessaly. The gods loved him for his piety and mortals because he was generous and just. When he saw Timandre he fell in love with her. Learning that she was a widow with no man in her life, he won her over with money and visited her house regularly to make love. Neophron, son of Timandre, disapproved of this affair — he was the same age as Aegypius — and devised a trap for him. Offering many presents to Bulis the mother of Aegypius, he seduced her and took her home to sleep with him. He had learned in advance at what hour Aegypius was accustomed to visit Timandre and found a pretext for keeping his own mother away from her house. In her place he brought into the house the mother of Aegypius, saying that he would return to her later, deceiving both. Aegypius, having no inkling of what Neophron was plotting against him, had intercourse with his mother, thinking she was Timandre. When sleep overcame him, Bulis recognized her own son. She picked up a sword and was about to put out his eyes and then to kill herself when, by the will of Apollo, sleep let go its hold on Aegypius. Realizing what Neophron had plotted against him, he looked up to heaven and prayed that he should vanish — and all with him. Zeus turned them into birds. Aegypius and Neophron became vultures, each under the same name but different in size and colour. Neophron became the smaller kind of vulture. Bulis became a heron and Zeus ordained that she was to eat nothing that grew out the ground and instead to feed on the eyes of fishes, birds and snakes, since she had been about to put out the eyes of her son Aegypius. Timandre he turned into a tit. And henceforth these birds never appeared together in the same spot.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 6  PERIPHAS: There was once in Attica a certain Periphas, of earth-sprung stock, who lived there even before Cecrops, son of Earth, had emerged. He ruled the men of old and was just, rich and pious. He made many sacrifices to Apollo and numerous were his fair judgments. No one could reproach him with anything. His leadership was willingly accepted by all. Because of the pre-eminence of his good works, men took away honours due to Zeus and decided that they belonged to Periphas. They set up shrines and temples to him and addressed him by the name of Zeus the Saviour, the Overlooker of All and the Gracious. Zeus, indignant, wanted to incinerate the entire household of Periphas with a thunderbolt, but Apollo asked that he should not be utterly annihilated since he had been assiduously honoured by Periphas. This Zeus granted to Apollo and he went on to the house of Periphas and came upon him when he was making love to his wife. He pressed both hands on him and turned him into a bird, an eagle. His wife asked Zeus to turn her into a bird too so that she would be a companion for Periphas. So he turned her into a vulture. Zeus granted Periphas certain honours for the piety he had shown when he was human. He made him king of all birds and gave him the task of guarding his sacred sceptre, together with the right of approaching his throne. To the wife of Periphas, whom he had turned into a vulture, he granted the privilege of being a sign of good omen in all the affairs of mankind.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 7  ANTHUS: Boeus tells this tale in the first book of his Origins of Birds. Autonous, son of Melaneus and Hippodamia, had as sons Erodius, Anthus, Schoeneus and Acanthus, with a daughter Acanthis to whom the gods granted great beauty. Autonous acquired many herds of horses which were pastured by his wife Hippodamia and their children. Now because he neglected husbandry, no crops were produced by the extensive lands of Autonous which bore only rushes and thistles. For this reason he named his children after such plants: Acanthus, Schoeneus and Acanthis, and his oldest son Erodius, because his lands had been eroded. Erodius was extremely fond of these herds of horses which he pastured in the meadows. When Anthus, son of Autonous, drove the mares out of the meadows, keeping them out from their pastures, they were infuriated and set upon Anthus. They began to devour him as he uttered many a cry to the gods to save him. Now his father, panic-stricken through distress, faltered — as did the servant of the youth — and failed to drive off the mares. The mother went on battling with the mares, but because of weakness of body was unable to do anything to avert the slaughter. While these people were bewailing Anthus who was hardly dead, Zeus and Apollo felt pity for them and turned them all into birds. Autonous was made a quail because, though father of Anthus, he had quailed at driving off the horses. The mother was turned into a lark with a crested head because she had headed for the mares to fight for her son against them. They turned Anthus himself, as well as Erodius, Schoeneus, Acanthus and Acanthyllis into birds called by the same names as they had before they were metamorphosed. They turned the servant who had attended Anthus into a heron [erodios] — the same as happened to Erodius the brother of the lad, Anthus — but not the same sort of heron. For it is distinguishably smaller than the dark variety. Now this heron does not associate with the anthus bird just as the anthus bird does not associate with horses, because Anthus had suffered so much from horses. To this day when it hears a horse neigh, this bird flies away while imitating its cries.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 8  LAMIA or SYBARIS Boeus [?] tells this tale in the fourth book of his Origins of Birds. By the foothills of Parnassus, towards the south, there is a mountain called Cirphis, lying near Crisa. Inside it there is to this day a huge cave in which lived a great and prodigious beast. Some called it Lamia, though others called it Sybaris. Every day this monster would issue forth, snatching flocks in the fields, as well as people. The inhabitants of Delphi had for some time been considering emigration and they asked the oracle to what land they should emigrate. The god told them that they would be delivered from this menace if they remained and were willing to abandon by the cave a youth chosen from the citizens. They did as the god told them. By lot Alcyoneus, son of Diomus and Meganira, was chosen. Only son of his father, he possessed beauty in both appearance and the nature of his character. The priests crowned Alcyoneus and led him towards the cave of Sybaris. By divine inspiration, Eurybarus son of Euphemus, a descendant of the River Axius, a young man but brave, happened to be coming from Curetis and encountered the youth as he was being led forward. Stricken by love for him, and asking why they were so proceeding, he thought it dreadful not to defend him to the utmost and just allow the youth to perish wretchedly. Tearing off the chaplets from Alcyoneus, he placed them on his own head and gave orders that he himself should be led forward instead of the youth. As soon as the priests had led him up to the cavern, he ran in and hauled out Sybaris from her lair, carrying her into the open and hurling her from the crags. Tumbling down, she struck her head against the footings of Crisa. Because of this wound she faded from sight. From that rock sprang a fountain and the locals call it Sybaris. And the Locrians founded a city in Italy, called Sybaris after her.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 9  EMATHIDES: Nicander tells this tale in the fourth book of his Metamorphoses. Zeus made love to Mnemosyne in Pieria and became father of the Muses. Around about that time Pierus was king of Emathia, sprung from its very soil. He had nine daughters. They were the ones who formed a choir in opposition to the Muses. And there was a musical contest on Helicon. Whenever the daughters of Pierus began to sing, all creation went dark and no one would give an ear to their choral performance. But when the Muses sang, heaven, the stars, the sea and rivers stood still, while Mount Helicon, beguiled by the pleasure of it all, swelled skywards till, by the will of Poseidon, Pegasus checked it by striking the summit with his hoof. Since these mortals had taken upon themselves to strive with goddesses, the Muses changed them into nine birds. To this day people refer to them as the grebe, the wryneck, the ortolan, the jay, the greenfinch, the goldfinch, the duck, the woodpecker and the dracontis pigeon.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 10  MINYADES: Nicander tells this tale in the fourth book of his Metamorphoses, as does Comma. The daughters of Minyas, son of Orchomenus, were Leucippe, Arsippe and Alcathoe. They turned out to be startlingly diligent. They strongly criticized other women because they abandoned the city to go as Bacchantes in the hills, until Dionysus took on the likeness of a girl and urged the Minyades not to miss out on the rites or mysteries of the god. But they paid no heed to him. At this — not surprisingly — Dionysus was angered and instead of a girl became a bull, then a lion, then a leopard. From the beams of their looms there flowed for him milk and nectar. At these portents terror gripped the maidens. Without delay the three threw lots into a pot and shook it. The lot fell to Leucippe and she vowed to offer as a sacrifice to the god her own son Hippasus whom she tore to pieces with the help of her sisters. Abandoning their paternal home, they went as Bacchantes in the mountains, browsing on ivy, honeysuckle and laurel, until Hermes touched them with his wand and changed them into flying creatures. One of them became a bat, another an owl and the third an eagle owl. And all three continuously avoided the light of the sun.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 11  AEDON or NIGHTINGALE: Boeus tells this tale in his Origins of Birds. Pandareos dwelt in the territories of Ephesus, on the craggy headland next to the city. To him Demeter did grant the gift of never feeling full in the stomach after eating, whatever quantity he might take in. Pandareos had a daughter called Aedon. Polytechnus the carpenter, who lived at Colophon in Lydia, married her. For a long time their life together was a delight for them. They had an only child, Itys. While they honoured the gods they were happy, but one day they blurted out the needless remark that they loved each other more than did Hera and Zeus. Hera found what was said to be insupportable and sent Discord between them to create strife in their activities. Polytechnus was on the point of finishing off a standing board for a chariot and Aedon of completing the web she was weaving. They agreed that whoever of the two would finish the task more quickly would hand over a female servant to the other. Aedon was the quicker in finishing off her web (Hera had helped her in the task). Polytechnus was infuriated by the victory of Aedon and went to Pandareos pretending that he had been sent by Aedon to fetch her sister, Chelidon, Pandareos, suspecting nothing sinister, handed her over to take back with him. Polytechnus, when he had got hold of the girl, used her shamefully in a copse. He then gave her different clothes and cut the hair on her head short, threatening her with death if she should ever mention the incident to Aedon. Returning to his house he handed over her sister to Aedon as a servant, according to the agreement. Aedon ground her down with work until one day Chelidonis, holding her pitcher, made many lamentations at a spring and Aedon overheard what she was saying. After they had recognized each other and embraced, they plotted vengeance against Polytechnus. They chopped up the son of Aedon, put his flesh in a cauldron and cooked it. Then Aedon called on a neighbour of hers to bid Polytechnus feast on the meat. She then went off with her sister to her father Pandareos and described the sorrows they had undergone. When Polytechnus realized that he had eaten the flesh of his son he set off in pursuit of them, to their father's. The servants of Pandareos took hold of him and tied him with inescapable bonds because he had committed such an outrage on the house of Pandareos. They smeared his body with honey and hurled him into a sheepfold. Flies descended and began to do their worst with him. Aedon took pity on him because of their former love and kept the flies off Polytechnus. When her parents and her brother observed what she was doing, they were overcome by a hatred for her and set about killing her. Zeus, before a greater evil should befall the house of Pandareos, took pity on them and turned them all into birds. Some took wing for the sea while others took wing for the sky. Pandareos became a sea eagle and the mother of Aedon a halcyon (kingfisher). They immediately wanted to hurl themselves into the sea, but Zeus prevented this. These birds became propitious for those who sailed the sea. Polytechnus, when he changed, became a woodpecker because Hephaestus had given him an axe for his work as a carpenter. This bird is of good omen for carpenters. The brother of Aedon became a hoopoe, a bird of good omen when it appears, both for sailors as well as for landfarers, especially when in company with the sea eagle and more so if with the halcyon. As to Aedon and Chelidonis, the former mourns her son Itys by streams and in copses while the latter has become by the will of Artemis a sharer of the dwelling places of mankind. For she had forcibly lost her virginity and had made many cries to Artemis for help.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 12  CYCNUS or SWAN: Nicander tells this tale in the third book of his Metamorphoses, as also Areus the Laconian in his Ode to Cycnus. Apollo and Thyrie, daughter of Amphinomus, had a son called Cycnus. He was of fine appearance, but graceless and boorish in character. He was extraordinarily devoted to hunting. He lived in the country between Pleuron and Calydon. There were many who became his lovers because of his beauty. Because of his disdainfulness Cycnus attained understanding with no one. Very soon he came to be thoroughly disliked by his admirers and abandoned by them. Phylius alone stood by him. But Cycnus treated him with immoderate arrogance. At that time there appeared among the Aitolians a great monster of a lion that savaged the inhabitants and their flocks. Cycnus ordered Phylius to kill the lion without using a weapon. He promised to do so and made away with the animal by the following trick. Knowing at what hour the lion was going to go prowling, he filled his stomach with a great deal of food and wine. When the beast came up, Phylius sicked up the food. The lion, hungry, availed himself of this food and was spiked down by the wine. Phylius, throwing his arm round the lion, blocked his maw with the clothing he wore. Having killed the beast, he put it on his shoulders and carried it to Cycnus. He gained wide renown for this achievement. Cycnus then demanded an even stranger feat. There had appeared in this land some vultures, monstrous and enormous. They killed many people. Cycnus ordered him to catch them alive and to bring them to him, by whatever method. Phylius was wondering how he was to achieve this task when, by divine intervention, an eagle that had snatched up a hare let it fall half-dead before it could take it to its eyrie. Phylius tore open the hare, besmeared himself with the blood and lay on the ground. The birds swooped on him as a cadaver. Phylius caught hold of two birds by their legs and, getting a good hold, carried them off to Cycnus. Cycnus then imposed on him an even more difficult feat. He ordered him to carry a bull away from its herd, using only his hands, and to haul it off all the way to the altar of Zeus. Phylius, not knowing how he was to accomplish the task, prayed to Heracles to assist him in this. In answer to this prayer there came into view two bulls, both in rut for a cow; they butted with their horns hurling each other to the ground. When he saw the bulls sprawling helplessly, Phylius caught one by the leg and dragged it off to the altar. Heracles desired him to pay no more attention to the orders of that youth. Cycnus felt fearsomely and unexpectedly disgraced. In his depression he flung himself into the lake called Conope and was seen no more. After his death, his mother, Thyrie, threw herself into the same lake. By the will of Apollo they both became lake birds. After their disappearance, the lake's name was changed and became the Swan Lake. Many swans appear there at ploughing time. The tomb of Phylius stands nearby.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 13  ASPALIS: Zeus and the nymph Othreis had a child, Meliteus. In fear of Hera because of her own intercourse with Zeus, his mother exposed the child in a wood. By the will of Zeus the child was not lost to sight but was fed by bees and began to grow. As he was pasturing his sheep, Phagrus, son of Apollo and Othreis the nymph (the same as the mother of this babe in the wood), chanced to come across him. Marvelling at how well-fed the child was, and even more at the bees, he gathered him up and took him home. He brought him up with great care and gave him the name Meliteus because he had been nourished by bees. He also recalled the oracle in which the god had once told him that he was the one to save someone of the same kin that had been reared by bees. The lad, as soon as he had become of age, grew into a man of nobility and came to rule over many people of the region and founded a city in Phthia which he called Melite. But there arose in this same Melite a violent and arrogant tyrant whom the inhabitants could not bring themselves to name. By foreigners he was called Tartarus. Whenever any maiden from the neighbourhood began to be famed for her beauty, he would lead her off and have forcible intercourse with her before her marriage. Thus it was that one day he bade his men fetch Aspalis, daughter of Argaeus, one of the notables. When the girl heard about this order, she hanged herself before the arrival of those who were to fetch her away. This deed had not yet got about when her brother, Astygites, swore to slay the tyrant before his sister's body was cut down. He swiftly put on garments of Aspalis and hid a sword on his left side and escaped scrutiny, being still a youngster. Entering the house, he killed the tyrant who was unarmed and unguarded. The Meliteans put a festal crown on Astygites and led him in procession with paeans. The body of the tyrant was thrown into a river and pushed under. From that time the river has been called Tartarus. They made every effort to find the body of Aspalis in order to offer it splendid obsequies, but they could not find it. For it had disappeared by divine will. Instead of the body, there appeared her statue standing by that of Artemis, This statue is called by local people Aspalis Ameilete Hecaerge. Every year maidens suspended on it a young she-goat untouched by the male because Aspalis was a virgin when she hanged herself.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 14  MUNICHUS: Munichus, son of Dryas and king of the Molossians, was an excellent seer and a just man. By his wife Lelante he had as children Alcander, a better seer than himself, and Megaletor and Philaeus, as well as a daughter Hyperippe. They were all good and just and the gods loved them. When one night they were in the fields some raiders came up and tried to capture them. The family shot at them from towers (not being able to equal them in fight) but the robbers sent fiery arrows into the buildings. Zeus, because of their piety, could not overlook that their lives were ending in a pitiable death. He changed them all into birds. Hyperippe, who had fled the flames by diving into water, was turned into a shearwater. The others who flew up out of the flames were Munichus who became a buzzard and Alcander who became a wren. Megaletor and Philaeus, escaping the flames through the stockade at ground level, turned into two tiny birds. The former became an ichneumon bird while Philaeus became a dog bird. Their mother became an insect-eating woodpecker. The eagle and the heron are ever at war with her because she breaks their eggs when she chops into oaks looking for insects. The rest of these birds feed together in woods and hollows, except the shearwater which lives by lakes and the sea.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 15  MEROPIS: Eumelus, son of Merops, had children who were haughty and arrogant: Byssa, Meropis and Agron. They lived on Cos, the Meropid isle. Their land furnished them with plentiful crops because they worshipped its goddess alone and cultivated her soil diligently. They had nothing to do with people and did not go to town for solemn banquets and festivals of the gods, instead, if someone about to sacrifice to Athena invited the girls, their brother would decline the invitation. He said he had no affection for a goddess with grey eyes because these girls had black eyes — and he utterly disliked the owl as a bird. If there were invitations to a feast of Artemis, he said that he hated a goddess who wandered about at night. If asked to go to pour libations to Hermes, he said he did not respect a god who was a thief. They frequently went in for this this sort of insult. Hermes and Athena and Artemis were infuriated and one night made their way to their house. Athena and Artemis were in the shape of girls while Hermes wore the smock of a shepherd. He addressed Eumelus and Agron, inviting them to go to a banquet, to offer sacrifices to Hermes with other shepherds. He also urged him to send Byssa and Meropis to join the other girls of their age at the grove sacred to Athena and Artemis. So spoke Hermes. Meropis when she heard the name of Athena poured scorn on it. The goddess turned her into a little owl. Byssa is now the bird of Leucothea, called by the same name as before. When Agron became aware of all this he snatched up a spit and ran out but Hermes turned him into a plover. Eumelus abused Hermes for changing his son, so the god turned him into a long-eared owl, omen of evil.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 16  OENOE: Boeus tells this tale in the second book of his Origins of Birds. Among the people we call Pygmies there was born a girl called Oinoe who was of flawless beauty but she was graceless by nature and overweening. She cared not a rap for Artemis and Hera. She was married to one of the citizens, Nicodamas, a good and sensible man, and gave birth to a child called Mopsus. And all the Pygmies, who loved to show kindliness, brought her many gifts to celebrate the birth of the child. But Hera found fault with Oinoe for not honouring her and turned her into a crane, elongating her neck, ordaining that she should be a bird that flew high. She also caused war to arise between her and the Pygmies. Yearning for her child Mopsus, Oinoe flew over houses and would not go away. But all the Pygmies armed themselves and chased her away. Because of this there arose a state of war then as well as now between the Pygmies and cranes.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 17  LEUCIPPUS: Nicander tells this tale in the second book of his Metamorphoses. Galatea, daughter of Eurytius, who was son of Sparton, married at Phaestus in Crete Pandion's son, Lamprus, a man of good family but without means. When Galatea became pregnant, Lamprus prayed to have a son and said plainly to his wife that she was to expose her child if it was a daughter. When Lamprus had gone off to tend his flocks, Galatea gave birth to a daughter. Feeling pity for her babe, she counted on the remoteness of their house and — backed by dreams and seers telling her to bring up the girl as a boy-deceived Lamprus by saying she had given birth to a son and brought the child up as a boy, giving it the name Leucippus. As the girl grew up she became unutterably beautiful. Because it was no longer possible to hide this, Galatea, fearing Lamprus, fled to the temple of Leto and made many a prayer to her that the child might become a boy instead of a girl, just as had happened to Caenis, daughter of Atrax, who by the will of Poseidon became Caeneus the Lapith. So also Tiresias changed from man to woman because he had encountered and killed two snakes that had been mating at a crossroads. He changed again from woman back to man by killing another serpent. Hypermestra had frequently sold her body in the form of a woman for a fee, becoming a man to bring food for her father, Aethon. The Cretan, Siproites, had also been turned into a woman for having seen Artemis bathing when out hunting. Leto took pity on Galatea because of her unremitting and distressed prayers and changed the sex of the child into a boy's. In memory of this change the citizens of Phaestus still sacrifice to Leto the Grafter because she had grafted organs on the girl and they give her festival the name of Ecdysia ['Stripping'] because the girl had stripped off her maidenly peplus. It is now an observance in marriages to lie down beforehand beside the statue of Leucippus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 18  EEROPUS or BEE-EATER: Boeus tells this tale in the second book of his Origins of Birds. Eumelus, son of Eugnotus, settled at Thebes in Boeotia and had a son called Botres This Eumelus revered Apollo, offering him generous sacrifices. One day when he was sacrificing, his son Botres, who was present, ate the brain of the sheep before it was offered up on the altar. Realizing what had happened, Eumelus angrily picked up a brand from the altar and hit the boy on the head with it. The boy, streaming with blood, fell down in convulsions. When his mother saw this, as did the father and their servants, they made great lamentations. Apollo took pity since Eumelus had revered him and turned the boy into a bee-eater which to this day lays its eggs underground and is ever busied with flying about.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 19  THE THIEVES: In Crete there is said to be a sacred cave full of bees. In it, as storytellers say, Rhea gave birth to Zeus; it is a sacred place and no one is to go near it, whether god or mortal. At the appointed time each year a great blaze is seen to come out of the cave. Their story goes on to say that this happens whenever the blood from the birth of Zeus begins to boil up The sacred bees that were the nurses of Zeus occupy this cave. Laius, Celeus, Cerberus and Aegolius were bold enough to approach the cave to collect a great quantity of honey. With their bodies enclosed all over with bronze, they gathered the bees' honey and gazed on the swaddling clothes of Zeus, Their bronze armour split away from their bodies. Zeus thundered and brandished his thunderbolt, but the Fates and Themis stopped him. It was impious for anyone to die there. So Zeus turned them all into birds. From them is descended the race of birds of omen, blue rock thrushes, woodpeckers, kerberoi and aigolioi owls. Their appearance effectively augurs well, better than other birds, because they have seen the blood of Zeus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 20  CLINIS: Boeus tells this tale in his second book, as also Simmias of Rhodes in his Apollo. In the land called Mesopotamia, near the city of Babylon, dwelt a rich man named Clinis who respected the gods. He had many cattle, asses and sheep. Apollo and Artemis had a very great affection for him and he frequently attended with these gods the temple of Apollo in the land of the Hyperboreans where he saw the consecration of the sacrifices of asses to the god. Returning to Babylon, he too wanted to worship the god as among the Hyperboreans and arranged by the altar a hecatomb of asses. Apollo appeared and threatened him with death if he did not cease from this sacrifice and did not offer up to him the usual goats, sheep and cattle. For this sacrifice of asses was a source of pleasure for the god only if carried out by the Hyperboreans. Terrified by this threat, Clinis sent the asses away from the altar and passed on to his children the words he had heard. By his wife Harpe he had three sons Lycius, Ortygius and Harpasus, and a daughter Artemiche. Now Lycius and Harpasus heard their father but went on telling him to sacrifice the asses and to enjoy the festival. But Ortygius and Artemiche urged him to obey Apollo. Though Clinis was more persuaded by the latter two, Harpasus and Lycius undid the halters of the asses and set to driving them towards the altar. The god infected the asses with a madness and they began to eat up the children, their servants and Clinis too. As they were perishing they cried out to the gods for help. Poseidon felt sorry for Harpe and Harpasus and turned them into birds called by the same names as they had before. Leto and Artemis saw fit to save Clinis, Artemiche and Ortygius for they had not been the cause of these impieties. Apollo granted this favour to Leto and Artemis and changed them all into birds before they could be killed. Clinis became a hupaietos, an under-eagle. He is second after the eagle and is not difficult to recognize. The former, a slayer of fawns, is dark, large and strong; the hupaietos is blacker and smaller. Lycius was changed into a raven that was white but later, by the wish of Apollo, he became of a sable colour, because he had been the first to announce the marriage of Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas, to Alcyoneus. Artemiche became a lark, a bird that gods and humans are fond of. Ortygius became a billy-tit because he had urged his father to sacrifice billy-goats instead of asses to Apollo.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 21  POLYPHONTE: Thrassa was daughter of Ares and of Tereine daughter of Strymon. Hipponous, son of Triballos, married her and they had a daughter called Polyphonte. She scorned the activities of Aphrodite and went to the mountains as a companion and sharer of sports with Artemis. Aphrodite, whose activities Polyphonte had failed to honour, made her fail in love with a bear and drove her mad. By demonic urge she went on heat and coupled with this bear. Artemis seeing her was utterly disgusted with her and turned all beasts against her. Polyphonte, fearing that the beasts would make an end of her, fled and reached her father's house. She brought forth two children, Agrius and Orius, huge and of immense strength. They honoured neither god nor man but scorned them all. If they met a stranger they would haul him home to eat, Zeus loathed them and sent Hermes to punish them in whatever way he chose. Hermes decided to chop off their hands and feet. But Ares, since the family of Polyphonte descended from him, snatched her sons from this fate. With the help of Hermes he changed them into birds. Polyphonte became a small owl whose voice is heard at night. She does not eat or drink and keeps her head turned down and the tips of her feet turned up. She is a portent of war and sedition for mankind. Orius became an eagle owl, a bird that presages little good to anyone when it appears. Agrius was changed into a vulture, the bird most detested by gods and men. These gods gave him an utter craving for human flesh and blood. Their female servant was changed into a woodpecker. As she was changing her shape she prayed to the gods not to become a bird evil for mankind. Hermes and Ares heard her prayer because she had by necessity done what her masters had ordered. This is a bird of good omen for someone going hunting or to feasts.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 22  CERAMBUS: Cerambus, son of Eusirus, who was the son of Poseidon and of Eidothea the nymph of Othreis, lived in the land of the Melians on the spurs of Mount Othrys. He had numerous flocks and herded them himself. Nymphs would help him since he delighted them as he sang among the mountains. He is said to have been the best singer of those days and was famous for his rural songs. In those hills he devised the shepherd's pipes and was the first of mankind to play the lyre, composing many beautiful songs. It is said that because of this the nymphs one day became visible to Cerambus as they danced to the strumming of his lyre. Pan, in good will, gave him this advice: to leave Othrys and pasture his flocks on the plain, for the coming winter was going to be exceptionally and unbelievably severe. Cerambus, with the arrogance of youth, decided — as though smitten by some god — not to drive his beasts from Othrys to the plain. He also uttered graceless and mindless things to the nymphs, saying they were not descended from Zeus, but that Deino had given birth to them, with the River Spercheius as the father. He also said that Poseidon, for lust of one of them, Diopatra, had made her sisters put down roots and turned them into poplars until, satiated with his desires, he had returned them to their original shapes. Thus did Cerambus taunt the nymphs. After a short while there came a sudden frost and the streams froze. Much snow fell on the flocks of Cerambus and they were lost to sight as well as were the trees and paths. The nymphs, in anger against Cerambus because of his slanders, changed him into a wood- gnawing Cerambyx beetle. He can be seen on trunks and has hook-teeth, ever moving his jaws together. He is black, long and has hard wings like a great dung beetle. He is called the ox that eats wood and, among the Thessalians, Cerambyx. Boys use him as a toy, cutting off his head, to wear as a pendant. The head looks like the horns of a lyre made from a tortoiseshell.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 23  BATTUS: Nicander tells this tale in the first book of his Metamorphoses, as does Hesiod in his Great Eoeae, Didymarchus in the third book of his Metamorphoses, Antigonus in his Changes, Apollonius Rhodius in his Epigrams, as does Pamphilus in his first book. Argos, son of Phrixus, and Perimele, daughter of Admetus, had a son, Magnes. He lived near Thessaly and people named this land Magnesia after him. He had a son, Hymenaeus, admired by all around for his appearance. Apollo saw the lad and fell in love with him and would not leave the house of Magnes. Because of this Hermes plotted to get the herd of cattle belonging to Apollo that pastured with those of Admetus. First he made the bitches that guarded them lethargic and also gave them dog-quinsy. They forgot about the cattle and lost the ability to bark. Then he drove off twelve heifers and a hundred oxen that had not yet been yoked, as well as a bull for mounting the cows. He tied branches to the tails of each beast so that the trail of the cattle would be lost. He herded and drove them across the lands of the Pelasgians, through Achaean Phthiotis, Locris, Boeotia, the Megarid and from there to the Peloponnese, through Corinth and Larissa to Tegea. From there he passed on by Mount Lycaeus and Mount Maenalus till he came to a place now called the Lookouts of Battus. This Battus lived on the top of a peak. When he heard the sounds of the heifers as they were being driven, he strode out of his house. He saw that the cattle had been rustled and asked for a bribe not to tell anyone about the matter. Hermes agreed to provide one on these terms and Battus swore not to tell anyone about the cattle. Hermes then hid the beasts in a headland by Mount Coryphasium, driving them into a cave facing Italy and Sicily. Then he returned to Battus in disguise, testing him to see if he would abide by his oath. Offering a woollen cloak as a bribe, he asked if he had seen rustled cattle being driven by. Battus accepted the cloak and told him all about the cattle. Hermes, indignant because he was double-tongued, struck him with his staff and turned him into a rock. And he is never without either heat or cold. To this day the place is called by passers-by the Lookouts of Battus.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 24  ASCALABUS: Demeter, when she was a wanderer traversing the whole earth in search of her daughter, stopped for a rest in Attica. Misme took her in when she was parched in the great heat. She gave her a drink of water with pennyroyal and barley groats in it Because of her thirst Demeter swallowed the drink in one draught. When he saw this, Ascalabus, the son of Misme, burst into laughter and ordered that a deep basin or jar be offered to her. Demeter in anger poured over him what was left of her drink. He was changed bodily into a multi-coloured gecko [askalabos] which is hated by gods and mankind. He passes his life along ditches. Whoever kills him is cherished by Demeter.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 25  METIOCHE AND MENIPPE: Nicander tells this tale in the fourth book of his Metamorphoses, as does Corinna in the first book of her Weroia. In Boeotia Orion, son of Hyrieus, had as daughters Metioche and Menippe. After Artemis had taken him away from the sight of mankind, they were brought up by their mother. Athena taught them to weave on the loom and Aphrodite gave them beauty. When plague seized the whole of Aonia and many died, there were sent officers to consult Apollo's oracle at Gortyne. The god replied that they should make an appeal to the two gods of the underworld. He said that they would cease from their anger if two willing maidens were sacrificed to the Two. Of course not one of the maidens in the city complied with the oracle until a servant-woman reported the answer of the oracle to the daughters of Orion. They were at work at their loom and, as soon as they heard about this, they willingly accepted death on behalf of their fellow citizens before the plague epidemic had smitten them too. They cried out three times to the gods of the underworld saying that they were willing sacrifices. They thrust their bodkins into themselves at their shoulders and gashed open their throats. And they both fell down into the earth, Persephone and Hades took pity on the maidens and made their bodies disappear, sending them instead up out of the earth as heavenly bodies When they appeared, they were borne up into the sky. And men called them comets. All the Aonians set up at Orchomenus in Boeotia a notable temple to these two maidens. Every year young men and young women bring propitiatory offerings to them. To this day the people of Aeolia call them the Coronid Maidens.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 26  HYLAS: When Heracles set sail with the Argonauts he was acknowledged as their leader. He also brought aboard with him Hylas, orphaned son of Ceyx, a young and good-looking lad. When they reached the narrows of the Black Sea and were sailing past the headland of Arganthone, the waves began to toss in a storm. They dropped anchors and let the ship ride. Meanwhile Heracles prepared dinner for the heroes. The boy Hylas went carrying a pail to the River Ascanius to fetch water for the leaders. And when the nymphs, who were the daughters of this river, saw and fell in love with him, they pulled him in, dragging him down into the spring. After Hylas had disappeared, Heracles saw that he was not coming back to him and deserted the heroes, searching everywhere in the thickets, calling 'Hylas' again and again. The nymphs, fearing that Heracles might discover that they had hidden the lad among them, changed him into an echo which again and again echoed back the cries of Heracles. After all his unavailing efforts to find Hylas, he returned to the ship and sailed away with the heroes. He left Polyphemus on the spot to search and, if he could, find Hylas for him. But Polyphemus died before he could succeed. To this day local people make sacrifices to Hylas by the spring. The priest calls him by his name three times and an echo replies three times.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 27  IPHIGENIA: Theseus and Helen, daughter of Zeus, had a daughter, Iphigenia. Helen's sister Clytaemestra brought her up saying to Agamemnon that she had given birth to her. For Helen had told her brothers who had questioned her that she was still a virgin when she left Theseus. When the army of the Achaeans was held up at Aulis for lack of winds, the seers foretold that it would be possible to sail only if they sacrificed Iphigenia to Artemis. At the insistence of the Achaeans, Agamemnon handed her over to be put to the knife and she was dragged to the altar. But the leaders could not bear to look on and, to a man, they turned their eyes elsewhere. Artemis made a bull calf appear by the altar instead of Iphigenia whom she carried off far away from Greece, to the Sea of Pontus with its welcoming name of Euxine, to Thoas son of Borysthenes. She called the tribe of nomads there Taurians because a bull [tauros] had appeared instead of Iphigenia on the altar. She also named her Tauropolos. After the passage of time, Artemis transferred Iphigenia to what is called the White Island to be with Achilles and changed her into an ageless immortal deity, calling her Orsilochia instead of Iphigenia. She became the companion of Achilles.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 28  TYPHON: Typhon was the son of Earth, a deity monstrous because of his strength, and of outlandish appearance. There grew out of him numerous heads and hands and wings, while from his thighs came huge coils of snakes. He emitted all kinds of roars and nothing could resist his might. He felt an urge to usurp the rule of Zeus and not one of the gods could withstand him as he attacked. In panic they fled to Egypt, all except Athena and Zeus, who alone were left. Typhon hunted after them, on their track. When they fled they had changed themselves in anticipation into animal forms. Apollo became a hawk, Hermes an ibis, Ares became a fish, the lepidotus, Artemis a cat, Dionysus took the shape of a goat, Heracles a fawn, Hephaestus an ox and Leto a shrew mouse. The rest of the gods each took on what transformations they could. When Zeus struck Typhon with a thunderbolt, Typhon, aflame, hid himself and quenched the blaze in the sea. Zeus did not desist but piled the highest mountain, Etna, on Typhon and set Hephaestus on the peak as a guard. Having set up his anvils, he works his red hot blooms on Typhon's neck.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 29  GALINTHIAS: At Thebes Proetus had a daughter Galinthias. This maiden was playmate and companion of Alcmene, daughter of Electryon. As the birth throes for Heracles were pressing on Alcmene, the Fates and Eileithyia, as a favour to Hera, kept Alcmene in continuous birth pangs. They remained seated, each keeping their arms crossed. Galinthias, fearing that the pains of her labour would drive Alcmene mad, ran to the Fates and Eileithyia and announced that by desire of Zeus a boy had been born to Alcmene and that their prerogatives had been abolished. At all this, consternation of course overcame the Fates and they immediately let go their arms. Alcmene's pangs ceased at once and Heracles was born. The Fates were aggrieved at this and took away the womanly parts of Galinthias since, being but a mortal, she had deceived the gods. They turned her into a deceitful weasel, making her live in crannies and gave her a grotesque way of mating. She is mounted through the ears and gives birth by bringing forth her young through the throat. Hecate felt sorry for this transformation of her appearance and appointed her a sacred servant to herself. Heracles, when he grew up, remembered the favour she had done for him and made an image of her to set by his house and offered her sacrifices. The Thebans even now maintain these rites and, before the festival of Heracles, sacrifice to Galinthias first.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 30  BYBLIS: In Crete Apollo and Acacallis, daughter of Minos, had a child called Miletus. Fearing Minos, Acacallis exposed him in a wood. By the will of Apollo wolves would turn up to guard him and to give milk in turn. Then herdsmen came across him and gathered him up and brought him up in their huts. As the lad grew, becoming handsome and active, Minos felt the urge to take him by force. So, on the advice of Sarpedon, Miletus boarded a boat one night and escaped to Caria. There he built the city of Miletus and married Eidothee, daughter of Eurytus king of Caria. She became the mother of twins, Caunus and Byblis after whom are named to this day the Carian cities of Caunus and of Byblis. Byblis attracted many local suitors and, because of her fame, some from nearby cities as well. She did not pay them much attention since an unspeakable desire for Caunus was driving her mad. Because she did all she could to hide this passion, she kept it from her parents. But daily she was being gripped by an even more unmanageable demon and one night she decided to throw herself from a rock. She went to a nearby mountain and set about throwing herself off. But nymphs, pitying her, held her back. Casting her into a deep sleep they changed her from a mortal to a deity, into a nymph called a hamadryad named Byblis. They made her their companion and sharer of their way of life. The stream which flows from that rock is called to this day by local people the Tears of Byblis.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 31  THE MESSAPIANS: Nicander tells this tale in the second book of his Metamorphoses. Lycaon, sprung from the soil, had as sons Iapyx, Daunius and Peucetius. They gathered an army and arrived on the Adriatic side of Italy. They drove out the Ausonians who were living there and, instead, settled themselves there. Most of their army consisted of Illyrian settlers led by Messapius. When the army and the land was divided into three, they took the names of each of their leaders, Daunians, Peucetians and Messapians. The land from Tarentum to the tip of Italy became that of the Messapians, where stands the city of Brentesium. The land to this side of Tarentum became that of the Peucetians and, further on, the Daunians held most of the coast. The whole nation was called that of the Iapygians. This occurred long before the campaign of Heracles. In those days they made a living from animals in pastures. Tellers of stories say that in the land of the Messapians near the so-called Sacred Rocks there appeared the choral troupe of the Epimelid nymphs. Young Messapians left their flocks to view them. They declared they could themselves dance better. What they said irritated the nymphs and rivalry arose increasingly over their dancing. Because the youths did not know that they were competing with deities, they danced as they would in a contest with mortals of their own age. Their manner of dancing, being that of shepherds, was without art, while that of the nymphs was entirety dedicated to beauty. In their dancing they surpassed the youths and they said to them: "Young men, did you want to compete against Epimelid nymphs? So, you foolish fellows, now that you have been beaten, you will be punished." The youths, as they stood by the sanctuary of the nymphs, were changed into trees. Even today one hears at night the sound of groans coming from the trunks. The place is called that of the Nymphs and the Youths.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 32  DRYOPE: Nicander tells this tale in the first book of his Metamorphoses. Dryops was the son of the River Spercheius and of Polydore, one of the daughters of Danaus. He was king in Oita and he had an only daughter, Dryope. She herself herded the flocks of her father. Now, the hamadryad nymphs were very much attached to her and made her their companion, teaching her to sing to the gods and to dance. Apollo, seeing her dancing, felt an urge to couple with her. He first changed himself into a tortoise. Dryope, with the other nymphs, was amused by it and they made a toy of the tortoise. She placed it in her bosom. He changed from a tortoise to a serpent. The frightened nymphs abandoned Dryope. Apollo coupled with her and she ran full of fear to her father's house, saying nothing to her parents. When Andraemon, son of Oxylus, later married her, she gave birth to Amphissus, the son of Apollo. As soon as he came of age he proved to be a man stronger than all others and founded a town by Mount Oita which took the name of the mountain. He became the king of the places thereabouts. In Dryopis he established a sanctuary of Apollo. One day, as Dryope was approaching that temple, the hamadryad nymphs gathered her up affectionately and hid her in the woods. In her place they caused a poplar to appear out of the ground. Beside it they made a spring to gush forth. Dryope was changed from mortal to nymph. Amphissus, in honour of the favour shown to his mother, set up a shrine to the nymphs and was the first to inaugurate a foot-race there. To this day local people maintain this race. It is not holy for women to be present there because two maidens told local people that Dryope had been snatched away by nymphs. The nymphs were angry at this and turned the maidens into pines.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 33  ALCMENE: This is told by Pherecydes. After Heracles had passed out of the sight of mankind, Eurystheus drove his children from their paternal lands and ruled them himself. The Heraclidae fled to Demophon, son of Theseus, and dwelt in the Four Towns of Attica. Eurystheus sent a messenger to Athens threatening war with the Athenians if they did not drive out the Heraclidae. The Athenians did not refuse war and Eurystheus invaded Attica and, after line of battle had been established, he himself died in battle. Most of the Argives were put to flight. With Eurystheus dead, Hyllus and the other Heraclidae and their allies re-established themselves in Thebes. At that time Alcmene died of old age and the Heraclidae performed her obsequies. They dwelled by the Electran Gate where Heracles led his public life. Zeus sent Hermes, ordering him to steal Alcmene's body and to take her to the Isles of the Blest and give her as wife to Rhadamanthys. Obeying, Hermes stole away Alcmene leaving a stone instead of her in the coffin. When the Heraclidae were carrying the casket, they found it to be very heavy. They put it on the ground and took off the lid. They found a stone instead of Alcmene. They took this and set it up in the grove where now stands the heroon of Alcmene in Thebes.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 34  SMYRNA: On Mount Lebanon Thias son of Belus and Orithyia, one of the nymphs, had a daughter, Smyrna, Because of her beauty many came from many a city as her suitors. She devised numerous tricks to deceive her parents and to put off the day of decision, because a dreadful lust, for her father, had driven her mad. At first she hid this fever through shame. But as her passion spurred her on, she told the whole story to her nurse Hippolyte who promised to find her a remedy for this inordinate passion. She went to Thias with the message that a girl of exalted parentage desired to lie with him, but secretly. Thias, who had no idea what was being devised against him, welcomed the proposal. In the dark of the night he waited on his bed for the girl. Then the nurse led in Smyrna with her clothes swathed over her. For a long time this disgraceful and unlawful activity was carried on undiscovered. When Smyrna became pregnant, Thias felt an urge to learn who the mother of his child was. He hid a light in his quarters and, when Smyrna came to him, she was revealed as the light was suddenly brought out, Smyrna gave birth prematurely to her child and she raised up her arms and prayed that she might no more be seen among the living, nor among the dead. Zeus changed her into a tree which was called the Smyrna after her name. It is said that each year the tree weeps tears from the wood as its fruit. Thias, father of Smyrna, did away with himself for this unlawful act. By desire of Zeus the child was brought up and he was called Adonis. Aphrodite fell utterly in love with him because of his beauty.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 35  THE HERDSMEN: Menecrates from Xanthus tells this tale in his Lyciaca; also Nicander. Leto, after giving birth to Apollo and Artemis on the isle of Asteria, went to Lycia, taking her children with her, to the baths of Xanthus. As soon as she arrived in that land, she came first upon the spring of Melite and wanted very much to bathe her children there before going on to Xanthus. But some herdsmen drove her away so that their own cattle could drink at the spring. Leto made off and left Melite. Wolves came out to meet her and, wagging their tails, led the way, guiding her to the River Xanthus. She drank the water and bathed the babes and consecrated the Xanthus to Apollo while the land which had been called Tremilis she renamed Lycia [Wolf Land] from the wolves that had guided her. Then she returned to the spring to inflict a penalty on the herdsmen who had driven her away. They were then still washing their cattle besides the spring. Leto changed them all into frogs whose backs and shoulders she scratched with a rough stone. Throwing them all into the spring she made them live in water. To this day they croak away by rivers and ponds.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 36  PANDAREUS: When Rhea, fearing Cronus, hid Zeus in the Cretan cavern, a goat offered her udder and gave him nourishment. By the will of Rhea a golden dog guarded the goat. After Zeus drove out the Titans and deprived Cronus of power, he changed the goat into an immortal. There is a representation of her among the stars to this day. He ordered the golden dog to guard this sacred spot in Crete. Pandareus son of Merops stole the dog and carried it off to Mount Sipylus. He gave it to Tantalus, son of Zeus and Pluto, to guard. After a time Pandareus went to Mount Sipylus and asked for the dog. Tantalus swore he had never received it. To punish him for the theft Zeus turned Pandareus into a rock where he stood. Tantalus, for going back on his oath, he struck down with a thunderbolt and set Mount Sipylus on top of his head.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 37  THE DORIANS: After the capture of Troy, Diomedes arrived in Argos and denounced his wife Aegialia for her behaviour when she was stirred by Aphrodite. He went to Calydon in Aitolia where he made away with Agrius and his sons. He handed over the rule of the place to his grandfather Oineus. He then sailed for Argos but was swept into the Ionian Sea by a storm. When Daunius, king of the Daunians, saw who it was that had arrived, he begged him for help in warring against the Messapians, for a share of the land and marriage to his daughter. Diomedes agreed to the proposal, drew up his men and routed the Messapians, He took his land which he assigned to the Dorians, his followers. The daughter of Daunius gave him two sons, Diomedes and Amphinomus. He died of old age in the lands of the Daunians and the Dorians buried him with honours on the isle which they called Diomedia after him. They cultivated the lands that had been assigned to them adjoining those of the king. It brought them much produce because of their experience in farming. After the death of Daunius, the barbarian Illyrians coveted their lands and plotted against them. They appeared suddenly on the island and the Illyrians slaughtered all the Dorians as they were sacrificing victims. By the will of Zeus the bodies of the Greeks disappeared and their souls were changed into birds. Even today when a ship of the Greeks is brought into harbour, these birds go up to them, but they flee from an Illyrian ship and all disappear from the island.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 38  WOLF: Nicander tells this tale in the first book of his Metamorphoses. Aeacus, son of Zeus and of Aigina daughter of Asopus, had as sons Telamon and Peleus and a third, Phocus, born of Psamathe, daughter of Nereus. Aeacus was extremely fond of this third son because he was as handsome as he was good. Peleus and Telamon envied him and killed him in secret. For this Aeacus drove them away and they left the isle of Aigina. Telamon settled in the isle of Salamis while Peleus went to Eurytion son of Irus and prayed for and received from him purification from the murder. Later, when hunting, he aimed at a boar and unintentionally killed Eurytion. Again a fugitive, he betook himself to Acastus whose wife's amorous behaviour led to his being marooned alone on Mount Pelion. In his wanderings he encountered Chiron the centaur, sought his help and was received into his cave. Then Peleus brought together many sheep and cattle and led them to Irus as blood money for the slaying of his son. Irus would not accept this price so Peleus led them away and set them free in accordance with the oracle of the god. A wolf, coming upon the animals unattended by herdsmen, ate them all. By divine will this wolf was changed into a rock which stood for a long time between Locris and the land of the Phocians.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 39  ARCEOPHON: Arceophon, son of Minnyrides, of the town of Salamis in Cyprus, did not come from a distinguished family (they were from Phoenicia) but they were pre-eminent in wealth and all kinds of prosperity. When he saw the daughter of Nicocreon, king of Salamis, he fell in love with her. The family of Nicocreon were descended from Teucer who had helped Agamemnon take Troy. Because of this Arceophon desired a marriage with the girl all the more and he promised to bring many gifts, more than all the other suitors. Nicocreon refused the proposal because the family of Arceophon was shamefully ignoble, since his ancestors were Phoenicians. Arceophon, failing to win this marriage, went into a greater turmoil of love and every evening frequented the house of Arsinoe and made a night-serenade in company with young men of his own age. Since this activity achieved nothing, he cajoled the girl's nurse to help him with an attempt to seduce her, sending many gifts. He wanted somehow to make love to her without her parents knowing. After the nurse had delivered this proposition, the girl denounced her to her parents. They cut off the tip of the nurse's tongue and her nose as well as her fingers. After this mutilation they pitilessly drove her out of the palace. This act enraged the goddess. Arceophon, because of his utter distress at the way his marriage had been scorned, died voluntarily of starvation. His fellow citizens felt pity for his death and mourned him. On the third day his relatives brought out his body uncovered. While they were about to carry out the last rites, Arsinoe felt an arrogant urge to lean her body out of the window to view the corpse of Arceophon being cremated. As she cast glances at him, Aphrodite, loathing her character, changed her from her human form into a stone with her feet rooted into the ground.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 40  BRITOMARTIS: Cassiepia, daughter of Arabius, and Phoenix, son of Agenor, had a daughter Carme. Zeus made love to her and fathered Britomartis who avoided the company of mankind and yearned to be a virgin for always. First she arrived in Argos from Phoenicia, entering into the company of the daughters of Erasinus, Byze, Melite, Maera and Anchirhoe Then she went from Argos to Cephallenia. The Cephallenians gave her the name of Laphria and made sacrifices to her as a god. Then she went to Crete. When Minos saw her he lusted after her and pursued her. She took refuge among some fishermen who hid her in their nets. Because of this the Cretans called her Dictynna, She of the Nets, and offered sacrifices to her. Having escaped from Minos, Britomartis arrived at Aegina on a boat of the fisherman Andromedes. But he lusted for her and laid hands on her. Britomartis jumped off the boat and fled into a grove, the very spot where today there is a temple of hers. She then disappeared from sight and they called her Aphaea, the One Who Disappeared. [Her statue] appeared in the temple of Artemis. The people of Aegina consecrated the spot where Britomartis disappeared, naming her Aphaea and offering her sacrifices as to a god.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 41  ALOPEX: Cephalus, son of Deion, married at Thoricus in Attica Procris, daughter of Erechtheus. Cephalus was a handsome and brave youth and the goddess of Dawn fell in love with him because of his beauty. She kidnapped him, keeping him at home as a lover. ... And then Cephalus put Procris to a test to see if she was inclined to remain faithful to him. He pretended that he was going out hunting and sent in to Procris one of his servants who was not known to her, with a great deal of gold. He was instructed to say that a foreign gentleman had fallen in love with her and offered her this gold if she would have intercourse with him. At first Procris refused the gold but when the man sent double the quantity, she agreed and accepted the proposition. When Cephalus saw her approaching the house in order to lie with the foreigner, he brought out a flaming torch and caught her napping. In her shame Procris forsook Cephalus and went off as a fugitive to Minos the king of Crete. She found on arrival that he was afflicted by childlessness and promised a cure, showing him how to beget children. Now Minos would ejaculate snakes, scorpions and millipedes, killing the women with whom he had intercourse. But his wife Pasiphae, daughter of the Sun, was immortal. Procris accordingly devised the following to make Minos fertile. She inserted the bladder of a goat into a woman and Minos first emitted the snakes into the bladder; then he went over to Pasiphae and entered her. And when children were born to them, Minos gave Procris his spear and his dog. No animal could escape these two and they always reached their target. Accepting them, Procris went to Thoricus in Attica, where Cephalus lived, and became a hunter with him. She had altered her clothes and had cut her hair as a man; no one who saw her recognized her. When Cephalus saw that he never caught anything when hunting, while everything went the way of Procris, he yearned to have that spear for himself. Procris promised to give him the dog as well, if he would agree to enjoy her youthful charms. Cephalus accepted the proposition and when they lay down together, Procris revealed who she was and reproached him for having committed something far more disgraceful. But Cephalus acquired the dog and the spear. Amphitryon, who needed the dog, went to Cephalus and asked him if he would be willing to join him, with the dog, in going after the Fox. He promised to hand over to him a share of the booty which he would take from the Teleboeans. For at that time there had appeared in the land of the people of Cadmus, a fox that was a monstrous creature. It would regularly issue out of Teumessus snatching up Cadmeans. Every thirty days they would put out a child for it and the Fox would take it and eat it up. Amphitryon had asked Creon and the Cadmeans to help in making war against the Teleboeans. They refused unless he helped them do away with the Fox. Amphitryon accepted these conditions from the Cadmeans and went to Cephalus and told him about the agreement and urged him to go to Thebes with the dog. Cephalus accepted the proposal and set out to hunt the Fox. But it had been ordained that the Fox could not be taken by any hunter, and that nothing should escape that dog when it went hunting. Zeus saw them when they reached the Plain of Thebes and turned them both into stones.

Event Date: -1000 GR
END
Event Date: -1000

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