Livy, Periochae, History of Rome

Livy, Periochae, Books 46-142, later Latin summaries of the lost books of Livy's History of Rome, translated by Jona Lendering and nobly placed online by him at, a work under copyright made available by the translator for non-commercial use with attribution and links. This text has 420 tagged references to 155 ancient places.
CTS URN: urn:cts:latinLit:phi0914.phi002; Wikidata ID: Q42194153; Trismegistos: authorwork/236     [Open Latin text in new tab]

§ 46.e  From book 46:
King Eumenes [II Soter of Asia], who had taken an ambiguous stance during the Macedonian war, came to Rome. To prevent him appearing to be considered an enemy, if he was not permitted to enter, or acquitted, if he was admitted, a general law was passed that no king could be permitted to enter Rome.
Consul Claudius Marcellus subdued the Alpine Gauls, consul Gaius Sulpicius Gallus the Ligurians.
Envoys of king Prusias complained that Eumenes ravaged their territory and said that he conspired with Antiochus [IV Epiphanes] against the Roman people. At their request, an alliance was concluded with the Rhodians.
[164 BCE] The censors performed the lustrum ceremony. 337,022 citizens were registered. The first man in the Senate was Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
When king Ptolemy [VI Philometor] was expelled from his kingdom by his younger brother [Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Physcon], envoys were sent to the latter, and the former was restored.
[163 BCE] When Ariarathes [IV Eusebes], king of Cappadocia, was dead, his son Ariarathes [V Philopator] accepted the kingdom and renewed the friendship with the Roman people through envoys.
It also contains an account of various battles with various outcomes against the Ligurians, Corsicans, and Lusitanians, and an account of the turmoil in Syria after the death of Antiochus [IV Epiphanes; 164 BCE], who left behind a son named Antiochus [V Eupator], a mere boy. [162 BCE] Together with his tutor Lysias, this boy Antiochus was killed by Demetrius [I Soter], the son of Seleucus [IV Philopator], who had been a hostage at Rome, had secretly [fled] from Rome because he had not been released, and was accepted in this kingdom.
Lucius Aemilius Paullus, who had defeated Perseus, died. Although he had brought back immense treasures from Hispania and Macedonia, his scrupulousness had been so great that when an auction was conducted, the dowry of his wife could hardly be repaid.
[160 BCE] The Pomptine marshes were drained by consul Cornelius Cethegus, to whom this task had been assigned, and converted into arable land.

Event Date: -164 LA

§ 47.e  From book 47:
Praetor Gnaeus Tremellius was fined, because he had illegally opposed pontifex maximus Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. The claims of the religious authorities were stronger than that of the magistrates.
[159 BCE] A law against bribery was passed.
The censors performed the lustrum ceremony. 328,316 citizens were registered. The first man in the Senate was Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
A treaty was negotiated between the two Ptolemaean brothers. One was to rule Egypt, the other Cyrene.
King Ariarathes [V Philopator] of Cappadocia, who had been expelled from his kingdom on the initiative and with troops of king Demetrius [I Soter] of Syria, was restored by the Senate.
A delegation was sent by the Senate to settle a border dispute between Massinissa and the Carthaginians.
[156 BCE] Consul Gaius Marcius [Figulus] fought against the Dalmatians, at first unsuccessfully, later with more luck.The reason for going to war was that they had attacked the Illyrians, allies of the Roman people; [155 BCE] consul Cornelius Nasica subdued the Dalmatians.
[154 BCE] Consul Quintus Opimius subdued the Transalpine Ligurians, who had attacked two towns of the Massiliots, Antipolis and Nicaea.
It also contains an account of several unsuccessful campaigns in Hispania by various commanders.
In the five hundred and ninety-eighth year after the founding of the city, the consuls began to enter upon their office on 1 January. The cause of this change in the date of the elections was a rebellion in Hispania.
Envoys sent to negotiate between the Carthaginians and Massinissa said they had seen lots of timber in Carthage.
Several praetors were charged with peculiation and condemned.

Event Date: -159 LA

§ 48.e  From book 48:
[154 BCE] The censors performed the lustrum ceremony. 324,000 citizens were registered.
The causes of the Third Punic War are described. It was said that a very large Numidian army, commanded by Arcobarzanes, son of Syphax, was on Carthaginian soil, and Marcus Porcius Cato argued that although this force was ostensibly directed against Massinissa, it was in fact against the Romans, and that consequently, war had to be declared. Publius Cornelius Nasica defended the opposite, and it was agreed that envoys were to be sent to Carthage, to see what was going on. They rebuked the Carthaginian Senate because it had, contrary to the treaty, collected an army and timber to build ships, and proposed to make peace between Carthage and Massinissa, because Masinissa was evacuating the contested piece of land. But Hamilcar's son Gesco, a riotous man who occupied an office, provoked the populace to wage war against the Romans, so that when the [Carthaginian] Senate announced it would comply with the Roman wishes, the envoys had to flee to escape violence. When they told this, they made the [Roman] Senate, already hostile towards the Carthaginians, even more hostile.
Marcus Porcius Cato gave his son, who had died during his praetorship, a cheap funeral according to his means (because he was poor).
Andriscus, who pretended persistently that he was the son of Perseus, the former king of Macedonia, was sent to Rome.
Before he died, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had been chosen as first among the senators by six pairs of censors, ordered his sons that they should carry his bier to the pyre covered with linens without purple, and they were not to spend more than a million for the remainder: the images [of ancestors] and not the expenditure should enhance the funerals of great men.
There was an investigation of poisonings. The noble women Publilia and Licinia were accused of murdering their husbands, former consuls; after the hearing, they assigned real estate as bail to the praetor, but were executed by a decision of their relatives.
Gulussa, the son of Massinissa, told that a levy was conducted in Carthage, a navy was being built, and that without any doubt, they were preparing for war. When Cato argued that war should be declared, and Publius Cornelius Nasica said that it was better to do nothing too fast, it was decided to send ten investigators.
[151 BCE] When consuls Lucius Licinius Lucullus and Aulus Postumius Albinus recruited their army with great strictness and favored no one with an exemption, they were imprisoned by the tribunes of the plebs, because they were unable to obtain exemptions for their friends.
The Spanish War had been waged unsuccessfully and resulted in such a great confusion among the Roman citizens that no one wanted to go there as tribune or commander, but Publius Cornelius [Scipio] Aemilianus came forward and said he would accept any kind of military task to which he should be assigned. This example gave everyone an appetite for war.
Although Claudius Marcellus appeared to have pacified all Celtiberian nations, his successor consul Lucullus subdued the Vaccaeans and Cantabrians and several other hitherto unknown nations in Hispania. Here, tribune Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, the son of Lucius [Aemilius] Paullus, and the grandson of [Publius Cornelius Scipio] Africanus (although by adoption), killed a barbarian challenger, and added an even greater danger when the town of Intercatia was stormed, because he was the first to climb the wall.
Praetor Servius Sulpicius unsuccessfully fought against the Lusitanians.
The envoys returned from Africa with Carthaginian ambassadors and Massinissa's son Gulussa, saying they had seen how an army and navy were built in Carthage, and it was decided to ask for opinions [of all senators]. While Cato and other influential senators argued that an army should immediately be sent to Africa, Cornelius Nasica said that it still did not seem to be a justified war, and it was agreed to refrain from war if the Carthaginians would burn their ships and dismiss their army; if they did less, the next pair of consuls should put the Punic War on the agenda.
When a theater, contracted for by the censors, was built, Publius Cornelius Nasica was the author of a senatorial decree that this building, which was so useless and dangerous for the public morals, should be destroyed; for some time, the people had to stand to watch theatrical performances.
When the Carthaginians declared war upon Massinissa and broke the treaty, they were beaten by this man (who was ninety-two years old and accustomed to eat and enjoy dry bread without a relish) and incurred a war against the Romans.
It also contains an account of the situation in Syria and the war waged between its kings. [150 BCE] In this turmoil, the Syrian king Demetrius [I Soter] was killed.

Event Date: -154 LA

§ 49.e  From book 49:
[149 BCE] The beginning of the Third Punic War was in the six hundred and second year after the founding of Rome, and came to an end five years after its beginning
Between Marcus Porcius Cato and Scipio Nasica, of which the former was the most intelligent man in the city and the latter considered to be the best man in the Senate, was a debate of opposing opinions, in which Cato argued for and Nasica against war and the removal and sack of Carthage. It was decided to declare war on Carthage, because the Carthaginians had, contrary to the treaty, ships, because they had sent an army outside their territory, because they had waged war against Massinissa, an ally and friend of the Roman people, and because they had refused to receive in their city Massinissa's son Gulussa (who had been with the Roman envoys).
Before any troops had boarded their ships, Utican envoys came to Rome, to surrender themselves and everything they owned.This embassy was received as a good omen by the senators, and as a bad omen in Carthage.
The games of Dis Pater took place at the Tarentum, in accordance with the [Sibylline] Books. Similar festivities had taken place hundred year before, at the beginning of the First Punic War, in the five hundred and second year since the founding of the city.
Thirty envoys came to Rome to surrender Carthage. Cato's opinion prevailed that the declaration of war was to be maintained and that the consuls, as had been agreed, would proceed to the front. When they had crossed into Africa, they received the three hundred hostages they had demanded and all the weapons and war engines that were in Carthage, and demanded on the authority of the Senate that the Carthaginians rebuilt their city on another site, which was to be no less than 15 kilometers from the sea. These offensive demands forced the Carthaginians to war.
The beginning of the siege and the attack of Carthage were organized by consuls Lucius Marcius [Censorinus] and Manius Manilius. During the siege, two tribunes rashly broke through a carelessly defended wall and suffered greatly from the inhabitants, but were relieved by Scipio Orfitianus [Africanus]. With the help of a few cavalry, he also relieved a Roman fort that had been attacked by night, and he received the greatest glory from the liberation of Roman camps which the Carthaginians, sallying in full force from the city, vigorously attacked.
Besides, when the consul (his colleague had returned to Rome for the elections) led the army from the unsuccessful siege of Carthage against Hasdrubal (who had occupied with many troops an inaccessible pass), he convinced the consul first not to attack on this inaccessible place. However, the opinions of the others, who were jealous of his intelligence and valor, prevailed, and he entered the pass himself, and when -as he had predicted- the Roman army was defeated and routed and two subunits were besieged by the enemy, he returned with a few cavalry squadrons, relieved them, and brought them back unharmed. In the Senate, his valor was praised by even Cato, a man whose tongue was better suited for criticism, but now said that the others fighting in Africa were mere spirits, whereas Scipio was alive; and the Roman people received him with so much enthusiasm that most districts elected him as consul, although his age did not allow this.
When Lucius Scribonius, a tribune of the plebs, proposed a law that the Lusitanians, who had surrendered to the Roman people but had been sold [into slavery] by Servius [Sulpicius] Galba in Gaul, would be liberated, Marcus Porcius Cato supported him energetically. (His speech still exists and is included in his Annals.) Quintus Fulvius Nobilior, who had often been assailed by Cato in the Senate, spoke for Galba; and Galba himself, seeing that he was about to be condemned, embracing his two young sons and the son of Sulpicius Gallus, whose guardian he was, spoke so pitiably in his own defense, that the case was abandoned. (Three of his speeches still exist: two against tribune Libo in the Lusitanian case, and one against Lucius Cornelius Cethegus, in which he admits that during a truce, he had massacred the Lusitanians near his camp because, as he explains, he had found out that they had sacrificed a man and a horse, which according to their custom meant that they were preparing an attack.)
A certain Andriscus, a man of the lowest kind, pretending to be a son of king Perseus, changed his name into Philip, and secretly fled from the city of Rome, to which king Demetrius [I Soter] of Syria had sent him, precisely because of this lie; many people were attracted by his false story (as if it were true), he gathered an army and occupied all of Macedonia, whether the people wanted it or not.
He told the following story: born as the son of king Perseus and a courtesan, he had been handed over for education to a certain Cretan, so that, in this situation of war against the Romans, some scion of the royal stock would survive. Without knowledge of his family and believing that the man who taught him was his father, he had been educated at Adramyttion until he was twelve years old. When this man fell ill and was close to the end of his life, he finally told Andriscus about his origin and gave his "mother" a writing that had been sealed by king Perseus, which she should give the boy when he reached maturity, and the teacher added that everything had to be kept secret until that moment. When he reached maturity, Andriscus received the writing, from which he learned that his father had left him two treasures. Until then he had only known that he was a foster son and had been unaware about his real ancestry; now his foster mother told him about his lineage and begged him to avoid being assassinated by departing from the country before the news reached [king] Eumenes [II Soter of Pergamon], an enemy of Perseus. Frightened and hoping to obtain assistance from Demetrius, he went to Syria, where he had declared for the first time who he was.

Event Date: -149 LA

§ 50.e  From book 50:
Thessaly, which the false Philip wanted to invade and occupy with his armies, was defended by Roman envoys and Achaean allies.
King Prusias [II the Hunter] of Bithynia, a man full of the lowest moral defects, was killed by his son Nicomedes [Epiphanes], who received help from king Attalus [II] of Pergamon, but had a second son (who is said to have had one single bone growing in place of his upper teeth). When the Romans sent three envoys to negotiate peace between Nicomedes and Prusias, of which the first had many scars on his head, the second was gouty, and the third was considered to have a slow mind, Marcus [Porcius] Cato said that this was embassy without head, feet, and brains.
In Syria, which had until then had a king [Alexander I Balas] who was equal to that of Macedonia in ancestry but to Prusias in laziness and slowness, and who took his ease in kitchens and brothels, Hammonius ruled, and he murdered all friends of the king, and queen Laodice, and Demetrius' son Antigonus.
[148 BCE] More than ninety years old, king Massinissa of Numidia died, a remarkable man. He was so vigorous that among the other youthful exploits that he performed during his final years, he was still sexually active and begot a son when he was eighty-six. He left his undivided kingdom to his three sons (Micipsa the eldest, Gulussa, and Mastanabal, who was well-versed in Greek literature), and ordered them to divide it according to the instructions of Publius [Cornelius] Scipio Aemilianus, who accordingly assigned the part of the kingdom they were to rule.
The same man persuaded Phameas Himilco, the commander of the Carthaginian cavalry and a man of valor who was important to the Carthaginians, to join the Romans with his squadron.
From the three envoys that were sent to Massinissa, Marcus Claudius Marcellus drowned during a tempest at sea.
In their Senate room, the Carthaginians killed Hasdrubal, a grandson of Massinissa who served them as general, because they believed he was a traitor. Their suspicion was based on his relation to the Romans' ally Gulussa.
When Publius [Cornelius] Scipio Aemilianus ran for aedile, he was elected consul by the people. Because he could not lawfully be made consul as he was under age, there was a big struggle between the people, who campaigned for him, and the senators, who resisted him for some time, but eventually the law was repealed and he was made consul.
Manius Manilius stormed several cities in the neighborhood of Carthage.
[147 BCE] After the false Philip had massacred praetor Publius Juventius with his army in Macedonia, he was defeated and captured by Quintus Caecilius, and Macedonia was subdued again.

Event Date: -148 LA

§ 51.e  From book 51:
Carthage, which had a circumference of 34 kilometers, was besieged with much labor, and captured part by part; first by deputy Mancinus, then by consul Scipio [Aemilianus], to whom the African command had been assigned without casting lots. Because the old harbor had been blocked by Scipio, the Carthaginians dug a new one, and quickly and secretly built a large fleet, with which they fought an unsuccessful naval battle. The castle of Hasdrubal, their leader, on difficult terrain near the town of Nepheris was also destroyed by Scipio, who [146 BCE] finally captured the city in the seven-hundredth year since it was founded.
A major part of the spoils were given back to the Sicilians, from whom they had been seized.
When Hasdrubal surrendered to Scipio during the final stage of the siege, his wife, who had -only a few days before- been unable to convince her husband to escape to the victor, threw herself from the citadel into the flames of the burning city with her two children.
Scipio, following the example of his father, the Aemilius Paullus who had conquered Macedonia, organized games and cast deserters and runaways for the wild animals.
The origins of the Achaean War are described as follows: at Corinth, Roman envoys were attacked by Achaeans. These envoys had been sent to separate those towns that had been under control of Philip [V of Macedonia] from the Achaean league.

Event Date: -146 LA

§ 52.e  From book 52:
At Thermopylae, Quintus Caecilius Metellus fought a battle against the Achaeans, who received support from the Boeotians and Chalcidians. After their defeat, their commander Critolaus poisoned himself. In his place Diaeus, the instigator of the Achaean revolt, was elected as leader by the Achaeans, and he was defeated at the Isthmus by consul Lucius Mummius. Having received the surrender of all Achaea and being ordered to do so by the Senate, he sacked Corinth, where the Roman envoys had been maltreated. Thebes and Chalcis, which had supported the Achaeans, were also destroyed. This Lucius Mummius was a selfless man: none of the works of art and decorations that had been in "rich Corinth", entered his house.
Quintus Caecilius Metellus celebrated a triumph over Andriscus, and Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus over Carthage and Hasdrubal.
In Hispania, Viriathus (who first changed from a shepherd into a hunter, then into a bandit, and soon into the leader of an army) occupied all of Lusitania, routed the army of praetor Marcus Vetilius and captured him, after which praetor Gaius Plautius fought without any luck. This enemy inspired so much fear that a consul and his army were needed.
There is also an account of the situation in Syria and the war waged between its kings. As already indicated, Alexander [I Balas], an unknown man of uncertain descent, ruled Syria after king Demetrius [Soter] had been killed. [145 BCE] Demetrius [II Nicator], son of Demetrius, who had been sent to Cnidus by his father because of the uncertainties of war, despised Alexander's slowness and indolence, and killed him in a battle in which he received the support of king Ptolemy [VI Philometor] of Egypt, whose daughter Cleopatra [Thea] he had married. Ptolemy received a severe head wound and died when physicians tried to trepan the skull in order to heal the wound; he was succeeded by his younger brother Ptolemy [VIII Euergetes] (who had reigned in Cyrene). Because of the cruelty with which Demetrius tortured his own people, he was defeated in war and forced to flee to Seleucia by one Diodotus, one of his subjects and a man who supported the claim to the throne of Alexander's two year old son.
Lucius Mummius celebrated a triumph over the Achaeans, and carried in the procession statues of bronze and marble and paintings.

Event Date: -145 LA

§ 53.e  From book 53:
[143 BCE] Consul Appius Claudius subdued the Salassians, a nation from the Alps.
In Macedonia, another false Philip was killed, together with his army, by quaestor Lucius Temellius.
Proconsul Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated the Celtiberians and proconsul Quintius Fabius recovered a large part of Lusitania after he had stormed several towns.
Senator Acilius wrote a Roman History, in Greek.

Event Date: -143 LA

§ 54.e  From book 54:
[141 BCE] In Hispania, consul Quintus Pompeius defeated the Termestinians. With them and the Numantines he concluded a peace treaty that was not ratified by the Roman people.
[139 BCE] The censors performed the lustrum ceremony. 328,442 citizens were registered.
When Macedonian envoys arrived to complain about praetor Decimus Junius Silanus, who had accepted bribes and had looted the province, the Senate wanted to investigate the complaints, but Titus Manlius Torquatus (the [adoptive] father of Silanus) successfully asked that he would hear the case; at home, he condemned and sent away his son.And he did not attend the funeral of his son who hanged himself, but sat at home, offering legal advice to those wanted it, as was his custom.
In Hispania, proconsul Quintus Fabius met with success but spoilt it because he concluded a peace treaty with Viriathus on equal terms.
Viriathus was killed by traitors, instigated by Servilius Caepio, and he was deeply mourned by his soldiers, who gave him a splendid funeral. For fourteen years, this great man and commander had waged war against the Romans, often successfully.

Event Date: -141 LA

§ 55.e  From book 55:
[138 BCE] When the consuls Publius Cornelius Nasica (whose surname Serapio was invented by the irreverent tribune of the plebs Curiatius) and Decimus Junius Brutus were holding the levy, something happened in front of the recruits that served as an example: Gaius Matienus was accused before the tribunes because he had deserted the Spanish army, and was, after he had been condemned, sent under the yoke, chastised with rods, and sold for one sesterce.
Because it was not permitted to the tribunes to select ten men that would be free from military service, they ordered that the consuls were imprisoned.
In Hispania, consul Junius Brutus gave land and a town, called Valentia, to those who had fought under Virtiathus.
After the Senate had refused to sign a peace treaty, Marcus Popilius and his army were defeated and routed by the Numantines.
[137 BCE] When consul Gaius Hostilius Manicius wanted to sacrifice, the chickens flew out of the coop, and when he boarded his ship to sail to Hispania, a voice was heard that said "Stay, Manicius!" This was a bad omen, as was shown by the events, for he was not only defeated but also expelled from his camp, and when he despaired of saving his army, he concluded an ignominious peace treaty, which the Senate refused to ratify. Forty thousand Romans had been defeated by four thousand Numantines.
By storming all its cities until he had reached the Ocean, Decimus Junius subdued Lusitania completely, and when his soldiers refused to cross the river Lethe, he took the standard from its bearer, carried it across the water, and persuaded them to follow him.
[Antiochus] the son of Alexander, the king of Syria, who was a mere ten years old, was killed by the treachery of his tutor Diodotus, surnamed "the magnificent". He had bribed the physicians, who said that the boy suffered severely from a stone, and killed him on the operation table.

Event Date: -138 LA

§ 56.e  From book 56:
In Hispania Ulterior, Decimus Junius Brutus successfully fought against the Gallaecians. Proconsul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus obtained different results against the Vaccaeans, against whom he suffered a defeat equal to that at Numantia. To release the nation from the ties of the treaty with Numantia, its instigator Mancinus was handed over to the Numantines, but they did not accept him.
The censors performed the lustrum ceremony. 317,933 citizens were registered.
[135 BCE] Consul Fulvius Flaccus subdued the Vardaeans in Illyricum.
In Thrace, praetor Marcus Cosconius successfully fought against the Scordiscians.
[134 BCE] Because of the mistakes of the commanders, and to the shame of the state, the Numantine war dragged on, so the Senate and people of Rome offered the consulship to Scipio Africanus [Aemilianus]; and because he could not accept this because of the law, which forbade second consulships, the rulers were changes, just as it had happened during his previous consulate.
When the Servile War in Sicily could not be suppressed by the praetors, consul Gaius Fulvius was sent. This war was started by a Syrian slave named Eunus, who gathered rural slaves, opened the workhouses, and expanded his band to the size of an army. Another slave, Cleon, gathered seventy thousand slaves, and the Roman army was frequently defeated when the slave armies had united.

Event Date: -135 LA

§ 57.e  From book 57:
[133 BCE] Scipio Africanus [Aemilianus] besieged Numantia and restored the strictest discipline in an army that was corrupted by license and luxury. He forbade all tools of pleasure, expelled two thousand prostitutes from the camp, made the soldiers work every day, and ordered them to carry thirty days of food and seven stakes. To a man who carried it with difficulty, he said: "when you know how to make a wall from a sword, you can stop carrying the wall"; and to one who had difficulty with his shield, he said "although you are carrying a shield that is larger than prescribed, I don't blame you, because you know better how to manage a shield than to manage a sword". When a soldier was seen out of ranks, he had him beaten with vines when he was a Roman, or with rods if he was a foreigner. He sold all animals, so that they might not relieve the soldiers from their loads. He frequently fought successfully against enemy sallies. When the Vaccaeans were besieged, they massacred their children and wives and killed themselves.
Expensive presents were sent to Scipio by king Antiochus [VII] of Syria, and -although it was the habit of other commanders to hide royal presents- ordered to accept the gifts in front of the tribunal, and told the quaestors to enter the presents in the public accounts; from this, he would give presents to brave men. When he had locked up Numantia from all sides and noticed that the besieged suffered from hunger, he ordered that those enemies who went out to look for food should not be killed, because they would sooner exhaust their supplies if there were more of them.

Event Date: -133 LA

§ 58.e  From book 58:
Against the wishes of the Senate and the equestrian order, the tribune of the plebs Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus carried a land bill: no one was to own more than one thousand iugera of public land. In a rage, Gracchus removed by a special enactment his colleague Marcus Octavius because he had defended the opposing point of view; and he had himself, his brother Gaius Gracchus, and his father-in-law Appius Claudius elected as members of a triumviral board to divide land. He carried another land bill (aimed at getting more land) that this board was to judge which land was owned by the state and which by private individuals. When there turned out to be less land than he could divide without incurring the wrath of the plebeians -Gracchus had made them so greedy that they hoped for a large amount- he announced that he would promote a law to divide the money that had been bequested by king Attalus [III] among those who would, according to his first law, have been given money.(King Attalus of Pergamon, the son of Eumenes [II], had made the Roman people his heir.)
The Senate, especially former consul Titus Annius, was very disturbed by these actions.When Annius had delivered a speech against Gracchus in the Senate, he was arrested by Gracchus and accused before the plebeians, and Annius now made a public speech against him.
When Gracchus wanted to be reelected as tribune, he was killed on the Capitol by the optimates, led by Publius Cornelius Nasica. Gracchus was first hit by a piece of a chair, and with those who perished in this fight, he was thrown in the river, without funeral.
It also contains an account of actions with various outcomes against the Sicilian runaway slaves.

Event Date: -132 LA

§ 59.e  From book 59:
Forced by starvation, the Numantines ran one another through and massacred themselves, and Scipio Africanus [Aemilianus] sacked the captured city, and celebrated a triumph in the fourteenth year after the destruction of Carthage.
[132 BCE] Consul Publius Rupilius defeated the Sicilian runaway slaves.
Aristonicus, the son of king Eumenes [in fact Attalus II Philadelphus], occupied Asia, which had been bequested to the Roman people and was supposed to be free. [131 BCE] Consul Publius Licinius Crassus, who was at the same time pontifex maximus (something that had never happened before), set out against him from Italy, but was defeated and killed in battle. [130 BCE] Consul Marcus Perperna, however, accepted the surrender of the defeated Aristonicus.
[129 BCE] The first two plebeian censors, Quintus Pompeius and Quintius Metellus, performed the lustrum ceremony. 318,823 citizens were registered, wards and widows not included. Censor Quintus Metellus suggested that everyone ought to be forced to marry to create more children. (His speech still exists, and was quoted in the Senate by the emperor Augustus as if it had recently been written, when he proposed a marriage law.)
Tribune Gaius Atinius Labeo ordered censor Quintus Metellus to be thrown from the [Tarpeian] rock, because he had not included him when he had revised the list of senators; the other tribunes assisted Metellus to prevent this.
When tribune [Gaius Papirius] Carbo proposed that someone could be tribune as often as he wished, Publius [Cornelius Scipio] Africanus [Aemilianus] argued against this law in a dignified speech, in which he said that Tiberius Gracchus appeared to be lawfully killed. Although Gaius Gracchus spoke for the proposal, Scipio won.
An account is given of the war between king Antiochus [VII] of Syria and Phraates [II] of the Parthians, and of the no less turbulent situation in Egypt. Ptolemy (surnamed Euergetes) was hated by his people because he was too cruel, and secretly fled to Cyprus when the people had set his palace afire; and when the kingdom was given by the people to his sister Cleopatra (whom he had divorced after he had raped and married her virgin daughter), he killed, in a fit of anger, the son she had given him, and sent the boy's head, hands, and feet to his mother.
Riots were exited by the board of three for the division of land, Fulvius Flaccus, Gaius Gracchus, and Gaius Papirius Carbo. Although he had returned home in good health, Publius [Cornelius] Scipio Africanus [Aemilianus] was found dead in his bed room after he had appeared in opposition on the former day. His wife was suspected of poisoning him, chiefly because Sempronia was the sister of the Gracchi, whom Africanus had opposing. Yet there was no prosecution of the case. After his death, the triumviral riots were exacerbated.
Consul Gaius Sempronius at first fought unsuccessfully against the Iapydes, but the defeat was compensated by a victory won through the qualities of Decimus Junius Brutus (the man who had subdued Lusitania).

Event Date: -132 LA

§ 60.e  From book 60:
[126 BCE] Consul Lucius Aurelius subdued rebellious Sardinians.
[125 BCE] Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, sent out to help the Massiliots against Gallic Salluvians living on the Massilian frontier, was the first to subdue Ligurians beyond the Alps.
Praetor Lucius Opimius accepted the surrender of the rebellious Fregellans and sacked Fregellae.
There is a reference to a plague of locusts in Africa and the large numbers of killed insects.
[124 BCE] The censors performed the lustrum ceremony. 394,736 citizens were registered.
[123 BCE] Tribune Gaius Gracchus, brother of Tiberius and a better orator, carried several dangerous laws, among which was one on the supply of grain, which was to be sold for six and one-third asses to the plebs; a land bill like that of his brother; and a third law, aimed at corrupting the equestrian order (which at that time was collaborating with the Senate), that six hundred knights should be added to the Senate. Because back then, there were only three hundred senators, and the six hundred knights and three hundred senators would be mixed, the equestrian order would have a majority of two to one in the Senate. After Gracchus had continued to a second tribuneship, he passed new land bills, which resulted in the founding of several colonies in Italy, and one in Carthage, of which he himself was one of the three founders.
It also contains an account of the war of Quintus [Caecilius] Metellus against those Balearans whom the Greeks call Gymnesios, because they are naked in the summer. The Balearans received their name from their missiles, or else from Balius, a companion of Hercules who was left behind when he sailed to Geryon.
A description is given of the situation in Syria, in which Cleopatra [Thea] first killed her husband Demetrius [II Nicator] and then her son Seleucus [V], because she hated him. After she had killed his father, he had accepted the diadem without her permission.

Event Date: -126 LA

§ 61.e  From book 61:
After he had defeated the tribe of the Salluvians, proconsul Gaius Sextius founded the colony of Aquae Sextiae, which was called like this because there is much water from warm and cold springs.
Proconsul Gnaeus Domitius successfully fought against the Allobroges near the town of Vindalium. The reason for starting this war was that the Allobroges had offered refuge to king Toutomotulus of the Salluvians, and had supported him with all possible means when he devastated the land of the Aedui, an ally of the Roman people.
[121 BCE] After a turbulent tribuneship, Gaius Gracchus occupied the Aventine with an armed mob, but, after the Senate had decided to summon the people to arms, he was routed and killed by consul Lucius Opimius. Former consul Fulvius Flaccus, Gracchus' ally in his madness, died with him.
Consul Quintus Fabius Maximus, grandson of Paulus, successfully fought against the Allobroges and Bituitus, the king of the Arvernians. From the army of Bituitus, 120,000 men were killed; after the king himself had gone to Rome to make peace with the Senate, he was kept in custody at Alba, because his return to Gaul seemed not to be in the interest of tranquillity. It was also decided to arrest his son Congonnetiacus and send him to Rome. The surrender of the Allobroges was accepted.
[120 BCE] Lucius Opimius, accused before the people by Quintus Decius, tribune of the plebs, on the charge that he had sent citizens to jail without trial, was acquitted.

Event Date: -121 LA

§ 62.e  From book 62:
[118 BCE] Consul Quintus Marcius defeated the Stynians, a nation living in the Alps.
When he died, king Micipsa of Numidia left his kingdom to his three sons Adherbal, Hiempsal, and Jugurtha (the adopted son of his brother).
[117 BCE] Lucius Caecilius Metellus subdued the Dalmatians.
Jugurtha launched an armed attack on his brother Hiempsal, who was defeated and killed. Adherbal was expelled from the kingdom, but restored by the Senate.
Lucius Caecilius Metellus and Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, acting as censors, removed thirty-two members from the Senate.
It also contains an account of disturbances in Syria and a quarrel between its kings.

Event Date: -118 LA

§ 63.e  From book 63:
[114 BCE] In Thrace, consul Gaius Porcius unsuccessfully fought against the Scordiscians.
The censors performed the lustrum ceremony. 394,336 citizens were registered.
The Vestal virgins Aemilia, Licinia, and Marcia were condemned for unchastity. There is a description of how this unchastity was committed, discovered, and punished.
[113 BCE] In pursuit of plunder, the nomadic tribe of the Cimbrians came to Illyricum. Consul Papirius Carbo and his army were defeated by them.
[112 BCE] In Thrace, consul Livius Drusus successfully fought against the Scordiscians, a nation of Gallic descent.

Event Date: -114 LA

§ 64.e  From book 64:
Adherbal, attacked by Jugurtha and besieged in the town of Cirtha was killed in violation of a senatorial decree. [111 BCE] Because of this, war was declared upon Jugurtha, and consul Calpurnius Bestia, who was sent out to conduct this war, concluded a treaty with Jugurtha, without being ordered to do so by the people or the Senate.
Under safe-conduct, Jugurtha was invited to Rome so that he might indicate the instigators of his plots (he was said to have corrupted many senators with bribes), and arrived. Because he killed some sort of king who was called Massiva and tried to claim the kingdom of the hated Jugurtha from the Roman people, Jugurtha risked standing trial for his life, and secretly fled. It is said that when he left the city, he commented: "What a corrupt city! It will perish as soon as it finds someone to buy it."
[110 BCE] Deputy Aulus Postumius was defeated in battle by Jugurtha and added to this an dishonorable peace treaty, which the Senate preferred not to ratify.

Event Date: -111 LA

§ 65.e  From book 65:
[109 BCE] Consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Jugurtha in two battles and devastated all Numidia.
[108 BCE] Consul Marcus Junius Silanus unsuccessfully fought against the Cimbrians. The Senate ignored the envoys of the Cimbrians who demanded land and a place to settle.
Proconsul Marcus Minucius successfully fought against the Thracians.
[107 BCE] In the country of the Nitiobriges, consul Lucius Cassius [Longinus] was massacred with his army by the Gallic Tigurini, a Helvetian tribe that had left its own country. After the soldiers who had survived the disaster had given hostages and half of their possessions, they arranged to be released unharmed.

Event Date: -109 LA

§ 66.e  From book 66:
[106 BCE] When Jugurtha, expelled from Numidia by Gaius Marius, received help of Bocchus, king of the Maurians, Bocchus' troops were slaughtered in battle and Bocchus no longer wanted to continue the war he had so unfortunately undertaken. He threw Jugurtha in chains and handed him over to Marius; in this affair, the main actor was Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the quaestor of Gaius Marius.

Event Date: -106 LA

§ 67.e  From book 67:
[105 BCE] After the defeat of his army, Marcus Aurelius Scaurus, a deputy of the consul, was captured by the Cimbrians and called to their council, where he deterred them from crossing the Alps and going to Italy, saying that the Romans were unconquerable. He was killed by a savage young man, Boiorix. Defeated by the same enemies, consul Gnaeus Manlius and proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio were stripped of both their camps; according to Valerius Antias, 80,000 soldiers and 40,000 servants and camp followers were killed near Arausio. Caepio, who had caused the defeat by his rashness, was convicted; his possessions were confiscated (for the first time since king Tarquinius) and his powers abrogated.
[104 BCE] During the triumph of Gaius Marius, Jugurtha walked in front of the chariot with his two sons, and was killed in the jail. Marius entered the Senate in triumphal dress, something no one had ever done before, and his consulship was prolonged out of fear of the Cimbrian war. He was away when he was elected for consul for the second and third time, and obtained a fourth consulship by pretending not to be aiming for it.
The people chose Gnaeus Domitius as pontifex maximus.
Having devastated everything between Rhône and Pyrenees, the Cimbrians moved through a mountain pass into Hispania, where they were -after having devastated many districts- routed by the Celtiberians. They returned to Gaul and joined the Teutons in the land of the Veliocasses.

Event Date: -105 LA

§ 68.e  From book 68:
Praetor Marcus Antonius pursued the pirates to Cilicia.
[102 BCE] Consul Gaius Marius defended his camp against a violent attack by the Teutons and Ambronians. After this, he defeated these enemies in two battles near Aquae Sextiae, in which -they say- 200,000 enemies were killed and 90,000 captured.
[101 BCE] Although away from home, Marius was elected consul for the fifth time. He postponed the triumph offered to him until he had also defeated the Cimbrians.
The Cimbrians, who had driven back and put to flight proconsul Quintus Catulus, who had wanted to block the passes in the Alps (near the river Adige he left a cohort that occupied a mountain castle; but by its own valour it broke away and followed the fleeing proconsul and his army), invaded Italy, [100 BCE] but were defeated in battle by the united forces of this Catulus and Gaius Marius; it is said that 160,000 enemies were killed and 60,000 captured.
Although Marius, welcomed by the applause of the entire state, had been offered two triumphs, he was content with one. The first men in the state, who had until then envied the "new man" who had reached so many important posts, now admitted that the state had been rescued by him.
Publicius Malleolus, who had killed his mother, was the first to be sewn into a sack and thrown into the sea.
It is said that the sacred shields moved and rattled before the Cimbrian war was over.
It also contains an account of a war between the Syrian kings [Antiochus VIII and Antiochus IX].

Event Date: -102 LA

§ 69.e  From book 69:
Using violence, Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, who had the support of Gaius Marius, and whose rival Aulus Nunnius had been killed by soldiers, was made tribune of the plebs, and occupied his tribuneship no less violently than he had tried to obtain it. When he had, using violence, passed a land bill, he accused Metellus Numidicus, who had not sworn to uphold this law. He was defended by the better citizens, but went into voluntary exile at Rhodes because he refused to be the cause of civil struggle. Here, he found distraction in reading and listening to great orators.
When he had left, Gaius Marius, who was responsible for the riot and had bought a sixth consulship by distributing money to the voting districts, confirmed Metellus' exile.
The same tribune Appuleius Saturninus assassinated Gaius Memmius, a candidate for the consulship whom he feared to be against him. Shocked by these crimes, the Senate, to whose side Gaius Marius (a man of constantly changing ideas and plans, always following fortune) had gone over, put Saturninus down, together with the praetor Glaucia and other allies who accompanied him in his madness, and had him killed in something like a battle.
With the approval of the entire community, Quintus Caecilius Metellus was recalled from exile.
Proconsul Manius Aquilius put an end to the war against the slaves that had originated in Sicily.

Event Date: -100 LA

§ 70.e  From book 70:
When Manius Aquilius was accused of extortion, he refused to appeal to the jury, and Marcus Antonius, who had spoken for him, tore the tunic from his chest to show his honorable scars. Without further ado, he was acquitted. (Cicero is the only source for this case.)
[97 BCE] Proconsul Titus Didius successfully fought against the Celtiberians.
[96 BCE] After his death, king Ptolemy of Cyrene, surnamed Apion, made the Roman people his inheritor and the Senate decreed that all the towns in his kingdom were to be free.
[95 BCE] Ariobarzanes was brought back to the kingdom of Cappadocia by Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Envoys of the Parthians, sent by the Arsacid king, came to Sulla to ask for the friendship of the Roman people.
[92 BCE] Because as deputy of governor Gaius Mucius he had defended Asia against the injustice of the publicans, Publius Rutilius, a man of supreme innocence, was hated by the equestrian order, which controlled the law courts and sent him into exile because of extortion.
Praetor Gaius Sentius unsuccessfully fought against the Thracians.
[91 BCE] The Senate, which refused to accept the control of the law courts by the equestrian order, started to try to transfer control to the Senate itself. It was supported by tribune Marcus Livius Drusus, who, to obtain more power, stirred up the people with the dangerous hope of a largesse.
It also contains an account of the troubles in the Syrian kingdom.

Event Date: -97 LA

§ 71.e  From book 71:
[91 BCE] Marcus Livius Drusus, a tribune of the plebs who wanted to reinforce the powers of the Senate, appealed to the allies and Italian nations and made them hope for the Roman citizenship; with their help, he carried by force laws on the distribution of land and grain, and also carried a law on jurisdiction to the effect that the juries would be made up from one half of senators and one half of knights. When he could not keep his promise to give citizenship to his allies, the angry Italians started to think about defection. Their gatherings and conspiracies and the speeches in the council of their leaders are reported [in this book]. For these reasons, Livius Drusus became hated even in the Senate, as if he had been the cause of the Social War, and he was assassinated by an unknown person in his own house.

Event Date: -91 LA

§ 72.e  From book 72:
The following Italian nations revolted: the Picentes, Vestinians, Marsians, Paelignians, Marrucinians, Samnites, and Lucanians. The first act of war was by the Picentes, who killed proconsul Quintus Servilius in the town Asculum, with all Roman citizens who were in this town. The people put on the war dress.
Servius Galba, who was captured by the Lucanians, was released from captivity by one single woman, with whom he had been lodging. The colonies of Aesernia and Alba were besieged by the Italians. The troops sent to the relief of the Roman people by the Latins and foreign nations, the expeditions from both sides, and the storming of cities are also described [in book 72].

Event Date: -90 LA

§ 73.e  From book 73:
[90 BCE] Lucius Julius Caesar, the consul, lost a battle against the Samnites. The colonia at Nola fell in the hands of the Samnites, together with praetor Lucius Postumus, who was executed by them.
Many nations sided with the enemies. When consul Publius Rutilius had fought against the Marsians, with mixed results, and had fallen in battle, his deputy Gaius Marius had more success in a battle against the enemy.
Servius Sulpicius routed the Paelignians.
When Quintus Caepio, deputy of Rutilius, was besieged and successfully repelled his enemies, and was given equal powers to Gaius Marius, he became reckless, was trapped in an ambush, and fell in the rout of his army.
Consul Lucius Julius Caesar fought successfully against the Samnites. Because of his victory, at Rome, the battle dress was laid aside.
To show the varying fortunes of war, the colony at Aeserna, together with Marcus Marcellus, fell in the hands of the Samnites, but Gaius Marius routed the Marsians, and Hierius Asinius, the commander of the Marrucinians, was killed.
In Transalpine Gaul, Gaius Caelius defeated the rebellious Salluvians.

Event Date: -90 LA

§ 74.e  From book 74:
[89 BCE] Gnaeus Pompeius routed [and?] besieged the Picentes. Because of this victory, the purple-bordered togas and other distinctions of the magistrates were assumed. Gaius Marius fought against the Marsians, with an unclear outcome. For the first time, freedmen were allowed to serve in the army.
Deputy Aulus Plotius defeated the Umbrians and praetor Lucius Porcius the Etruscans. Both nations had revolted.
In Bithynia Nicomedes was restored to the throne and Ariobarzanes in the kingdom of Cappadocia.
[88 BCE] Consul Gnaeus Pompeius defeated the Marsians in an open battle. Because the citizenry was oppressed by debts, praetor Aulus Sempronius Asellio, who was deciding cases in favor of the debtors, was killed in the Forum by usurers.
It also contains an account of Thracians raids into Macedonia.

Event Date: -89 LA

§ 75.e  From book 75:
The deputy Aulus Postumius Albinus, commander of the navy, was killed by his own army because he was suspected of the infamous crime of high treason.
Deputy Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeated the Samnites in battle and expelled them from two of their camps.
Gnaeus Pompeius accepted the surrender of the Vestinians.
After a successful campaign and repeatedly routing the Marsians, consul Lucius Porcius fell while storming one of their camps. This event gave the victory in that battle to the enemies.
Cosconius and Lucanus defeated the Samnites in battle, killing Marius Egnatius, the most noble leader of their enemies. They accepted the surrender of several towns.
Lucius Sulla subdued the Hirpinians, defeated the Samnites in several battles, accepted the surrender of a number of people, and proceeded to Rome to run for consul, having achieved more than most people achieve before their consulship.

Event Date: -89 LA

§ 76.e  From book 76:
[89 BCE] Deputy Aulus Gabinius had successfully waged war against the Lucanians and had captured many towns, when he was killed during the siege of a camp. Commander Sulpicius slaughtered all Marrucinians and accepted the surrender of the entire region. Proconsul Gnaeus Pompeius accepted the surrender of the Vestinians and Paelignians.The Marsians, broken in several battles by the deputies Lucius Cinna and Caecilius Pius, started to beg for peace. Gnaeus Pompeius captured Asculum. After the Italians had been defeated again by deputy Aemilius Mamercus, the leader of the Marsians and ringleader of the affair, Poppaedius Silo, fell in battle.
[88 BCE] Ariobarzanes of Cappadocia and Nicomedes of Bithynia were dethroned by Mithridates, king of Pontus.
It also contains an account of raids and plundering by the Thracians in Macedonia.

Event Date: -89 LA

§ 77.e  From book 77:
When tribune of the plebs Publius Sulpicius, on the instigation of Carius Marius, had proposed dangerous laws (that the exiles would be recalled, new citizens and freedmen would be divided in voting districts, and Marius would be appointed leader against Mithridates, king of Pontus), and had used violence against the opposing consuls Quintus Pompeius and Lucius Sulla, killing Quintus Pompeius (the son of consul Quintus Pompeius and son-in-law of Sulla), Lucius Sulla entered the city with an army, fought a battle against the factions of Sulpicius and Marius in the city itself, and expelled them. Twelve members of this faction -among others father and son Marius- were proclaimed enemies by the Senate.
When Publius Sulpicius was hiding in a villa, he was hunted down and killed on information given by his own slave. Because he had shown the way, the slave received the promised freedom, but was thrown from the [Tarpeian] rock because of his criminal betrayal of his master.
The younger Gaius Marius crossed to Africa. The elder Gaius Marius hid himself in the marches near Minturnae, but was dragged out by the citizens. When a slave from Gaul was sent out to kill him, he withdrew because he feared the greatness of this man, and Marius was put on one of the town's ships and sent to Africa.
Lucius Sulla reordered the state and sent out colonies.
Consul Quintus Pompeius set out to take over the army of proconsul Gnaeus Pompeius, but was killed by the latter.
King Mithridates of Pontus, having occupied Bithynia and Cappadocia and having expelled governor Aquilius, invaded Phrygia, a province of the Roman people, with an enormous army.

Event Date: -88 LA

§ 78.e  From book 78:
Mithridates occupied Asia, cast into chains proconsul Quintus Oppius, did the same to his deputy Aquilius, and on Mithridates' command all Roman citizens in Asia were killed in one single day.He attacked the city of Rhodes, which alone had remained faithful to the Roman people, but was defeated in several naval battles, and retired.
Archelaus, the deputy of the king, went to Greece with an army and occupied Athens.
It also contains an account of the disorders in the cities and on the islands, as some wanted to side with Mithridates, and others with the Roman people.

Event Date: -88 LA

§ 79.e  From book 79:
[87 BCE] When consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna was carrying dangerous laws by violence and arms, he along with six tribunes of the plebs was expelled from the city by his colleague Gnaeus Octavius and deprived of his office, but with bribes, he brought the army of Appius Claudius in his power and carried the war into the city, recalling Gaius Marius and other exiles from Africa. (In this war, two brothers, one from the army of Pompeius and one from Cinna's, unknowingly engaged, and when the winner was stripping the man he had killed, he cried heavily when he recognized his brother and built a pyre, on which he stabbed himself, and was consumed by the same fire.)
And although [the civil war] could have been suppressed at the very beginning, by the treason of Gnaeus Pompeius (who supported both sides and did not bring help to the optimates till their position had become desparate) and by the slowness of the consul, the position of Cinna and Marius was strengthened, so that they were able to besiege the city with four armies, two of which were given to Quintus Sertorius and Carbo.
Marius captured the colony at Ostia and sacked it cruelly.

Event Date: -87 LA

§ 80.e  From book 80:
Citizenship was given to the Italian nations by the Senate. The Samnites, the only ones to take up arms again, sided with Cinna and Marius. They defeated deputy Plautius and his army.
Cinna and Marius, together with Carbo and Sertorius, attacked the Janiculum, but were routed by consul Octavius and retreated. Marius captured the colonies at Antium and Aricia and Lanuvium.
When, because of the slowness and perfidy of both their leaders and their soldiers (who were bribed and did not want to fight or moved to other regions), the optimates had lost all hope of holding out, Cinna and Marius were received in the city, which they treated with murder and rape as if it were conquered. Consul Gnaeus Octavius was killed and all noble members of the opposite party butchered, like Marcus Antonius (a man of great eloquence), and Gaius and Lucius Caesar, whose heads were placed on the speaker's platform. The younger Crassus was killed by the knights of Fimbria, and the elder Crassus, wishing to avoid a fate unworthy of his dignity, stabbed himself with his sword.
And without even the appearance of election, they [Cinna and Marius] appointed themselves consuls for the next year.
[86 BCE] On the very day of the beginning of his magistracy, Marius ordered that the senator Sextus Licinius was to be thrown from he [Tarpeian] rock. After many crimes, Marius died on the Ides of January. When we take everything into account, he had been a man about whom it was not easy to say whether he was more excellent in times of war than he was dangerous in times of peace. It can therefore be said that as much as he saved the state as a soldier, so much he damaged it as a citizen - first by his tricks, later by his revolutionary actions.

Event Date: -86 LA

§ 81.e  From book 81:
[87 BCE] Lucius Sulla besieged Athens, which had been occupied by Archelaus, an officer of Mithridates; [86 BCE] after much labor he took the city [...] he gave it back the freedom it used to have.
Magnesia, the only city in Asia that remained loyal, was defended against Mithridates with the greatest courage.
It also contains an account of Thracian raids into Macedonia.

Event Date: -87 LA

§ 82.e  From book 82:
Sulla defeated in battle the army of the king, which had occupied Macedonia and entered Thessalia. 100,000 enemies were killed and the camp was captured. Later, the war was renewed and Sulla defeated and destroyed a second army of the king.
Archelaus and the royal navy surrendered to Sulla.
Because of his avarice, consul Lucius Valerius Flaccus, the colleague of Cinna, who was sent out to replace Sulla, was impopular with his army, and he was murdered by his own deputy, Gaius Fimbria, an utterly reckless man, and the command was transferred to Fimbria.
It also contains accounts of Mithridates' attack on the cities in Asia, the ruin of that province, and Thracian raids into Macedonia.

Event Date: -86 LA

§ 83.e  From book 83:
After defeating in Asia several commanders of Mithridates in battle, Flavius Fimbria captured the city of Pergamon, and narrowly failed to arrest the king he was besieging. He also took and sacked the city of Troy, which was waiting to surrender to Sulla, and recovered a large part of Asia.
Sulla crushed the Thracians in many battles.
[85 BCE] When Lucius Cinna and Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, who had made themselves consuls for two years, were preparing the war against Sulla, Lucius Valerius Flaccus (the princeps of the Senate) delivered a speech in the Senate and, with the help of those who were pressing for unity, made sure that envoys were sent to Sulla to discuss peace. [84 BCE] Cinna was killed by his own army, which he had tried to force against its will to board ships and set out against Sulla. Carbo was now sole consul.
[85 BCE] Sulla crossed into Asia and made peace with Mithridates, so that he ceded the provinces of Asia, Bithynia, and Cappadocia.
Fimbria, left by his army, which sided with Sulla, stabbed himself, offered his neck to a slave, and persuaded the latter to kill him.

Event Date: -85 LA

§ 84.e  From book 84:
Sulla replied to the envoys who had been sent by the Senate that he would submit to the authority of the Senate if the rights of the citizens who had been expelled by Cinna and fled to him, were restored. Although this demand appeared to be reasonable to the Senate, Carbo and his faction, to whom war seemed more useful, prevented an agreement. When the same Carbo wanted to ask for hostages from all Italian towns and colonies, to secure their loyalty against Sulla, this was prevented by a unified Senate.
By senatorial decree, the new citizens received the right to vote.
After Quintus Metellus Pius, who had embraced the politics of the optimates and provoked a war in Africa, had been defeated by praetor Gaius Fabius, the faction of Carbo and the adherents of Marius passed a senatorial decree that all armies everywhere ought to be disbanded.
Freedmen were registered in the thirty-five voting districts.
It also contains an account of the preparations of the war that was to be launched against Sulla.

Event Date: -84 LA

§ 85.e  From book 85:
[83 BCE] When Sulla crossed into Italy with his army, he sent envoys to talk about peace, but when they were maltreated by consul Gaius Norbanus, he defeated this same Norbanus in battle. And when he was about to attack the camp of Lucius Scipio (the other consul), with whom he had unsuccessfully tried to reach an agreement, the entire consular army, invited by soldiers sent by Sulla, transferred its allegiance to Sulla. Scipio, who might have been killed, was released.
Gnaeus Pompey (the son of the Gnaeus Pompeius who had captured Asculum) conscripted a three-legion army of volunteers and went to Sulla, to whom all leading men of Rome made their way as well, and because of this going to the camp, the city seemed abandoned.
It also contains an account of the expeditions of war leaders of both sides all over Italy.

Event Date: -83 LA

§ 86.e  From book 86:
[83 BCE] After Gaius Marius, son of Gaius Marius, had, by the use of violence, been made consul before he was twenty years old, Gaius Fabius was burned alive in his headquarters in Africa because of his cruelty and avarice.
Lucius Philippus, a deputy of Sulla, occupied Sardinia after having expelled and killed praetor Quintus Antonius.
Sulla concluded a treaty with the Italian nations, which prevented him from being regarded as a threat to their recently obtained citizenship and voting rights. And because he now had become confident about his victory, he ordered people who wanted him to judge cases to deposit their bonds at Rome, even though the city was still kept by his enemies.
[82 BCE] At the wish of consul Gaius Marius, praetor Lucius Damasippus convened the Senate and massacred every man belonging to the nobility living in Rome. Among his victims was Quintus Mucius Scaevola, the pontifex maximus, who was murdered at the entrance of the shrine of Vesta.
It also contains an account of the renewal of the war against Mithridates in Asia.

Event Date: -83 LA

§ 87.e  From book 87:
After routing and destroying his army at Sacriportus, Sulla besieged Gaius Marius in the town of Praeneste, and recovered the city of Rome from the hands of his enemies. He repelled Marius when he tried to break away.
It also contains accounts of the achievements of his deputies, who obtained the same happy results.

Event Date: -82 LA

§ 88.e  From book 88:
Sulla drove Carbo out of Italy, having defeated his army at Clusium, Faventia, and Fidentia, and fought, with the Samnites (the only Italian nation that had not laid down its weapons yet) near the city of Rome at the Porta Collina, and having restored the state, soiled his beautiful victory with a greater cruelty than anyone had ever displayed.
In the Villa publica, he killed 8,000 people who had already surrendered, set up a proscription list, filled the city and all of Italy with slaughter, ordered the murder of all unarmed Praenestines, and killed Marius, a man of senatorial rank, after having broken his legs and arms, cutting off his ears and pulling out his eyes.
When Gaius Marius, still besieged at Praeneste by Lucretius Ofella of the Sullan faction, wanted to escape through a tunnel that turned out to be blocked by the army, he choose death. That means that when he found out that there was no escape from the tunnel, he and Telesinus, his companion in flight, ran into each other's drawn swords; Marius killed the other, was wounded himself, and killed by his slave.

Event Date: -82 LA

§ 89.e  From book 89:
Marcus Brutus, sent in a fisherman's ship by Gnaeus Papirius Carbo from Cossyra, where they had put in, to Lilybaeum, to see if Pompey was already there, was surrounded by ships sent by Pompey; he pointed his sword against himself and bracing it on a thwart of the ship, fell upon it with all his weight.
[81 BCE] Gnaeus Pompey, sent to Sicily by the Senate with special powers, killed Gnaeus [Papirius] Carbo, who met his death crying like a woman.
Sulla was made dictator, and had twenty-four fasces carried before him, something that no one had ever done before. With new laws, he strengthened the republic, diminished the powers of the tribunes of the plebs by taking away from them the right to introduce legislation, expanded the number of priests and augurs to fifteen, enrolled members of the equestrian order into the Senate, blocked the children of those who were proscribed from obtaining office, sold their possessions, and was the first to seize the profits. The proceeds were 350,000,000 sesterces.
He had Quintus Lucretius Ofella murdered at the Forum because he had run for consul against his wishes, convened a meeting and explained to the angry Roman people that he had ordered the assassination.
In Africa, Gnaeus Pompey defeated and killed the exiled Gnaeus Domitius and king Hierta of Numidia (who were stirring up war), and at the age of twenty-four, celebrated his African triumph, even though he was still a Roman knight - an honor without precedent.
When Gaius Norbanus, an exiled former consul, was arrested in the city of Rhodes, he committed suicide.
Another exiled man, Mutilus, secretly, with his head covered, arrived at the rear entrance of his wife Bastia's residence, but was not allowed to enter because he had been proscribed. Consequently, he stabbed himself and besprinkled the doorway of his wife with his blood.
Sulla recaptured Nola in Samnium. He settled forty-seven legions in the conquered country and divided it between them.
He besieged Volaterrae, a town still putting up resistance, and accepted its surrender.
Finally, Mitylene in Asia, the only city still in arms after the defeat of Mithridates, was captured and destroyed.

Event Date: -81 LA

§ 90.e  From book 90:
[78 BCE]Sulla died and the Senate honored him by allowing his burial on the Campus Martius.
Marcus Lepidus, who tried to revoke the acts of Sulla, caused a war. He was expelled form Italy by his colleague Quintus Catulus and died in Sardinia, where he had, in vain, tried to stir up a war.
Marcus Brutus, who had received Cisalpine Gaul, was killed by Gnaeus Pompey.
Quintus Sertorius, another exile, launched a very big war in Hispania Ulterior. Proconsul Lucius Manlius and Marcus Domitius, his deputy, were defeated in battle by quaestor Hirtuleius.
It also contains an account of the war waged by proconsul Publius Servilius against the Cilicians.

Event Date: -78 LA

§ 91.e  From book 91:
[77 BCE] Although Gnaeus Pompey was still a Roman knight, he was sent out against Sertorius with the powers of a proconsul. Sertorius stormed several cities and subdued several tribes.
Proconsul Appius Claudius defeated the Thracians in several battles.
Proconsul Quintus Metellus defeated Lucius Hirtulus, a quaestor of Sertorius, and his army.

Event Date: -77 LA

§ 92.e  From book 92:
[76 BCE] Gnaeus Pompey fought against Sertorius a battle with an unclear outcome, because on both sides one wing was victorious. Quintus Metellus defeated Sertorius and Perperna with their two armies, but Pompey, who was eager to be part of the victory, fought with dubious results. Later, Sertorius was besieged at Clunia, but by repeated sallies he was able to inflict as much damage on the besiegers as he received.
It also contains accounts of the campaigns waged by proconsul Curio in Thrace against the Dardanians and of the many cruel acts committed by Quintus Sertorius upon his men; on false accusations of treachery, he executed many of his friends and fellow-victims of the proscription.

Event Date: -76 LA

§ 93.e  From book 93:
In Cilicia, proconsul Publius Servilius conquered the Isaurians and captured several cities of the pirates.
[75 BCE] King Nicomedes of Bithynia made the Roman nation his heir and his kingdom was transformed into a province.
Mithridates concluded a treaty with Sertorius and declared war upon the Romans. Muster of the royal armies, infantry and naval; the occupation of Bithynia, how consul Marcus Aurelius Cotta was defeated by the king at Calchedon; the achievements of Pompey and Metellus against Sertorius [lacuna] in every aspect of war and the art of soldiery, he was their equal [lacuna] and having made them to break off the siege of Calagurris, he forced them to retreat in different regions, Metellus to Hispania Ulterior, Pompey to Gaul.

Event Date: -75 LA

§ 94.e  From book 94:
[74 BCE] Consul Lucius [Licinius] Lucullus successfully fought equestrian battles against Mithridates and launched several victorious campaigns, but restrained his mutinous soldiers, when they wanted battle.
Deiotarus, one of the tetrarchs of Gallograecia, crushed the deputies of Mithridates who tried to transfer the war to Phrygia.
It also contains an account of Gnaeus Pompey's victorious war against Sertorius in Hispania.

Event Date: -74 LA

§ 95.e  From book 95:
In Thrace, proconsul Gaius Curio subdued the Dardanians.
[73 BCE] Seventy-four gladiators escaped from the school of Lentulus at Capua, gathered a large number of slaves and workhouse prisoners, began a war under command of Crixus and Spartacus, and defeated the army of praetor Publius Varenus and his deputy Claudius Pulcher.
Near the city of Cyzicus, proconsul Lucius Lucullus destroyed the army of Mithridates with starvation and swords, expelled the king -now broken by several disasters of war and shipwreck- from Bithynia and forced him to make his escape to Pontus.

Event Date: -73 LA

§ 96.e  From book 96:
Praetor Quintus Arrius crushed Crixus, the leader of the runaway slaves, and 20,000 men. [72 BCE] Consul Gnaeus Lentulus, however, unsuccessfully fought against Spartacus. Consul Lucius Gellius and praetor Quintus Arrius were defeated by the same leader.
At a banquet, Sertorius was killed by Marcus Perpenna, Marcus Antonius and other conspirators, during the eighth year of his command; he had been a great leader and against two commanders, Pompey and Metellus, he had often been successful, although in the end, he changed into a savage and prodigal man. Leadership of his faction was transferred to Marcus [Perpenna], who was defeated, captured and killed by Gnaeus Pompey, after the latter had recovered the Spanish provinces in the almost tenth year after the beginning of the war.
Proconsul Gaius Cassius and praetor Gnaeus Manlius unsuccessfully fought against Spartacus, and the war was confined to praetor Marcus Crassus.

Event Date: -72 LA

§ 97.e  From book 97:
[71 BCE] Praetor Marcus Crassus first fought victoriously with a part of the runaways, mainly Gauls and Germans, and killed 35,000 of them, including their leaders Castus and Gannicus. Then he completely defeated Spartacus, who was killed with 60,000 people.
Praetor Marcus Antonius unsuccessfully fought a war against the Cretans, which came to an end with his own dead.
Proconsul Marcus Lucullus subdued Thrace.
Lucius Lucullus successfully fought against Mithridates in Pontus. More than 60,000 enemies were killed.
[70 BCE] Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Pompey were made consuls (Pompey after a special senatorial decree, because he had not occupied the quaestorship and was still a Roman knight), and reconstituted the tribunicial powers. Furthermore, praetor Marcus Aurelius Cotta transferred control of the law courts to the Roman knights.
His desperate position forced Mithridates to flee to king Tigranes of Armenia.

Event Date: -71 LA

§ 98.e  From book 98:
Machares, the son of Mithridates and king of Bosphorus, received the title of friend from Lucius Lucullus.
[69 BCE] Censors Gnaeus Lentulus and Lucius Gellius conducted a strict censorship, removing 64 men from the Senate. They celebrated the ritual cleansing of the state and registered 900,000 citizens.
On Sicily, praetor Lucius Metellus successfully fought against the pirates.
Quintus Catulus rededicated the reconstructed temple of the Capitoline Jupiter, which had been destroyed by fire.
In several battles in Armenia, Lucius Lucullus routed Mithridates, Tigranes and their giant armies.
Proconsul Quintus Metellus took over the war against the Cretans and besieged the city of Cydonia.
A deputy of Lucullus, Gaius Triarius, fought unsuccessfully against Mithridates. A revolt of soldiers who did not want to go any further, prevented Lucullus from pursuing Mithridates and Tigranes and obtaining the ultimate victory; involved were the two legions of Valerius, which deserted Lucullus saying that their term of service was over.

Event Date: -69 LA

§ 99.e  From book 99:
[68 BCE] Proconsul Quintus [Caecilius] Metellus captured Cnossus, Lyctus, Cydonia and many other cities.
Lucius Roscius, a tribune of the plebs , passed the law that the first 14 rows in the theater were to be designated to the Roman knights.
[67 BCE] Gnaeus Pompey was ordered by a law, passed by the People's Assembly, to pursue the pirates, who had cut off the food supply. Within forty days he expelled them from the entire sea, brought the war against them to Cilicia, and gave land and cities to the pirates that surrendered to him.
It also contains an account of Quintus Metellus' war against the Cretans, and the letters exchanged between Metellus and Gnaeus Pompey. Quintus Metellus complains that the glory of his victory was stolen by Pompey, who had sent a deputy to Crete to accept the surrender of the cities. Pompey explained why this had to be done.

Event Date: -68 LA

§ 100.e  From book 100:
[66 BCE] To the great indignation of the nobility, tribune Gaius Manilius passed a law that transferred the [Third] Mithridatic War to Pompey. [lacuna] his speech was excellent.
Having subdued the Cretans, Quintus Metellus gave laws to their island, which had until then been independent.
Gnaeus Pompey renewed the friendship with the king of the Parthians, Phraates [III], to wage war against Mithridates. In an equestrian battle, Mithridates was defeated.
It also contains an account of the war between king Phraates of the Parthians and Tigranes of the Armenians, and after this of Tigranes the younger against his father.

Event Date: -66 LA

§ 101.e  From book 101:
[66 BCE] After he had defeated Mithridates during the night, Gnaeus Pompey forced him to flee to the Bosporan kingdom. Pompey accepted the surrender of Tigranes and restored him to his own kingdom, Armenia, after he had deprived him of Syria, Phoenicia and Cilicia.
There was a conspiracy by those who had been running for consul and had been condemned for bribery. They tried to kill the consuls, but the [First Catilinarian] conspiracy was suppressed.
[65 BCE] Gnaeus Pompey, pursuing Mithridates, reached the most distant and hitherto unknown peoples. The Hiberians and Albanians were defeated in battle when they denied him passage.
It also contains an account of the flight of Mithridates through the country of the Colchians and Heniochians, and affairs in the Bosporan kingdom.

Event Date: -66 LA

§ 102.e  From book 102:
Gnaeus Pompey organized Pontus as a province. Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates, made war against his father and besieged him in his palace. When the poison Mithridates took did not kill him, he asked help from a Gallic soldier named Bitocus, who killed him.
[63 BCE] Gnaeus Pompey subdued the Jews and captured their shrine at Jerusalem, which had never before been violated [more...].
Lucius Catilina, who had twice been defeated during consular elections, conspired with praetor Lentulus, Cethegus and many others. They wanted to kill the consuls and senators, set fire to the city, and overthrow the republic. Their army was ready in Etruria. The conspiracy was suppressed by the energy of Marcus Tullius Cicero. When Catilina had been expelled from the city, the other conspirators were executed.

Event Date: -63 LA

§ 103.e  From book 103:
[62 BCE] Catilina and his army were destroyed by proconsul Gaius Antonius.
Publius Clodius, accused of having entered in woman's dress into a sanctuary that men were not allowed to enter, and of violating the wife [lacuna] of the priest Metellus, was acquitted.
Praetor Gaius Pontinus subdued the rebellious Allobrogians near Solo.
Publius Clodius was transferred to the plebs.
[61 BCE] Gaius [Julius Caesar subdued the Lusitanians [text]. [60 BCE] When this man was a candidate for the consulship, and wanted to seize control of the republic, a pact was concluded between the three leading citizens, Gnaeus Pompey, Marcus Crassus, and Gaius Caesar.
[59 BCE] When Caesar was consul, agrarian laws were passed after much strife, against the wishes of the Senate and the other consul, Marcus Bibulus.
Proconsul Gaius Antonius had little success in his war in Thrace.
[58 BCE] Marcus Cicero was exiled by a law of the tribune of the plebs Publius Clodius, because he had ordered the executions of Roman citizens without trial.
Caesar, who had gone to the Gallic provinces, subdued the Helvetians, a nomadic tribe that wanted to cross through Caesar's province Narbonensis, wishing to settle somewhere else. It also contains an account of the country of Gaul.
When Pompey celebrated a triumph over the [lacuna], the children of Mithridates, and Tigranes son of Tigranes, he was saluted by all those present with the surname The Great.

Event Date: -62 LA

§ 104.e  From book 104:
The first part of this book contains an account of the country and customs of Germania.
Gaius Caesar led his army against the Germans, who had, commanded by Ariovistus, invaded Gaul. This had been requested by the Aedui and Sequani, whose country had been occupied. With a speech, Caesar suppressed panic among his soldiers, caused by fear of the new enemies. Having defeated the Germans in battle, he expelled them from Gaul.
[57 BCE] Marcus Cicero, backed by Pompey, tribune Titus Annius Milo and others, returned from exile, amid great rejoicing on the part of the Senate and all Italy.
The food supply was assigned to Gnaeus Pompey for a period of five years.
Caesar accepted the surrender of the Belgian tribes of the Ambiani, Suessioni, Viruomandi, and Atrebates, whose numbers were very large, after he had defeated them in battle. He proceeded against the Nervi, another Belgian tribe, and fought a difficult battle against these aggressors, wiping them out so thoroughly that of 60,000 warriors only 500 survived, and of 600 aristocrats only 3 [text].
A law was carried that Cyprus should be organized as a province and the royal funds should be confiscated, and Marcus [Porcius] Cato was sent to administer the matter.
King Ptolemy [XII Auletes] of Egypt left his realm and came to Rome after he had been maltreated by his subjects.
[56 BCE] Gaius Caesar defeated the Veneti, a tribe near the Ocean, in a naval battle. It also contains an account of the successful wars of his deputies.

Event Date: -57 LA

§ 105.e  From book 105:
When the elections were vetoed by tribune Gaius Cato, the senators put on their mourning cloaks. Marcus Cato ran for praetor, but was defeated. Vatinius was elected.
[55 BCE] When this same man [Cato] tried to obstruct a law in which provinces were allotted to the consuls for five years (Hispania to Pompey, Syria and the Parthian war to Crassus), he was put into irons by tribune Gaius Trebonius, who had proposed the law.
[54 BCE] Proconsul Aulus Gabinius brought Ptolemy back to the kingdom of Egypt, and expelled Archelaus, who had proclaimed himself king [as husband of queen Berenice IV].
After he had defeated German tribes in Gaul, Caesar crossed the Rhine and subdued a nearby part of Germania. He proceeded across the Ocean to Britain, at first with little success because of bad weather, but on a second occasion with better luck. He killed a large number of enemies and subdued a part of the island.

Event Date: -55 LA

§ 106.e  From book 106:
[54 BCE] Julia, Caesar's daughter and Pompey's wife [text], died, and the people allowed her the honor of a burial on the field of Mars.
Several Gallic tribes, commanded by king Ambiorix of the Eburones, revolted. Cotta and Titurius, Caesar's deputies, were besieged with the army they commanded, and killed. And when the camps of the other legions were also besieged and defended with difficulty, the camp of Quintus [Tullius] Cicero among the Treveri, was after a battle liberated by Caesar.
[53 BCE] Marcus Crassus crossed the river Euphrates, carried the war to the Parthian empire, and was defeated in a battle [near Carrhae] in which his son also fell. With the remains of his army, he occupied a hill, and was summoned to a conference by the enemy leader, Surena, as if to speak about a truce. However, he was captured and killed in a struggle to avoid suffering the indignity of remaining alive.

Event Date: -54 LA

§ 107.e  From book 107:
Gaius Caesar overcame the Treveri in Gaul, and crossed into Germania for the second time, but when he did not meet an enemy, he returned to Gaul. He subdued the Eburones and other rebellious tribes and pursued Ambiorix when he tried to make his escape.
[52 BCE] Publius Clodius was killed on the Via Appia, near Bovillae, by Titus Annius Milo, a candidate for the consulship. Clodius was cremated by the plebs in the building of the Senate.
There were violent and armed riots among the candidates for the consulship, Hypsaeus, Scipio, and Milo. To suppress these, Gnaeus Pompey was deputized [lacuna] and, although he was absent, elected consul for the third time, without colleague. This had never happened before.
After an investigation of the death of Publius Clodius had been decreed, Milo was condemned by the court and sent into exile.
A law was introduced that Caesar could be candidate for the consulship while he was absent; this was not to Marcus [Porcius] Cato's liking, and he spoke against it.
It also contains an account of Caesar's actions against the Gauls, who had revolted almost without exception under Vercingetorix, leader of the Arvernians, and contains accounts of difficult sieges of several towns, such as Avaricum of the Bituriges and Gergovia of the Arvernians.

Event Date: -52 LA

§ 108.e  From book 108:
Gaius Caesar defeated all Gallic tribes that were in arms at Alesia, and accepted their surrender.
[51 BCE] Gaius Cassius, quaestor of Marcus Crassus, defeated the Parthians, who had invaded Syria.
Marcus [Porcius] Cato was defeated when he stood for the consulship. Instead, Servius Sulpicius and Marcus Marcellus were elected.
Gaius Caesar subdued the Bellovaces and other Gallic tribes.
[50 BCE] It also contains an account of the conflict between the consuls about who they should send as successor of Gaius Caesar. Consul Marcellus proposed to the Senate that Caesar should return to run for consul, although a law had been passed that he was to rule his provinces until the time of his consulship had come. The book also contains an account of the war conducted by Marcus Bibulus in Syria.

Event Date: -51 LA

§ 109.e  From book 109 which is the first dealing with the civil war:
The causes and beginning of the civil war are described, together with the conflict about sending out a successor to Gaius Caesar, who refused to disband his armies unless Pompey disbanded his. It also contains an account of the actions of the tribune of the plebs Gaius Curio, who was first against Caesar, but later supported his case.
When the Senate had decided that Caesar was to be replaced, the tribunes Marc Antony and Quintus Cassius, who tried to obstruct the senatorial decision, were expelled from the city [lacuna] The consuls and Gnaeus Pompey received special powers from the Senate, to see to it that no harm befell the republic.
[49 BCE] Gaius Caesar entered Italy with an army to wage war against his enemies. He captured Corfinium together with Lucius Domitius and Publius Lentulus, set them free, and expelled Gnaeus Pompey and the other members of his faction from Italy.

Event Date: -49 LA

§ 110.e  From book 110 which is the second dealing with the civil war:
Gaius Caesar laid siege to Marseilles, which had closed its gates, but left the siege of the city to his deputies Gaius Trebonius and Decimus Brutus and went to Hispania, where he accepted the surrender of Lucius Afranius and Marcus Petreius, deputies of Pompey, and seven legions at Ilerda. He let them all go unharmed. Even [Terentius] Varro, another deputy of Pompey, and his army were brought into Caesar's power. He gave the people of Gades the citizenship. The Massiliotes, which had been defeated in two naval battles, surrendered themselves to Caesar after a long siege.
Caesar's deputy Gaius Antonius fought unsuccessfully against the Pompeians in Illyria and was captured. In this war, several Opiterginians from across the Po (Caesar's auxiliary troops) killed each other rather than be captured when their raft was surrendered by enemy ships.
Gaius Curio, Caesar's deputy in Africa, fought successfully against Varus, the leader of the Pompeian faction, but was killed with his army by Juba, the king of Mauritania.
[48 BCE] Gaius Julius Caesar crossed to Greece.

Event Date: -48 LA

§ 111.e  From book 111 which is the third dealing with the civil war:
[48 BCE] Praetor Marcus Caelius Rufus, who had provoked riots in the city by inciting the plebs with the prospect of a debt cancellation, was expelled from office and from the city, and joined the exile Milo, who was building an army of runaway slaves. Both of them were killed when they tried to stir up war.
Queen Cleopatra of Egypt was exiled by her brother Ptolemy [XIII].
Because of the avarice and cruelty of propraetor Quintus Cassius, the inhabitants of Cordoba in Hispania, together with the two legions of [Terentius] Varro, abandoned the cause of Caesar.
Gnaeus Pompey was besieged at Dyrrhachium by Caesar and, after storming the latter's forts with great losses to the other side, freed himself from the siege and transferred the war to Thessaly, where his army was defeated at Pharsalus. Cicero remained in Pompey's camp, because there was never a man less suited to war than he. Caesar pardoned all enemies who put themselves in the hands of the victor.

Event Date: -48 LA

§ 112.e  From book 112 which is the fourth dealing with the civil war:
It tells about the panic and flight of the members of the defeated party to various parts of the world. When Gnaeus Pompey went to Egypt, he was, by order of king Ptolemy (Pompey's own pupil) but at the instigation of Pothinus and the king's influential teacher Theodotus, murdered in a small bark, before he could set foot ashore, by Achillas, who had been commanded to commit this crime. Pompey's wife Cornelia and his son Sextus Pompeius escaped to Cyprus.
When Caesar arrived in pursuit on the third day, Theodotus showed him Pompey's head and ring, but Caesar was offended and wept. Without running any risks he entered a riotous Alexandria.
Caesar, who had been made dictator, restored Cleopatra as queen of Egypt and he won through -at great personal risk- when Ptolemy attacked him, following the advice of the very men who had advised him to kill Pompey. When Ptolemy made his escape, his ship capsized in the Nile.
It also contains an account of the difficult march of Marcus [Porcius] Cato and his legions across the African desert, and an unsuccessful war against [king] Pharnaces [of Pontus] waged by Gnaeus Domitius.

Event Date: -47 LA

§ 113.e  From book 113 which is the fifth dealing with the civil war:
[47 BCE] The Pompeian faction had consolidated its position in Africa and after Cato had declined an offer of joint command, the sole command was given to Publius Scipio. When a debate took place about the sack of the city of Utica, whose citizens favored Caesar, and Cato maintained that it should not be done whereas Juba argued for its destruction, Cato was elected as the town's protector and warden.
Gnaeus Pompeius, son of Pompey the Great, assembled an army in Hispania, and because neither Afranius nor Petreius wanted to be commander, he personally started the war against Caesar.
King Pharnaces of Pontus, the son of Mithridates, was defeated [by Caesar] without the slightest delay in the campaign.
The tribune of the plebs Publius Dolabella caused unrest when he proposed a law to cancel debts, and the plebs started to revolt. However, Marc Antony, the master of horse, sent soldiers into the city and 800 people were killed.
Caesar allowed his veterans, who were rebellious and demanded their discharge, what they asked, and crossed into Africa, where he fought at great personal risk against king Juba's men.

Event Date: -47 LA

§ 114.e  From book 114 which is the sixth dealing with the civil war:
[46 BCE] Caecilius Bassus, a Roman knight of the Pompeian faction, provoked a war in Syria, and Sextus Caesar, abandoned by a legion that had transferred its allegiance to Bassus, was killed. Caesar defeated the praetor Scipio and Juba at Thapsus and captured their camp.
When Cato received this news in Utica, he stabbed himself and although his son intervened and tried to rescue him, he reopened the wound that was being nursed, and died at the age of forty-eight.
Petreius killed Juba and himself. Publius Scipio was captured on his ship, and added to his honorable death honorable last words. When his enemies asked him how the general was doing, he replied "the general is doing fine". Faustus and Afranius were killed. Cato's son was pardoned.
Caesar's deputy commander [Decimus] Brutus won a battle in Gaul and defeated the rebellious Bellovaces.

Event Date: -46 LA

§ 115.e  From book 115 which is the seventh dealing with the civil war:
Caesar celebrated four triumphs: for his victories in Gaul, Egypt, Pontus, and Africa. He also gave a banquet and several shows.
At the request of the Senate, he allowed former consul Marcus Marcellus to return. However, Marcellus could not benefit from this kindness, because he was murdered in Athens by his client Gnaeus Magius.
Caesar had the citizens counted, and 150,000 people were registered.
He set out for Hispania to fight against Gnaeus Pompeius, and after both sides had conducted several operations and stormed several cities, Caesar won at great risk his greatest victory near the town of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was killed and Sextus made his escape.

Event Date: -45 LA

§ 116.e  From book 116 which is the eighth dealing with the civil war:
[45 BCE] Caesar celebrated a fifth triumph, for his Spanish victory. [44 BCE] After the Senate decreed many of the highest honors (such as the right to be called 'father of the fatherland' together with an eternal inviolability and dictatorship), several grudges rose against him: because he did not rise from his throne in front of the temple of Venus Genetrix when the senators arrived to present him with these honors; because, when his fellow consul Marc Antony, dancing with the luperci, placed a diadem on his head, he placed it on his throne; and because he expelled the tribunes of the plebs Epidius Marullus and Caesetius Flavus from office after they had caused hostility towards him, arguing that he was aiming at one man rule.
For these reasons, a conspiracy was formed against him, its leaders being Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius, and, from Caesar's own men, Decimus Brutus and Gaius Trebonius. With 23 stabs he was murdered in the Curia Pompeia, and the Capitol was occupied by the assassins.
The Senate decreed an amnesty for the murder, and when the besieged conspirators had received the children of Antony and Lepidus as hostages, they descended from the Capitol.
By Caesar's will, Gaius Octavius, the grandson of his sister, was adopted as his son and made heir to half his estate.
When Caesar's corpse was brought to the field of Mars, it was burned in front of the Speaker's platform by the plebs.
The office of dictator was banned forever.
One Chamiates, a man of the lowest rank, pretending to be the son of Gaius Marius, caused disturbances among the credulous plebs, but was killed.

Event Date: -45 LA

§ 117.e  From book 117:
Gaius Octavius arrived from Epirus (he had been sent there in advance by Caesar to wage war in Macedonia), and after all kind of favorable signs, he accepted the name of Caesar.
In an atmosphere of confusion and disturbance, Marcus Lepidus accepted the office of pontifex maximus.
The consul Marc Antony recklessly tried to dominate the stage and carried a law concerning changes in the assignment of provinces by violence. He intensely hurt [Octavian] Caesar, who came to ask for help against the assassins of his great-uncle. As a result, Caesar started to acquire resources against him in the colonies of the veterans, which he would use for himself and the republic. The Fourth and the Martian legions indeed transferred their loyalty from Antony to Caesar, and because of the savage behavior of Marc Antony (who killed several suspects in his camp) others followed.
With an army, Decimus Brutus occupied Modena, in order to head off Antony, who was making for Cisalpine Gaul.
It also contains an account of the scattering of men on both sides to take over provinces, and describes other preparations for war.

Event Date: -44 LA

§ 118.e  From book 118:
In Greece, Marcus Brutus, pretending to act for the benefit of the state and the campaign against Marc Antony that was undertaken, obtained the army of Publius Vatinius and the province as well.
The Senate gave Gaius [Octavian] Caesar, who as a private citizen had built an army, the powers of a propraetor and the ornaments of a consul, and promised that he would be made senator.
Marc Antony besieged Decimus Brutus at Modena, and the envoys sent by the Senate to negotiate peace were unsuccessful, so the Roman people accepted the military dress.
In Epirus, Marcus Brutus overcame praetor Gaius Antonius and his army.

Event Date: -44 LA

§ 119.e  From book 119:
By the treachery of Publius Dolabella, Gaius Trebonius was murdered in Asia. Because of this crime, Dolabella was declared to be an enemy by the Senate.
[43 BCE] After consul Pansa had unsuccessfully fought against Antony, consul Aulus Hirtius arrived with his army, defeated the troops of Marc Antony and brought the fortunes of both sides in balance again. Antony, defeated by Hirtius and [Octavian Caesar fled to Gaul, where he joined Marcus Lepidus and the legions under his command; the Senate declared him and every soldier in his army an enemy. Aulus Hirtius, who had been killed in the camp of the enemy after his victory, and Gaius Pansa, who had died from wounds received during his defeat, were buried on the Field of Mars.
The Senate was hardly grateful to Gaius [Octavian] Caesar, who was the only one of three leaders to survive: it voted the honor of a triumph to Decimus Brutus, who had been freed from the siege of Modena by Caesar, and made no satisfying reference to Caesar and his soldiers.
Therefore, Gaius Octavian Caesar, on advise by Marcus Lepidus, reconciled himself with Marc Antony, marched on Rome with his army, and, surprising everyone who was against him, was made consul at the age of nineteen.

Event Date: -43 LA

§ 120.e  From book 120:
As consul, Gaius [Octavian] Caesar carried a law to prosecute those who had been involved in the murder of his father Caesar; under the terms of this law, Marcus Brutus, Gaius Cassius, and Decimus Brutus were condemned in their absence.
Asinius Pollio and Munatius Plancus as well joined Marc Antony with their armies and made him stronger; and Decimus Brutus, whom the Senate had ordered Antony to pursue, was deserted by his legions, fled, and was put to death by Antony, into whose power he had come, by a Sequanian named Capenus.
Gaius Caesar made his peace with Antony and Lepidus. For five years, they were to be triumvirs for the restoration of the republic, and opponents of Lepidus, Antony and Caesar were to be proscribed. Many Roman knights, and the names of 130 senators, were listed, such as Lucius [Aemilius] Paulus (Marcus Lepidus' brother), Lucius Caesar (an uncle of Antony), and Marcus Cicero. He was killed by Popillius, a legionary soldier, at the age of 63. His head and right hand were exposed on the Speaker's platform.
It also contains an account of Marcus Brutus' acts in Greece.

Event Date: -43 LA

§ 121.e  From book 121 Said to be published after the death of Augustus:
[43 BCE] Gaius Cassius, who had been sent by the Senate to pursue Dolabella (who was declared an enemy of the state), used the authority of the republic to obtain the three armies that were stationed in the province of Syria, laid siege to the town of Laodicea and forced Dolabella to commit suicide. Gaius Antonius was captured and executed too, by command of Marcus Brutus.

Event Date: -43 LA

§ 122.e  From book 122:
For some time, Marcus Brutus waged a successful war against the Thracians, and when all the provinces and armies across the sea were in his and Gaius Cassius' power, they came together in Smyrna to make plans for the future war.
Together, they pardoned Marcus Messala, convinced by his brother Publicola.

Event Date: -42 LA

§ 123.e  From book 123:
[42 BCE] Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompeius the Great, who had assembled exiles and runaways from Epirus, and had for a long time been active as pirate, without having a real base, first captured Messina (a town on Sicily) and then the whole province, and, having killed governor Pompeius Bithynicus, he defeated Quintus Salvidenus, who had been sent by Caesar, in a naval battle.
[Octavian] Caesar and Marc Antony crossed over to Greece with their armies to wage war against Brutus and Cassius.
In Africa, Quintus Cornificius fought against Titus Sextius, the leader of the faction of Cassius, and defeated him.

Event Date: -42 LA

§ 124.e  From book 124:
At Philippi, Gaius Caesar and Marc Antony fought against Brutus and Cassius. The outcome was inconclusive because on both sides the right wing won and on both sides the camp was taken by those who had been victorious. But the death of Cassius tipped the scales. He had been on the wing that had been defeated and, believing that the whole army had been beaten, chose death.
On the next day, Marcus Brutus was defeated, and he put an end to his life, asking Strato (who was fleeing too), to drive his sword through him. He was about forty years old.
[lacuna] among whom Quintus Hortensius was killed.

Event Date: -41 LA

§ 125.e  From book 125:
[41 BCE] Caesar, leaving Marc Antony overseas (the provinces in that part of the empire had been placed under his command), returned to Italy and gave land to his veterans. At great danger he suppressed rebellions in his army, which certain soldiers, corrupted by Fulvia, the wife of Marc Antony, had stirred up against its general. Consul Lucius Antonius, brother of Marc Antony, launched a war against Caesar. The peoples whose country had been given to the veterans, had sided with him, and he defeated Marcus Lepidus, who was responsible for the defense of the city, and forced his way into Rome.

Event Date: -41 LA

§ 126.e  From book 126:
[41 BCE] Caesar was only twenty-three when he laid siege to Lucius Antonius in the town of Perugia and prevented several break-outs, and when hunger forced him into surrender, [40 BCE] Caesar pardoned him and all his soldiers, but sacked Perugia. Without bloodshed, he brought the armies of both sides in this war under his command.

Event Date: -41 LA

§ 127.e  From book 127:
The Parthians, commanded by Labienus, who belonged to the faction of the Pompeians, invaded Syria and, having defeated Decidius Saxa, a deputy of Marc Antony, occupied the entire province.
When Marc Antony, in order to make war against Caesar [lacuna] his wife Fulvia [lacuna], so that there was no obstacle to an agreement between the leaders, made peace with Caesar and married his sister Octavia. He exposed by his own evidence how Quintus Salvidenus was making criminal plans against Caesar; he was condemned and committed suicide.
Publius Ventidius, a deputy of Antony, defeated the Parthians in battle and drove them out of Syria, after their commander Labienus had been killed.
[39 BCE] Because an enemy close to Italy, Sextus Pompeius, occupied Sicily and threatened the grain trade, Caesar and Antony concluded, at his demand, a peace treaty with him, so that he could rule Sicily as a province.
It also contains an account of the troubles in Africa and the wars that were fought over there.

Event Date: -39 LA

§ 128.e  From book 128:
[38 BCE] When Sextus Pompeius through piracy made the sea dangerous again and did not maintain the peace he had agreed upon, Caesar accepted the necessary war against him, and fought two naval battles, with a dubious outcome.
Publius Ventidius, a deputy of Marc Antony, defeated the Parthians in Syria and killed their leader.
[37 BCE] The Jews were also defeated by a deputy of Marc Antony.
It also contains an account of the preparations of the Sicilian war.

Event Date: -38 LA

§ 129.e  From book 129:
[36 BCE] Naval battles with varying outcomes were fought against Sextus Pompeius, in the following way: of the two navies of Caesar, the one, whose admiral was Agrippa, was victorious, but the other, commanded by Caesar, was destroyed and the soldiers that had been set ashore were exposed to grave danger. The defeated Pompeius fled to [the interior of] Sicily.
When Marcus Lepidus, who had arrived from Africa as if to support Caesar in his struggle against Sextus Pompeius, launched a war against Caesar, he was abandoned by his army, deprived of his triumviral powers, but successfully begged for his life.
Marcus Agrippa received a naval crown from Caesar, an honor that no one had received before.

Event Date: -36 LA

§ 130.e  From book 130:
Living a life of pleasure with Cleopatra, Marc Antony invaded Media rather late, and brought war to Parthia with eighteen legions and 16,000 horsemen; having lost two legions and failing to achieve success in any enterprise, he retreated, pursued by Parthians, and after immense confusion and great danger, reached Armenia, having covered in his flight 300 miles [450 kilometers] in 21 days. Because of tempests, he lost about 8,000 men. (Like the Parthian war that he had undertaken so unluckily, it was his own mistake that he encountered these tempests, because he refused to winter in Armenia but instead hurried to Cleopatra.)

Event Date: -35 LA

§ 131.e  From book 131:
[35 BCE] Although Sextus Pompeius had put himself under the protection of Marc Antony, he prepared for war against him in Asia, but was surprised and executed by his deputies.
After Caesar had overcome a very damaging insurrection of veterans, he defeated the Iapydes, Dalmatians and Pannonians.
[34 BCE] Antony ordered Artavasdes, the king of Armenia, whom he had given a free-conduct, to be thrown into chains, and gave the Armenian kingdom to his son, who was born of Cleopatra; he had been captivated by her for some time, but now began to treat her as his wife.

Event Date: -35 LA

§ 132.e  From book 132:
[Octavian] Caesar subdued the Dalmatians in Illyricum.
[33 BCE] When Marc Antony, because of his love for Cleopatra, with whom he had two sons (Philadelphus and Alexander), did neither want to come to the city nor lay down his powers when term of the triumvirate had ended, but instead prepared for war against the city and Italy, and gathered for this purpose as many naval as land forces, [32 BCE] and sent a letter of divorce to Octavia, Caesar's sister, [31 BCE] Caesar crossed to Epirus with an army. After this, an account is given of the naval and equestrian battles, in which Caesar was victorious.

Event Date: -33 LA

§ 133.e  From book 133:
[30 BCE] Marc Antony, defeated in a naval battle near Actium, fled to Alexandria and, besieged by Caesar, in a desperate situation and above all misguided by a false rumor about the death of Cleopatra, killed himself.
After Caesar had reduced Alexandria, and Cleopatra, to avoid falling in the victor's hands, had died by her own hand, [29 BCE] he returned to the city to celebrate three triumphs: one over Illyricum, a second for the victory at Actium, and a third one over Cleopatra; this was the end of the civil wars, in their twenty-second year.
[28 BCE] Marcus Lepidus (the son of the Lepidus who had been triumvir) conspired against Caesar to make war, but it was suppressed and he was killed.

Event Date: -30 LA

§ 134.e  From book 134:
[27 BCE] When Gaius Caesar had settled all affairs and all provinces had been solidly organized, he was called Augustus; in his honor, the month Sextilis received the same name.
When he was holding assizes at Narbonne, he conducted a census in the three provinces of Gaul, which his father Caesar had subdued.
An account is given of the war fought by Marcus Crassus against the Basterni, Moesians and other peoples.

Event Date: -27 LA

§ 135.e  From book 135:
[25 BCE] An account is given of the wars fought against the Thracians by Marcus Crassus and against the Hispanians by Caesar [Augustus]; the Salassi, a tribe from the Alps, were also subdued.

Event Date: -25 LA

§ 136.e  From books 136 and 137 the excerpts are missing. [transposed from Bk 141:]
[20 BCE] Peace was made with the Parthians and the standards, which had been lost by Crassus and later by Marc Antony, were received back from their king.
[16 BCE] [Tiberius] Nero, the brother of of Drusus, subdued the Dalmatians and Pannonians.

Event Date: -20 LA

§ 138.e  From book 138:
[15 BCE] The Raetians were subdued by Tiberius Nero and Drusus, the stepsons of Caesar [Augustus]. [12 BCE] Agrippa, the son-in-law of Caesar [Augustus], died.
A census was organized by Drusus.

Event Date: -15 LA

§ 139.e  From book 139:
The Germanic tribes living on this side of the Rhine and across the Rhine were attacked by Drusus, and the uprising in Gaul, caused by the census, was suppressed.
An altar was dedicated to the divine Caesar at the confluence of the Arar and Rhône, and a priest was appointed, Gaius Julius Vercondaridubnus.

Event Date: -12 LA

§ 140.e  From book 140:
[11 BCE] The Thracians were subdued by Lucius Piso; an account is given of the subjugation of the Cherusci, Tencteri, Chauci and other Germanic people across the Rhine by Drusus.
Octavia, the sister of Augustus, died, after losing her son Marcellus, whose monuments are the theater and the portico dedicated in his name.

Event Date: -11 LA

§ 141.e  From book 141:
[10 BCE] An account is given of the war that Drusus fought against the peoples across the Rhine. Among other important people fighting over there were Chumstinctus and Avectius, military tribunes from the tribe of the Nervii.
[16 BCE] [Tiberius] Nero, the brother of of Drusus, subdued the Dalmatians and Pannonians.
[20 BCE] Peace was made with the Parthians and the standards, which had been lost by Crassus and later by Marc Antony, were received back from their king.

Event Date: -10 LA

§ 142.e  From book 142:
[9 BCE] An account is given of the war that Drusus fought against the German tribes across the Rhine. He died from a fracture caused by the fall of his horse on his leg, thirty days after the accident. His body was brought to Rome by his brother [Tiberius] Nero, who had hurriedly arrived when he had received news about the illness; the body was buried in the tomb of Gaius Julius. The eulogy was pronounced by his stepfather Caesar Augustus. During the funeral, many distinctions were conferred on him.

Event Date: -9 LA
Event Date: 2017

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