Marmor Parium, Chronicle

Marmor Parium, translated by Gillian Newing (2001), copyright the Ashmolean Museum, used with their gracious permission. This text has 242 tagged references to 94 ancient places.
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§ 1  [From all the records and general accounts] I have recorded [the previous times], beginning from Cecrops becoming first king of Athens, until [____] uanax was archon in Paros, and Diognetus in Athens.

Event Date: -263 GR

§ 2  From when Cecrops became king of Athens and the place was called Cecropia, which had previously been called Actica from Actaeon who was native there, 1318 years.

Event Date: -1581 GR

§ 3  From when Deucalion became king near Parnassus in Lycoreia when Cecrops was king of Athens, 1310 years.

Event Date: -1573 GR

§ 4  From when there was a dispute at Athens between Ares and Poseidon, because of Poseidon's son Halirrhothius, and the place was called the Hill of Ares, 1268 years, when Cr[ana]os was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1531 GR

§ 5  From when there was a flood in the time of Deucalion, and Deucalion fled the waters from Lycoreia to Athens to [Cranaos] and [founded the temple of Olympian Zeu[s, and] made offerings for his deliverance, 1265 years, when Cranaos was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1528 GR

§ 6  From [when Amphi]ctyon son of Deucalion became king in Thermopylae and brought together those living round about the [tem]ple and named them [Amphictyons], and [sacrificed on their behalf], where the Amphictyons even now still make offerings, 1258 years, when Amphictyon was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1521 GR

§ 7  From when Hellen the [son of] Deuc[alion] became king of [Phthi]otis, and those previously called Greeks were named Hellenes, and [the Panath__ games____], 1257 [years], when Amphictyon was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1520 GR

§ 8  From when Cadmus the son of Agenor came to Thebes [_____and] built the Cadmeia, 1255 years, when Amphictyon was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1518 GR

§ 9  From when _____nices became king, 1252 years, when Amphictyon was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1515 GR

§ 10  From when [the first fifty-oared] ship [ prepared by Danaus] sailed from Egypt to Greece and was called a penteconter, and the daughters of Danaus, _____ and _____ and Helike and Archedike, chosen by lot by the rest, [founded the temple of Lindian Athene] and made offerings on the headland ____ in Lindos in Rhodes, 1247 years, [when Erichthonios] was king [of Athens ].

Event Date: -1510 GR

§ 11  [From when] at the time of the first Panathenaia, [Erich]thonius yoked up a chariot and showed how to race, and [gave] the Athenians [their name, and the glory] of the Mother of the Gods appeared in Cybele, and Hyagnis the Phrygian first invented the Phrygian flute in ______, and first played [the music c]alled Phrygian, and other styles of the Mother, of Dionysus, of Pan and _______, 1242 years, when Erychthonius, who yoked horses to a chariot, was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1505 GR

§ 12  From when Minos [the first became king of Crete and settled Apollonia, and iron was discovered in Ida, by Celmis [and Damnameneus] of the Idaean Dactyls, [____ years], when Pandion was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1505 GR

§ 13  From when Demeter, coming to Athens, [invented] the seed corn, and the [first festival of ploughing time was celebrated, under the instruction of T]riptolemus, son of Celeus and Neaira, 1146 years, when Erechtheus was king in Athens.

Event Date: -1409 GR

§ 14  From when Tripto[lemus reaped the corn which] he sowed in the Rarian plain called Eleusis, 1[1]45 years, when [Erechtheus] was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1408 GR

§ 15  [From when Orpheus ____] made known his own poetry, the rape of Kore and the search of Demeter and [the seed created by her and the mult]itude of those receiving the corn, 1135 years when Erechtheus was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1398 GR

§ 16  when Eumolpus _____] instituted the mysteries in Eleusis and made known the works of the [father of M]ousaios, [11______, when Erechthe]us son of Pandion [was king of Athens ].

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 17  when there was the first purification________ [____ years], when Pandion son of Cecrops was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 18  when in Eleusis the gymnastic [games]____________ the festival of Lycaean Zeus took place in Arcadia and _____ of Lycaon were given to the Hell[enes, ____ years] when Pandion son of Cecrops was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 19  when _________ Heracles ______, when Aegeus was king at Athens.

Event Date: -1000 GR

§ 20  From when there was [a shortage] of crops at Athens and, to the Athenians consulting the oracle, Apollo replied that they should promise whatever [penalty] Minos should think right, 1031 years, when Aegeus was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1294 GR

§ 21  From when Thes[eus, becoming king] of Athens, brought the 12 townships into one and gave them government and democracy, ______ of Athens, and after killing Sinis he established the Isthmian games, 995 years.

Event Date: -1258 GR

§ 22  From [the invasion] of the Amazons [into Attica, 99]2 [years], when Theseus was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1255 GR

§ 23  From when the Argives [march]ed [against The]bes with Adras[tus] and [founded] the games [at Nemea because of Archemorus, ] 987 years, when Theseus was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1250 GR

§ 24  From when the [Helle]nes marched against Troy, 954 years, in the 13th year that [Men]estheus was king of Athe[ns].

Event Date: -1217 GR

§ 25  From when Troy was taken, 945 years, in the {2}2nd year that [Menesthe]us was king of Athens, on the 7th day before the end of the month Th[argelio]n.

Event Date: -1208 GR

§ 26  From [the trial] on the Areopagus of Orestes, son of A[gamemnon, and Erigone, ] daughter of [Ae]gisthus, [on behalf of Ae]gisthus and Cly[taemnestra]; which case Orestes won, [since the votes were equal]; [9]44 years, when Demophon was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1207 GR

§ 27  From when Teucer founded [Salamis in] Cyprus, 938 years, when Demophon was king of Athens.

Event Date: -1201 GR

§ 28  From when Ne[l]eus colonised [Miletus and all the] rest of [Ioni]a, Ephesus, Erythrae, Clazomenae, P[ri]ene, Lebedos, Teos, Colophon, Myus, [Phocaia ], Samos, [Chios, and] the [Pan]ioni[an] games took place, [8]13 years, when Me[nestheus was king] of Athens [for the 13th year].

Event Date: -1076 GR

§ 29  when [Hes]iod the poet [appeared] 67____ years when _____ was king of Athens.

Event Date: -900 GR

§ 30  From when Homer the poet appeared, 643 years, when [D]iognetus was king of Athens.

Event Date: -906 GR

§ 31  when Ph[ei]don the Argive made public meas[ures and] prepared [wei]ghts and made a silver coinage in Aigina

Event Date: -900 GR

§ 32  , being the 11th from Heracles, 631 years, when [Pherecl]es was king of Athens.

Event Date: -894 GR

§ 33  when Archias son of Euagetus, being the tenth from Temenus, led the emigration from Corinth [and founded] Syracuse[, ____ years], when Aeschylus was in his 21st year as king of Athens.

Event Date: -800 GR

§ 34  From when the annual archonship began, 420 years.

Event Date: -683 GR

§ 35  From when _________ 418 years, when Lysia[des] was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -681 GR

§ 36  From when Terpander the Lesbian, son of Derdenes, [made innovations] in the conventions of [lyre playing] _____ and changed the earlier style of music, 381 years, when Dropides was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -644 GR

§ 37  From when A[lyatte]s became king of the Lydians, [3]41years, when Aristocles was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -604 GR

§ 38  when Sappho sailed from Mytilene to Sicily, fleeing _______, when the first Critias was [archon] at Athens, and in Syracuse the big landowners were in power.

Event Date: -600 GR

§ 39  [From when] the Am[phict]yons [sacrificed] after defeating Kyrrha, and the gymnastic contest was set up with a money prize from the spoils, [32]7 years, when Simon was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -590 GR

§ 40  From when the contest for the wreath was established [at Delphi ] again, 318 years, when the second Damasius was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -581 GR

§ 41  when in Ath[en]s the [chorus of] comic [actors] was instituted, which the Icarians [first set up] and Sousarion invented, and a prize was first set of an arsichos of figs and a measure of wine, [______years, when _____ was archon at Athens.] ______.

Event Date: -570 GR

§ 42  From when Peisistratus became tyrant of Athens, 297 years, when Comeus was archon [at Athens ].

Event Date: -560 GR

§ 43  From when Croesus [sent envoys from] Asia [to] Delphi, [29]2 [years], when Euthydemus was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -555 GR

§ 44  From when Cyrus king of the Persians took Sardis and Croesus ____, [277 years, when _____ was archon at Athens, and] also Hipponax the iambic poet [lived] about this time.

Event Date: -540 GR

§ 45  when Thespis the poet, who brought out a play in the city, was the first to (speak in dialogue), and (the prize) of a goat was established, 2[7___] years, when _______naius the earlier was archon at Ath[ens].

Event Date: -500 GR

§ 46  From when after the death of the Magian Darius became king of the Persians, [2]56 years, when ________ was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -519 GR

§ 47  From when Harmodius and [Aristoge]iton kil[led Hippa]rchus [the successor] of Peisistratus, and the Athenians [drove] the Peisistratids outside the [P]elasgian wall, 248 years, when Ha[rpactides] was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -511 GR

§ 48  From when choruses of men first competed, which contest Hypo[di]cus the Chalcidian won as trainer, 246 years, when Lysagoras was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -509 GR

§ 49  From when Me[lan]ippid[es] of M[elos won] at Athens, 231 years, when Pythocritus was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -494 GR

§ 50  From when the Athenians fought at Marathon against the Persians, and Ar[taphernes the] nephew of Darius, [and Da]tis the general, which battle the Athenians won, 227 years, when the second [Ph]ain[i]p[pid]es was archon at Athens. Aeschylus the poet fought in this battle, aged 35.

Event Date: -490 GR

§ 51  From when Simonides the grandfather of Simonides the poet, who was himself a poet too, took the prize at Athens, and Darius dies and Xerxes his son is king, [2]26 years, when Aristeides was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -489 GR

§ 52  From when Aeschylus the poet first won with a tragedy, and Euripides the poet was born, and Stesichorus the poet [arrived] in Greece, 222 years, when Philocrates was archon in Athens.

Event Date: -485 GR

§ 53  From when Xerxes lashed together the bridge in the Hellespont and dug through Athos, and the battle in Thermo[py]lae took place, and the sea battle of the Hellenes against the Persians around Salamis, in which battle the Hellenes were victorious, 217 years, when Calliades was archon in Athens.

Event Date: -480 GR

§ 54  From when the battle of the Athenians at Plataea took place against Mardonius the general of Xerxes, which battle the Athenians won, and Mardonius died in the battle, and [in] Sicily fire erupted around Etna, 216 years, when Xanthippus was archon in Athens.

Event Date: -479 GR

§ 55  From when G[e]lon the son of Deinomenes became tyrant of S[yracuse] 215 years, when Timosthen[es] was archon in Athens.

Event Date: -478 GR

§ 56  From when Simonides of Kos, who was the son of Leoprepes, and who invented a system of mnemonics, trained actors and won a prize at Athens, and the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton were put up, 21[3] years, when [A]deimantus was archon in Athens.

Event Date: -476 GR

§ 57  From when Hieron became tyrant of Syracuse, 208 years, when Cha[r]es was archon at Athens. Epicharmus the poet too was about this time.

Event Date: -471 GR

§ 58  From when Sophocles of Colonus, son of Sophillus, won with a tragedy at the age of 28, 206 years, when Apsephion was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -469 GR

§ 59  From when the stone fell in Aegospotami, and Simonides the poet died at the age of 90, 205 years, when Theagenides was archon in Athens.

Event Date: -468 GR

§ 60  From when Alexander died and his son Perdiccas is king of the Macedonians, 19[9] years, when Euthippus was archon in Athens.

Event Date: -462 GR

§ 61  From when Aeschylus the poet, having lived for 69 years, died in [Gel]a in Sicily, 193 years, when Callias the earlier was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -456 GR

§ 62  From when Euripides first won with a tragedy at the age of 44, 1[79] years, when Diphilus was archon in Athens. Socrates and Anaxagoras lived about the time of Euripides.

Event Date: -442 GR

§ 63  From when Archelaus is king of the Macedonians after the death of Perdiccas, 1[57] years, when Astyphilus was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -420 GR

§ 64  From when Dionysius became tyrant of Syracuse, 14[7] years, when Euctemon was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -410 GR

§ 65  From when Euripides died [having lived for 7_ years, ] 145 years, when Antigenes was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -408 GR

§ 66  From when Sophocles the poet died, having lived 92 years, and Cyrus went inland, [143 years], when Callias the earlier was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -406 GR

§ 67  From when Telestes of Selinus won at Athens, 139 years, when Mikon was [arch]on at Athens.

Event Date: -402 GR

§ 68  From when [the Hellenes who] had gone inland [with] Cyrus [came down to the coast], and Socrates the philosopher died at 70 years of age, 137 years, when Laches was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -400 GR

§ 69  From when Ar[i]sto[nous_____ won] at Athens, 135 years, when Aristocrates was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -398 GR

§ 70  when Polyidos of Selymbria won with a dithyramb at Athens, 1[__] years, [______ was archon at Athens ].

Event Date: -380 GR

§ 71  [From] when Philoxenus the dithyrambist dies, aged 55, 116 years, when Pytheus was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -379 GR

§ 72  From when Anaxandrides the comic [playwright won at Athens, 113 years, ] when Callias [was archon] at Athens.

Event Date: -376 GR

§ 73  From when Astydamas won at Athens, 109 years, when Asteius was archon at Athens. Then too [the temple at Delphi ] burned down.

Event Date: -372 GR

§ 74  [From when the battle at Leuctra ] took place between the Thebans and the Lacedemonians, which battle the Thebans won, 107 years, when Phrasicleides was archon at Athens. And A[myntas dies and Alexander his son] is king [of the Macedonians].

Event Date: -370 GR

§ 75  when Stesichorus the second, of Himera, won at Athens and Megalopolis was built [in Arcadia, 10___ years, when ______ was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -369 GR

§ 76  From when Dionysios of Sicily died and his son Dionysius became tyrant, and after Alexander [died Ptolemy of Alorus] is king [of the Macedonians, ] 104 years, when Nausigenes was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -367 GR

§ 77  From when the Phocians [seized the oracle] in Delphi [_____, 102 years, ] when Cephisodorus [was archon at Athe]ns.

Event Date: -365 GR

§ 78  when Timotheus died aged 90, [______ years, when _____ was archon at Athens.]

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 79  when Philip son of Amyntas] is king of the [Ma]cedonians, and Artaxerxes died and his son Ochus [is king, ________ years, when _______ was archon in Athens ].

Event Date: -358 GR

§ 80  [From when _______] won [in Athens ], 93 years, when Agathocles was archon in Athens.

Event Date: -356 GR

§ 81  [From when _____ happened], 91 years, when Callist[rates] was archon in Athens _____ wise ______ of this.

Event Date: -354 GR

§ 82  when _____, ____ [years], when _____ was archon [at Athens ].

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 83  _____________ [Philip died] and Ale[xander] is king, 72 years, when Pythodelus was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -335 GR

§ 84  From when Alexander marched against the Triballoi and Illyrians, and when the Thebans rose up and besieged the garrison, he came back, took the city by force, and destroyed it; 71 years, when Euainetus was archon in Athens.

Event Date: -334 GR

§ 85  From Alexander's crossing into Asia and the battle near the Granicus, and from the battle of Alexander against Darius at Issos, 70 years, when Ctesicles was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -333 GR

§ 86  From when Alexander seized Phoenicia and Cyprus and Egypt, 69 years, when Nicocrates was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -332 GR

§ 87  From the battle of Alexander against Darius near Arbela, which Alexander won. And Babylon was taken, and he dismissed the allies, and Alexandria was founded, 68 years, when Niketus was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -331 GR

§ 88  From when Callippus demonstrated astrology, and Alexander took Darius and hanged Bessus, 66 years, when Aristophon was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -329 GR

§ 89  From when Philemon the comic dramatist won, 64 years, when Euthycrites was archon at Athens and the city Hellenis was founded near the Tanais.

Event Date: -327 GR

§ 90  From the death of Alexander and Ptolemy's gaining control of Egypt, 60 years, when Hegesius was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -323 GR

§ 91  From the war around Lamia which the Athenians fought against Antipater, and the sea battle which the Macedonians fought against the Athenians around Amorgos, which the Macedonians won, 59 years, when Cephisodorus was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -322 GR

§ 92  From when Antipater took Athens and Ophelas, sent by Ptolemy, took Cyrene, 58 years, when Philocles was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -321 GR

§ 93  From when Antigonus crossed into Asia and Alexander was buried in Memphis and Perdiccas died after marching into Egypt, and Craterus, and also Aristotle the sophist aged 50, 57 years, when Archippus was archon at Athens and Ptolemy journeyed into Cyrene.

Event Date: -320 GR

§ 94  From the death of Antipater, and the withdrawal of Cassander from Macedonia and from the siege in Cyzicus by Aridaius, and from when Ptolemy took Syria and Phoenicia, 55 years, when Apollodorus was archon at Athens. And in that same year the Syracusans chose Agathocles as commander in chief of the Sicilian defences.

Event Date: -318 GR

§ 95  From the sea battle between Cleitus and Nicanor around the temple of the Chalcedonians, and from when Demetrius made laws at Athens, 53 years, when Demogenes was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -316 GR

§ 96  From when Cassander came back into Macedonia, and Thebes was built and Olympias died and Cassandreia was founded and Agathocles became tyrant of Syracuse, 52 years, when Democleid[es] was archon at Athens. Menander the comic dramatist first won the prize at Athens then.

Event Date: -315 GR

§ 97  From when Sosiphanes poet dies [aged] 45, 49 years, when Theophrastus was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -312 GR

§ 98  From the eclipse of the sun and when Ptolemy defeated Demetrius in Gaza and sent Seleucus to Babylon, [4]8 years, when Po[lem]on was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -311 GR

§ 99  From when [N]icocreon died and Ptolemy seizes the island, 47 years, when Si[moni]des was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -310 GR

§ 100  From when Alexander the son of Alexander] dies and also the other, Heracles, born of the daughter of Artabazus, and Agathocles crossed into Carchedon _______4]6 [years], when Hieromnemon was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -309 GR

§ 101  From when the city Lysimacheia was founded, and Ophelas ______ into [Ca]rch[edon_______] and Ptolemy his son was born in Kos, and Cleopatra died in Sardis [_________, 45 years, when Demetrius [was archon at A]thens.

Event Date: -308 GR

§ 102  From when Demetrius the son of Antigonus besieged the Peiraeus and took it, [and Demetrius of Phalerum was exiled from Athens, 44 years, when] Cairimus [was archon] at Athens.

Event Date: -307 GR

§ 103  From when Demetrius razed Mounychia and took Cyprus and Phill______ [4]3 [years, ] when Anaxicrates was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -306 GR

§ 104  From when Sosiphanes the poet was [born and _______ 42 years, when C]oroibus [was archon at Athens.]

Event Date: -305 GR

§ 105  From the siege of Rhodes and from when [Pt]olemy succee[ded] to the throne, [41 years, when Euxenippus was archon at Athens.]

Event Date: -304 GR

§ 106  [From the] earthquakes that occurred in Ionia, and when Demetrius took Chalc[is] on agreed terms, and _______of [De]metrius, 40 years, when Pherecles was archon in Athens.

Event Date: -303 GR

§ 107  From when the [comet] appeared, and Lysimach[us crossed to Asia, 39 years, when Leostratus was archon at Athens.]

Event Date: -302 GR

§ 108  [From] when Cassander and Demetrius split up _________ Cassan[d]er _______ di[ed], 38 [years], when Nicocles was archon at Athens.

Event Date: -301 GR

§ 109  [From when_______ of Deme]trius ________going up into Chalcis, and the Athenians_______ Cas[sander ___________] Ptolemy_________35 years, [when Euctemon was archon at Athens.]

Event Date: -298 GR
END
Event Date: -298

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