To begin my song of the earth and broad sea
and the rivers and cities and countless tribes of men
I shall recall the deep-flowing Ocean. For therein
the whole world is crowned, like an immense island,
(5) not wholly circular throughout, but on either side
becoming wider towards the sun's paths,
like a sling-shot. And although it is one
men have divided it into three lands:
first Libya, and then Europe and Asia.
§ 10 Well, then, Libya has a horizontal division from Europe
and, on this line, are Gades and the mouth of the Nile,
where lies the northernmost corner of Egypt and the well-known precinct of Amyclaean Canobus.
The Tanais divides Europe from Asia, right through the middle.
(15) This river, winding through the land of the Sauromatae,
sweeps to Scythia and Lake Maeotis
in the north. In the south the boundary is the Hellespont.
and the line stretches further south to the mouth of the Nile.
But others divide the continents according to the land.
§ 20 A certain isthmus stretches above, uppermost in the
Asian land, in the middle of the Caspian and Euxine Seas.
This they have called the boundary of Europe and Asia.
Another again, unutterably long, goes towards the south, in the middle of the Arabian and Egyptian Gulfs,
(25) and this divides Libya from the land of Asia.
Such have mortals said about the boundaries,
but on all sides flows the might of the tireless Ocean,
one, yet endowed with many names.
Indeed by the furthest recess of the Locrian zephyr
§ 30 it is called the Western Atlantic, but beyond
towards the north, where dwell the children of the
war-mad Arimaspes, they call it the Frozen and the Saturnian Sea.
Others again call it the Dead Sea, because of the
weakness of the sun, for it shines over that sea with a dim light,
(35) and on all sides it is dulled by dark clouds.
But there, where it first shines on men,
they call the swell of the sea Eastern or Indian.
Nearby they call it Erythraean and Ethiopian, to the south, that is, where a great curve of uninhabited
§ 40 land lies stretched, burned by the sun's fierce rays.
Thus does the Ocean run around the whole earth, in such a form and bearing among men such names.
Here and there it chums out gulfs, casting itself inwards into a sea. There are many small gulfs, but four large ones.
(45) So, then, first of all, it begets the Western Sea,
sweeping from Libya to the Pamphylian land.
The second is small, but far surpassing others,
which, spreading from the Saturnian sea in the north sends forth a lofty stream into the Caspian Sea,
§ 50 which others call the Hyrcanian Sea.
Of the others, which are both from the southern sea, one reaches higher, pouring forth the Persian wave, turned to face the Caspian Sea,
and the other, the Arabian Gulf, seethes within,
(55) winding its channel to the south of the Euxine Sea.
So many are the gulfs of the deep-waved Ocean,
the greater ones, but there are countless others.
Now I will tell of the path of the Western Sea, which wanders to and from all the lands with its oblique waters,
§ 60 sometimes encircling islands, and sometimes in turn brushing below the feet of mountains or cities.
But you, o Muses, tell of its winding paths, beginning in order from the Western Ocean.
Here, by the boundaries the Pillars of Heracles stand, a great marvel, beside outermost Gades, beneath the high peak of the far-flung Atlanteans, where too a bronze column runs to heaven, tall, and enveloped in dense clouds.
First of all, as one begins, the Iberian Sea
§ 70 flows forth, which is the beginning of Europe and of Libya. For it winds in the middle of the two.
The Pillars stand on its shores, on this side and that, the one looking at Europe, the other at Libya.
After this comes the Galatian stream, where the land of Massalia lies stretched, with its curved harbour.
Next after these flows the Ligurian Sea,
where the sons of the Italians dwell on the land, descendants of Ausonian Zeus, always mighty rulers, beginning from the north as far as the White Rock,
§ 80 which is rooted in the Sicilian strait.
Next the briny water bellows at Cyrnus.
After this the Sardinian sea roars within, and after this the wave of the Tyrrhenian sea howls towards the south. But then towards the rays of the sun
(85) the curved Sicilian stream runs back and forth, bringing
waters up from its depths between wave-beaten Pachynus and the headland of Crete, which juts far into the sea, beside holy Gortyn and mainland Phaistos, stretched forth, in the image of the head of a ram.
§ 90 Because of this they call it the Ram's Brow.
Indeed it also stretches towards the Iapygian land.
From there the swell of the Adriatic grows wide and stretches towards the north, and again towards the
western corner, and those dwelling nearby also call it the Ionian sea.
(95) It pours forth onto two lands. As one travels,
on the right-hand side there appears the Illyrian land, and Dalmatia above, province of warlike men.
On the left extends the immense isthmus of the
Ausonians, far-reaching, and surrounded by three seas,
§ 100 the Tyrrhenian, the Sicilian, and the brimming Adriatic.
Each one stretches its channel towards a wind,
The Tyrrhenian sea the west-wind, the Sicilian the
south-wind, the Adriatic the east-wind.
But beyond the soil of Sicily the sea flows towards Libya raising crested waves, winding about the southern Syrtis, the one which they also call the Greater Syrtis.
The other one, which has a lesser path, being an inlet, receives the flood of the sea making its way from afar.
So do the two bays thunder as they twist and turn, while from the Sicilian mountains stretches the wave of
§ 110 Crete far to the east, as far as the headland of Salmonis, which they say is the eastern tip of Crete.
Next two further seas tremble,
as they are driven by the blasts of the north-wind of Ismarus,
blowing straight at them, for they lie opposite.
Sailors call the first the Pharian sea,
which stretches to the furthermost cape of Casion.
The other is called the Sidonian sea, where stretching into
the deepest recesses of the land,
[as far as the city of Issus, passing the country of the Cilicians]
the boundless Gulf of Issos drives northward.
§ 120 It does not run very far in this direction, for it breaks off directly near the dark entrance to the land of the Cilicians.
From there it disgorges its crooked water to the west.
Just as a grim-looking serpent winds, coiled and creeping,
sluggish, and beneath it the entire summit of a mountain
is crushed as it moves, so does that gulf wind in the sea, full-flowing, weighed down here and there by
Around its waters the Pamphylians dwell,
as far as the corners of the Chelidonian islands reach.
It has as its boundary in the west the far summit of Patara.
§ 130 Consider now, turning from there again to the north, the broad path of the Aegean sea, where the waves thunder as they break around the islands of the Sporades. For no other path of the sea raises waves, not like the Aegean, roaring on high.
It sets its limit at furthest Tenedos,
with Imbros on the other side, whence there goes a
narrow strait, sweeping northward within all Propontis.
Above this the countless tribes of the land of Asia extend
towards the south, for it reaches a wide isthmus of land.
§ 140 After this is the mouth of the Thracian Bosporus, which
Io once swam at Hera's instigation, as a young heifer.
That is the narrowest strait of all
the others, which the stormy sea holds,
where the story goes that the pitiless Cyanean rocks
roam in the sea and clash against one another with a resounding din.
From here opens up and spreads the nearby Pontus.
It is vast and vast is its sprawling span into the heart of the east.
Its paths flow obliquely,
always looking to the north and to the east.
§ 150 In the middle, on this side and that, rise two peaks,
one to the far south, which they call Carambis, the other further north, above the land of Europe, which those who dwell round about call the Ram's Brow. These two meet face to face, although they are not (155) close, but as far apart as a ship might travel in three days.
From here you could also see that the Pontus is two seas, and resembles the cord of a rounded bow in its curvature. Now the right-hand side of the Pontus would be the bow-string,
drawn straight, but Carambis is alone,
§ 160 standing outside the line, and looking to the north.
The left-hand path has the shape of horns. It is bent in a double curve, like the horns of a bow.
To its north the waters of Lake Maeotis spread. Around this dwell the Scythians,
(165) men of countless number, and they call it the Mother of the Pontus.
For from this flows the measureless water of the Pontus straight through the Cimmerian Bosporus, on which many Cimmerians dwell beneath the cold foot of the Taurus.
Such, then, is the shape of the dark-shining deep.
§ 170 Now I shall recall the form of the whole earth,
so that, without seeing it, still you should have an intelligible view,
and as a result of this you should be honoured and well respected,
as you explain the details to the man of ignorance.
Well, then, Libya goes stretching to the south, to the south and east, like a trapezium in form, beginning first from Gades, where the point is sharp and reaches into the heart of the Ocean.
A wider boundary is marked near the Arabian sea,
where lies the land of the dark Ethiopians,
§ 180 the other ones, close to whom stretches the soil of the Erembi.
Men say that the continent is like a leopard-skin,
for indeed it is dry and parched,
and dotted here and there with dark spots.
So, then, below the outermost point there dwell near the Pillars the peoples of the Maurusian land.
After them there stretch the countless tribes of Nomads, where the Masaesylians and country-dwelling Masylians go to pasture with their children through plain and forest chasing a grim and wretched hunt for sustenance.
§ 190 For they do not know the cut of the earth-sharing plough and they never hear the sweet sound of the carriage's course,
nor the lowing of cattle returning to their pens.
But they just herd through the thickets, like wild animals, ignorant of corn and unaware of the harvest.
After them Carthage embraces her lovely harbour, Carthage, now Libyan, but once Phoenician,
Carthage, which the story says was measured with an ox-hide.
Next the Syrtis rolls its strong-flowing course,
the Lesser Syrtis. After this towards the east the other flows,
§ 200 immense, burdened as it is by fuller floods.
Here, when the Tyrrhenian sea raises its crested waves, sometimes the water towers high, and sometimes, in turn, the ebb-tide runs over the dry sands.
In the middle of these two stands a city, which they call Neapolis. Inland of this the Lotus-eaters dwell, a people who welcome strangers.
Here the wily Odysseus once came in his wanderings.
In that region you can see the deserted homes of the
Nasamones who have perished, for the Ausonian spear destroyed this people who paid no heed to Zeus.
§ 210 After them are the Asbystae, inland,
and the precinct of the Libyan god, beneath thick sand,
and Cyrene of the fine horses, seat of the Amyclaeans.
Nearby are the Marmaridae who extend before Egypt, and the Gaetuli beyond them and the neighbouring Nigretes.
Next after these are the Phaurusii, and beyond them the land is inhabited by the innumerable Garamantes. In the remote corners of the continent feed the furthermost Ethiopians,
by the Ocean itself, beside the vales of farthest Cerne.
§ 220 Above them there rise the peaks of the smoky Blemyes,
down from which flow the waters of the most fertile Nile, which, as it creeps from Libya towards the east,
is called Siris by the Aethiopians. But the inhabitants of Syene,
once it has turned, change its name to Nile.
From there stretching towards the north, this way and that, it winds through seven mouths and falls into the sea, enriching with its waters the fertile plain of Egypt.
For no river is like the Nile,
not in depositing silt, nor in increasing the wealth of the land.
§ 230 This river also divides Libya from the land of Asia, to the west Libya, and to the east the Asian land.
Beside it dwells a race of most illustrious men, who were the first to distinguish the ways of life, the first to put the beloved plough to the test, and scatter seed over the straightest furrow, and the first to divide the heavens with lines, considering at heart the oblique course of the sun.
I shall tell of the limits and form of their land itself, for it has been allotted no small share of honour,
§ 240 and it is of no small size, but beyond others it abounds in pasture and meadows, and yields every glory.
Its shape, then, rests on three sides.
It is broad around the northern shores, but pointed
towards the dawn, and stretches as far as high-peaked Syene, fenced on both sides by sheltering mountains,
through the middle of which pour the waters of the
And many prosperous men occupy this land, as many as inhabit glorious Thebes,
ancient Thebes, with a hundred gates, where, with a loud cry,
§ 250 Memnon welcomes his mother, Dawn, as she rises.
As many too as inhabit the midmost land of the Seven Cities,
and as many as there are on the moist shores of the sea occupying the coast as far as lake Serbonis.
To the west of this is the Macedonian city,
(255) where stands the home of mighty Zeus of Sinope,
adorned with precious gold. You could not see another temple more divine than that among men, nor another city as wealthy, where high up there appear the summits of Pallenian Eidothea.
§ 260 Next, towards the east, by Mount Casius
the city named after Peleus is occupied by a people exceptionally skilled in seafaring. Those men are not numbered among the Libyans, for the city allotted them is situated to the east of the seven-mouthed Nile.
(265) But a great many others inhabit this land,
some by the Ocean, some in the centre of the mainland, and others around the waters of beloved Lake Tritonis, which embraces a wide bay in the middle of Libya. Such, then, is the shape and form of Libya.
§ 270 But if you want an outline of Europe too, I shall not hide it from you.
The shape is the same as that of Libya, but it is turned
towards the north, and it tends back towards the east
just as that of the southerly Libya leans towards the boundary.
Both alike have their furthest track on the border with Asia,
the one to the north, and the other to the south. But if you made the two of them one land, then altogether it would be the shape of a triangle with two equal sides, pointed in the west, but broad in the east at the middle.
So, having seen that this is the outline of the two
§ 280 continents, you will easily grasp the bounds of Europe.
At its furthest borders there dwell,
near the Pillars, the people of the brave-hearted Iberians,
reaching across the length of the land, where lies the cold
stream of the northern Ocean, where the Britons
and the white tribes of the war-mad Germans dwell,
running beside the mountains of the Hercynian forest.
They say that that land is like an ox-hide.
After the Iberians are Mount Pyrene and the homes of the Celts,
near the springs of the fair-flowing Eridanus,
§ 290 beside the streams of which once in the solitary night the Heliades cried, lamenting Phaethon.
There the children of the Celts, seated beneath the poplars,
milk the tears of gold-gleaming amber.
Next after this are the haunts of the Tyrrhenian land.
To the east of this appears the start of the Alp,
through the middle of which flow down the waters of the Rhine,
towards the furthermost wave of the northern Ocean. Next after the Rhine there rises the sacred Ister, the Ister, reaching to the east as far as the Euxine
§ 300 sea, where it emits all the foam of its water, winding around Peuce with its mouth of five channels.
To its north dwell very many scattered tribes which succeed one another as far as the mouth of Lake
Germans and Samatians and Getae together with Bastamae,
and the boundless land of the Dacians and the mighty Alans,
and the Tauri, who inhabit the lofty Track of Achilles, both narrow and long, as far as the mouth of the lake itself.
Above them there extends the tribe of the Agavi rich in horses.
Here are the Melanchlaeni and the Hippemolgi,
§ 310 and the Neuri and Hippopodes and Geloni and Agathyrsi. Here the far-reaching stream of the Borysthenes river mixes with the Euxine before the Ram's Brow, directly in a line opposite the Cyaneae.
Here the waters of the Aldescus and Panticapes
roar each in their own corner of the Rhipaean mountains.
Beside them, near the waters of the Frozen sea sweet-gleaming amber swells, like a beam of the waxing moon, and nearby you could see diamonds all-a-glitter beside the cold Agathyrsi.
§ 320 So many, then, are the peoples north of the Ister,
while to the south are the Gerrae and the fortified towns of the Norici,
and Pannonians and Mysians, north of the Thracians,
and the Thracians themselves, who inhabit a limitless land,
some on the shores of the sea of the Propontis,
(325) some beside the strong-flowing Hellespont, and others
beside the deep wave of the loud-roaring Aegean sea itself.
Here on the summits of bee-feeding Pallene, springs the beautiful asterios stone, which glows like a star, and the lychnis, just like a flame of fire.
§ 330 So many, then, are the peoples who dwell around the river Ister.
Consider now the remaining path of Europe, which extends towards the dawn on three feet, that of the Iberians,
that of the Panhellenes, and that of the noble Ausonians.
Well, then, the outermost is that of the illustrious Iberians,
(335) neighbours of the Ocean to the west. On it stands
the summit of Alybe, one of the Pillars. Above this
is lovely Tartesus, land of affluent men,
and the Cempsi, who dwell by the foot of Pyrene.
In the middle of the other two extends the Ausonian land,
§ 340 far-reaching. A mountain cuts it in two down the middle,
straight, as though it had been aligned with a ruler. No skilled servant of artful Athene would find fault with it.
This they call the Apennine, and beginning from the Alp in the north it ends at the Strait of Sicily.
(345) Many tribes dwell around it, and I shall easily tell you of them all,
beginning on the west side from the north.
The Tyrrhenians are first, and after them are the tribes of
the Pelasgians, who once came from Cyllene to the western sea, where they settled with the Tyrrhenian men.
§ 350 After them comes the dread tribe of the noble Latins,
who inhabit a lovely land, through the middle of which the Tiber winds, casting its pure stream into the sea, the fair-flowing Tiber, most regal of all rivers, the Tiber which divides in two beloved Rome,
(355) honoured Rome, the great home of my lords,
the mother of all cities, rich abode.
After this is the fertile plain of the Campanians, where stands the home of chaste Parthenope, laden with sheaves of corn,
Parthenope, whom the sea welcomed in its embrace
§ 360 To the south, some way beyond the Siren's Rock,
appear the streams of the Picentine Silarus.
Nearby are the men of the Leucani and the Brentii, who inhabit the land as far the White Rock.
From there to the north appears the cape of Zephyr,
(365) Below it are the Locri, all those who in years gone by, came to Ausonian, after coupling with their mistresses. Even now their people dwell by the streams of the Alex. Next after them are the Metapontii, and near them the beloved city of well-crowned Croton,
§ 370 situated by the waters of the charming Aesarus, where you can see the lofty home of Lacinian Hera. There too, at the anger of mighty Zeus is wretched Sybaris, mourning her fallen inhabitants, who were overly mad for Alpheius' honours.
The Samnites after them inhabit the middle territory, and the nimble tribes of the Marsi. Tarentum lies near the sea,
which strong Amyclaean Ares once built.
Next after these are the haunts of the Calabrian land
and the tribes of the Iapygians reaching as far as Hyrion,
§ 380 by the sea, Hyrion, where the flood of the Adriatic flows to the neighbouring sea of Aquileia where stands the city of the Tegestraeans, on the edges of the innermost sea.
So many are the peoples who inhabit the Ausonian land From there to the east the winding flood flows, wearing at the Liburnian shores, and around all the fortified country of the Hylles, all that lies beside the isthmus,
and the coasts of the Boulimes. Onward it drives its immense course,
winding to the Illyrian land as far as the peak and the steep mountains, which they call the Ceraunians.
§ 390 Moreover in that region you could see the famous tomb, the tomb which rumour has it belongs to Cadmus and Harmony.
For it was there that they were changed into coiled snakes,
when they came from Ismenus in their rich old age.
Here the gods brought about another miracle for them. For in that region, on either side two rocks stand firmly fixed,
which both tremble and come together, whenever any ill begins to threaten those who dwell there.
To the south, quite far below fertile Thrace
and beyond the land of Oricia, is the beginning of Hellas,
§ 400 stretching far, girded by twin seas,
the Aegean and the Sicilian. Each has been allotted a wind,
the Sicilian sea the west wind, which they also call Zephyr,
and the Aegean the east wind. The island of Pelops
follows next, like the tapering leaf of a plane-tree.
For the narrow Isthmus to the north is pinched like the stem, and is attached to Hellas by a common path.
The land is like a wind-tossed leaf in outline,
wreathed with coastal bays on this side and that.
To its west are the haunts of the Triphylian land,
§ 410 where the loveliest of rivers, the Alpheius, makes its way separating itself from the waters of the Messenian Eurotas.
Both these rivers churn forth their streams from Asea, but the one divides the land of the Eleans, and the other
that of the Amyclaeans.
In the middle of the island the Apidanian Arcadians inhabit a hollow country below the peak of Erymanthus, where Melas, where Crathis, where the moist Iaon flows, where too ancient Ladon stretches with its waters, nearby is the soil of the Argives and the land of the Laconians,
the one looking to the east, the other to the south.
§ 420 Two seas thunder around the shores of the Isthmus, one flowing opposite Ephyre towards the darkness, the other towards the dawn. This they call the Saronic. Beyond the Isthmus to the east lies the Attic land, through which flows the stream of the divine Ilissus.
It was from here too that Boreas once snatched Oreithyia. After this there is the plain of the Boeotians and the Locrian soil,
and Thessaly is after these and the cities of Macedonia. After this there appear the summits of snowy Haemus in Thrace. Facing this towards the blast of the west wind
§ 430 the immense land of Dodona extends.
Beyond this, below the plain of Aracynthus, the great
plain of the Aetolians goes towards the south. Through the middle sweeps the silver-eddying Achelous, driving its course,
winding to the sea of Trinacria through the midst of the islands, which they call the Echinades. There follow here and there the cities of the neighbouring Cephallenians.
After this there is the soil of Phocis, towards the east and the dawn,
coursing northwards to the mouth of Thermopylae, below the cleft of snowy Parnassus. Through the middle
§ 440 of this the great wave of Cephisus descends with a murmur.
Beside this is the fragrant plain of Pytho, where the coil of the serpent Delphyne lies next to the tripods of the god,
the coil, rough with countless scales, in the beloved temple, where often Apollo himself stops and loosens the cord of his golden quiver, just back from Miletus or from Clarus.
So, then, may he be gracious. But you, Muse of Zeus, tell me of the sacred path of all the islands, which appear in the sea before men's eyes, facing this way and that.
§ 450 Well, then, in the middle beneath the western Pillars
furthest Gadeira appears before men,
on a sea-bound island, beside the limits of Ocean.
Here dwells a race of Phoenicians who worship mighty Zeus' son, Heracles.
(455) This island too, which among men of old
was called Cotinoussa, the inhabitants call Gadeira.
Next are the Gymnesian islands. Nearby there is Bousos, and broadest Sardo, and Cyrnus lovely in the sea, which the people who live there call Corsis.
§ 460 There is no forest which is as vast as hers.
After this there are the islands of Aeolus which form a circle in the sea,
Aeolus, son of Hippotas, the king who welcomes strangers,
Aeolus, who was allotted gifts wondrous among men, the command of the winds as they rage and as they rest.
(465) He has seven, named by men the Navigable isles,
because in their midst they have a winding path that may be sailed around.
After these Trinacria extends beyond the land of the Ausonians, standing on three sides.
Its headlands are Pachynus, Peloris and Lilybe.
§ 470 So, then, Lilybe rises up into the blast of the west wind,
and Pachynus is to the east, and towards the north lies windy Peloris, looking at Ausonian.
To its north the passage is deadly for sailors, narrow and winding and unruly, where the sea
(475) as it flows thunders about the high rocks,
the sea pierced by the many-barbed Aonian iron.
To the south is the path of Libya and the beginning of the Syrtis,
the one. The other you would see as you made your way further,
the western one. Before this there are two islands,
§ 480 Meninx and Cercinna, occupying the Libyan basin.
But whenever you sail the left-hand path of the Adriatic
sea in your ship, to the Iapygian land,
you will immediately find the island of mighty Diomedes,
where the hero came, after enraging Aphrodite, when he sought the people of the much-longed-for Iberes,
at the advice of his wife, ill-minded Aegialeia.
Next after this passage towards the rays of the sun, there appears the immense course of the islands of Apsyrtes,
which the sons of the Colchians once invaded, when they took pains
§ 490 in searching after the traces of the errant daughter of Aietes.
Next after these the Liburnian islands stand rooted.
To the south, after the Ceraunian forests, before the
passing ship, there would appear on the far side the islands of the
Ambracians, and fertile Cercyra, beloved land of Alcinous.
After this is fixed the seat of Nerician Ithaca, and of all the other islands that Achelous flowing from Chalcis winds about with silver eddies.
Many can be seen to the north of Amnisus:
Aigila, and Cythera and rugged Calauria.
§ 500 Carpathus is on the other side. Towards the darkness, nearby,
is honoured Crete, mighty Zeus' nurse-maid,
great and fertile and abounding in pastures, above which is Ida,
Ida, lush with fair-tressed oaks.
Its size too is indeed immense. Opposite the coast
(505) of Egypt is Rhodes, land of the Ialysian men.
After this to the east are the Chelidoniae,
three islands inside the great promontory of Patara.
To the east, in the Pamphylian gulf, Cyprus is washed by the sea, the lovely city of Dionean Aphrodite.
§ 510 Near Phoenicia Arados sits in the great gulf.
Before the peak of Sounion, beyond the Abantes, there appear Salamis and the city of Aegina.
The deep path of the Aegean is a wonder,
with its row of endless islands on either side within it,
(515) as far as the narrow waters of Helle, Athamas' daughter, where Sestus and Abydos each have a harbour facing the other.
The islands of Europe run in order beneath the left-hand quarter of the heavens, and those of Asia lie to the right,
reaching lengthways to the Arctic north.
§ 520 So, then, Abantian Macris belongs to Europe, and windy Scyros and lofty Peparethos.
Here too Lemnos, the rugged land of Hephaestus,
extends, and ancient Thasos, Demeter's shore,
Imbros, and Thracian Samos, the city of the Corybantes.
(525) The islands of Asia which have obtained the first lot, are
circled around Delos, and are called the Cyclades.
As offerings to Apollo they all lead dances,
as the sweet spring begins anew, when in the mountains
far from people, the clear-voiced nightingale conceives.
§ 530 Next the islands of the Sporades beam brightly all around,
as when the stars are seen through the cloudless air, once the swift north wind has dispersed the damp mists. After these are the Ionian islands. Here are Caunus and lovely Samos, the abode of Pelasgian Hera,
(535) and Chios at the foot of steep Pelinnaion.
From there the mountains of the Aiolian isles appear, wide Lesbos, and beloved Tenedos.
From there too the gulf of Melas flows towards the
Hellespont, churning foam. As one goes far to the north,
§ 540 there extends on this side and that the swell of the Propontic sea.
There is also, above the left-hand path of the Euxine, opposite the Borysthenes, a well-known island in the sea, the Island of Heroes. They call it by the name of Leuce, because the serpents there are white.
(545) There rumour has it the spirits of Achilles and other
heroes roam this way and that through the deserted glens. This is the gift from Zeus which attends the most noble
in reward for their virtue. For virtue is allotted a pure honour.
As one goes straight through the Cimmerian Bosporus
§ 550 there is another immense island, which is situated
within Lake Maeotis on the right-hand side, and on which stand Phainagora and well-built Hermonassa.
Here dwell the children of the Ionian land.
These are the islands in the sea famous among men,
(555) but others are wreathed along Ocean's stream.
I would tell of the notable position of these, and at the foot of which wind each of them lies.
So, then, there dwell about cattle-rearing Erytheia, by the wave of the Atlantic, the god-fearing Aithiopians,
§ 560 noble sons of the Macrobians, who once came here
after the death of proud Geryon. Below the Sacred Cape, which they say is the headland of Europe, the islands of the Hesperides, the birthplace of tin, are inhabited by the rich people of the illustrious Iberians.
(565) There are two other islands by the northern shores
of Ocean, the British Isles, opposite the Rhine.
For there the river pours forth its last eddy into the sea.
The size of these islands is immense and no other among all the islands is equal to the British isles.
§ 570 Nearby there is another path of islets, where the wives
of the noble Amnitian men on the opposite shores
excitedly perform the sacred rites for Bacchus according to custom,
wreathed with clusters of black-leaved ivy by night. And the clear sound of the tumult rises.
(575) Not so on the banks of the Thracian Apsynthus
do the Bistonians call upon loud-roaring Eiraphiotes; not so beside the black-eddying Ganges do the Indians, with their children, lead the revelry in honour of
not as the women in that land raise their cries of 'Euoe'.
§ 580 Cutting further along Ocean's long path
in your well-built ship you would to the island of Thulis. Here, when the sun reaches the pole of the Bears, the ever-blazing fire pours out days and nights alike. For then it revolves in a more oblique orbit
(585) its rays travelling in a straight descent,
until it progresses along its southern path in turn
toward the dark-skinned peoples.
But whenever you cleave the deep stream of the Scythian Ocean in your ship, and you turn further towards the eastern sea,
your path leads you to the island of Chryseia, where the
§ 590 rising of the bright sun itself is even visible.
Turning from there before the southern headland, you would immediately come to the island of mighty Colias,
Taprobane, mother of the Asian-born elephants,
beyond which, raised high in the revolution of the heavens,
(595) the fiery Crab spins in a circle in the ether.
This island is very broad in size, and all around
sea-creatures inhabit the shores, beasts of the Erythraean sea,
like lofty mountains. On the ridges of their backs there rises a long track of spines
§ 600 May the children of our enemies, as they wander over the
sea, meet these creatures in their travels. For there is no escape inside their wretched jaws, since it is a gaping chasm.
Often these monsters even gulp down the ship along with ship's men themselves. For a deity has placed myriad ills
(605) on sea and on land for those who are wicked.
There is further on, outside the Carmanian headland Ogyris, where lies the tomb of king Erythraeus.
From there you would make your way to the mouth of
the Persian sea, if you set out northwards, and you would come to Icarus on the sea, where the altars of the goddess Tauropolis,
full of the steam of burnt sacrifices, bear bitter smoke.
So many are the islands which Ocean's stream meet, the larger islands. But there are countless others, some in the waters of the Libyan sea,
(615) some Asian, and some again around the region of Europe.
The other islands elsewhere are innumerable. There are some which are inhabited by men and have lovely harbours for ships,
and some which have high cliffs and are not suitable for sailors.
The names of all these it is not easy for me to relate.
§ 620 The shape of Asia is the same as the form of the two continents, facing in the other direction, like the outline of a cone,
heading little by little towards the furthest nooks of all the east,
where too stand the Pillars of Theban-born Dionysus, beside the stream of the outermost Ocean, in the most distant mountains of the Indians, where the Ganges winds its white water to the Nysaean plain. But the size of the Asian land is not so great, nor is its shape entirely alike. For there is one sea which guides its stream into those continents,
§ 630 but in Asia there is the great Ocean. For it winds and pours forth three seething gulfs, casting them inwards:
the Persian, the Arabian, and the Hyrcanian with its deep eddies.
Two in the south, and one looking to the north, looking to the north and to the west, neighbour to the Euxine sea, where countless men dwell all around.
An immense isthmus of land marks the boundary
between the two, stretching here and there in vast plains.
At the centre of all Asia a mountain-range extends,
beginning from the Pamphylian land as far as even the Indians,
§ 640 at times at an angle and winding, and at times in turn
completely straight in its tracks. They call it Taurus, because it looks like a bull and makes its way with peaks
like pointed horns, divided here and there into outstretched mountains.
From there countless rivers flow with a loud din,
(645) some to the north, some to the south, and some towards
the blasts of the east and west winds. Who could tell the
names of them all?
It has not been allotted one name, but in each
valley it has a name. These names might concern those men who have their homes in the neighbouring country.
§ 650 Now, then, I will go through all the renowned peoples
who dwell there. May the Muses lead a most straight path.
Well, then, near lake Maeotis there dwell
the Maeotians themselves and the tribes of the Sauromatae,
noble race of warlike Ares. For they are sprung
(655) from that powerful love of the Amazons,
in which they once joined with the men of the Sauromatae,
when they had wandered from their homeland far from the Thermodon.
Because of this great-hearted children were born too, who inhabit an immense forest, through the middle of
§ 660 which the Tanais sweeps, falling into the recesses of the Maeotis.
The river also divides Europe from the Asian land,
to the west Europe, and to the east the land of Asia.
Its springs roar in the Caucasian mountains
far away. Broad, it rushes here and there
running over the Scythian plains.
And, when it seethes in immense waves under the north wind,
you would see ice freezing in the frost.
Wretched are those who have their homes around that place.
Constantly they suffer the cold snow and excessive frost.
§ 670 Indeed, when the winds bring the fiercest frost, you could see horses dying before your eyes, or even mules, or the tribe of field-dwelling sheep.
Not even the men themselves would stay unharmed, those who remained exposed to those blasts.
So they harness up their carts and roam to another place, leaving the land to the wintry gales, which rage against them in cruel storms, and shake the land and the pine-covered mountains.
So many dwell around the Tanais river,
§ 680 while beside the Sauromatae one after another are
the Sindi and the Cimmerians and, bordering on the Euxine,
the Cercetii and Toretae and the valiant Achaeans,
whom the gusts of the south and west wind
once drove from Xanthus and Idaean Simoeis,
as they followed their warlike king after battle.
After them there dwell, inhabitants of the neighbouring land,
the Heniochi and Zygii, descendants of the Pelasgian land.
Beside the furthest nook of the Pontus, after the country
of the Tyndaridae, there dwell the Colchians, settlers from Egypt,
§ 690 near the Caucasus, which rises in lofty mountains around the Hyrcanian sea. Here the Phasis winds across the flat of the Circaean plain, and chums its swift foam towards the wave of the Euxine,
beginning first from the Armenian mountain.
To the east and north of this there lies an isthmus the isthmus of the Caspian and Euxine seas.
Here dwells the eastern tribe of the Iberians,
who once came from Pyrene to the east,
when they engaged in a hostile war with the Hyrcanians,
§ 700 and the great tribe of the Camaritae, who once
received and welcomed Bacchus after his war with the Indians,
and, together with the Lenae, established a sacred dance, placing loin-cloths and fawnskins around their middles, crying 'Euoe, Bacche'. And the god cherished in his heart the race of those men and their haunts on the land.
After them the Caspian sea swells with waves.
I shall easily draw you this sea,
without having seen its far away paths, without having travelled in a ship.
For my life is not on black ships,
§ 710 and my family is not in commerce, nor do I sail to the Ganges, like others do, through the Erythraean sea, without a care for their lives, in order to win immense wealth,
and I do not mix with the Hyrcanians, nor search for the Caucasian peaks of the Erythraean Ariani.
But I am carried by the knowledge of the Muses, who, without wandering, can measure vast tracts of sea, and the mountains and the mainland and the course of the heavenly stars.
So, then, the shape of the great Caspian sea as a whole would be round, circular. You would not cross it
§ 720 in a ship before the circling of the third moon.
For so great is its relentless course. Flowing sharply towards the north, it mixes with the waters of Ocean. Indeed it nurtures many other marvels for men.
It produces crystal and cloudy jasper,
(725) hateful to Hobgoblins and other phantoms.
I shall tell you of all those tribes who dwell around it, beginning on the western side from the north.
First are the Scythians, as many as inhabit the coast near the sea of Cronos along the mouth of the Caspian sea.
§ 730 Next are the Thyni, and after them are the Caspians,
and the warlike Albanians after them, and the Cadusians
who dwell beyond the rugged land. Nearby are the Mardi,
the Hyrcanian and the Tapyroi. After them the Mardos winds
its course, the draught of the Dercebians and the rich Bactrians.
For between the two it descends into the Hyrcanian sea. So, then, the Bactrians inhabit a wider region inland beneath the ridges of Pamasus, and the Dercebians dwell on the other side by the Caspian waters.
After them to the east, beyond the resounding Araxes,
§ 740 dwell the Massagetae, drawers of swift arrows.
May neither I myself nor any companion go near these men. For they are far more hostile to strangers than others.
For they do not have the food of sweet grain, nor even native wine. But by mixing white milk with the blood of horses, they prepare their meals.
After them to the north are the Chorasmians, beyond
whom lies the land, of Sugdia, through the middle of which winds the sacred Oxos,
which leaves the Emodos mountain and descends into the Caspian.
After this there dwell beside the waters of the Iaxartes
§ 750 the Sacae, bearing bows which no other archer
could put to shame. For it is not customary for them to cast arrows in vain.
There also dwell the Toxarii, and Phrouri and the
barbarous tribes of the Seres, who spurn cattle and fat sheep,
and comb the shimmering blossoms of their desolate land and weave finely-wrought garments, prized garments, resembling in colour the flowers of the grassy meadow. No spider's work would rival them.
There are other Scythians in dense numbers, who inhabit the furthest regions. Beside them there lies stretched a stormy land,
§ 760 left to the wintry winds and hail.
So many are the peoples around the Caspian waves.
But consider now from the Colchians and the Phasis to the west,
by the edge of the Euxine, the abundant tribes of the Pontus
as far as the Thracian mouth, where lies the land of Chalcis.
First there are the Byzeres and nearby the tribes of the Becheires,
the Macrones and the Philyres and those who have wooden houses. Near them are the Tibareni rich in lambs. After them there are also the Chalybes inhabiting a cruel and harsh land, experts in the working of toilsome iron,
§ 770 who, standing over their loud-thundering anvils, never cease from their labour and terrible misery.
After them the alluvial soil of the Assyrian land extends,
where, from the Armenian mountain to the Amazons,
the furious Thermodon sends forth its white water,
Thermodon, who once received Sinope, the wandering daughter of Asopus,
and, as she grieved, consoled her in his own land at Zeus' bidding. For Zeus, desiring sweet love, sent her from her fatherland, unwilling as she was.
Men also inhabit a city named after her.
§ 780 Around the frozen banks of that river,
you could cut the pure stone of crystal, like ice
in winter. You will also find watery jasper.
Next the Iris casts its pure stream into the sea.
After this there roar the streams of the river Halys, coursing towards the north near the peak of Carambis, beginning first from the Armenian mountain.
Next on the shores there reside the Paphlagonians and the sacred plain of the Maryandini. Here they say Infernal Zeus' great dog with its voice of brass,
§ 790 when dragged up by the hands of great-hearted Heracles, cast from its mouth a terrible slavering humour, which the earth received and bore as a bane to men.
Nearby the Bithynians inhabit a fertile land.
The Rhebas here sends forth a lovely stream, the Rhebas, which courses beside the mouth of the Pontus,
the Rhebas, whose water is the fairest to sweep over the land.
So many are the men who dwell around the Pontus.
Let the Scythian tribes, then, be those that I have mentioned.
Now, I would tell in turn of the path of the Asian coast,
§ 800 which goes to the south at the Hellespont coursing
even to the southern stream of the most vast Aegean,
as far as Syria itself and lovely Arabia.
The Chalcidians first of all inhabit the land near the mouth,
looking at the soil of Byzantium on the opposite coast. After these are the Bebrycians and the mountains of the
Mysian land, where Cios sends forth its beloved streams, at the waters of which a nymph once stole Hylas, the ready servant of giant Heracles.
From here to the Hellespont runs the immense curve
§ 810 of Lesser Phrygia. The other Phrygia lies inland, the Greater Phrygia, by the waters of the Sangarius.
So, then, it is vast and stretches to the east, a fertile land grazed by horses. To the west you would
see the other, which lies beneath the foot of sacred Ida, with wind-blown Troy on its borders,
Troy, glorious city of heroes of old,
Troy, which Poseidon and Apollo founded,
Troy, which Athene and Hera destroyed, beside the broad-flowing Xanthus and Idaean Simoeis.
§ 820 After this there extend the haunts of the Aeolian land, by the edge of the Aegean, beyond the great Hellespont.
After this there dwell the people of the noble Ionians, near the sea, in that country through the middle of which the Maeander descends into the sea with fertile eddies.
(825) between Miletus and broad Priene.
To the north of these two you would see
Ephesus on the coast, the great city of arrow-shooting Artemis,
where the Amazons once built a temple to the goddess
at the trunk of an elm, an extraordinary wonder to men.
§ 830 Next Maeonia extends to the east
beneath windy Tmolus, whence the Pactolus makes its way,
bringing gold in its eddies and murmuring.
Sitting on its banks in the season of Spring
you would hear the clear voices of the swans, which graze
(835) beside the water here and there on the growing grass.
For many meadows flourish in Asia,
especially on the plain of Maeander, where the gleaming
water of the gently-plashing Caystrus flows.
You certainly would not fault the women, who around
§ 840 that divine spot, wearing a belt of gold at their waists,
dance, turning in a wondrous circle, when the dances of Dionysus take place.
With them maidens skip, like young fawns, and round about them the sounding winds (845) stir the lovely tunics on their breasts.
But this is the concern of the Lydian people.
By the sea the Lycians inhabit a land
on the waters of the Xanthus, the fair-flowing river.
Here the mountains of the high-cliffed Taurus appear,
§ 850 as far as Pamphylia. They call it Cragus.
There you would see a city on the sea,
Aspendos, by the stream of the river Eurymedon,
where they appease the daughter of Dione with the slaughter of swine.
Other Pamphylian cities follow,
Corycos, and Perge, and wind-blown Phaselis.
To the east of these, inhabiting an inland region,
are the Lycaones with their crooked bows, experts in war.
After them there is the fertile plain of the Pisidians,
where stand the cities of Telmessus and Lyrbe and that city which the people
§ 860 of the Amyclaeans once built in times past, Selge, of
great renown in the land.
From there to the east a curved sea cuts a winding path reaching far inland, neighbour to the stormy Euxine sea.
That gulf sweeps around the peoples of the Cilicians a long way to the east. They call it the Strait of Asia.
The waters of many rivers which come from afar mix with this, the waters of the Pyramos and the Pinaros, and the winding Cydnos, which flows through the middle of Tarsus,
well-built Tarsus, where the horse Pegasus once,
§ 870 lost a hoof and left his name to that place, when the hero
Bellerophon fell from the horse on his way to the home of Zeus.
There too is the plain of Aleios, on the flat of which, as he wandered far from men, Bellerophon rested.
Next are the many cities of the Cilicians,
(875) Lymessus and Mallus and Anchialeia and Soli,
some inland, and others near the sea itself.
After these are the seat of Commagenus and the cities of Syria
stretching along the winding shore. For the course of the
grey sea turns around to the west, as far as the peak
§ 880 of the mountain near the sea, high-cliffed Casius.
I would easily tell of the remaining path
of the lands of Asia. Keep these words in your heart,
and do not let the grace of my hard work be carried away by the winds.
For if you were to observe this path clearly,
(885) then you could soon tell others too in an expert fashion
of the rivers and of the location of the cities and of each land.
So let there be a shape of four sides, stretching towards the east in long plains.
Now you know, as you heard me say so in the first place,
§ 890 that a mountain cuts all of Asia in two as far as the Indians.
That would form the more northerly of the sides, and the Nile would be the western side. The eastern side
would be the Indian Ocean, and the southern would be
formed by the waves of the Erythraean Sea.
Consider how I shall now make my way to the east along the coast,
beginning from Syria, where I left off, and no man could accuse me of giving a false account.
Well, then, Syria goes beyond the sea nearby
to the south and east, with a land that has many cities,
which they call 'Hollow', because it is in the middle
§ 900 of mountain-peaks which render it low down,
the peaks of Casius in the west and Libanus in the east.
Many wealthy men inhabit this land,
though they do not dwell together under one name, but
separately, some inland, who are called Syrians, and some near the sea, named Phoenicians.
They are of the race of men who are Erythraeans, who first made an attempt on the sea in ships, and were the first to turn their minds to trade by sea and consider the far chorus of the heavenly stars.
§ 910 These men inhabit Iope and Gaza and Elais,
and ancient Tyre and the lovely land of Berytus,
and Byblus by the sea and flowery Sidon,
situated by the waters of the charming Bostrenus,
and fertile Tripolis, and Orthosia and Marathos
and Laodice, which lies on the shores of the sea,
and the fields of Poseidon and the sacred vales of Daphne
[where stands Antiocheia, named after Antiochus].
In the midst of these is the city of Apameia,
to the east of which flows the moist Orontes,
§ 920 immense, and dividing the land of Antiochus through the middle.
The whole region is fertile and abounds in pasture, to feed the sheep and cause the fruit on the trees to grow. Beyond this land you would see, as you made your way further south,
the innermost path of the Arabian gulf, which winds
(925) between Syria and lovely Arabia,
turning a little to the east as far as Elana.
From there the land of the most fortunate Arabs extends
reaching far, and girded by twin seas,
the Persian and the Arabian. Each has been allotted a wind,
§ 930 the Arabian the west wind and the Persian the paths of the east wind.
The southern coast facing the east
is washed by the waves of the Erythraean Ocean.
And I shall tell you of its position. For it is inhabited by tribes who are fortunate and noble beyond all others.
(935) This land has been allotted another exceptionally great wonder.
It always smells sweetly from the perfume of burnt offerings,
either of incense, or myrrh, or fragrant grass or even divinely-scented mature frankincense
or cassia. For indeed it was in that place that Zeus
§ 940 freed Dionysus himself from his well-stitched thigh;
and at his birth there grew fragrant shrubs of every kind.
The sheep too then became laden with shaggy fleeces
in the pasture, and the lakes flowed with spontaneous waters.
Birds from uninhabited islands elsewhere
(945) came bearing leaves of untouched cinnamon.
Then the god stretched a fawn-skin over his shoulders
and garlanded his fair hair with lovely ivy,
and slightly drunk with wine he brandished his
wreathed thyrsi, smiling, and showered the men with great wealth.
§ 950 For this reason even today the fields are thick with frankincense,
the mountains with gold, and the rivers elsewhere with
The inhabitants themselves are a very wealthy people, glorying in soft robes of gold.
So, then, first beyond the slope of Libanus
(955) dwell the rich people called the Nabataei.
Near them are the Chaulasii and the Agrei, beyond whom is the land of Chatramis, opposite the Persian land. Inhabiting the coast of the Erythraean sea
are the Minnaei and Sabae and the neighbouring Cletabani.
§ 960 So many immense tribes inhabit Arabia,
but there are also many more, for it is extremely vast.
Towards the opposite shore, under the blast of the west wind
appears the wretched land of the mountain-dwelling Erembi,
who live their lives in dug-out rocks, naked and without possessions. On their bodies burning from the heat the parched skin grows black. Thus, like wild animals, they roam and suffer hardships, unlike the people of the soft-living Arabs. For the deity has not given to all men an equal share in wealth.
§ 970 Beyond Libanus towards the rays of the sun there lies stretched the extensive land of the other Syria, reaching as far as sea-washed Sinope.
In the middle of this deep land
there dwell the Cappadocians, experts in horsemanship, and the Assyrians near the sea, by the mouth of the Thermodon.
To the east, out from the rugged mountains there appears the stream of the boundless Euphrates. This starts first from the Armenian mountain and goes far towards the south, and back, winding in curves,
§ 980 facing the sun as it journeys through the middle of Babylon,
it pours forth its swift foam into the swell of the Persian Sea,
passing near Teredon with its furthermost waters.
After this to the east the most rapid of all rivers,
the fair-flowing Tigris bears its stream leading an even course,
as far as a strong, fast traveller could journey
(985) if he travelled for seven days.
There is in the middle a certain lake encircled by its waters,
named Thonitis, into the corners of which the Tigris flows,
sinking far below. On rising back up again,
§ 990 it casts southward a swifter stream. Among all the rivers you would not see another more rapid.
All the land between the Euphrates and the Tigris the people who live round about call 'Mesopotamia'.
No herdsman has faulted the pastures of that land, nor anyone who honours horn-hoofed Pan on the syrinx and follows the sheep of the field. No man who tends plants
has made light of the variety of fruits,
such is the soil in that land, in fostering
the grass, the pastures full of flowers, and even the race
§ 1000 of men, most handsome and similar to the immortals.
To the north of this a fertile country is inhabited by the Armenian men and the close-fighting Matieni, who live in the mountains, along the river Euphrates,
rich and wealthy and expert in war.
To the south is the sacred city of Babylon, the whole of which Semiramis crowned with impenetrable walls.
Moreover on the acropolis she built a great temple to Belus,
and adorned it with gold and ivory and silver.
The plain of Babylon is immense, where many
§ 1010 overhanging palms grow with leafy crowns.
Yes, it bears something else beautiful than gold, the sea-green stone of watery beryl, which forms on the jutting rocks in that region within the stone of serpentine.
Beyond Babylon toward the blast of the north wind the Cissi and Messabatae and Chalonitae dwell.
But whenever you should journey beyond the Armenian mountains,
to the east, then you will find the valleys of the Medes. To the north of these a flourishing land is inhabited by Geli and Mardi and Atropateni.
§ 1020 To the south there dwell the tribes of the noble Medes, descendants of that glorious line of Aietes' daughter, blameless heroine.
For when, beside the stream of the Actaean Ilissus, she prepared the baneful drugs for the son of the Pandionid,
she left that place in shame, and, as she wandered among men,
she came to that rich land, which shares her name, not far from the Colchians. She could not come
to the land of the Colchians, for she feared her father's anger.
For this reason still now men expert in many drugs
§ 1030 inhabit that immense land, some dwelling on the very rocks, which produce dark narcissite, and some also in the overgrown meadows,
pasturing their fine flocks, which are utterly weighed
down by their fleeces.
These men reach towards the east, as far as the Caspian
Gates, which lie below hollow rocks,
keys to the Asian land, where a path
lies stretched for those travelling both to the north and to the south,
one to the Hyrcanians, another to the mountains of the Persian land.
Well, then, below the foot of the Caspian Gates
§ 1040 dwell the warlike Parthians, who carry curved bows, experts in every form of combat. For they do not trace the furrow with the plough, cleaving the farm-lands, nor do they cut through the sea with oars aboard ships, nor do they feed the race of cattle in the pastures. But from birth,
as children, they concern themselves with bows and horses,
and always over this echoing land there is the noise of javelins or arrows, and everywhere the running of
storm-swift horses, racing. For it is not customary for them to take their
supper before showering their heads with sweat from the strains of battle.
§ 1050 They feed on the prey of a livelihood won by the spear. Nevertheless, though they are relentless in battle, the sword of the Ausonian king has tamed them.
If sweet longing to learn of the Persians also grips you, with eloquent words I would tell you of their race too, and of the course of the ever-flowing rivers and of the
paths of the mountains.
For they alone have the most kingly race of Asia, and they alone laid boundless wealth in their homes, when they sacked Maeonia and Sardis.
Golden is the armour worn on the flesh of those men,
§ 1060 and golden are the bits in the mouths of their horses, and with gold they adorn the shoes on their feet.
For so immense is their wealth. Well, all the land of Persia is surrounded by great mountains, and its path reaches to the south of the Caspian Gates, going even as far as the sea of the same name.
They inhabit it in three distinct areas, some in the north situated near the shady mountains of the bow-carrying Medes,
some in the interior, and some to the south as far as the sea.
First are the Sabae, after them are the Pasargadae, and nearby the Tasci,
§ 1070 and others, who inhabit various parts of the Persian land.
Many rivers make this region very fertile, turning this way and that with their winding waters.
On one side is the great Coros, on the other the Choaspes, drawing Indian water, and flowing beside the country of the Sousans.
On its banks you would see beautiful agate, lying like marbles on the ground, which the torrents of the stormy river sweep down from the rock.
What's more, ever rejoicing in the warm wind, fruits flourish densely packed against one another.
§ 1080 Now consider the remaining path of Asia to the east.
For nearby the coast of the land comes to an end.
So, then, by the Persian wave of the Ocean, the Carmani dwell, beneath the rising sun.
They occupy a land in two parts not far from Persia, some by the sea, and others inland.
To the east of them extends the land of the Gedrosi, neighbours of the yawning Ocean, to the east of whom dwell the southern Scythians beside the Indus River, which flows opposite the Erythraean Sea,
§ 1090 furiously driving its swift stream directly south, beginning first from the windy Caucasus.
It has two mouths, and it runs past an island in the middle,
an island which the inhabitants call Patalene.
That river divides the tribes of many peoples:
towards the descent of the setting sun
the Oreitae and the Aribae and the Arachotae in their tunics of linen,
and the Satraedae, and all those beside the valley of Parpanisus,
together with very well all those alike who are called Ariani,
who do not inhabit a fair land, but one filled
§ 1100 with fine sand and rough with thickets.
But, nevertheless, the means are sufficient for those living there.
For the land provides for them a pure wealth of a different kind.
For everywhere there is the stone of red coral, and everywhere, moreover, beneath the rocks, the veins bear the fair stone of the golden and blue sapphire, from the mining of which they have the merchandise to live on.
To the east stretches the lovely land of the Indians, last of all, by the edges of Ocean.
The sun scorches this land with its first rays
§ 1110 as it rises over the workings of the blessed ones and mankind.
For this reason the inhabitants of the land are
dark-skinned, divinely sleek, and they bear on their heads the most luxuriant hair like hyacinths.
Of these men, some mine the sources of gold, digging the sand with well-made picks, some weave webs of linen, and some polish the silvery sawn-off tusks of elephants.
Others hunt on the jutting rocks of mountain-torrents for the sea-green stone of beryl or sparkling
§ 1120 adamant or green-glancing jasper
or again the glittering stone of pure topaz and sweet softly flushing amethyst.
For the land fosters wealth of every kind for the men, watered here and there by ever-flowing rivers.
(1125) Yes, even the meadows are always thick with leaves.
for on one side millet grows, and on the other, in turn, there flourish forests of the Erythraean reed.
Consider how I am to describe to you the shape and the rivers,
and the windy mountains and the peoples of the land itself.
§ 1130 Well, then, it is fixed on four sides,
all of them at an angle, like the shape of a rhombus.
So, on the west the waters of the neighbouring Indus cut off the land, and in the south there is the swell of the
Erythraean sea, and the Ganges is to the east, and the Caucasus toward
the pole of the Bears.
(1135) Many fortunate men inhabit this land,
not all of them living under the same name, but distinguished into separate groups. So, near the boundless river Indus,
are the Dardanees, where the Acesine, which flows in a crooked course from the rocks, is received by the
Hydaspes, navigable to ships.
§ 1140 After them there follows a third, the silver-eddying Cophe.
Amidst these rivers there dwell the Sabae and the Toxili, and next the Scodri. And following on there are the wild tribes,
of the Peucales. After them the servers of Dionysus, the Gargaridae, dwell, there where the Hypanis and the divine Magarsus, most turbulent of rivers, bear the marvellous progeny of gold. Starting from the mountain
of Emodus, they flow toward the country of the Ganges, which reaches to the south along the borders of the Colian land.
This, indeed, juts out into the deep-eddying Ocean.
§ 1150 It is steep, inaccessible to swift birds.
For this reason men call it the 'Land Without Birds'. There is a certain spectacular place beside the
fair-flowing Ganges, a place which is revered and sacred, where Bacchus once walked in anger, when the delicate fawn-skins of the Lenae were turned into shields, and their thyrsi were changed into iron, and their belts and the tendrils
of the twisting vine into the coils of serpents, then when in their folly they slighted the festival of the god.
For this reason they call it the Nysaean path,
§ 1160 and they duly established with their sons all his rites.
He himself, when he destroyed the tribes of the dark Indians,
ascended the mountains of Emodus, below the foot of which flows the mighty stream of the eastern Ocean.
Here he planted two pillars near the borders of the land,
(1165) and exultant he returned to the waters of the Ismenus.
So many are the most eminent men on the earth, but others wander here and there over the lands in their thousands, whom no-one could tell of clearly, no mortal. Only the gods are able to do all with ease.
§ 1170 For they rounded off the first foundations
and revealed the deep swell of the measureless sea. They marked out all that is immutable in life, distinguishing the stars, and allotting each a share of the sea and the deep earth.
(1175) For this reason each land has been allotted a nature of a different kind.
For one is white and shining,
another is darker, and another has been allotted the appearance of both.
One resembles the flowers of the red earth of Assyria, others are otherwise. For mighty Zeus has conceived it thus.
§ 1180 So is everything among men diverse.
Farewell, you countries and islands in the sea, waters of Ocean and sacred waves of the deep,
rivers and springs and wooded mountains.
Now I have run over the swell of the entire sea,
(1185) and the winding path of the lands. So let me have
from the Blessed Ones themselves an answer worthy of my hymns.