Pseudo Scylax, Periplous

Pseudo-Skylax's Periplous or Circumnavigation, translation by Brady Kiesling (2015) from the 1878 Greek edition of B. Fabricius (but using Muller's paragraph numbers) at archive.org. This (unedited) translation is freely available for any non-commercial use with attribution of the source. For any scholarly purpose, however, you should consult the recent text, translation, and commentary by Graham Shipley: Pseudo-Skylax's Periplous: The Circumnavigation of the Inhabited World: translated by Graham Shipley (University of Exeter, Bristol Phoenix Press, 2011). I have adapted my translation to reflect some of his textual improvements. This text has 1136 tagged references to 702 ancient places.
CTS URN: urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0065.tlg001; Wikidata ID: Q1780915;     [Open Greek text in new tab]

§ 1  I begin from the pillars of Herakles in Europe until the pillars of Herakles in Libya and until the tall Ethiopians. The pillars of Herakles are opposite each other and a day's sail apart. Beyond the pillars of Herakles in Europe are many trading posts of the Carthaginians and clay/mud and flood tides and shoals.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 2  First in Europe are the Iberes, the nation of Iberia, and the river Iber. There are two islands there, named Gadeira. On one of them is a city a day's sail distant from the pillars of Herakles. Then a trading post, a Hellenic city named Emporion. These are colonies of the Massilians. The voyage along the coast of Iberia is seven days and nights.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 3  After the Iberians are half-breed Ligyes ( Ligurians) and Iberians as far as the Rhodanus (Rhone) river. The coastal voyage along the Ligyes from Emporion to the Rhone is two days and a night.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 4  After the Rhone are the Ligyes as far as Antipolis. In this country is a Hellenic city Massalia with a port, and the city Antipolis. These are colonists of Massalia. The coastal voyage from the Rhone to Antipolis is four days and nights. From the pillars of Herakles to Antipolis the whole country has good harbors.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 5  From Antipolis is the Tyrrhenian nation as far as the city of Rome. The coastal voyage along the Tyrrhenian country is four days and nights.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 6  Off the Tyrrhenian coast is the island of Kyrnos (Corsica). From Tyrrhenia the voyage to Kyrnos is a day and a half. There is an inhabited island in the middle of the voyage called Aithalia, and many other deserted islands.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 7  From the island of Kyrnos to the island of Sardo (Sardinia) is the third part of a day, and a desert island lies between. The voyage from Sardo to Libya is a day and a night. I return to the mainland, whence I was diverted to Kyrnos.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 8  The Latins lie up against the Tyrrhenians as far as Kirkaio. The monument of Elpenor belongs to the Latins. The coastal voyage along the Latins is a day and night.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 9  By the Latins are the Olsoi. Sailing along the Olsoi takes one day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 10  Next after the Olsoi are the Campanoi, and these are the Hellenic cities in Campania: Kyme, Neapolis. Offshore from them is the island Pithekoussa with a Hellenic city. The coastal voyage along Campania takes one day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 11  Next after the Campanians are the Saunitai, and the coastal voyage along the Saunitai takes half a day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 12  After the Saunitai are the Leukanians as far as Thouria. The voyage beside Leukania is 6 days and nights. Leukania is a headland with Hellenic cities as follows: Poseidonia (Paestum) with Elea, { Laos}, a colony of the Thourioi, Pandosia, Klampeteia (ms. Plataieis), Terina, Hipponion, Medma, and Rhegion promontory and city.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 13  Off Rhegion is Sikelia island (Sicily) 12 stades distant from Europe, from Rhegion to Pelorias.
These are the barbarian nations in Sikelia: Elymoi, Sikanoi, Sikeloi, Phoenicians, and Trojans. These are the barbarians, but Hellenes also live here. Pelorias is the promontory of Sikelia. These are the Hellenic cities from Pelorias: Messene with a harbor, Tauromenion, Naxos, Katane, Leontinoi. To Leontinoi is a 20-stades voyage up the Terias river. The Symaithos river, with a city Megaris and harbor Xiphoneios. Next to Megaris is the city of Syrakousai, with two harbors, one inside the fortification and the other outside. After this is the city of Heloros, and Pachynos promontory. After Pachynos are the following Hellenic cities: Camarina, Gela, Akragas, Selinous, Lilybaion promontory. After Lilybaion is Himera, a Hellenic city, and Mylai a Hellenic city with a harbor. Across from here is Lipara island, half a day's voyage from Mylai to Lipara. And I return again onto the mainland, from which I was diverted.
Past Rhegion the cities are as follows: Lokroi, Kaulonia, Kroton; the Lakinian sanctuary of Hera; and Kalypso's Island, where Odysseus stayed with Kalypso; and the river Krathis; and Sybaris and the city Thouria. These are the Hellenes in Leukania.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 14  After Leukania are the nation of the Iapyges up until the Arion (Hyrion or Orion) mountain in the Adriatic gulf. (later gloss: In this nation the languages or mouths are Laternioi, Opicii, Kramones, Boreontinoi, Peuketies). The coastal voyage along Iapygia is six days and nights. Hellenes live in Iapygia with the following cities: Herakleion; Metapontion; Taras with a harbor; Hydrous at the mouth of the Adriatic or Ionian Sea.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 15  After Iapygia from Orion is the nation of the Saunitai, stretching across from the Tyrrhenian sea to the Adriatic. The coastal voyage along the Saunite country is two days and nights.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 16  After the Saunitai is the nation of the Ombrikoi, with a city Agkon. This nation honors Diomedes, its benefactor, and he has a sanctuary there. The coastal voyage along the Ombric country is two days and a night.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 17  After Ombria are the Tyrrhenians, and they stretch from the Tyrrhenian sea to the Adriatic. They have a Greek city Spina with a river. The sail upriver to the city is 20 stades. To there from the city of Pisa is a road journey of three days.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 18  After the Tyrrhenians are the nation of the Keltoi, the ones left over from the military campaign, reaching from atop the passes to the Adriatic . Here is the bottom of the Adriatic gulf.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 19  After the Keltoi the nation of the Henetoi, with the Eridanos river. The coastal voyage from there is one day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 20  After the Henetoi, the nation of the Istroi, and the Istros river. This river also flows out into the Pontos, or by further embellishment, into Egypt. The coastal voyage along the Istrian country is one day and night.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 21  After the Istrians the nation of the Liburnoi. In this nation there are the following cities by the sea: Idassa, Attienites, Dyurta, Haloupsoi, Olsoi, Pedetai, Hemionoi. These last are ruled by women. The wives of free husbands have intercourse with their own slaves and the men of neighboring countries. Off this country are these islands whose names I can say — there are many other nameless ones: Istris island, length 310 stades, width 120, Elektrides, Mentorides — these are the large islands. The river Katarbates. The coastal voyage along the country of Liburnis is two days.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 22  After the Liburnians the nation of the Illyrians, and the Illyrians live along the sea as far as Chaonia opposite Kerkyra the island of Alkinoos. There is a Hellenic city there, named Herakleia, with a harbor. The so-called Lotophagi barbarians are here, namely the Iaderatenai and Boulinoi. The Hylloi, who share a border with the Boulinoi, say they were settled here by Hyllos the son of Herakles, but they are barbarians. They inhabit a peninsula a little smaller than the Peloponnese. From the peninsula stretches an island like a straight ribbon, which the Boulinoi inhabit. The Boulinoi are an Illyrian nation. The coastal voyage along the country of the Boulinoi is one long day. The Nestaioi are on the Nestos river. From the Nestos the voyage is along a gulf. All this gulf is called the Manios. The voyage is one day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 23  In this gulf are the Tragyras islands, the Krateiai, Brattia, Olynta — these islands are distant from each other two stades or a little more — off Pharos and Issa. For here is the new Pharos, a Hellenic island, and Issa island, and these cities are Hellenic. Before sailing along the Naron river a lot of country is right up against the sea. There is an island near the shore country called Melite. Another island near it, called Kerkyra Melaina (Black Kerkyra). This island runs out with one of its promontories away from the shore country and with the other promontory reaches to the Naron river. From Melite it is 80 stades distant, and from the shore country 8 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 24  After the Nestaioi is the Naron river. The sailing up the Naron is not narrow. Even triremes and ships sail into it up to the (Narona) trading post distant 80 stades from the sea. These are the Manioi, an Illyrian nation. There is a large lagoon inland from the trading post, and the lagoon belongs to the Autariatai, an Illyrian nation. There is an island in the lagoon of 120 stades. This island is extremely fertile. The Naron river flows out from this lake. From the Naron to the Arion river is a day's sail. From the Arion river to the Rizous river is half a day's sail. The stones of Kadmos and Harmonia are here, and a sanctuary not far from the Rizous river. From the Rizous river to Bouthoe the voyage is half a day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 25  The next nation of the Illyrians is the Encheleis, beside the Rizous. From Bouthoe to Epidamnos, a Greek city, the voyage is a day and night, three days by road.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 26  There is the Illyrian nation of the Taylantians, in which is Epidamnos, and a river named Palamnos flows by the city. From Epidamnos to Apollonia a Hellenic city the road is two days. Apollonia is 50 stades from the sea, and the river Aias flows by the city. From Apollonia to Amantia is 320 stades. ... Orikos is somewhat further into the Ionian. The Orikian territory along the sea is 80 stades, that of Amantia 60 stades.
Sharing a border in the interior with all of them are the Atintanes above Orikia and Dexaria as far as Idonia (ms. Dodonia). In the Kestrid country is said to be a plain called Erytheia. Here Geryones is said to live and graze his oxen. Off these places are the Keraunian mountains on the mainland and a small island off them, which has the name Sason. From here to Orikos, a city, the coastal voyage is one-third of a day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 27  These are the Illyrians as far as here, past the Boulinoi. The mouth of the Ionian Sea is from the Keraunia mountains as far as the capes of Iapygia. The voyage to Hydrous, a city in Iapygia, from the Keraunian mountains is about 500 stades; this is the mouth of the gulf: What is inside is the Ionian. There are many harbors in the Adriatic, which is the same thing as the Ionian.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 28  After the Illyrians are the Chaones. Chaonia has good harbors; the Chaones live in villages. The coastal voyage along Chaonia is half a day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 29  Off Chaonia is the island of Kerkyra, and a Hellenic city in it, with three harbors by the city; of these one is closed. And Kerkyra lies opposite Thesprotia more than it does to Chaonia. I return again to the mainland, from which I was diverted.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 30  After Chaonia is the nation of the Thesprotians. These people, too, live in villages: and this territory also has good harbors. Here there is a harbor named Elaia, Into which the river Acheron discharges, and a lake, Acherousia, out of which the Acheron river flows. The coastal voyage along Thesprotia is half a day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 31  After Thesprotia is Kassopia, a nation. These people, too, live in villages. They inhabit the coast up to inside the Anaktoric gulf. The coastal voyage along the country of the Kassopians is half a day. The Anaktoric gulf is a little less than 120 stades from its mouth to the inmost part. The mouth is 4 stades wide.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 32  After Kassopia is the nation of the Molottians. These people live in villages: and they inhabit only a small area by the sea, but a large expanse inland. The coastal voyage along the Molottian country is 40 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 33  After Molottia is Ambrakia, a Hellenic city distant 80 stades from the sea. But on the sea there is a fort with an enclosed harbor. From here Hellas begins, continuous as far as the Peneios river and Homolion, a city beside the river, in Magnesia. The coastal voyage along Ambrakia is 120 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 34  After Ambrakia is Akarnania, a nation; and the first city here is Amphilochian Argos, and Euripos, and Thyrrheion (?) [ms is problematic here]. Outside the Ambrakic gulf are the following: Anaktorion with a harbor, Akte, and the city of Leukas with a harbor. This reaches up to Leukatas, a promontory visible from far off at sea. This city was in the past also named Epileukadian (?). The Akarnanians, due to civil strife, took one thousand settlers from Corinth; the settlers, having killed the Akarnanians, hold their country themselves. This is now an island, by digging a trench at the isthmus. After these places is the city of Phara; Offshore is the island of Ithake, with a city and a harbor. After this the island of Kephalenia.
I return again to the mainland, from where I left. After these is the city of Alyzia, and offshore of it the island of Karnos; and the city of Astakos with a harbor, and the river Acheloos, and Oiniadai, a city: and to these a voyage upstream along the Acheloos. There are also other cities of the Akarnanians in the interior. The coastal voyage along Akarnania is two days. All of Akarnania has good harbors with many islands lying offshore, which the Acheloos by silting them up is making into mainland. The islands are called Echinades; they are deserted.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 35  After Akarnania is Aitolia, a nation, with the following cities: Kalydon, Halikyrna, Molykreia: and the Delphic gulf: the mouth of this gulf is 10 stades, and on it is a sanctuary and Naupaktos, a city: and against it the Aitolians have many other cities in the interior; The coastal voyage along Aitolia is one day. Aitolia stretches alongside the whole of Lokris inland as far as the Ainianians.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 36  After the Aitolians are the Locrians, a nation, among whom are the so-called Ozolians, and the following cities: Euanthis, Amphissa. They also have cities in the interior. The coastal voyage along the Locrians's country is the half of a day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 37  After the Locrians the nation of the Phocians, by the Kirrhaian plain; and the sanctuary of Apollo and Delphi a city, and Antikyra, a city, where the best hellebore treatments take place. The coastal voyage along the Phocians' country is half a day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 38  After the Phocians are the Boiotians, a nation, and the following cities: Korsiai, Siphai with a harbor, and Kreusis, the harbor of Eutresis(?) with a fort of the Boiotians. The coastal voyage along Boiotia is less than half a day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 39  After the Boiotians are the Megarians, a nation, with the following cities: Aigosthena; Pegai, a fort; Geraneia; and Aigeiros [in ms Aris]. The coastal voyage along the territory of the Megarians is 100 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 40  After the Megarians are Corinth, a city, and sanctuary of Hera, Lechaion, and the Isthmus. From here already begins the Peloponnesos. From the sea the road to the sea on our side, across the isthmus, is 40 stades. These places are all deeply recessed. The coastal voyage along the territory of the Corinthians is half a day.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 41  After Corinth is Sikyon, a city with a coastal voyage of 120 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 42  After Sikyon the Achaians, a nation with cities as follows: Pellene, Aigeira, Aigai, Aigion, and Rhypes; and outside Rhion Patrai and Dyme. The coastal voyage along the Achaian country is 700 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 43  After the Achaians is Elis, a nation, with the following cities: Kyllene with a harbor; and the river Alpheios: and there is also another union of cities, Elis, inland. Off this country is the island of Zakynthos, with a city and a harbor. The coastal voyage along the country of the Eleians up to that of the Lepreatans is 700 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 44  After Elis is Arkadia, a nation. Arkadia reaches the sea at Lepreon from inland. These are their large (?) cities in the interior: (Megale Polis?), Tegea, Mantineia, Heraia, Orchomenos, Stymphalos. There are also other cities. The coastal voyage along the country of the Lepreatans is 100 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 45  After Arkadia is the nation Messene with the following cities: [first Messene with a harbor] Kyparissos, distant from the sea 7 stades; (or Prote island with a harbor?); Ithome inland, 80 stades away from the sea. The coastal voyage along the Messenian territory is 300 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 46  (After Messene) Lakedaimon, a nation, with the following cities: Asine; Mothone; Psamathous harbor, and Achilleios harbor back to back with it, in between these two, projecting into the sea, is a sanctuary of Poseidon, Tainaros; and Las city and harbor; Gytheion, in which is a shipyard and a fortress; the river Eurotas; and Boia, a city; and Onougnathos (?), a cape. Off this lies Kythera island, with a city and harbor. Off this is Crete island.
After this aforementioned cape Malea are Side, a city with a harbor; Epidauros, a city with a harbor; Prasia, a city with a harbor; Methana, a city with a harbor. There are many other cities of the Lacedemonians. In the interior is Sparta, and many others. The coastal voyage along the country of the Lacedemonians is three days.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 47  Off Lacedemon lies the island of Crete: for Lacedemon is the nearest point of Europe. The voyage from Lacedemon to the promontory of Crete with the city of Phalasarna is a day's course. Sailing with the south wind toward Libya from Phalasarna is Kriou Metopon (Ram's forehead) promontory. Sailing to the Aliadai peninsula (?) [text garbled] which belongs to the Cyrenaeans, a day and a night.
Crete is 2,500 stades long, and narrow, and stretches west to east. Hellenes live in Crete, some of them colonists of the Lacedemonians, others of the Argives, others of the Athenians, others from whatever other part of Hellas it might be. Some of them are autochthonous. Crete has many cities.
After [Korykos, ms. reads Κρήτης θέσις ως ακροτήριων] promontory the first city to the west is the aforementioned Phalasarna with a closed harbor. Next Polyrrhenia, stretching across Crete from north to south. Diktynnaion, a sanctuary of Artemis, to the north, belonging to the territory of Pergamia. To the south Hyrtakina. Kydonia with a closed harbor towards the north. Inland Elyros, a city. Towards the south Lissa, a city and harbor beside Kriou Metopon. Northward the Apteraian territory. Then Lampaia, stretching the width of the island, with the river Mesapos.
After this Mount Ida (ms. Osmida), with Eleuthernai towards the north. Towards the south Sybrita with a harbor. To the south, Phaistos, to the north Oaxos and Knossos. To the south Gortyna. Rhaukos and inland Lyktos, stretching the width of the island. Then to the north Mount Kadistos with a harbor Olous, and ... Praisos (Prasis) stretches the width of the island. Itanos (ms. Granos), the promontory of Crete towards the rising sun. There are other cities in Crete as well: it is called hundred-citied.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 48  These are the Kyklades inhabited from the Lacedemonian territory: Melos with a harbor, and off it Kimolos, and off this Oliaros, off this Sikinos, also a city. Off this Thera, and off this Anaphe, and off this Astypalaia. And I go back to the mainland, from which I was diverted.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 49  After Lakedaimon is the city of Argos, and in it Nauplia, a city and harbor: and inland Kleonai and Mycenae and Tiryns. The coastal voyage along Argive territory in a circle, for it is a gulf, the so-called Argolic, is 150 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 50  After Argos is the Epidaurian country, which reaches down along this gulf for 30 stades. After the Epidaurian country is the Halia [of Halieis ] with a harbor. This is at the mouth of the Argolic gulf. The voyage round this is 100 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 51  After this is Hermion, a city and harbor. The voyage round it is 80 stades. After Hermion is Skyllaion, the promontory of the gulf towards the Isthmus; Skyllaion belongs to Troizenia. Directly opposite it is Sounion, the promontory of the territory of the Athenians. Off this is the island Belbina with a city. From this mouth of the gulf in toward the Isthmus, is 440 stades. This gulf is widest (?) at the mouth.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 52  After Hermion is Troizen, a city with a harbor. The coastal voyage along it is 30 stades. Off these places is the island of Kalauria, with a city and a harbor. The coastal voyage along it is (3)30 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 53  Off this is the island and city of Aigina with two harbors. And I return again onto the mainland, from which I was diverted.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 54  After Troizenia is the city of Epidauros with a harbor. The coastal voyage along the Epidaurian country: 130 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 55  After Epidauros is the country of the Corinthians toward the east, and the fort of Kenchreiai, and the Isthmus, with a sanctuary of Poseidon. Here the Peloponnesos ends. The Corinthians also have country outside the Isthmus and a fort, Sidous, and another fort, Kremmyon. The coastal voyage along the country of the Corinthians as far as the borders of the Megarians is 300 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 56  After the country of the Corinthians is Megara, a city with a harbor, and Nisaia, a fortress. The coastal voyage along the territory of the Megarians as far as Iapis, for this is the border of the territory of the Athenians, is 140 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 57  After the Megarians are cities of the Athenians. First in Attike is Eleusis, where there is the sanctuary of Demeter and a fort. Off this is Salamis, an island with a city and harbor. Next the Peiraieus and the Legs (Long Walls) and Athens. Peiraieus has 3 harbors. Anaphlystos, a fort with a harbor; Sounion, a promontory with a fort; a sanctuary of Poseidon; Thorikos, a fort with two harbors; Rhamnous, a fort. There are also many other harbors in Attike. The voyage around the country of the Athenians is 1,140 stades. From the country of Iapis to Sounion: 490 stades. From Sounion to the border of the Boiotians is 650 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 58  Off Attike are the islands called Cyclades, with the following cities in the islands: Keos — this one is four-citied (Poieessa, a city) with a harbor; Koressia, Ioulis, and Karthaia Helene; Kythnos island, with a city; Seriphos island, with a city and a harbor; Siphnos; Paros with two harbors, one closed; Naxos; Delos; Rhene; Syros; Mykonos — this one is two-citied; Tenos with a harbor; Andros with a harbor. Now these are the Cyclades islands. But below these are the following other islands to the south: Ios with a harbor — Homer is buried here; Amorgos — this one is three-citied with a harbor; Ikaros, with two cities.
After Andros is Euboia island with four cities. It has Karystos, Eretria with a harbor, Chalkis with a harbor, Hestiaia with a harbor. Euboia from Kenaion, the sanctuary of Zeus to Geraistos, the sanctuary of Poseidon, has 1,350 stades. The width of Euboia is narrow.
In the Aegean sea are the following islands: off Eretria, Skyros, with a city; Ikos, two-citied; Peparethos with three cities and a harbor; Skiathos, this one is two-citied with a harbor. After these places I go back to the mainland, from where I was diverted.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 59  After Athens are the Boiotians, a nation: for they extend as far as this sea. First is a sanctuary. Delion; Aulis, a sanctuary; Euripos, Salganeus(?), a fort; Anthedon, a fort; Thebes; Thespiai; Orchomenos in the interior. There are other cities. The coastal voyage along the Boiotian country from Delion to the border of the Locrians is 250 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 60  After the Boiotians are the Locrians, a nation. By Euboia they have the following cities: Larymna, Kynos, Opous, Alope; and the Locrians also have many others. The coastal voyage along their country is 200 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 61  After the Locrians are the Phocians): for these people, too, extend to this sea. They have the following cities: Thronion, Knemis, Elateia, Panopeus. They have other cities inland as well. The coastal voyage along the country of the Phocians is 200 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 62  After the Phocians are the Melieis and the Meliac gulf. (Inland from) this gulf are the people called Limodorieis, and these cities: Erineos, Boion, Kytinion. Then are Thermopylai, Trachis, Oite, Herakleia, the Spercheios river.
The Malieis [text garbled], a nation. The Malieis have as their first city Lamia, and as the last Echinos: and the Malieis also have other cities, as far as the gulf touches. From the heights inland the Ainianes are settling in the country of the Malieis. The Spercheios river flows through them.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 63  Outside the Maliac gulf are the Phthiotic Achaians, a nation; they are also in the Pagasetic gulf, on the left as you sail in, about halfway into the gulf. The cities of the Achaians are the following: Antrones, Larissa, Meliteia, Demetrion, and Thebai; and the Achaians also have other cities in the interior.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 64  After the Achaians is Thessaly, which comes down to the sea from the interior by a narrow way to the Pagasetic gulf, 30 stades. These are the Thessalian cities on the sea: Amphanai, Pagasai; inland are Pherai, Larissa, Pharsalos, Kierion, Pelinnaion, Skotoussa, and Krannon. There are other cities of the Thessalians inland as well. Thessaly stretches inland beyond the Ainianians and Dolopians and Malians and Achaians and Magnetes, as far as Tempe.
The length of the Pagasetic gulf from the mouth to the inner recess of Pagasai takes until lunch-time. The mouth is 5 stades. In the Pagasetic gulf is the island of Kikynethos, with a city.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 65  The nation of the Magnetes (Magnesians) is on the seacoast, with the following cities: Iolkos, Methone, Korakai, Spaladra, Olizon, with a harbor (or Tisai, a harbor). Outside the gulf of Pagasai are Meliboia, Rhizous, Eurymenai, and Amyros (ms. erymenai, myrai). The Perrhaibians, a nation, Hellenes, are settling inland.
As far as here Hellas is continuous from Ambrakia; more or less all the coastal part is similarly in Hellas.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 66  Beyond the Peneios river are the Macedonians, a nation, and the Thermaic gulf. The first city of Makedonia is Herakleion; then Dion; Pydna, a Hellenic city; Methone, a Hellenic city and the Haliakmon river; Aloros, a city and the river Loudias; Pella, a city with a palace (basileion) in it, an upstream voyage up the Loudias; the Axios river, the Echedoros river; Therme, a city; Aineia, Hellenic, Pallene, a long cape reaching into the sea. These are the Hellenic cities in Pallene: Potidaia in the middle, blocking the isthmus, Mende, Aphytis, Thrambeis, Skione, Kanastraion the sacred promontory of Pallene.
Outside the isthmus are these cities: Olynthos, Hellenic; Mekyberna, Hellenic. Sermylia, Hellenic, with the Sermylic gulf; Torone, a Hellenic city and harbor. Dion, Hellenic; Thyssos, Hellenic; Kleonai, Hellenic; Athos Mountain; Akrothooi, Hellenic; Charadrous, Hellenic; Olophyxis, Hellenic; Akanthos, Hellenic; Alapta, Hellenic. Arethousa, Hellenic; Bolbe Lake; and Apollonia, Hellenic.
There are also many others belonging to Macedonia in the interior. It is indented: the coastal sail around the gulfs takes four days and nights. After Macedonia is the Strymon river; this divides Macedonia and Thrace.

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§ 67  Thrace extends from the Strymon river as far as the Istros river, the one in the Euxeinos Pontos (Black Sea). In Thrace are the following Hellenic cities: Amphipolis, Phagres, Galepsos, Oisyme, and other trading-posts of the Thasians. Off these places is Thasos island with a city and two harbors, one of them closed.
I go back to the mainland from where I diverted. Neapolis; by it Daton, a Hellenic city, which Kallistratos of Athens founded; and the river Nestos; Abdera, a city; the Koudetos river and the cities Dikaia and Maroneia. Off them is Samothrace island with a harbor. Opposite it on the mainland are the trading-towns of Drys, Zone, and the river Hebros with a fort upon it, Douriskos; Ainos, a city with a harbor. The Ainians' forts in Thrace; the Melas gulf; the Melas river, Deris, a trading-post; Kobrys, a trading-post of the Kardianoi, and another one, Kypasis. Off the Melas gulf is Imbros island, with a city; and Lemnos island, with a harbor. I go back to the mainland, from where I was diverted. After the Melas gulf is the Thracian Chersonesos, with the following cities: Kardia, Ide, Paion, Alopekonnesos, Araplous, Elaious, Madytos, Sestos at the mouth of the Propontis; which is 6 stades (wide). Inside are Aigos Potamoi, Kressa, Krithote, Paktye. The Thrakian Chersonesos reaches to here. From Paktye to Kardia across the neck on foot is 40 stades from sea to sea, with a city in the middle named Agora. The length of the Chersonesos from Kardia to Elaious where it is longest is 400 stades
After the Chersonesos are Thracian forts as follows: first Leuke Akte, Teiristasis, Herakleia, Ganos, Ganiai, and Neon Teichos. Perinthos, a city with a harbor, Daminon Teichos; Selymbria, a city with a harbor. From here to the mouth of the Pontos is 500 stades. The area along the Bosporos is called Anaplous until you come to Hieron (the Sanctuary). From Hieron the mouth of the Pontos, is seven stades in width. The coastal voyage along Thrace from the Strymon river to Sestos: two days and nights. From Sestos to the mouth of the Pontos: two days and nights. From the mouth to the Istros river three days and nights. The total voyage around, from Thrace and the river Strymon to the Istros river eight days and nights.

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§ 68  After Thrace are the Scythians, a nation, and among them the following Hellenic cities: Tyris and a river; Nikonion a city; Ophiousa a city. The Tauroi, a nation, settle in Skythike, a promontory of the mainland that extends out to sea. In the Taurike live Hellenes with the following cities: Chersonesos, a trading-town. Kriou Metopon, a promontory of the Taurike. After these places are the Skythians again, and the following Hellenic cities: Theudosia, Kytaia with Nymphaion, Pantikapaion, and Myrmekion. Coastal voyage direct from Istros to Kriou Metopon is three days and nights; that beside the land is double, for it is a gulf.
In this gulf there is an island — the island is deserted — which has the name Leuke, sacred to Achilles. From Kriou Metopon the voyage to Pantikapaion is a day and a night; from Pantikapaion to the mouth of the Maiotic lake is 20 stades. The Maiotic lake is said to be half of Pontos. In the Maiotic lake, as one sails directly in, on the left are Scythians: for they come down out of the outside sea, beyong Taurike, to the Maiotic lake. [After the Skythai are Sauromatai] Syrmatai, a nation. The river Tanais is the boundary of Asia and Europe.

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§ 69  From the Pillars of Herakles in Europe, as one sails around the gulfs beside land — if, for so many nights as have been written (above), one reckons days in place of these; and, where stades are written, in place of the 500 stades a day of a man sailing — the coastal voyage of Europe becomes 153. The greatest rivers in Europe are the Tanais, the Istros, and the Rhodanos.

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§ 70  From the Tanais river Asia begins. The first nation of it is the Sauromatai in Pontos. The nation of Sauromatai is ruled by women.

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§ 71  Next to them are the Maiotai.

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§ 72  After the Maiotai the Sindoi, a nation. For they extend also outside the lake. Among them there are the following Hellenic cities: Phanagorou city, Kepoi, Sindikos harbor, Patous.

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§ 73  After Sindikos harbor the nation of the Kerketai.

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§ 74  After the Kerketai the Toretai nation and a Greek city Torikos with a harbor.

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§ 75  After the Toretai the Achaioi nation.

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§ 76  After the Achaioi the Heniochoi nation.

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§ 77  After the Heniochoi the Koraxoi nation.

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§ 78  After the Koraxoi, the Kolike nation.

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§ 79  After the Kolike the Melanchlainoi (Black-cloaks) nation, and a river Metasoris and the Aigipios river.

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§ 80  After the Melanchlainoi the Gelonoi.

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§ 81  After these the Kolchoi (Colchian) nation and Dioskourias city and Gyenos [ms Tyenos] a Hellenic city and the Gyenos river and Xerobios river, Chobos river, Charieis river, Phasis river and Phasis a Hellenic city, and the sail upriver is 180 stades to Aia, [ms. Male] a large city, barbarian, where Medeia came from. Here is the Ris river, the Isis river, the Leston (Pirates') river, the Apsaros river.

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§ 82  After the Kolchoi the Byzeres nation and Archabon river and Arion river.

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§ 83  After the Byzeres the Ekecheirieis nation and river Pordanis and Arabis river, city Limne, Hellenic city Adienos.

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§ 84  After the Ekecheirieis the Becheiroi nation, the Becheirikos harbor, Becheirias a Hellenic city.

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§ 85  After the Becheirieis the Makrokephaloi (Long-heads) nation and Psoron harbor, Trapezous a Hellenic city.

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§ 86  After the Makrokephaloi the Mossynoikoi nation and Zephyrios harbor, the Hellenic city Choirades, the island of Ares. These inhabit the mountains.

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§ 87  After the Mossynoikoi the nation of the Tibarenoi.

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§ 88  After the Tibarenoi the Chalybes nation and Genetes closed harbor, Stameneia a Hellenic city and Iasonia a Hellenic acropolis.

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§ 89  After the Chalybes is Assyria, a nation, and the river Thermodon and the Hellenic city Themiskyra, the Lykastos river and Hellenic city, the Halys river and Karoussa a Hellenic city, Sinope a Hellenic city, Kerasous a Hellenic city and the Ocherainos river, Armene Hellenic city and harbor, Tetrakis Hellenic city.

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§ 90  After Assyria is Paphlagonia, a nation. In it is Stephane harbor, Koloussa Hellenic city, Kinolis Hellenic city, Karambis Hellenic city, Kytoros Hellenic city, Sesamos Hellenic city and the Parthenios river, Tieion Hellenic city and Psylla harbor and Kallichoros river.

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§ 91  After Paphlagonia is the nation of the Mariandynoi. Here is a Hellenic city Herakleia and river Lykos and another river Hypios.

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§ 92  After the Mariandynoi are Bithynian Thracians, a nation, and the Sangarios river and another river Artanes and the island Thynias — the Herakleiotai inhabit it — and the river Rhebas. Then straight to the Bosporos and the previously mentioned sanctuary (Hieron) at the mouth of Pontos and after it the city Chalkedon outside the crossing of Thrace, after which the Olbian gulf. The coastal voyage from the Mariandynoi to the inmost recess of the Olbian gulf — for Bithynian Thrace is so large — is three days. From the mouth of Pontos to the mouth of the Maiotic Lake, the voyage is about the same as that beside Europe and Asia.

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§ 93  After Thrace is Mysia, a nation. It is on the left side of the Olbian gulf as one sails out into the Kian gulf as far as Kios. Mysia is a headland. The Hellenic cities in it are as follows: Olbia with a harbor, Kallipolis with a harbor; the promontory of the Kian gulf; and on the left Kios, a city, and the Kios river. The coastal voyage along Mysia to Kios is one day.

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§ 94  After Mysia is Phrygia, a nation, and the following Hellenic cities: Myrleia with the Rhyndakos river, and by it Besbikos island, and the city of Plakia. and Kyzikos on the isthmus, forming a barrier across the isthmus, and beyond the isthmus Artake. Off this is the island and city of Prokonnesos, and a second island, with good harbors, Elaphonnesos: the Prokonnesians farm it. On the mainland is the city of Priapos; next is Parion, Lampsakos, Perkote, and Abydos; here is the mouth of the Propontis by Sestos.

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§ 95  From here the Troad begins, with Hellenic cities as follows: Dardanos, Rhoiteion, Ilion distant from the sea 25 stades, with the river Skamandros. An island lies offshore, Tenedos, with a harbor, where Kleostratos the astronomer is from. On the mainland Sige and Achilleion and Krateres Achaion, Kolonai, Larissa, Hamaxitos and a sanctuary of Apollo, where Chryses served as priest.

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§ 96  From here it is called the Aiolian country. The Aiolic cities in it, upon the sea, are as follows: [Assos and/or Gargara and Antandros; and in the interior as follows:] Kebren, Skepsis, Neandreia, and Pityeia. The coastal voyage of Phrygia from Mysia as far as Antandros [...]

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§ 97  By these places is an Aiolian island, Lesbos, with five cities as follows: Methymna, Antissa, Eresos, Pyrrha with a harbor, and Mytilene having two harbors. Off it is an island with a city: and the name that this has is Pordoselene. And I return again to the mainland, from where I was diverted to the islands.

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§ 98  Past Antandros and downwards from Aiolis, this territory too was previously Mysia as far as Teuthrania, but is now Lydia; the Mysians shifted to the mainland above. There are the following Hellenic cities in it and in Lydia: Astyra, where there is the sanctuary (of Artemis, and) Adramyttion. Next the Lesbian country; and beyond this the country of the Chians and the city of Atarneus: and below these places upon the sea the (city and) harbor of Pitane with the river Kaikos. After Pitane are Elaia, Gryneion, and Achaion Limen; here the Achaians are said to have taken counsel whether to march against Telephos or to depart; the city of Myrina with a harbor; Kyme with a harbor; beyond Kyme in the interior is a Hellenic city, Aigai — and Leukai with harbors, and Smyrna, where Homer was from; Phokaia with a harbor and the Hermos river; Klazomenai with a harbor; and Erythrai with a harbor. Off them is the island of Chios with a harbor.
I return to the mainland. Airai, a city with a harbor; Teos, a city with a harbor; Lebedos; Kolophon in the interior; Notion with a harbor; the sanctuary of Apollo Klarios; the Kaystros river; Ephesos with a harbor; Marathesion with, back on the mainland, Magnesia, a Hellenic city; Anaia, Panionion, Erasistratios, Charadrous, Phokaia(?), Akadamis, Mykale; these places are in the country of the Samians. In front of Mykale is Samos island, with a city and a closed harbor. This island is no smaller than Chios. And I return to the mainland, from where I was diverted. On Mykale is the city of Priene, with two harbors, of which one closed: then the river Maiandros. The coastal voyage along Mysia and Lydia, from Astyra as far as the Maiandros river: two days and one night.

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§ 99  After Lydia is Karia, a nation, and in it the following Hellenic cities: Herakleia; then Miletos; then Myndos with a harbor; Halikarnassos with a closed harbor and another harbor around the island, and a river; Kalymna island; Karyanda island, with a city and harbor — these people are Carians; the island of Kos, with a city and closed harbor. Off these places is the Keramiac gulf of Caria, and the island of Nisyros, with a harbor.
I return again to the mainland. The Triopion sacred promontory; Knidos, a Hellenic city, and the Rhodians' country on the mainland; Kaunos, a Carian city with a closed harbor; Kragos, a promontory.
Off this is Rhodes island and city, with an ancient tripolis, the following cities: Ialysos, Lindos, and Kameiros. By Rhodes the following islands are inhabited: Chalkeia, Telos, Kasos, and Karpathos-this one has three cities. The coastal voyage along Caria, from the Maiandros river up to Kragos (Kryassos?), the promontory of Caria, two days. I return to the mainland, from where I was diverted.

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§ 100  Past Caria is Lycia, a nation: and the Lycians have the following cities: Telmissos with a harbor and the river Xanthos, with a voyage upstream to (Xanthos, a city): Patera, a city with a harbor; Phellos, a city with a harbor; off these places is an island of the Rhodians, Megiste; Limyra, a city, to which the voyage is up the river. Then Gagaia, a city; then the Chelidoniai, a promontory with two islands; and Dionysias island; the promontory and harbor of Siderous. Beyond this is a sanctuary of Hephaistos in the mountain, and much spontaneous fire burns out of the ground and never goes out.
If you proceed upward from the sea there is (then) Phaselis, a city with a harbor — and this is a gulf; and Idyros, a city; the island of Lyrnateia; Olbia; Magydos with the river Katarraktes; Perge, a city with a sanctuary of Artemis. The direct coastal voyage along Lycia from Caria is a day and a night; because it is indented, the way along the land is double this.

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§ 101  After Lycia is Pamphylia, a nation, with the following cities: Aspendos, a city; the voyage upstream to it is along the river Eurymedon; then the city of Sylleion; another city, Side, a colony of the Cymaeans, with a harbor. The coastal voyage along Pamphylia from Perge is a half of a day.
There are also other cities of Pamphylia: Kibyra, then Korakesion.

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§ 102  After Pamphylia is Kilikia (Cilicia), a nation, with the following cities: Selinous; Charadrous, a city with a harbor; Anemourion, a cape with a city; Nagidos, a city: and it has an island. Towards Setos are the harbors Poseideion; Salon; Myous; Kelenderis, a city with the harbor of Aphrodisios and another harbor; Holmoi, a Hellenic city having (a harbor); Sarpedon, a deserted city and a river; Soloi, a Hellenic city; Zephyrion, a city; the river Pyramos and the city of Mallos, to which the voyage upstream is along the river; the trading-town of Adane with a harbor; Myriandos Phoinikon; and Thapsakos, a river. The coastal voyage along Kilikia from the border of Pamphylia as far as the Thapsakos river is three days and two nights.
From Sinope in the Pontos, across the mainland and Cilicia to Soloi, the road from sea to sea is five days.

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§ 103  Off Cilicia is the island of Kypros with the following cities. Salamis, Hellenic, having an enclosed winter harbor. Karpaseia; Keryneia; Lepethis Phoinikon (of the Phoenicians); Soloi — this too has a winter harbor; Marion, Hellenic; and Amathous, autochthonous; all these have deserted [?] harbors. There are also other barbarian cities in the interior. And I return again onto the mainland, from where I was diverted.

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§ 104  After Kilikia are the Syroi, a nation. In Syria the Phoenician nation inhabits the areas by the sea on a narrow strip less than 40 stades from the sea. In some places the width is not even 10 stades. From the Thapsakos river is Arados island and harbor, a palace of Tyre, 8 stades from shore, and on the peninsula a city Tripolis, from Arados, Tyre, and Sidon. In it are three cities and each has its own wall circuit. A mountain, Theouprosopon (Face of God), Teros city and harbor, Berytos city and harbor, Leonton city, Porphyreon city, Sidon city with a closed harbor, Ornithon a city of the Sidonians. From Leonton (Lions) city to Ornithon (Birds) city .... then Sarapta a city of the Tyrians, and the city of Tyre itself with a harbor inside the fortifications. This island, the capital of the Tyrian kingdom, is three stades distant from the mainland. Old Tyre city and a river, which flows through the middle, and a city of the Ekdippoi, and a river and Ake city. Next is Belos a city of the Tyrians and Mt. Karmel, a sanctuary of Zeus. Arados city of the Sidonians, Sykaminon city and river of the Tyrians; Dor, a city of the Sidonians. Ioppe where they say Andromeda was exposed to the sea monster; and Askalon city and palace of the Tyrians. Here is the border of Koile Syria. The coastal voyage along Koile Syria from the river Thapsakos to Askalon is 2700.

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§ 105  After Syria are the Arabs, a nation, nomads on horseback with flocks of all kinds, sheep and goats and cows and mules and of course horses and camels. They have incense and fragrant myrrh and many other fragrances which are traded to merchants. Off Egypt stretches the so-called Petraian Arabia which has the gulf of Ailanites...

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§ 106  After Arabia is the nation of Egypt, with the following cities: Pelousion city and harbor and palace, where first is the Pelousiac mouth of the Nile river, the border of Arabia. Second is the Tanitic (mouth), on which is a royal city. Third is the Mendesian and the city of Mendes. Fourth is the Phatnitic; fifth the Sebennytic and the city Sebennytos; the lake Boutos, where is a city and palace. Sixth the Bolbitic and the royal city; seventh the [Kanopic and Thonis city and harbor. After this a lake] called [Mareotis] ... the Pelousiac. And again it splits in two; the Sebennytic partly to the Mendesian, partly to the sea. From the Mendesian to the Phatnitic mouth; from the Pelousiac to the Tanitic mouth; from the Kanopic to the Sebennytic lake; and the Bolbitinic flows from the lake. There are many lakes and swamps by the sea of Egypt. Egypt is similar in form to an axe, for it is wide by the sea, narrower inland, narrowest by Memphis; then it gets wider going inland from Memphis, and widest up above. The part of Egypt above Memphis is three times the size of the part along the sea. The Kanopic mouth divides Asia from Libya. The coastal voyage along Egypt from the Pelousiac mouth is 1300 stades. The circumnavigation of Asia, for it has a closed perimeter, calculating in the same way as is written for Europe, is 87 days. At the Kanopic mouth is a desert island named Kanopos and a point in it of Menelaus, the memorial of his helmsman from Troy, whose name was Kanopos. The Egyptians and the locals of these places both say that Pelousion reaches to Kasion and Kanopos reaches to the island where the helmsman's memorial is.

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§ 107  Libya begins at the Kanopic mouth of the Nile. The Adyrmachidai are a nation of the Libyans. From Thonis the sail to Pharos desert island is 150 stades. There are many harbors in it, and it is watered with water from the Mareia lake — for it is drinkable — it is a brief sail upstream to the lake from Pharos. There is also Cherronesos with a harbor; the coastal voyage is 200 stades. After Cherronesos is the Plinthinic gulf. The mouth of the Plinthinic gulf to Leuke Akte is a day and a night's sail. Into the furthest recess of the Plinthinic gulf is twice that. It is settled round about. From Leuke Akte to Laodamanteion harbor is half a day's sail. From Laodamantion harbor to Paraitonion harbor is half a day's sail. The city Apis is next. Until this point the Egyptians rule.

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§ 108  After Apis is a nation of the Libyans, the Marmaridai, until Hesperides. From Apis to the Tyndarian lookouts is a day's sail. And from the Tyndarian lookouts to Plynon harbor is a day's sail. From Plynon to large Petras is half a day's sail. From Petras to Menelaon a day's sail. From Menelaon to Kyrthaneion a day's sail. From Kyrthaneion to Antipyrgos harbor half a day's sail. From Antipyrgos to small Petras, a harbor, half a day's sail. From small Petras the Azirides Cherronesoi, a harbor; this belongs to the country of the Kyrenaians, a day's sail. Between Petras and Cherronesoi are the islands Aedonia and Plateiai. There are anchorages beneath them. From here on the silphion begins to grow in fields. They produce it from Cherronesoi across the interior to Hesperides a full 1500 stades along the shore. Aphrodisios island, an anchorage, Naustathmos a harbor. The voyage from Cherronesoi is one day. From Naustathmos to the harbor of Kyrene 100 stades. From the harbor to Kyrene 80 stades. Kyrene is inland. These are the fully protected harbors (panormoi). There are other refuge places under islets and anchorages and many beaches in the country in between. From the harbor of Kyrene to the harbor by Barka is 500 stades. The city of the Barkaians is 100 stades distant from the sea. From the harbor by Barka to Hesperides is 620 stades. From Kyrene are harbors and places split from Hesperides as follows; the gulf of Phykos. Above here is the garden of the Hesperides. This place is 18 fathoms deep, steep all around, with no descent. It is not less than two stades on all sides, width and length. This is shadowed by trees entangled in each other, as thickly as possible. The trees are lotos, all kinds of apple, pomegranate, pear, strawberry tree, mulberry, vine, myrtle, laurel, ivy, olive, wild olive, almond, chestnut. Of the places which have not been mentioned are by the garden Ampelos, Apis about thirty stades, Cherronesos with many gardens, Zenertis, Taucheira, Kaukalou town, Hesperides city and harbor, with the Ekkeios river by the city, and these are the village from Cherronesoi of the Azirides, some of the Kyrenaians, some of the Barkaians, as far as Hesperides.

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§ 109  After Hesperides is a large gulf named Syrtis, reckoning roughly 5000 stades. Here the width from Hesperides to Neapolis sailing across is three days and nights. The Nasamones live around here, a Libyan nation, as far as the inmost part on the left. Next to them are the Makai, a Libyan nation, besides Syrtis until the mouth of Syrtis. Sailing into Syrtis from Hesperides are the Herakleia Thines. Next to them is Drepanon, the three Pontiai islands and the so-called Leukai. In the deepest part of Syrtis are the altars of the Philainoi, a port, the grove of Ammon. From here are the Makai who live by Syrtis and winter on the sea, penning in their flocks; then leaving the water in summer they drive their flocks up into the interior with them. After Syrtis is a fair locality and city called Kinyps. It is deserted. It is 80 stades distant from Neapolis into the Syrtis. Beneath it the river Kinyps and an island toward the river. The depth of Syrtis is three days and nights sail in from Hesperides to the altars of the Philainoi in the inmost part of the gulf, and the width from Kinyphos river to the Leukai islands a sail of four days and nights.

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§ 110  The parts outside Syrtis are inhabited by the Libyan Lotophagi, a nation, up to the mouth of the other Syrtis. They use the lotos for food and drink. From Neapolis of the Carthaginian country, Gaphara city, a day's sail from Neapolis. From Gaphara to Abrotonon a city with a harbor, a one day sail. From Abrotonon to Taricheia, a city and harbor is a one day sail. After these is an island named Taricheia, three hundred stades long, a little less in width, distant from the mainland about three stades. In this island occurs a lotos which they eat, and another they drink the wine of. The fruit of the lotos is the size of a mimaikylos (fruit of the strawberry tree, 1-2 cm). They also make much oil from wild olive. The island bears much fruit, wheat and barley; the island has good soil. The voyage from Taricheia to the island is one day. After the island is Gichthis, a city; from the island to Gichthis is a half-day's sail. From Gichthis to Makomas is a day's sail; there is a desert island beside it. After this is Kerkinitis island and city and off it Thapsos. The voyage from here to Thapsos is a day and a half. From Thapsos to Leptis Minor; from Leptis to Adrymeton; From Thapsos and Leptis Minor and Adrymeton is a large gulf in which is the small Syrtis, called Kerkinitis, much more difficult and harder to navigate than the other Syrtis, with a circumference of 2000 stades. In this Syrtis was the island and lake called Tritonis and the river Triton, hence the sanctuary of Athena Tritonis. The lake has a small mouth with an island against it, and when the tide is low sometimes the lake seems not to have an entry. This lake is large with a circumference of about 1000 stades. The Gyzantes Libyans live around it, a nation, with a city to the west. For these Gyzantes Libyans are said to be all blond and handsome. And this country is the best and most fertile, with huge flocks, and the richest. After this Syrtis comes Neapolis. The coastal voyage from Adrumeton to Neapolis is one day. After Neapolis is the Hermaian promontory and city. The coastal voyage from Neapolis to Hermaia is a day and a half. From Neapolis is an isthmus of 180 stades by foot to the other sea, the one toward Carthage. There is a headland across which is the isthmus. The coastal voyage from the river there to Carthage is half a day. The country of the Carthaginians is in a gulf.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 111  After the isthmus Carthage is a city of the Phoenicians with a harbor. The coastal voyage from Hermaia to Carthage is half a day. There are islands off the Hermaian promontory, Pontia and Kosyros, a day's sail from Hermaia to Kosyros. East of the Hermaian promontory are three small islands settled by the Carthaginians, Melite with a city and harbor, Gaulos with a city, Lampas; this last has two or three towers. From Kosyros to Cape Lilybaion of Sicily is a day's sail. After Carthage is Ityke city and harbor. The coastal voyage from Carthage to Ityke is one day. From Ityke the promontory of Hippo and city of Hippoi, and a lake by it and island in the lake, and the following cities around the lake: Psegas city; and off it the Naxikai islands, many; Pithekousai with a harbor; and across from them an island with a city Euboia on the island; Thapsa city with a harbor; Kaukakis city with harbor; Sida city; Iol promontory, city, and harbor; Ebdomos city with harbor; Akion island, city and harbor by it; Psamathos island, city, harbor, and gulf. In the gulf is Bartas island with a harbor, Chalka city in the river, Arulon city, Mes city and harbor; Sige city in the river and before the river the island Akra, a large city with a harbor. Akros the city and the gulf in it, a desert island named Drinaupa, the Pillar of Herakles in Libya, the Abilyke headland and a city in the river and opposite it the Gadeira islands. From Carthage with the best sailing the coastal voyage to here is seven days and nights. These are islands toward Europe, and one of them has a city, and the Pillars of Herakles are near them, the Libyan one low, the European one high. These are promontories opposite one another, a day's sail apart. The coastal voyage along Libya from the Canopic mouth in Egypt to the Pillars of Herakles, using the same calculation as has been written for Asia and Europe, sailing a curved course following the gulfs is 74 days. All the towns or trading posts listed, in Libya from the Syrtis by the Hesperides to the Pillar of Herakles in Libya, are Carthaginian.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 112  After the pillars of Herakles sailing outwards with Libya on the left, there is a large gulf until the Hermaian promontory. For there is a Hermaian promontory here as well. At the middle of the gulf is the place of the Pontians and a city. Around the city lies a large lake, and in this lake are many islands. Around the lake grow reed and marsh grass and tufted reed and rushes. The Meleagrid birds are here and nowhere else, unless someone exports them from there. The name of the lake is Kefesias, and of the gulf Kotes. It is between the pillars of Herakles and the Hermaian promontory. From the Hermaian promontory large shoals stretch indeed from Libya to Europe, not protruding from the sea; in some places it washes over them. The shoal reaches to the other promontory of Europe opposite, namely the Sacred Promontory. After the Hermaian promontory is the river Anides, which flows out into a large lake. After Anides is another large river, Lixos, and a Phoenician city Lixos, and another city of the Libyans beyond the river, with a harbor. After Lixos, Krathis river and harbor and a city of the Phoenicians named Thymiateria. After Thymiateria is the voyage to the Soloeis promontory, which extends far out to sea. Of all Libya this is the most famous and holiest country. At the tip of the promontory is a grand altar of Poseidon. Carved on the altar are men, women, lions, dolphins. They say Daidalos made it. From Soloeis promontory is a river named Lixos. Around this river dwell the sacred Ethiopians. Off here is an island named Kerne. The coastal voyage from the pillars of Herakles to the Hermaian promontory is two days. From the Hermaian promontory to Soloeis promontory is three days. From Soloeis to Kerne is seven days. All this coastal voyage then from the pillars of Herakles to Kerne island is twelve days. Beyond Kerne it is no longer navigable because of shallow seas and clay and seaweed. The seaweed is a hand's width and sharp above, so it pricks. The merchants are Phoenicians; when they come to Kerne island they anchor their merchant ships offshore and make shelters for themselves on Kerne. Unloading the cargo they bring it to the mainland in small boats. The Ethiopians are on the mainland and it is the Ethiopians for whom the goods are disposed. They sell in exchange for skins of deer and lion and leopard and elephant skin and teeth and tame flocks. The Ethiopians used mottled hides for ornament and ivory cups and goblets, and their women wear ivory bracelets as ornaments, and they use ivory ornaments on their horses. These Ethiopians are the tallest of all people we know, taller than four cubits (185 cm) and some of them are five cubits (230 cm), bearded and long-haired and handsomest of all people. They are ruled by whichever of them is the tallest. They are horse-drivers and javelin-throwers and bowmen and use fire-hardened arrows. The Phoenician merchants import to them myrrh, Egyptian stone, other mined stones, Attic pottery and earth. For figurines are the main merchandise at the Pitcher festival. These Ethiopians are meat-eaters, milk-drinkers, they drink a lot of wine from vineyards, which the Phoenicians bring. They have a large city to which the Phoenician merchants sail. Some say that these Ethiopians are settled continuously from there to Egypt and this sea is continuous, and Libya is its coast.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 113  Transect across the sea from Europe to Asia, more or less direct in a straight line. The transect begins from Euripos off Chalkis, and to Geraistos it is 850 stades. From Geraistos to the Paionion on Andros, 80 stades. From Andros to the Aulon, 280 stades. Across the Aulon to Tenos, 12 stades. From this island to the promontory off Rhenaia, 150 stades. The voyage across to Rhenaia, 40 stades. Rhenaia itself and the crossing to Mykonos, 60 stades. From Mykonos the crossing to the Melantian Skopeloi, a little less than a before-lunch sail, 40 stades. Mykonos itself 100 stades. From the Melantian Rocks, the crossing to Ikaros before lunchtime. Ikaros itself is 300 stades long, and from Ikaros, the voyage to Samos takes to lunchtime; Samos itself is 200 stades. From Samos to Mykale, the crossing is 17 stades. The whole, if they sail out of Samos before breakfast, 2,370 stades, not counting the voyage [some words are missing].
Another transect, straight and direct. (From Malea) to Kythera, 130 stades. The length of Kythera itself, 200 stades. To Aigila, a voyage before lunchtime. Length of Aigila itself, 50 stades. From Aigila to Crete, a voyage before lunchtime. Length of Crete, 2,500 stades. From Crete to Karpathos, 1100 stades. Length of Karpathos, 100 stades. To Rhodes from Karpathos, a voyage of 100 stades. Length of Rhodes, 600 stades. Prom Rhodes to Asia, 100 stades. The transect of the voyage across is 4,100 stades.

Event Date: -350 GR

§ 114  Size of islands: Biggest is Sardinia, second Sicily, third Crete, fourth Cyprus, fifth Euboia, sixth Kyrnos, seventh Lesbos, eight Rhodes, ninth Chios, tenth Samos, eleventh Kerkyra, twelfth Kasos, thirteenth Kephalenia, fourteenth Naxos, fifteenth Kos, sixteenth Zakynthos, seventeenth Lemnos, eighteenth Aigina, nineteenth Imbros, twentieth Thasos.

Event Date: -350 GR
END
Event Date: -350

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