Title: Lexicon of the Ten Orators || Author: Harpokration || Category: reference || Date: 150
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Harpokration, Lexicon of the Ten Orators

Valerius Harpokration, Lexicon of the Ten Attic Orators, translated by the Harpokration On Line project at Duke University, led by Josh Sosin, John P. Aldrup-MacDonald, and Mackenzie Zalin, with translation input from Matthew Farmer, C de Lisle, Stelios Chronopoulos, Stephen Trzaskoma, Craig Gibson, and Yiannis Doukas, minor tweaks by Brady Kiesling. Full Greek text (Dindorf 1853) with alternate translations at github, Greek text and translations freely reusable under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). About the lexicographer, Valerius Harpokration, practically nothing is known, though he probably worked in the later 2nd century CE. His lexicon of places and concepts cited by Athenian orators, is sadly incomplete but with tantalizing historical tidbits. This text has 1110 tagged references to 345 ancient places.


§ a1  Abaris: A proper name. When a plague, they say, had arisen throughout the whole inhabited world, Apollo responded to both Greeks and barbarians, when they asked, that the Athenian people was to make prayers on behalf of all. And when many nations were sending embassies to them, they say that Abaris also came, an ambassador from the Hyperboreans. The time in which he was present is disputed. For Hippostratos says that he was present in the 53rd Olympiad, while Pindar (says that it was) in the time of Kroisos, king of the Lydians, and others (that it was) in the 21st Olympiad. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a2  Abios: Antiphon applied 'abios' to one who has acquired a great livelihood, as Homer calls a much-wooded wood 'axylos'. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a3  Abrokomas: This man was a satrap of Artaxerxes, king of the Persians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a4  Agatharchos: Demosthenes mentions him, and he was a distinguished painter, son of Eudemos, and Samian by descent. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a5  Agathes tyches neos (temple of Agathe Tyche): Lykourgos mentions this in On Administration, and others (do too). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a6  Agasikles: Hyperides speaks about Agasikles. A speech against him has been written by Deinarchos also, in which it has been shown that he bribed the demesmen of Halimous collectively and that, owing to this, though he was an alien, he was enrolled in the politeia (as a citizen). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a7  Agoi: This denotes many things. Isaios took it for 'to bear' and 'to lead in' and 'to drag,' in the so-titled 'For Eumathes, removal to freedom' saying thus: 'Xenokles injured me by removing Eumathes to freedom, when I was leading him into slavery for my own part.' And many times in the speech he used the word for the same sense. But Antiphon, in On Truth, says, 'may(?) he 'hold' the laws great,' instead of 'may(?) he think.' There is much use of this (sense). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a8  Agelaion: (belonging to the common herd): Isokrates in Panathenaikos meant, as it were, the many itinerant sophists. The metaphor is from herd animals, which graze in whatever places they happen to come to, or from fish, which they say feed copiously in schools (herds). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a9  Agenes: For 'apais' (childless), in Isaios, in On the Estate of Menekles. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a10  Agesilaos: This man was, as Xenophon shows, a distinguished and noble king of the Lakedaimonians, and he overturned much of Asia, using the soldiers who joined Cyrus on the anabasis (expedition up country). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a11  Aglauros: The daughter of Kekrops. And it is also a given name of Athena. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a12  Hagneuete ten polin (purify the city): Antiphon in his second speech, for 'hagnizete' (purify). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a13  Hagnias: Isaios in Against Eukleides concerning land. Androtion, in book five of the Atthis, says of him and his fellow ambassadors — Philochoros does too — that they were both caught and killed by Lakedaimonians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a14  Hagnous: A deme of the tribe Akamantis. The demesman was an Hagnousios. Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a15  Agnomonos (senselessly): For 'alogistos' (foolishly) and 'aboulos' (thoughtlessly): Demosthenes in the Phillipics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a16  Agoras (gatherings): Hyperides in Against Polyeuktos concerning the Diagramma: 'They often hold gatherings.' Perhaps for 'synodoi' (assemblies) (as we say) now. The word denotes also other things. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a17  Agoranomoi: The magistrates in the agora who administer sales: Demosthenes in Against Timokrates. And Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says that five were apportioned to Peiraieus and five to the city. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a18  Agorasai: For 'onesasthai' (to purchase): Hyperides in Deliakos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a19  Agraphiou: A type of action, so called, against those who owe the public treasury and, on account of this, have been registered, but then have been erased before paying off (the debt). Demosthenes or Deinarchos show that this was so in Against Theokrines; also Lykourgos in Against Aristogeiton; and still further, Pytheas in his defense against the indictment. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a20  Agrious (wild): Aischines in Against Timarchos says that those who are exceedingly impassioned with pursuit of boys and are severe pederasts (are 'wild'). And Menander says that one who is zealous about dicing is a wild dicer. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a21  Agryle: A deme of the tribe Erechtheis, and a demesman is an Agryleus, and the adverb of place (is) 'Agrylethen' (from Agryle). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a22  Aguias (street): Demosthenes in Against Meidias: 'to hold choruses according to ancestral custom and to fill the street with savor.' Some accent with the acute, treating it as feminine, like τὰς ὁδούς (the roads). But it is better to use circumflex as if from ἀγυιεύς. An aguieus is a pillar ending in a point, which they set in front of their doors, as Aristophanes, in the Wasps, and Eupolis make clear. They say that these are particular to Apollo, but others say to Dionysos, and others say to both. The complete (i.e. uncontracted) form is ἀγυιέας and according to the Attic dialect ἀγυιᾶς, as they say 'Steirias' and 'Melias' and the like, with contraction. Aristophanes in the Birds: 'slaughter sheep on sacrificial hearths; and fill the street with the savor.' They say that this is particular to the Dorians, as Dieuchidas makes clear in the third book of the Megarika. But the altars in front of people's houses could be what are called among Attic speakers aguieis, as Kratinos and Menander say. Also Sophokles, in Laokoon, translating the Athenians' customs to Troy, says, 'And the roadside altar shines with fire, wafting drops of myrrh, exotic fragrances.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a23  Agyrrhios: This man was a not undistinguished demagogue; Demosthenes in Against Timokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a24  Agonian (contest): To contend: Isokrates in Antidosis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a25  Agoniontes (struggling): For 'contending' in the same author in Panegyrikos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a26  Adeetos: For 'not in need of' in Antiphon On Truth book 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a27  Adelphizein: For 'to call brother' in Isokrates in Aiginetikos, and in Hekataios of Strattis, and in Apollophanes in Iphigeron. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a28  Ademonouses (being troubled): Being at a loss. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a29  Adephagous trieres (hungry triremes): Lysias in the diamartyria For Eukritos, if the speech is genuine, and Philistos (writes), 'hungry pentekonter.' They could mean 'on full pay' and 'spending a lot.' It seems to be said by way of metaphor from full-grown racehorses, which are accustomed 'to eat their fill,' according to the poet. Alkaios in Tragecomedy called lamps that consume a lot 'hungry.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a30  Adiastaton (without break): Not yet divided or separated. Antiphon said it. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a31  Adikiou: I.e. wrongdoing (adikema). It is the name of an action. One pays this simply if it is rendered before the ninth prytany. Otherwise, one pays double. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a32  Adokimastos (not approved): To be approved is to be enrolled among men, and he who is not yet enrolled is 'not approved' in Lysias in Against Demosthenes concerning guardianship, if it is genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a33  Adrasteia: Some say that she is the same as Nemesis, and that she took the name from Adrastos son of Talaos, since he suffered nemesis for what he boasted against the Thebans, and then in accordance with certain oracles established a sanctuary of Nemesis, which they say was called thereafter Adrasteia's, as Antimachos shows in these (lines): 'There is a certain great goddess Nemesis, who was allotted all these things by the blessed. And Adrestos was the first to establish an altar for her beside the stream of the river Aisepos, where she has been honored and is called Adresteia.' Some, however, say that she is different from Nemesis, as Menander and Nikostratos (do). And Demetrios of Adrasteia is Artemis, established by a certain Adrastos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a34  Adynatoi: Aischines in Against Timarchos. Those who possess under three minas, and have been incapacitated with respect to the body. These people used to receive — after they were approved by the council — two obols per day, or an obol, as Aristotle says in the Constitution of the Athenians, and as Philochoros says, nine drachmas monthly. There is also a speech — so it is is said — of Lysias Concerning the Invalid, in which he has mentioned one as receiving an obol. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a35  Aei [always]: Instead of heos [until] by Antiphon the Thucydides in his proem *** it began thus, 'so then he continues speaking to me until now' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a36  Aïdris: Ignorant. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a37  Aeilogia (continual inquiry): Always undergoing accounting and scrutiny. So Demosthenes and Isaios. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a38  Aeiesto (ever-being): Antiphon (uses this to mean) eternity and to stand always in the same (conditions), just as good fortune is also called well-being. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a39  Aerkton (unfenced): For unfortified and visible from all directions: Lysias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a40  Aetos: Of buildings, the part down along the roof, which some call a pediment. Aristophanes in the Birds: 'For we shall roof your homes with a pediment.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a41  Azenieus: Azenia is a deme of the tribe Hippothontis, and the demesman is an Azenieus. Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a42  Azeteton (unexamined): Prevented from undergoing inquiry and prosecution, in Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a43  Atheoretos (not to be seen): For unseen, in Antiphon in the speech On Concord. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a44  Athenodoros: Athenian by descent, a soldier: Demosthenes in the speech Against Aristokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a45  Athmoneus: Athmonia is a deme of the tribe of Kekropis, the demesman from which is an Athmoneus. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a46  Aigeion: Hero shrine of Aigeus in Athens: Deinarchos in Against Polyeuktos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a47  Aigeidai: Demosthenes in the Funeral Speech, if it is genuine. A tribe was named Aigeis after Aigeus son of Pandion; tribesmen therefrom are Aigeidai. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a48  Aigidas ekaloun: They used to call the nets made from garlands 'aigides:' Lykourgos in On the Administration, and Nymphodoros. Herodotus in book 4 says these are called 'aigeas' by the Libyans. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a49  Aigilieus: Hypereides. Aigilia is a deme of the tribe Antiochis. The demesman from there is an Aigilieus. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a50  Aidesasthai (to be reconciled): For 'to be persuaded to change:' Lysias in Against Demosthenes concerning guardianship, if it is genuine, and Demosthenes in Against Nausimachos and Xenopeithes. And in Against Aristokrates this is also for 'atone for' and 'prevail upon.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a51  Aithalides: Athalidai is a deme of the tribe Leontis, whose demesman is an Aithalides. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a52  Aithiopion: Name of a place in Euboia. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a53  Aikias (for battery): It is a kind of private action brought for blows, whose penalty is not delimited in the laws, but the accuser inscribes a penalty, for as much as he thinks the wrong is worth, and the jurors decide. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a54  Ainious: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Ainos is a city in Thrace. Homer: 'who had come from Ainos.' Ephoros in book 4, talking about Thracian towns, says, 'Next to these is the city of Ainos, which Greeks settled, the Alopekonnesians first, but later they brought in additional settlers from Mytilene and Kyme.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a55  Aixonesin (at Aixone): Isaios in Against Medon concerning a plot of land. The deme of Aixone belongs to the tribe Kekropis. (The demesmen) used to be ridiculed as blasphemers, whence also they used to say that to speak ill is to 'talk like an Menander in Kanephoros. Plato in On Courage says, 'I shall say nothing in response to that, though I could, lest you say that I am from Aixone.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a56  Akademeia: there were three gymnasia, the Lykeion, the Kynosarges, the Academy. It was called after the one who dedicated it, Akademos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a57  Akamantis: Demosthenes in the speech Against Boiotos concerning the name: 'having been born in the tribe Akamantis.' This is one of the ten tribes, after Akamas son of Theseus. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a58  Akare: for 'a little bit' or 'not at all,' in Antiphon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a59  Akinakes: Demosthenes in Against Timokrates. It is a Persian sword. Also Anaximenes, in book one of On Alexander. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a60  Ake: this is a city in Phoinike; Demosthenes in Against Kallippos. Nikanor, who has written On Name Changes, and Kallimachos, in the Commentaries, say that what is now called Ptolemais is (Ake). But Demetrios says that, in a special sense, the acropolis of Ptolemais was previously named Ake. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a61  Akmazeis: for 'you do youths' things:' Hypereides in Against Mantitheos, Lysias in Against Nikarchos the flute-player, if it is genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a62  Akritos: for indiscriminate: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a63  Akroasthai: for 'to heed:' Antiphon in Against Philinos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a64  Akte: in a special sense a certain seaside part of Attica: Hypereides in On the Salt Fish. Whence also Aktite stone. Some also used to call Attica thus after a certain king Aktaion, others because the majority of the land is seaside. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a65  Aktia: Hyperides in On Polyeuktos Serving as General. Aktia was an ancient festival, as Kallimachos makes clear in On Festivals. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a66  Alabastothekai: Chests of perfume vases (alabastoi), which in ordinary usage they call myrrh-chests: Demosthenes in On the False Embassy. Alabastoi are flasks which it is impossible to take hold of on account of their smoothness. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a67  Alaieus: Name of a deme. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a68  Alastor: Whom one would never forget: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. The word (appears) often in tragedy. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a69  Aleas: Demosthenes in On the False Embassy. It is a Thessalian city and the citizens are Aleans. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a70  Alexandros: Demosthenes in the sixth of the Philippics says 'when Alexander their ancestor came as herald regarding these things.' This is the one nicknamed Philhellene, the son of Amyntas and father of Perdikkas, and he was campaigning under Mardonios, by whom he was also sent to the Athenians with a view to requesting earth and water; but not only did they pay no attention to him, but also having threatened him exceedingly they sent him away. There is another Alexander, himself also king of the Macedonians, the elder brother of Philip, about whom Demosthenes in On The False Embassy says, 'and yet this Apollophanes was one of those who killed Alexander the brother of Philip.' And another is Alexander the Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates [says] 'what about that Alexander the Pelopidas was his captive. And another [is] Alexander the Olympias the wife of Philip, whom again Demosthenes mentions in the seventh of the Philippics, if the speech is genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a71  Halipedon: Some say the Peiraeus. It is also commonly known as a place which of old was sea, but has since become plain. Wherefore the first syllable is aspirated, since it is as it were 'a plain of salt' (halos pedion). Or an even (homalon) plain, and worn smooth, that is to say, ground down (alelesmenon), as Aristophanes in The Banqueters, with smooth-breathing, 'in Alipedum.' Some claim that the plain beside the sea is so called. Some claim that it is so named according to the fact that horses can roll (alindeisthai) themselves in it, that is, cover themselves in dust. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a72  Halimousians: Demosthenes in the appeal Against Euboulides. Halimous is a deme of the tribe Leontis, and the demesmen are Halimousians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a73  Halirrhothios: Proper name, son of Poseidon: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a74  Alketas: King of the Molossians: Isaios in the speech On the Things Said in Macedonia. But there is also another, a subordinate commander of Alexander. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a75  Alkibiades: The son of Kleinias. But there was also another, the great-grandfather of the aforementioned, whom Lysias says in Against Alkibiades for desertion, if it is genuine, that he and his father's maternal grandfather were twice ostracized. Another is Alkibiades whom Antiphon mentions in the Defense Speech Against the Charge of Demosthenes. Some of the other orators also mention him, and the comic playwrights. And there is (Alkibiades) of Alkibiades. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a76  Alkimachos: Demosthenes in Against Euergos and Mnesiboulos. This man is a general, from Anagyrous by deme, having served as general in the war against Philip. Another is Alkimachos, a Macedonian whom Hypereides mentions in Against Demades thus: 'we made Alkimachos and Antipater Athenians and proxenoi.' Anaximenes in the second book of On Alexander recorded his address to the people, against which he says that Demosthenes spoke.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a77  Alkmaionidai: A distinguished family at Athens, (descended) from Alkmaion. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a78  Alogian: To have no reason, but to act without reason: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates, and Plato. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a79  Alogoi eranistai [unreckoned creditors]: Those who have never been scrutinized on their obligation in accordance with the rotating order of the names of those underwriting the eranos [loan]. Deinarchos in the eranic speech Against the Children of Patrokles. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a80  Halonnesos: A little island in the Aegean Sea: Aischines in Against Ktesiphon, as also Archemachos in book 4 of the Euboika. Also mentioning the dispute over Halonnesos is Theopompos, in book 4, and Anaximenes in book 4 of the Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a81  Alope: Lykourgos in On the Priestess. Kerkyon's daughter, from whom (came) also Poseidon's son Hippothon the namesake of the tribe Hippothontis, so Hellanikos in the second book of the Atthis and Euripides in the play of the same name [sc. the Alope] and Deinarchos in the diadikasia of the Phalereoi. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a82  Alourgopolike: What is called purple trade (porphyropolike) by us: Isaios in Against Elpagoras and Demophanes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a83  Haloa: Demosthenes in Against Neaira. The Haloa is an Attic festival, which Philochoros says was named after the fact that men then spent time around the threshing floors. He says in On Festivals that it was held in the month of Poseideon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a84  Alopeke: A deme of the tribe Antiochis. The demesman is an Alopekeus and 'Alopekethen.' Whence they were named Philochoros shows in book three. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a85  Alopekonnesos: One of the cities in Cherrhonesos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a86  Amadokos: Isokrates in Philip. These were two, father and son, who also came to ally with Philip in the war against Kersobleptes. Theopompos has mentioned both in book 11 of his Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a87  Amazoneion: Isaios in Against Diokles. Concerning the Amazons' dedication at Athens, Ammonios has discussed in On Altars and Sacrifices. It is a sanctuary that the Amazons founded. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a88  Hamaxanteia: A deme of the tribe of Hippothonitis. The demesman is an Hamaxanteus. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a89  Amblothridion: the aborted foetus. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a90  Ambrakia: city in the Ambrakian Gulf, a colony of the Corinthians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a91  Hamippoi: Isaios in Temenikos. Those who campaign with horses. But some say that certain riding horses are yoked to each other, and that the one who drives them leads the one from the side and rides the other. These are called hamippoi. This is the thing (we find) in Homer: 'Leaping from one to the other.' But the hamippoi are infantry, as is clear from the histories of Thucydides, and from Xenophon in the seventh book of the Hellenika. And perhaps they are certain advance troops arranged along with the cavalry. Philochoros at any rate in the tenth book says that they are also advance troops. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a92  Ammonis: The sacred trireme of Ammon. Deinarchos in Against Himeraios. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a93  Amorges: He is a bastard son of Pissouthnes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a94  Amorgos (mallow): It is rather similar to flax. Aischines in Against Timarchos. And the comic poets mention clothes made of mallow many times, for example Aristophanes, in Lysistrata, and Eupolis, in Cities. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a95  Amphignoein (to be doubtful/mistaken): For 'not perceiving' or 'being in doubt' concerning knowledge, as also Lysias (says) in Against Aision concerning the theft of the books, if the speech is genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a96  Amphideai (bonds): They are certain leg-bands: Aristophanes in Thesmophoriazousai. And in a special sense, Lysias in Against Euthydikos says, 'being unable to break out on account of the doors having been secured with iron rings.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a97  Amphidromia: Lysias in On the Abortion, if the speech is genuine. A day used to be celebrated for newborn children, on which they used to carry the infant around the hearth, running, and from family and friends they used to receive poulps and cuttlefish. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a98  Amphiktyons: It is a Greek council, gathered at Thermopylai. It was named either after Amphiktyon son of Deukalion, because he gathered the races when he was king, as Theopompos says in book 8 (these were 12: Ionians, Dorians, Perrhaibians, Boiotians, Magnesians, Phthiotic Achaians, Melians, Dolopians, Ainianians, Delphians, Phokians), or from the fact that those who were gathered were inhabitants around Delphi, as Anaximenes says in book 1 of Hellenika. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a99  Amphipolis: Antiphon. On the Lindians' Tribute. This is a city in Thrace. It was previously called Nine Roads, as Androtion in book 12 of Atthis (says). Marsyas in Makedonika (says) that it was named Amphipolis owing to the fact that the place is inhabited all around, previously called Akra. Others: Areos Polis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a100  Amphisbetein kai parakataballein: those who lay claim to inheritances are said to contest or lay claim with a deposit, the former denying that the inheritance was liable to decision on grounds that the deceased had a son, whether by birth or adoption, and the latter saying that, on grounds that he died childless, it was more just for them to have the inheritance than for him who received it, either because they were kin or because they were heirs in accordance with a will. So Demosthenes and Hypereides made clear concerning parakataballein (laying claim with a deposit) . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a101  Amphissa: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. A city in Lokris. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Opuntians says thus: 'Andraimon was the founder, and they named it Amphissa owing to the fact that the place is ringed round with mountains.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a102  Amphoteroploun: Demosthenes in Against Dionysodoros. Whenever someone makes a marine loan on the voyage both from here to some place and from there back here, this is called a two-way voyage. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a103  Hamosgepos: for 'in one way at any rate,' Lysias in the endeixis Against Aristagoros, if it is genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a104  Anaballei: Instead of 'one makes a deferral' [eis anabolas kathistesi] and as if 'one defers' [anaballetai]. Demosthenes' Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a105  Anagein (to lead/bring up): To reveal him who has perpetrated (something) and to proceed against him: Lysias in the speech Against Boion, if it is genuine, and Deinarchos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a106  Anageis: Aischines, Against Ktesiphon. Because of the alpha (it means) unclean. But if it were enageis, (it would mean) 'those under a curse,' i.e. under pollution. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a107  Anaginoskomenos: for 'being persuaded': Antiphon, Isaios, and Herodotos in book 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a108  Anagkaion: Instead of 'prison' [desmoterion], Isaios in the Reply to Hermon and Xenophon in the Hellenika. Kallisthenes spoke of 'anogea', which is the preferable usage. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a109  Anagyrasios: Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. Anagyrous is a deme of the tribe Erechtheis, whence the demesman is an Anagyrasios. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a110  Anadikasthai: to bring suit anew. So Isaios. Hence also the phrase 'retried disputes,' (i.e.) those that are brought anew, whenever the witnesses are convicted of giving false testimony. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a111  Anathesthai (to take back): Antiphon in On Concord: 'to take back one's life as if a draught-piece is not possible,' for 'to live life anew, having changed one's mind over one's former life.' Said by way of metaphor from those playing draughts. Plato in Hipparchos or Lover of Profit. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a112  Anairetheis (having been taken up): for 'having been picked up and reared' in Isokrates, in Philip. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a113  Anainesthai: generally, to decline, and in a special sense it is said in matters concerning marriages and sex: Demosthenes in the counter-suit For Phormion, Plato in Phaon, Menander in the Sicyonian. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a114  Anakaiasin (at Anakaia): Isaios in Against Diokles. Anakaia is a deme of the tribe Hippothontis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a115  Anakalypteria: gifts given to brides by the husband and members of the household and friends whenever they first unveil themselves so that they are seen by the husbands. The same things are also called 'epaulia.' These are our 'theoretra.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a116  Anakeion: Demosthenes in the Against Stephanos. A sanctuary of the Dioskouroi. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a117  Anakrisis (preliminary examination): examination by each magistrate, taking place before trials, concerning those who are intent on going to court. They examine also whether it is necessary to introduce the case at all. It appears many times in the orators, for example Lysias in Against Aristodemos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a118  Anaktes kai anassai (lords and ladies): Isokrates in Euagoras. The orator seems to mention a certain custom in Cyprus. Aristotle at any rate says in the Constitution of the Cypriots, 'The sons and brothers of the king are called 'lords' (anaktes) and the sisters and wives 'ladies' (anassai).' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a119  Anaxagoras: A sophist, son of Hegesiboulos, from Klazomene, student of Anaximenes of

§ a120  Anaxibios: Lysias in the Against Thrasyboulos. He was a Lakedaimonian general [strategos]. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a121  Anapodizomena (being cross-examined): for 'being examined' or for 'the same things being said or done anew many times:' Antiphon, On Truth book 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a122  Anaseisas (having brandished): having threatened: Demosthenes, Against Aristogeiton. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a123  Anasyntaxas (having re-assessed): for 'having assessed anew:' Hypereides, Against Polyeuktos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a124  Anati (with impunity): for 'without ruin', 'without ill:' Isaios in Against Apollodoros. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a125  Anaphlystioi (Anaphlystians): Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. Anaphlystos is a deme of the tribe Antiochis. But some mention Anaphlystos as a city. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a126  Anaphora (reference): ascribing the blame for wrongs to others: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a127  Andera (banks): Hypereides in Against Konon. They call the edges of rivers 'banks' on account of the fact that they are always wet and dank. But others call dikes 'banks' on account of the fact that they are above (ano) and atop the wet (diera) parts — Hypereides among them. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a128  Andokidou Hermes (Andokides' Herm): Aischines in Against Timarchos: 'then, that the so-called 'Herm of Andokides' was not Andokides' but that it was a dedication of the tribe Aigeis.' And Andokides himself in On The Mysteries has said that the dedication belonged to the tribe Aigeis, so that Douris is mistaken in saying that it was Andokides'. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a129  Andrapodokapelos (slave-dealer): One who is now called a 'somatemporos' (slave merchant), from 'dealing in slaves,' that is 'selling:' Isaios in Against Hermon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a130  Andrapodistes (slave dealer/kidnapper): Lykourgos in Against Lykophron: 'I am amazed if we sentence to death kidnappers just for robbing us of our slaves.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a131  Andreia: men's prime: Antiphon in On Concord. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a132  Androlepsia (seizure of men): To capture men from a city. They used to seize pledges from the city that held a murderer and did not hand him over for punishment. Demosthenes, Against Aristokrates. And he also says the neuter 'androlepsion' in this work. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a133  Andron: Antiphon in the defense Against the Public Charge of Demosthenes. Krateros in book 5 of the Decrees says he authored the decree on Antiphon the orator. Also Andron was one of the 400. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a134  Anelousa gar ton nomom: For having overturned the law, it elected him for itself: Demosthenes in Against Androtion says (this); but since it is unclear and defective, different people interpret different ways. In the Attic (Mss?) the phrase appeared two ways, the one thus: 'for having overturned this law, it elected her,' meaning 'for having transgressed this law, it granted a vote concerning it(self), as to whether it should crown it(self);' and the other: 'for having overturned this law, it elected that man, taking him for itself.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a135  Anemytas: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. He is Theban by descent. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a136  Anepopteutos: Hypereides in For Phryne. One who has not become an epoptes (viewer). What it is 'to have become an epoptes' Philochoros shows in book ten: 'This man wrongs all of the sacred things, both the mystika and the epoptika,' and again, 'Thus, it was a peculiar thing for Demetrios, compared to the others, that he alone was both initiated and at the same time became an epoptes and that the ancestral times of the initiation were moved (for him). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a137  Aneskeuasanto (they dismantled themselves): what is called 'being wrecked in one's life,' that is, to come undone and as it were give up. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a138  Aneton (set free): for 'sacred' and 'devoted' to a god: Hyperides in Deliakos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a139  Anechaitise (reared up/overthrew): Demosthenes in the Philippics, for 'beat back' or 'overturned', by way of metaphor from horses. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a140  Anekei (reaches): in Antiphon, On Truth book 1, for simple 'has come,' or else for example, 'went up' and 'has come forward.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a141  Antheia: that she is a prostitute is clear. But perhaps it should be written 'Anteia' with tau, since we find it thus in Lysias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a142  Anthemokritos: Isaios in Against Kalydon refers to 'the bath that is near Anthemokritos' statue,' that is to say near the Thriasian Gate. This man was a herald of the Athenians, but he was slain by the Megarians for forbidding them from working the sacred land of the two goddesses. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a143  Anthemous: a Macedonian city, and those from it (are) Anthemountians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a144  Anthesterion: This is the eighth month among the Athenians, sacred to Dionysos. In his 'Collection', Istros says that it was named because most things bloom from the ground at that time. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a145  Anthene: Lysias in Against the Public Suit of Aristodemos, if it is genuine. A city in Lakonia. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a146  Anthypomosan (they made a counter-affidavit): for 'they added in response to the sworn affidavit:' Demosthenes in Against Olympiodoros. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a147  Anidrytos (unsettled): for 'implacable:' Demosthenes in Against Aristogeiton. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a148  Anoikos (homeless): for 'aoiketos' (homeless); Lykourgos, Against Lykophron. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a149  Antepitithesin (gives in return): for 'writes in response'; Isaios in Against Kallippides. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a150  Antiatais: to those from the city of Antion, which is three hundred stades from Rome. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a151  Antiblethentos (having been cast in turn/compared/matched/exchanged): for 'having been answered:' Deinarchos in the impeachment Against Pytheas. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a152  Antigenidas: Lysias in Against Nikarchos the flute-player, if it is genuine; this man was a son of Dionysios, a famous flute-player. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a153  Antigrapheus: the one who is appointed in charge of those paying certain funds to the state, so that these are copied (or checked?): Demosthenes in Against Androtion and Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. There was a pair of copiests (checkers?), one for the financial administration as Philochoros says, and the other for the boule as Aristotle (says) in the Constitution of the Athenians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a154  Antigraphe: in a special sense in settlements of inheritances it is called an 'antigraphe' whenever one claims, on grounds that the decedent is childless, that the estate belongs to oneself by family relation or gift. But in general, in public suits and private, the litigants' documents, which they submitted concerning the matter, both those of the prosecutor and those of the defendant, (are called) an antigraphe — and the witness testimonies. Demosthenes, Against Stephanos, and Hypereides. Plato in the Apology of Socrates calls the same thing 'antomosia' (affidavit) and 'antigraphe.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a155  Antithesis: Isokrates in Panathenaikos. Antithesis is a figure of speech in which opposites oppose one another, either by part or on the whole — by part, as Demosthenes (says) in For Ktesiphon: 'You used to teach letters, but I went to school,' and so forth; on the whole, everything relating to everything, as the same Demosthenes, in Against Meidias, (says) from 'he anyway (was struck) by a friend' up to '(it was necessary) to enter because I was choregos.' The same figure is also called 'antitheton', as Aischines (says) in the defense On the Embassy. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a156  Antikyra: Lysias in Against Medon. Perhaps it is a nickname. Antiphanes in On Prostitutes says, 'They called (her) Antikyra because she used to drink with men who were wild and crazy. Others (say it was) because Nikostratos the doctor left her much hellebore when he died. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a157  Antiochis: name of a tribe. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a158  Antiphon: one of the ten orators, son of Sophilos and from the deme Rhamnous. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a159  Antipater: son of Iolaos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a160  Antissa: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. One city of those on Lesbos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a161  Antrones: a city in Thessaly: Demosthenes in a Philippic. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a162  Antomosia (affidavit): after writing certain documents, concerning whatever the suit is for, both accusers and accused bring them before the magistrate. So it is called when the prosecutors and defendants used to swear, the former that they would accuse truthfully and the latter that they would defend themselves truthfully. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a163  Anorthiazon (they were shouting aloud): Andokides. For 'they were speaking, shouting shrilly.' Homer: 'Standing there, the goddess issued a great and terrible cry, shrilly, to the Achaeans, and into each man's heart she put great strength to wage war and to battle unceasingly.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a164  Axioi (he thinks fit): for 'he thinks:' Antiphon, On Hybris against a Free Boy, and Lysias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a165  Axiochos: a dialogue called Axiochos was written by Aischines the Socratic. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a166  Axoni (on the axle): the laws of Solon were written on wooden (tablets rotating on) axles. Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates: 'as has been said on the axle.' They were, as Polemon says in Against Eratosthenes, four-sided in shape and they are kept in the prytaneion, written on all their parts. Sometimes they create a three-sided appearance, whenever they incline to the narrow point of the angle. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a167  Aopta: for 'unseen' and 'not seen, but having seemed to be seen': Antiphon, On Truth book 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a168  Apage (arrest!): For 'use apagoge' (arrest). Apagoge is a type of action: Demosthenes in Against Konon. The word has derived from 'carrying off' and 'being carried off' as applied to wrong-doers. And they used to be carried off to the Eleven. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a169  Apagoreuein (to bid farewell to, give up doing): for 'to be distressed' or 'to be unable': Lysias in Erotikos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a170  Apathe (without suffering, feeling, sense, emotion): for 'those experiences that did not truly happen': Antiphon, On Truth book 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a171  Aparithmon (reckoning up): for 'tallying a sum:' Isokrates, in Philip. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a172  Apartilogia (even number): Lysias in Against Aresandros and Herodotos for a number that is complete and full. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a173  Apatouria: Demosthenes in Against Boiotos. It is a festival among Athenians, which they celebrate in Pyanepsion over four days, as say those who have written on festivals. Many have told whence it got its name, including Ephoros in book two: namely on account of the treachery (apate) concerning the boundaries (horia), because when Athenians were waging war against Boiotians over the region called Melania, Melanthos, the king of the Athenians, slew Xanthos, the king of the Thebans, fighting in single combat, having deceived him. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a174  Apeipein (to decline): for 'to tire' and 'be unable:' Antiphon in On the Lindians' Tribute. Also for 'to reject' in the same author. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a175  Apergasamenos (having completed): for 'having repaid from the work that one did:' Isaios in Against Apollodoros. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a176  Apeschoinismenos (having been roped off): Demosthenes in Against Aristogeiton 1 for 'having been closed off.' For whenever the council roped itself around, as he says, then everyone else was 'roped off.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a177  Apeloemenos (having been threshed): That which has been collected from the threshing floor after having been threshed, i.e. trod upon: Demosthenes in Against Phainippos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a178  Apecheian (enmity): for hatred: Lysias, Against Medon, and Deinarchos Against Kephisokles. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a179  Apillein (to bar): Lysias in Against Theomnestos, if it is genuine, 'it is considered (to mean) 'to exclude.'' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a180  Apistein: for 'disobey:' Antiphon, Against Laispodios, Isokrates in the Letter to Philip. They also call disobedience 'apistia,' as (does) Demosthenes in the ninth of the Philippics, and many others. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a181  Haplas: Demosthenes, Against Konon. Kallistratos says that single-soled (types) of sandals are so called. Strattis, in Lemnomeda: 'to buy yourself sandals from among the single-soled.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a182  Apobates and apobainein and apobatic wheels: Deinarchos, Against Phormisios and in the Defense against Antiphanes, Lykourgos in the Defence Against Demades. The apobates is an equestrian competition, and apobainein is to compete in the apobates, and apobatic wheels are from this competition. What happened in it is explained by Theophrastos in the 20th book of the Laws. The only Greeks who practised it, he says, were the Athenians and Boiotians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a183  Apographe (declaration): Whenever one says that someone has something that belongs to the city, the accuser makes a declaration, showing whence the person has the property and how much it is. Perhaps the apographe is also a type of action. For if one should deny that one has (the property), then a suit was brought for apographe on grounds that the apographe had not been done correctly. Demosthenes, Against Androtion. What the risk was for the one making the apographe, becomes clear in Demosthenes' Against Nikostratos on the slaves of Arethousios, if it is genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a184  Apodektai: the receivers are an office among Athenians, which the orators and the comic poets mention many times. Aristotle, in the Constitution of the Athenians, has shown that there were ten, and that having received the records (of debt), they erase money paid in the presence of the council in the bouleuterion and return the records back to the public secretary. And he clarifies simply what they do. That the receivers were appointed by Kleisthenes in place of the kolakretai Androtion book 2 (shows). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a185  Apodidomenoi: Antiphon in On the Samothracians' Tribute for 'returning' (active voice). And then he says 'we give back' (middle voice) either for 'we give away' or for 'we sell.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a186  Apoikia (colony): in a special sense, the documents according to which people emigrate some named thus. Hypereides in Deliakos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a187  Apoikodomeis (you barricade): for 'you block off,' cutting off something with a construction: Demosthenes in Against Kallikles. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a188  Apokeruttontes (selling by auction): for 'selling:' Demosthenes, Against Aristokrates. Plato in Ambassadors: 'having stolen implements, carrying them away, he auctioned them;' he sold. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a189  Apokrisis (answer): defense: Lysias and Demosthenes, Against Aischines: 'so, come here and answer me.' Eupolis in Cities: 'I shall respond to you completely, to all of your accusations.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a190  Apolachein (to obtaining a portion of a thing by lot): for simply 'to obtain by lot:' Antiphon in Against Philinos, Lysias in Against Poseidippos. Aristophanes in Tagenistai: 'of which your brother at any rate did not obtain a portion.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a191  Apoleloipotes (having left behind): for 'having won.' The metaphor is from runners. For those who win leave behind those who are beaten. Isokrates in Panathenaikos and Panegyrikos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a192  Apolexis: one of the 10 commissioners, whom Plato makes fun of in Sophists. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a193  Apomatton (wiping off): Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. Some understand it plainly for 'wiping away' and 'cleaning oneself,' but others more elaborately, as 'plastering clay and bran on those being initiated,' as we say 'to wipe the statue with clay': for they used to anoint with clay and bran the initiates, imitating the stories told in myths according to some, that the Titans hurt Dionysus by plastering themselves with gypsum to avoid being recognized. (They say) that then this custom has ceased, but that later people smeared themselves with mud for tradition's sake. Sophocles in Aichmalotides: 'purifier of the army and experienced in rites of cleaning' and again: 'and most skilled wiper-off of great misfortunes.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a194  Apollo patroios ho Pythios (Ancestral Apollo Pythios): is an appellation of the god, one of many others that also exist. Athenians commonly honor Apollo as patroios after Ion. For when he settled Attica, as Aristotle says, the Athenians were called Ionians and Apollo was named 'patroios' by them. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a195  Apomisthoi (unpaid): those who do not receive pay: Demosthenes, in the Philippics and in Against Aristokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a196  Apo misthomaton (from rents): Didymos the Grammarian says this for 'from the sanctuaries' income.' For to each god, they used to apportion measures of land, from which, when it was let, the expenditures for the sacrifices used to come. For they did not used to sacrifice the victims out of piety, but as contractors. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a197  Aponome (distribution): apportionment, as when the city takes a share of the returns from the mines, or as when people divide up contractors into many so that each receives a share: Deinarchos in Against the Children of Lykourgos, many times. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a198  Apopephasmenon (having been declared): for 'having been displayed' and 'having been made clear.' So Deinarchos and Lysias and Demosthenes, Against Neaira: 'they sell themselves clearly' for 'openly.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a199  Apopompas (averting): Isokrates, Phillip. Some gods used to be called 'apotropaic,' concerning whom Apollodoros, in book six of On Gods, has discussed. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a200  Aporrexantes (having offered part of): 'having apportioned,' 'having given a portion:' Isaios in the supporting speech For Nikias. It appears also in comedy. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a201  Aporreta: Things not to be spoken in the laws. Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. What things it was forbidden to say to each other, Lysias has shown in Against Theomnestos, if the speech is genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a202  Aporotatos: for 'one to whom it is impossible to find access.' Isaios in his For Mnesaios' Daughter. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a203  Aposaxanta: Deinarchos, for 'having stopped up the hole and filled it.' [Herodotus in book 6.] . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a204  Apostasiou (for departure): There is an action granted against freedmen to those who freed them, if they depart from them or register another as prostates (protector), and if they do not do what the laws bid; and those who are convicted must become slaves, while those who win (the case) shall be finally free thenceforth. It appears many times in the orators, in Lysias in Against Aristodemos and in Hyperides in Against Demetrias for Apostasiou. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians, concerning the polemarch writes this: 'he introduces cases for apostasiou and aprostasiou and for inheritances and epikleroi.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a205  Apostesamenon: for 'receiving for the scale:' Demosthenes in Against Timotheos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a206  Apostoleis (dispatchers): those appointed in charge of sending forth the triremes. Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon, and Philochoros in book 7. And dispatches (apostoloi) are the sending forth of the ships: the same orator in the first of the Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a207  Apostrophen: for 'refuge,' Demosthenes in the Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a208  Apotaxis: separate assessment of those who had previously been assessed jointly with each other for payment of the designated tribute. Antiphon in On the Samothracians' Tribute. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a209  Apotimetai kai apotimema kai apotiman kai ta ap' auton (evaluators and evaluated security and to evaluate and things derived therefrom): Those who lease the houses of orphans from the archon used to furnish securities for the lease, and it was necessary for the archon to send out individuals to evaluate the securities. Thus, the securities evaluated used to be called 'evaluated securities' (apotimemata), and those sent to evaluate (were called) 'evaluators' (apotimetai), and the action (was called) 'to evaluate' (apotiman). People then were also accustomed, if her relatives should give a dowry to a woman when she was getting married, to request from her husband some security, as it were, worth the sum of the dowry, such as a house or land. The one who gave the 'evaluated security' was said, in the active voice, 'to give an evaluated security' (apotiman), and the one who received it (was said) 'to have an evaluated security given to him.' The same principle applies also to other debts: Demosthenes in the second speech Against Onetor and Lysias in Against Diogenes on the lease of a house, if it is genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a210  Apotaphos: for 'deprived of one's ancestral tombs;' Deinarchos in the impeachment Against Agasikles. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a211  Apoteichisai: to cut off with a wall and shut out from exit. One who has been cut off and shut out by a wall is 'walled off.' Antiphon in the defense against the public charge of Demosthenes, and Thucydides. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a212  Apo tou pragmatos: for 'far from it,' Demosthenes, Against Androtion. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a213  Apophasis: to declare in writing, part by part, how much property one has, which happens especially in antidosis proceedings. Demosthenes in Against Phainippos many times. Once only he called the same thing 'apographe' (declaration). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a214  Apophoran (removal): For 'take away and make a space between:' Isaios in Against the Orgeones, in which he says thus, 'if in fact they determined with these removals of boundary stones that the land is another's.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a215  Apopsephisontai: for 'they condemn him to not be a citizen': Deinarchos in Against Archestratos. And Demosthenes calls the act 'apopsephisis' (disfranchisement) in the appeal Against Euboulides. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a216  Aprobouleuton: a decree that is not first brought to the Council but is introduced directly to the people. In Against Androtion a law is mentioned that shows this. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a217  Aproskleton: (a suit) that has not been brought as a result of a summons, Hyperides in Against Athenogenes (II). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a218  Aprostasiou (lack of prostates): a type of action against metics who do not have a prostates. For each used to select for himself someone from among the citizens to serve as prostates concerning all private and public matters. Hypereides in the second speech Against Aristagora for aprostasiou. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a219  Aproton: Deinarchos in Against Pytheas: 'when the orators jumped like aprotoi into the port.' Perhaps a scribal error, and one must write 'like pirates.' And in some (copies) it has been written 'like parnopes.' But parnopes are a type of locust. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a220  Araphenios: Isaios in Against Elpagoras and Demophanes. It is a deme of the tribe Ageis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a221  Argas: Aischines On Restitution. It is more plausible to say that Dorians, particularly Argives, used to call a snake 'argas', as Achaios does in Adrastos. But Timachidas the snake was not called 'argas' in their tongue, but that it was a kind of snake. It is likely, then, that Demosthenes was called a snake on account of his savagery since he sued his guardians over their guardianship. The same man also likens these sorts of people to snakes in Against Aristogeiton. In the Attic authors, however, it had been written as 'harpax.' But some say that 'argas' used to be an epithet for a snake. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a222  Argoura: Demosthenes Against Meidias. It is a city of Euboia lying in the Chalkidic territory, as Aristotle the Euboia. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a223  Argyriotheke (money chest): Deinarchos in Against Proxenos for damages. There were two kinds of grammateidia which the Athenians used, some for writing something in them only, others also for depositing money, which they also used to call chests, and the others also (they used to call) diptychs. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a224  Arguritis ge kai chrysitis: land which yields gold and silver when worked. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a225  Argyrokopeion: Antiphon in Against Nikokles. Where coinage is struck. Which some now call a 'mint.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a226  Arginousai: islands lying off of Lesbos, named after a certain Arginos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a227  Argyroupous diphros (silver-footed stool): the one belonging to Xerxes, which was called 'prisoner,' upon which he sat and observed the naval battle. This was set up in the Parthenon of Athena. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a228  Argaios: Argaios: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Concerning this man Theopompos also says in book 1 of the Philippika, 'they call Archelaos both Argaios and Pausanias.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a229  Ariobarzanes: after having been appointed satrap of Artaxerxes, who, after having sent a force to make war on him and having overpowered him, crucified him. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a230  Ardettos: Lysias in Against Elpine. A place at Athens above the Panathenaic stadium, by the deme of Upper Agryle. In this (place), they say, all Athenians used to swear publicly the heliastic oath. It was named after the ancient hero Ardettos, who first administered the oath to the Athenians. Theophrastos in his books On Laws shows that this custom had been dissolved. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a231  Arete (virtue): For 'good reputation;' Andokides and Thucydides, in book 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a232  Arthmios: Proper name, a slave of a certain king. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a233  Aristeus: This is also a proper name. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a234  Aristylla: She was a sister of Aristogeiton. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a235  Aristion: Hypereides, Against Demosthenes. This man is a Samian or a Plataian, as Diyllos says, and, from the age of a young man, a companion of Demosthenes, and he was sent by him to Hephaistion for sake of reconciliation, as Marsyas says in book five of On Alexander. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a236  Arkteusai (to be a bear): Lysias in For Phrynichos' Daughter, if it is genuine; the consecration of girls, before marriage, to Artemis Mounychia or Brauronia. Things that point toward the preceding have been said by others and by Krateros in the Psephismata (Decrees). That maidens who play bear are called 'arktoi' (bears), Euripides, in Hypsipyle, and Aristophanes, in the Lemnian Women and Lysistrata, (show). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a237  Arktouros kai Arktophylax: the one named Bootes. Lysias in Against Philippos for guardianship, but in a special sense the star below its belt. Aratos and Hesiod, in the Works, show. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a238  Arkyoros (netwatcher): Lykourgos in the impeachment against Menesaichmos. The one keeping watch on the nets, that is, the cords. All the cords related to hunting are 'nets' (arkys). Xenophon in On Hunting, Kratinos in Thracian Women. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a239  Harmostai: those sent by Lakedaimonians as rulers to subject cities, as Eratothenes says in On Good and Bad. Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a240  Arrephorein: Deinarchos, Against Pytheas. Four arrephoroi used to be elected, according to good birth, and two were selected who began weaving the peplos and the other things concerning it. And they used to wear white clothing. And if they put on gold things, these became sacred. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a241  Artemisia: Demosthenes on the Freedom of the Rhodians. There were two of these women, Carian by descent and both queens. The first was in the Persian Wars, and was the daughter of Lygdamis, whom Herodotus also mentions. The younger one, whom Demosthenes mentions, was the daughter of Hekatomnos and the wife and sister of Mausolos, whom Theopompos says died having been taken by a wasting sickness owing to grief for her dead brother and husband Mausolos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a242  Artemision: in a particular sense, the statue of Artemis: Hyperides, in Deliakos. A promontory of Euboia is also called by this name, as Demosthenes [does] in For Ktesiphon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a243  Arrybas: son of Alketas, and king of the Molossians. Demosthenes in the Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a244  Archairesiazein: to think oneself worthy of being chosen for a magistracy. Deinarchos in Against Polyeuktos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a245  Archaios (archaically): Isokrates in the Panegyrikos: 'to relate ancient matters in a newfangled way and to speak about recent events archaically.' Some say that it means 'in an old-fashioned way,' that is, to use rather old-fashioned words. Ephoros in the first book of Histories explained in a way. He says that recent authors talk about ancient events in detail. 'For where it concerns events that have happened in our time,' he says, 'we consider those who speak most accurately most trustworthy, but where it concerns ancient affairs we think those who discourse this way most unworthy of trust, because we suspect that it is likely that neither all of the events nor the majority of the speeches are remembered to so great an extent.' Demosthenes in the Philippics says 'they were so old-fashioned, or rather civic-minded' for 'simple'. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a246  Arche andra deiknusi (office reveals a man): Demosthenes in Rhetorical Preludes. Sophokles then, in the elegiacs, says that this is a saying of Solon, and Theophrastos, in On Proverbs, and Aristotle (say that it is a saying) of Bias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a247  Archen iasthai poly loion e teleuten (much better to heal a beginning than an end): Another proverb. And it shows that it is necessary rather to attempt to prevent terrible things when they are starting then when they are at their peak or completed. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a248  Archidameios polemos (Archidamian war): Lysias in Against Androtion and Deinarchos, Against Pytheas for xenia. The first ten years of the Peloponnesian War were called the Archidameian War, as it seems, after Archidamos' invasion of Attika, as Thucydides and Ephoros and Anaximenes say. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a249  Asemanta (unmarked): What are called by us 'unsealed.' For they used to call seals 'marks' (semeia): Hyperides in Against Antias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a250  Aspasia: Lysias in the speech against Aischines the Socratic, whose dialogue was titled Aspasia. And also mentioning her many times are the other Socratics as well, and Plato in the Menexenos says that Sokrates learned politics from her. She was by descent Milesian and skilled at speaking. They say that she was both teacher and, at the same time, a beloved of Perikles. She seems to have been the cause of two wars, the Samian and the Peloponnesian, as it is possible to learn from Douris of Theophrastos, from the fourth book of Politika, and from Aristophanes' Acharnians. Perikles seems also to have had from her his homonymous bastard son, Perikles, as Eupolis indicates in Demes. After she married the demagogue Lysikles, she had Poristes, as the Socratic Aischines says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a251  Astathmetotaton: concerning which no one could conjecture or estimate what at some point one has in mind or what one will do: Demosthenes in On the False Embassy. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a252  Astikton chorion: that which was not hypothecated to a lender; for whenever it is hypothecated, the lender was accustomed to show this through documents that lay upon the site. The same thing also happens in the case of a dwelling. Lysias in the Against Aischines the Socratic. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a253  Astrabe: the mule. Demosthenes in Against Meidias. And perhaps also any draught animal on which people ride was so called. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a254  Astynomos: Demosthenes Against Timokrates. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says that the astynomoi were ten, five in Peiraieus, five in the city. He says that they took care concerning flute-girls and female harpists and dung collectors and such. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a255  Asynthetotaton (most unbound by covenant): Demosthenes in On the False Embassy applied the word to a mob, or for 'most untrustworthy' and 'most unreliable' and 'not making guarantees owing to unreliability', or 'not agreeing' and 'discordant.' For compacts are agreements. Or for 'most unintelligent,' that is 'most senseless. Or for one whom a person just could not comprehend what in the world he has in mind: Homer: 'And you, take heed and listen to me.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a256  Atarneus: a little town lying opposite from Lesbos; Isokrates in Panegyrikos, Herodotos in book 6. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a257  Atechnos: pronounced with a circumflex on the last syllable for 'clearly' or 'certainly' or 'surely' or 'evidently', and with an acute accent on the second to last syllable for 'carelessly' and 'without skill.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a258  Atimetos agon kai timetos (suit without assessed penalty and with assessed penalty): A suit with assessed penalty is one for which a penalty does not lie defined in accordance with the laws, but it was necessary for the jurors to assess what (a convicted defendant) must suffer or pay. The suit without assessed penalty, by contrast, is one to which a penalty defined in accordance with the laws attached, so that the jurors were not required to choose an assessment. Aischines, Against Kteiphon; Demosthenes, Against Meidias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a259  Atimos (disfranchised/outlaw): Demosthenes applied this word in a special sense in the Philippics, that is to say, whomever one is not subject to penalty for having killed. For, talking about Arthmios, he says that the Athenians decreed that he was hostile and an enemy of the people of Athens and its allies, both himself and his kin, and that he be 'atimos.' Next, he adduces it, as if explaining: 'But this is not what a person would so call 'atimia' (disfranchisement). For what was it to the man from Zeleia if he was to have no share in the common matters of the Athenians? But it has been written in the homicide laws, concerning whatever (the law/lawmaker) does not permit prosecution for homicide: 'and as an outlaw' (atimos), it says, 'let him be killed.' This in fact means that he who has killed any such man is to be free from pollution.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a260  Atta: for 'as many' or 'whichever,' Antiphon in On the Lindians' Tribute; and for 'some' or 'some sort,' Demosthenes in the Philippics. But in some cases atta is redundant. ['Inquire when the swallow appears.'] . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a261  Attes: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. Attes is particularly venerated by the Phrygians, as the attendant of the Mother of the Gods. Neanthes has written about him, but the account is mystic. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a262  Attikois grammasin (in Attic letters): Demosthenes, Against Neaira, for 'in ancient (letters).' For the alphabet of 24 letters was at some late date discovered among the Ionians. Theopompos in the 25th book of the Philippika says that the treaty with the barbarian was fabricated, which (he says) was inscribed on a stele not in Attic letters, but in those of the Ionians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a263  Authentes ('perpetrator'): Lysias in For Erathosthenes. In Against Isodomos he applied it in a special sense to the Thirty, who effected their homicides through others. For 'perpetrator' always indicates the one who acts with his own hand. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a264  Auleios: the house-door that is first from the road, as Menander shows. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a265  Aulia: Lysias in Against Diodotos and Aischines, Against Ktesiphon, either for 'farm buildings' or for 'small courtyards.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a266  Aulizomenoi: for 'going to bed,' Antiphon in On Concord. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a267  Autodikein: for 'determining what is just for oneselves,' Deinarchos in Against Kleomedon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a268  Autokleides: Aischines, Against Timarchos: 'Kedonides and Autokleides and Thersandros.' These were hardcore pederasts, as Aristogeiton also (says in) Against Timarchos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a269  Au: Demosthenes, for 'again' in Against Aphobos 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a270  Autolekythoi: Demosthenes in Against Konon. Either for 'certain men being girt up and ready to do and to endure whatever,' or for 'poor and possessing nothing besides lekythoi,' or 'laborers,' or for 'those ready for blows and as it were striking and whipping and doing violence.' Or it could mean those giving money readily and ready for intercourse. For they also used to keep money in their lekythoi. The word is also in Menander in Heniochos and Daktylios. That they used to keep money in lekythoi sometimes, Diphilos (shows) in Apobates. And that having broken the lekythos they used to use the thong for whipping, Menander (shows) in Trophonios. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a271  Autolykos: There is a speech of Lykourgos Against Autolykos the Leokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a272  Automachein (to fight/plead for oneself): To go to court by oneself but not (assisted) by another, such as if one refers to a seller, one declares that the suit is against him; and if one furnishes a man who affirms by diamartyria that the suit is inadmissible, then he himself no longer contests, but the contest is with the one who affirmed by diamartyria. Lysias in Against Eukles for ejectment from property. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a273  Autochthones ('native'): The Athenians. Demosthenes in On the False Embassy: 'You alone of all are autochthonous.' Apollodoros in On Gods says that they were called autochthonous, since they were the first to work the land (chthon), that is, the earth, when it was idle. Others (say) that it was because they were not immigrants. Pindar and the author of the Danais say that Erichthonios and Hephaistos appeared out of the earth. The Arcadians were also autochthonous, as Hellanikos says, and the Aiginetans and Thebans. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a274  Aphairesis (removal): Said in a special sense, '(removal) to freedom:' Hypereides in Against Aristagora. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a275  Aphareus: this man was the son of Hippias, but was considered the son of Isokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a276  Aphanes ousia kai phanera (invisible and visible wealth): The invisible kind is in money and slaves and equipment, but the visible kind is in land: Lysias in Against Hippotherses. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a277  Apheis kai apallaxas (having released and discharged): 'Released' whenever one lets another off from the charges which he was bringing against him, but 'discharged' whenever one persuades the one making the charge to withdraw and charge him no longer: Demosthenes in the counter-suit For Phormio. It is also possible to put it this way: that one releases (a person) only from the things that one charges, while one discharges, whenever one reserves for oneself no further argument against the one charged. Demosthenes in the countersuit For Phormio: 'in order that he may have from you a valid discharge.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a278  Apheis ten hyperan ton poda diokei (letting go of the brace he chases the sheets): Hyperides in On the Salt Fish (I). A proverb applying to those who let go of the more important things and waste time on the trivial things. Braces are ships' ropes, with which the boom is shifted. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a279  Aph' Hestias myeisthai (to be initiated from the Hearth/Hestia): Isaios in Against Kalydon. A man 'initiated from the Hearth' was an Athenian in any case. And having obtained this by lot, he was initiated. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a280  Aphorme (beginning): Whenever one gives money on deposit, it is called 'starting capital,' in a special sense among the Attic orators. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a281  Aphosio (I dedicate): for 'I purify,' 'I consecrate:' Aischines, Against Ktesiphon. Isaios said, in Against Hermon, that to do something not perfectly but, as it were, for form's sake, was to 'do it perfunctorily.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a282  Aphrodision: in a special sense the seat of Aphrodite. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a283  Aphyas: Hyperides, Against Aristagora. It is also a name of two women hetairai, sisters. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ a284  Axaristein: for 'not showing gratitude.' So Antiphon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b1  Balbisin (at the starting lines): Antiphon, On Concord, for 'at the beginnings.' Said after (i.e. taken from) runners. For the line that is under the hysplex (starting gate) — on account of the fact that the runners set foot upon it — is called the balbis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b2  Barathron (pit): A ditch into which they used to cast those who were condemned to death. Demosthenes in the Philippics says this not properly, but by way of metaphor, as if to say, 'in a state of ruin.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b3  Basanos (touchstone / torture): Antiphon. So called is the stone on which gold is tested by being rubbed against it. Hypereides in Against Antias called things that were said during torture by those being tortured, and copied down, basanoi (testimony under torture). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b4  Royal race: the race that took place in the presence of the king, who is one of the nine magistrates at Athens, appears to be called the royal race. Deinarchos, Against Pytheas. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b5  Basileos stoa (Royal Stoa): Demosthenes in Against Aristogeiton I. There are two stoas beside each other, that of Zeus Eleutherios and the Royal. There is also a third, previously called Peisianax's Stoa, but renamed the Stoa Poikile. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b6  Baskainei (maligns): for 'accuses' and 'blames' and 'accuses maliciously:' Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. And in this passage, 'no administrative measure of mine is slanderous and bitter and wicked;' for 'accusation-loving' and 'malicious.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b7  Basanisas (having tested): For 'having approved:' Deinarchos in Against Proxenos. The word is common with this meaning in Attic authors. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b8  Batalos: Aischines in On the False Embassy. He is ridiculed in comedy for effeminacy. Eupolis calls the anus 'batalos.' Perhaps, then, it's from this that they call kinaidoi 'bataloi.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b9  Baubo: a woman's name. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b10  Bebaioseos (for warranty): Is a name for an action that those who have purchased something bring against him who has sold it, if a third party has a dispute over the item sold, and the latter (i.e. the seller) does not warrant it. And sometimes, also when earnest money alone has been given and the one who has sold disputed (the transaction), then the one who gave the earnest money used to bring the action for warranty against the one who received it. Lysias in two speeches. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b11  Besaies (men from Besa): Lysias in the defense Against Philocrates over a contract: Besa is a deme of the tribe Antiochis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b12  Biaion (for violence): Name of an action against those who do something by force. The one who is convicted pays a fine to the treasury equal to the amount [that he pays] to the victor. Demosthenes, Against Meidias. There are also speeches for violence circulating in the Lysiac corpus. And it is clear that neither the word nor the action was used only in the case of the corruption of virgins, but also for other (wrongs). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b13  Blimazein (to squeeze): to press with the hands. Also to press honeycombs is called 'blisai' (to take honey). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b14  Boedromia: Demosthenes in the Philippics. A festival so called at Athens, which Philochoros in book two says was celebrated since Ion son of Xouthos, with great zeal, helped Athenians when war was waged against them by Eumolpos son of Poseidon, when Erechtheus was king. For to 'bring help' (boethein) was called 'boedromein' (hasten to help), that is, to rush into battle. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b15  Bothynos: in a special sense, a place so called on the Sacred Way. Isaios mentions the place in Against Hermon concerning a surety as does Kallisthenes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b16  Boleones (dung heaps): The place where dung is cast is called a boleon (dung heap). Nikandros in book 3 of Attic Dialect (applies) ''dung heaps' to the fields, into which the dung is carried.' So Deinarchos and Philemon and others. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b17  Bombylios: a creature similar to a bee, named after 'bombos' (humming). Isokrates in the Encomium of Helen. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b18  Boulaia (of the council): Deinarchos in the endeixis (indictment) Against Kallisthenes: 'I call to witness Hestia Boulaia,' that is, the one established in the boule (council). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b19  Bouleia (office of councillor): Doing things that are the council's business, which are appropriate for council-members (to do). Deinarchos and Aristophanes in Thesmophoriazousai. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b20  Bouleuseos: The name of a charge applied to two circumstances. The one is whenever someone by plot arranges death for someone else, whether the person plotted against dies or not, and the other whenever someone, being registered as indebted to the public treasury, sues someone on the grounds that he has registered him unlawfully. For the former, then, Isaios is a witness, in the speech Against Eukleides, when he says that the trials occurred in the Palladion, but Deinarchos in Against Pistias (says that they trials occurred) on the Areopagos. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians agrees with Isaios. About the other charge: Demosthenes in the first speech Against Aristogeiton. But Hyperides in the first speech against Athenogenes, has used the word in a special sense applying to a trap and deception in regard to money. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b21  Boutades: Bouteia is a deme of the Oineis tribe, whose demesmen are Boutadai . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b22  Boutes: This man held the priesthood. And from him (come) 'Boutadai' and 'Eteoboutadai', the descendents of Boutes. The 'Eteo-' means 'true.' Homer: 'If I am truly your (son).' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b23  Bouphonia: Hyperides in Against Demades. It is a festival among Athenians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b24  Boucheta: Demosthenes in the seventh of the Philippics. It is a city of Epeiros, said in the neuter plural, which Philostephanos in Epeirotika says was named on account of the fact that Themis came there riding on an ox, during the flood of Deukalion. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b25  Boones: Demosthenes in the Against Meidios says the Boones was distinguished and the greatest offices were conferred on him. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b26  Brytidai: Name of an Attic genos: Demosthenes in Against Neaira. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ b27  Bomolocheuesthai: Those called 'bomolochoi' (altar-ambushers) are principally the ones who sit under the altar at sacrifices and beg with flattery, but also the flautists and seers employed at sacrifices. Pherekrates in Tyranny: 'And then, in order that we, since we are always lurking next to the altars on all sides, not be called bomolochoi, Zeus made a very great smoke-hole.' By way of metaphor from these, certain people, easily satisfied and lowly and submitting to anything whatsoever with a view to profit through jesting and mocking, used to be called 'bomolochoi.' Aristophanes in Gerytades: 'You jest and you mock us and you altar-ambush.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g1  Galepsos: Antiphon, Against Laispodios. A Thracian city, as the writers of itineraries say. It was named after Galepsos of Marsyas the Younger says in the fifth book of the Makedonika. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g2  Gamelia: Demosthenes in the Appeal against Euboulides, and Isaios. Didymos the grammarian in his commentary on Isaios says that the gamelia was given to phratores at weddings, citing a speech of Panodemos in which nothing of the sort is written. In his Commentaries on Demosthenes, the same scholar says instead that gamelia is the introduction of women to the phratores, citing no evidence for this explanation. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g3  Ganos kai Ganiada: Aischines, Against Ktesiphon. They are Thracian localities, as Artemidoros (says). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g4  Geisipous kai geisipodisma kai geisipodizein: The projecting part of the beam on which the cornice (geison) is, is called a 'cornice foot' (geisipous) and 'cornice footing' (geisipodisma), and to make this is 'to make a cornice foot' (geisipodizein): Isaios in Against the Orgeones. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g5  Gennetai: Those who share the same clan. For when all the citizens were divided part by part, the first and greatest parts were called tribes, and each tribe was divided three ways, and each part of these was called a trittys and and a phratry. And in turn each of the phratries was divided into 30 clans, from which the priesthoods that belong to each were allotted. The word appears among many of the orators, for example Demosthenes in the Appeal Against Euboulides. Isaios in On the Estate of Apollodoros called clansmen 'kinsmen.' However, those who were kin simply and by blood were not called clansmen and from the same clan, but rather those who were originally distributed into the named clans. Philochoros in the fourth book says that those whom they now call gennetai were previously called homogalaktes (raised on the same milk). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g6  Gerarai: the women who are consecrated to Dionysos. Demosthenes in Against Neaira. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g7  Geraneia: Lysias, in the Epitaphios. It is a mountain of the Megarid, as Dieuchidas (says). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g8  Gerra (screens): Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon: 'they drove out those in the stalls throughout the agora and torched their gerra.' Gerra are a kind of Persian military equipment, as Herodotos also says: but already, by misuse, also any covering, whether made of skin or from some other material, used to be called 'gerron.' Here at any rate Demosthenes says that the stalls' coverings and curtains were torched to prevent people gathering around the goods in the agora and holding discussions in the presence of any others. In Against Neaira, if it is genuine, he says thus: 'And the law bids the prytaneis set up the voting urns and give the voting pebble to the people as they approach, before the aliens enter and they take down the gerra.' So, either the same is in For Ktesiphon or some such must be understood, that the voting pebble was given by the prytaneis in the presence of the citizens in the assembly before the aliens entered and before the fences were taken down, that is before the assembly was opened up to any who wished to speak. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g9  Geophanion: land in which there is a mine in the ground. On the geophanion on Samos, Ephoros has shown in the ninth book in what manner it was found. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g10  Gepedon (plot of land): Deinarchos in Against Stephanos. The ground is 'gepedon,' just as also that which is composed of land and buildings is 'oikopedon' (house site). Plato anyway in book 5 of the Laws says, 'house plots and land plots that he is allotted.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g11  Glaukos: proper name,

§ g12  Glykera: a courtesan. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g13  Gnosis (decision): for 'legal judgment,' Demosthenes in Against Aristogeiton. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g14  Gorgyra (drain): Underground ditch: Deinarchos, Aischines. It is also in Herodotos in book three. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g15  Grammateus: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. How the grammateus was appointed and what he did, that he was in charge of the documents, looked after decrees that were passed, kept records of everything else and was based near the Boule, has been explained by Aristotle in the Athenian Constitution. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g16  Grapheus: used for 'painter' (zographos), Demosthenes, Against Meidias. And they used to call painting 'graphein.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g17  Graphe: The word for a public suit. Not only whenever someone accuses a decree or law is he said to have a graphe paranomon (public suit for unlawful measure) rendered and filed, but also applying to many other wrongs, whenever one makes a charge either publicly or on grounds that it applies to the public itself. The word appears often in the orators. Demosthenes, Against Konon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g18  Grypanion [wrinkled]: Antiphon, On Truth 2 'For it makes the ground burn and, as it melts together, grypanion [wrinkled].' and Melanthios in book 2 of the Attic history, talking about when an earthquake happened, says 'and the ground egrypen [wrinkled].' Thus Dionysios son of Tryphon in On Names says ''grypainein' is 'to be made wrinkled', like the soft bark strips whenever we fold them and then release them.' Perhaps then the authors indicate that some kind of foldedness happens to the ground during earthquakes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g19  Gryllos: Hypereides in Against Epikles concerning a house. Gryllos and Diodoros were sons of Xenophon the Socratic. He (Gryllos) died fighting at Mantinea. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g20  Gylios: a plaited soldier's pack, into which one's essentials were placed, as Aristophanes shows, for example, in his Peace. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g21  Gylippos: proper name, a Lakedaimonian. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g22  Gylon: a proper name. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ g23  Goniasmos: Lysias in Against Lysitheos, 'as one turns along the wall, council members, there is a corner on the left and quite a lot of wide open space.' Also Aristophanes in the Frogs: 'and introductions of fine rules and mitered edges of words.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d1  Daidalos' creations. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d2  Daeira: a proper name. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d3  Damon: a proper name, teacher to Perikles. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d4  Daochos: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. He is one of those who betrayed the Thessalians' affairs to Philip. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d5  Dareikos (daric): Lysias in Against Eratosthenes, one of the Thirty. Darics are gold staters, and one was worth the same as what, among the Attic writers, is called the chrysous [gold coin]. They were called Darics not, as most think, after Dareios, the father of Xerxes, but after another more ancient king. Some say that the Daric is worth 20 silver drachmas, so that 5 Darics are worth a mina of silver. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d6  Dateisthai (to distribute): To apportion, and the distributors (datetai) are apportioners. 'To a choice of distributors' is a kind of action. For whenever people shared with each other and some wished to divvy up the common goods but others did not, the willing used to sue the unwilling, summoning them 'to a choice of distributors:' Lysias in Against Alexidemos, if it is genuine, and Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d7  Datos: it is a city of Thrace, very fortunate. Thus, after this city a proverb is also said: 'Datos of good things.' About this city and the territory adjacent to it they have explained, sometimes saying neuter 'Daton' and sometimes feminine 'Datos,' as Ephoros always (does) in the fourth book. And once Theopompos (says) masculine 'Datos' in book 3 of the Philippika. The city of the Datenoi, however, had its name changed to Philippoi when Philip king of Ephoros says, and Philochoros in the fifth book. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d8  Deeseis [needs]: Instead of endeia [lack], Antiphon in Of Truth book one. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d9  Deigma (sample, display piece): Properly, the item that is displayed out of each of the things being sold. And furthermore a place in the emporion at Athens to which the samples used to be brought was so called. It was the Athenian habit to mark places themselves after the things in the place. Demosthenes in On the Expense of the Trierarchy and Lysias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d10  Deipnophoros [dinner-bearer]: Hypereides in the Against Demeos. It is said that the deipnophoroi are recruited now, because the mothers of the confined children used to send food for them every day to the sanctuary of Athena, where they were staying, and they agreed [to be recruited] so that each could embrace her own. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d11  Deiradiotes: Deirades is a deme of the tribe Leontis, the demesman of which is a

§ d12  Deinoi [with skill]: instead of deinesei, Antiphon, Of Truth 2. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d13  Dekazon: Isokrates, On the Peace. What in the world this is, is clear to all. Eratosthenes in his books On Old Comedy shows whence the phenomenon came to be referred to, saying thus, 'Lykos is a hero near the lawcourts in Athens, having the shape of an animal, in front of whom those who take bribes used to gather, arrayed in groups of ten, whence a 'company of Lykos' came to be referred to.' Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says that Anytos introduced the bribing of the courts. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d14  Deka kai dekadouchos: Isokrates in the counter-suit Against Kallimachos: 'for the Ten who were established after the Thirty were holding office.' About the ten men who were elected at Athens after the dismantling of the Thirty and the events thereafter Androtion has spoken in the third book. Each of the officers, however, used to be called 'one of the ten' (dekadouchos), as Lysias makes clear in On the Estate of Diogenes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d15  Dekadarchia [government of ten]: Isokrates. While the governments installed by the Lakedaimonians in the cities are constantly called dekadarchiai by historians, Isokrates is the one who more or less explained the name in his Panathenaicus; he says that Lakedaimonians made 10 men only masters of each city. But Philip never installed a dekadarchia for the Thessalians, as is written in the 6th Philippic of Demosthenes, but a tetrarchy. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d16  Dekateuein: Demosthenes, Against Androtion: 'For not by tithing themselves' for 'exacting the tithe' and as it were 'plundering.' For things seized from their enemies they used to tithe to the gods. And since Demosthenes, in Against Medon, says about a young girl as follows, 'not to tithe her nor initiate her,' Didymos the grammatikos, having written a book about this, says that Lysias, in On the Daughter of Phrynichos, has said that to tithe is to serve as a bear. He says, however, that to dedicate was properly called 'to tithe,' since it was Greek custom to dedicate to the gods the tenths of the revenues. But perhaps the orator has said that serving as a bear is tithing since ten-year-old girls used to serve as bears. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d17  Dekateutas (tithe farmers): For 'tax-collectors who collect the tenth:' Antiphon in the defense against the public suit of Demosthenes. That the tenth was a custom duty Demosthenes has shown in On The Tax Immunities. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d18  Dekatelogous (tithe collectors): Those who collect the tenth. The same then as the dekateutai. Demosthenes, Against Aristokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d19  Dekeleian: The Peloponnesian War, from the final part. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d20  Delphinion: a place in Chios, as Thucydides (shows) in the 8th book. There is another Delphinion at Athens, a sanctuary of Apollo, where there was also the 'lawcourt in Delphinion.' Demosthenes in Against Boiotos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d21  Derkylidas: a Lakedaimonian king [sic]. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d22  Dermatikon: Lykourgos in the speech titled Defense of his Career in Politics. The orator would be calling the money generated from the skins that were sold 'dermatikon.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d23  Dermestes (hide-eating worm): Lysias in Against Eupeithes. Didymos explains that the worm is so called by Sophokles in Niobe, in book 7 of Words with Unclear Meaning, but Aristarchos, interpreting the Sophoclean passage interpreted it as 'serpent.' But perhaps a dermestes would rather be one that eats hides (dermata), as is indicated in the sixth book of Aristeides' Milesiaka. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d24  Deusopoios (dyed fast): Properly, the word is said applying to purple dye that keeps its brilliance permanent and indelible, but by metaphor 'dyed fast' is also said applying to all other things that keep their color permanent and long-lived, among the old writers, as also Plato makes clear in book 4 of the Republic. Diphilos in Foster Brothers: 'There is a good dyer in the boy. For he has rendered for us completely fast-dyed swaddling clothes.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d25  Demainetos: proper name. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d26  Deliastai: the envoys who went out to Delos: Lycurgus, Against Menesaichmos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d27  Demarchos: Lysias in Against Moschos. The demarch was a magistrate. They made registers of the properties in each deme. Furthermore, the lexiarchic register resided with them, and they gathered the demes (i.e. demesmen) whenever it was necessary, and they put proposals to a vote for them. Aristotle says in the Constitution of the Athenians that they were established by Kleisthenes, having the same charge as the naukraroi before them. Aristophanes in The Women Claiming Tent-Sites shows that the demarchs used to seize securities. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d28  Demokoinos: the public torturer. Isocrates more or less explained the word in his Trapezitikos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d29  Demopoietos (citizen by adoption): One who is a foreigner by birth, but has been made a citizen by the demos. In what manner certain people become citizens by adoption Demosthenes has shown in Against Neaira, if genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d30  Demosios (public): Demosthenes, in the Philippics. They call the city's slaves 'public.' Aischines, Against Timarchos: 'a public slave person of the city.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d31  Demotele kai demotika hiera (at public expense and public rites): Used to differ from each other and from associations' ritual and clans' ritual, as Deinarchos shows in Against Stephanos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d32  Demoteuomenos (being a demesman): To be a demesman is to share in a given deme and to be named after it. Antiphon in the defense Against Philip, if is it genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d33  Demophanes: proper name. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d34  Diagoreuon (stating explicitly): Isaios in Against Diokles in a special sense has used 'diagoreuon' for 'saying different things' and 'not the same things.' For among them, 'diagoreuein' is the opposite of 'synagoreuein' (to advocate / agree), just as 'sympheresthai' (to agree with) is of 'diapheresthai' (to differ from), and 'sympoliteuesthai' is of 'diapoliteuesthai' (to be a political rival), and 'symphonein' (to agree / be in harmony) is of 'diaphonein' (to be in discord). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d35  Diagramma (register): Hypereides in Against Epikles. That which is assessed in the symmories as to how much each man must contribute. The same was not assessed for all, but according to the valuation of his property. Concerning these things Hypereides has shown most clearly in Against Polyeuktos concerning a register. A diagrapheus moreover is the one appointed in the symmories to judge how much each man ought to contribute, as again the same makes obvious in Against Polyeuktos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d36  Diagraphe (specification): The description of the mines for sale (lease), showing in writing from what beginning and up to what limit they are for sale (lease). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d37  Diagrapsasthai (to cross out): Lysias in Against Nikides, if it is genuine, for 'to remove the charge.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d38  Diadoseis (distributions): Grants that fall to one per equal division. Lysias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d39  Diakechremenon (lent to different persons): For 'lent part by part:' Demosthenes, Against Aphobos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d40  Diastasis (separation, ordering): Antiphon, On Truth book 2: 'concerning the ordering that now prevails,' for 'ordering of the universe.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d41  Diagrapsantos (crossing out/writing an order): Dinarchus in Against Lycurgus. Perhaps for 'depositing and paying.' But some use it for 'reckoning (i.e. paying) through a bank,' as we say in ordinary usage. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d42  Diathesis (disposition): For 'sale:' Isokrates in Bousiris. But for 'we have rendered' Antiphon said 'we disposed' in Against the endeixis of Kallias, and for 'arrangement' the same author in On Concord (said), 'but knowing the disposition they listen.' Phrynichos in Tragoidoi says, 'by the disposition of the words.' For they say the word 'to dispose' for 'to arrange.' Antiphon in On Truth 1 (says), 'stripped of a starting point, it would have disposed even many good things badly.' 'Dispose' for 'compose:' Hypereides, Against Demosthenes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d43  Dialexis (allotment): To divide by lot/share is to to allot, and the act is 'allotment:' Antiphon in Against Philinos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d44  Dia mesou teichous (wall through the middle): Antiphon, Against Nikokles. Inasmuch as there are three walls in Attica, as also Aristophanes says in Triphales, the north and the south and the Phaleric, the south wall used to be called 'through the middle' of those on each side, which Plato also mentions in the Gorgias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d45  Diacheirotonia (vote between two options): Decision of a vote taking place in the assembly. Demosthenes in Against Timokrates and Against Androtion. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d46  Diamemetremene hemera (measured out day): It is a certain measure of water flowing into an aperture measured at a day. It used to be measured in the month of Poseideon. By this (measure) indeed were held the greatest trials and those concerning the greatest matters. The water used to be measured in three parts, one for the prosecutor, one for the defendant, and the third for the jurors. The orators themselves have shown these things very clearly, for example Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians is instructive on these things. But one must also consider what appears in Isaios in Against Elpagoras and Demophanes, that in a measured out day, he says, sometimes the trials take place without water and sometimes (measured) against it. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d47  Diametron: the part left over from something that has been rightly measured: Deinarchos in the impeachment Against Kallisthenes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d48  Diaskeuasasthai (to get ready): for 'pack up,' Isaios in Against Kallikrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d49  Diaseistous (shaken about): Aischines, Against Timarchos. They seem to have been named after being moved and shaken first, and then thrown, so that they may be rather uncorrupted. Menander, Poloumenoi. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d50  Diapsephisis (voting by ballot): It is said in a special sense, applying to the examinations in the demes, which are held concerning each of the men who are (or appear to be) demesmen, as to whether one in fact is a citizen and a demesman or has been illegally enrolled, being a foreigner: Aischines, Against Timarchos. Androtion in Atthis and Philochoros in book 6 of Atthis have discussed quite completely the diapsephiseis, how they occurred in the archonship of Archias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d51  Diamartyria kai diamartyrein (testimony by affidavit and to affirm by affidavit): diamartyria was a manner of bringing a counter-suit. For before the case was brought to court, it was possible for anyone who wished to to affirm by diamartyria that the case was admissible or not admissible. It differs from the counter-suit in that the diamartyria is brought not only by the defendants but also by the prosecutors. And previously, at least, it used to be possible for the prosecutor to propose someone testifying that the case was admissible, and concerning this the judgment used to be made first toward him who testified, not toward him who first brought suit. But if the prosecutor should not propose a witness, then it was possible for the defendant to introduce someone testifying that the case was not admissible. And again the trial used to be held toward him who testified. They used to bring charges for false testimony by diamartyriai also, just as in testimonies: Lysias in the diamartyria Against Aristodemos, if the speech is genuine. Isaios in the (dike) apostasiou against Python says that it is not possible for aliens to testify by affidavit. Hypereides in the (graphe) aprostasiou Against Aristagora (II) says that the laws bid him who wishes to affirm by diamartyria in public actions for aprostasiou, just as against aliens and countrymen. Perhaps then aliens were barred from affirming by diamartyria in the private actions for apostasiou, but in the (public) actions for aprostasiou were not barred. Deinarchos, however, has applied 'diamartyresai' not to the man who offered the testimony himself, but to the man who furnished someone who gave the testimony in the diamartyria concerning Aristophon's daughter's not being subject to judicial decision. This orator in Against Hedyle also describes the custom of the diamartyria. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d52  Diaitetai (arbitrators): Demosthenes in Against Meidias. Arbitrators are different from jurors. For the latter used to sit in judgement in designated lawcourts and decide cases on appeal from the arbitrators. But the arbitrators — having been appointed by lot beforehand, or else after the disputants had entrusted (arbitration) to them — used to arbitrate the disputants. And if the opponents were satisfied, the action was done. If not, then after depositing in urns the plaints and the summonses and the testimonies and also still the laws and the other proofs of each party, and having sealed them, they would hand them over to the magistrates who introduce the suits. Aristotle in the Athenian Constitution speaks about them. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d53  Diastesai (to set apart, at variance): For 'throw into confusion' and in a way 'render powerless;' Antiphon in On The Revolution. Menander in The Widow: 'Let him throw the city into confusion by shouting.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d54  Didaskalos (teacher): In a special sense, they call the poets of dithyrambs or of comedies or of tragedies teachers. Antiphon in On the Choros Boy says, 'I was assigned by lot Pantakles as didaskalos.' For that Pantakles was a poet Aristotle has shown in the Didaskaliai. The word is common also in old comedy with this denotation. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d55  Diegguesin (giving security): for 'presentation of sureties:' Demosthenes, Against Timokrates. And in Against Neaira, if the speech is genuine, he says, 'She, having been vouched for by Stephanos (as surety).' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d56  Diekodonise (he sounded off): Demosthenes in On the Embassy, for 'he tried' and 'he tested.' The metaphor is either from those patrolling their posts at night, with trumpets, as Euripides (says) in Palamedes, or from those testing fighting quail with the sound of the trumpet, as Aristarchos (says). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d57  Di' eniautou (through the year): For 'through the entire year:' Antiphon, On the Lindians' Tribute. Telekleides in the Prytaneis said 'through a day' for 'through the entire day.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d58  Diespeusamen (I worked zealously): for 'I did something with zeal' or 'I accomplished:' Isaios in Against Hermon concerning a pledge. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d59  Dieskariphesametha (we sketched in outline): Isokrates in the Areopagitikos. To do something perfunctorily and not with the appropriate precision is to sketch in outline. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d60  Dieteinanto (they extended): Antiphon applied this in a special sense in On the Murder of Herodes, for 'they denied with intense zeal.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d61  Diellaxen (he [ex]changed): for 'he changed,' 'he died:' Lykourgos in On The Priestess. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d62  Dierxa (I held office to the end): for 'I held office through the end,' Lysias in the defense in the public suit against Mixidemos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d63  Diipoleia: The Diipoleia is a festival at Athens: Antiphon in his On the Choros Boy. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d64  Dikaiogenes: this man was a tragic poet. He also wrote dithyrambs. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d65  Dikaiopolis: Lysias in Against Thrasyboulos, if it is genuine. A city in Thrace near Abdera. Perchance there is also another Dikaiopolis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d66  Dikaiosis (doing justice): Lysias in For the Soldier, if it is genuine, quite certainly says 'dikaioseis' for 'pleas of justification.' Thucydides, however, many times applies 'dikaiosis' to the punishment. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d67  Dike (suit): the word denotes other things as well, but it is said in a special sense applying to private charges, as Demosthenes makes clear in Against Konon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d68  Dioikiein (to cause to live apart): for 'to divide,' so that everyone does not live in the same place, but separately and part by part, Demosthenes in the fifth of the Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d69  Diopeuon (captaining): Demosthenes in Against Lakritos. The one who captains a ship and oversees the matters throughout the ship is called 'captain,' he who among us is called 'epiplous.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d70  Diotimus: proper name, Athenian admiral. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d71  Diophantus: proper name. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d72  Diolygion (immense): Isaios in Against Stratokles: 'immense matters' for 'great.' Also Plato. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d73  Diomosia: Properly the (oath) from those who are going to court: Demosthenes, Against Aristokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d74  Dokimastheis (having been examined): For 'enrolled among men,' Demosthenes in Against Onetor. 'To have been examined' is also said in the case of the magistrates, as the same orator shows in the appeal Against Euboulides. It also used to be said in the case of those exercising citizenship, even if they were not holding any magistracy at all. For their life used to be examined sometimes, as Aischines says in Against Timarchos. And Lykourgos says in On The Administration, 'Three examinations occur according to the law, one under which the nine archons are examined, another under which the orators (are), and a third under which the generals (are).' Moreover, he mentions in the same speech also an examination of cavalry. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d75  Doriskos: a place in Thrace: Demosthenes On the Crown and Herodotus. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d76  Dosis (giving/gift): In the orators, a written contract is called (this) in a special sense, whenever someone gives his property to someone via the magistrates, as in Deinarchos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d77  Drakontides: one of the Thirty: Hypereides. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d78  Drakon: This man is a most famous lawgiver, as Aischines (shows). But there is another Drakon, whom Isokrates has mentioned in the Panegyrikos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d79  Droggilon: A Thracian place: Demosthenes, in the Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d80  Dromokerykes (runners): Aischines. The so-called 'hemerodromoi' (day-runners). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d81  Drymos: A city between Boiotia and Attica: Demosthenes in On the Embassy. Aristotle in Dikaiomata says it this way: 'next Drymos, one Attic and another Boiotian.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d82  Drys: Demosthenes, Against Aristokrates, a city in Epeiros. Drys is also a city in Thrace, which the speaker now mentions. Theopompos says in the 20th book that it was founded by Iphikrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d83  Dysanios (easily vexed): Antiphon. One who is distressed at everything, even if it is small and negligible, Hippokrates also used the word somewhere, and Menander (too). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d84  Dysaules: Deinarchos in the priestess's diadikasia, if it is genuine. Asklepiades in book four of Tragoidoumena says that Dysaules is autochthonous, and that having married Baubo, he had children, Protonoe and Nisa. Palaiphatos in book nine of Troika says that with his wife he entertained Demeter. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d85  Dysopoumai (I am shy/regard with aversion): for 'I am afraid:' Demosthenes in the Philippics and Xenophon in book 2 of the Memorabilia. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d86  Dorieus: Name of a pankratiast. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d87  Doroxenia (bribery by a foreigner): Lysias in Against Nikidas. Hyperides explains the word in Against Aristagora, writing thus: 'And yet the law concerning bribery by foreigners is fitting to be introduced in the current trial. For if it has stated that even against those who have been acquitted on charges of xenia, it shall be possible for him who wishes to bring a charge (graphe) again, if they think that the prior acquittal unjustly done, how is the right action against Aristagora not obvious?!' And Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians, in talking about the thesmothetai, writes this: 'Also before them are public actions (graphai), for which there is a court fee, for xenia and doroxenia, if someone escapes charges of xenia [Keaney: ξενίαν, καὶ συκοφαντίας] by giving bribes.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ d88  Doron graphe (public action for bribes): Whenever some one of those who are politically active is accused of taking bribes, the charge against him was called in two different ways, both 'bribe taking' and 'public action for bribes.' Deinarchos therefore titled a certain speech Against Polyeuktes for Bribe Taking, but in Against Pythias for Xenia he often names the public action for bribes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e1  Ean tis grapsamenos: If after having brought a public action one does not obtain the fifth part of the votes he owes 1000 drachmas and a deprivation of civic rights (atimia) applies. Lysias in For the Law Against the Orators. Theophrastos has also discussed these things in On the Laws. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e2  Hebdomeuomenou (receiving a name on the seventh day): Lysias in Against Eteokles concerning money, if it is genuine. They used to celebrate the seventh or tenth days for newborn children, and used to give them names at least, some on the seventh, as the orator also says, but others on the tenth. Arisotle in book nine of the On the History of Animals writes this: 'most perish before the seventh day, wherefore they also give names then, on grounds that they trust in their safety thenceforth. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e3  Eggyetheke: A certain speech is held to be Lysias', entitled On the Eggyetheke. That would be an implement, convenient for setting mixing-bowls, or kettles, or something not unlike these, upon, as Kallixenos indicates in book four of On Alexandria, and Daimachos of

§ e4  Hedoliasai (to furnish with seats/decking): Lykourgos in the work titled Defense of His Career in Politics, applying to sitting together. And the seats on ships are 'hedolia' (benches): Herodotos book one. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e5  Ethnos: Not only great and populous race, but also in a special sense, a part of the city. Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates: 'If someone should ask you what you think is the most grievous of all ethne ('classes') in the city, you would not say it was the farmers, nor the merchants, nor those from the silver mines, nor any such.' And in the ninth Philippic he says, 'But how is Thessaly? Has he not taken their cities and constitutions, and established tetrarchies among them, so that they are slaves not only city by city but even tribe by tribe.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e6  Heiloteuein (to be a helot): to be a slave, Isokrates in the Panegyrikos. For those who were slaves of the Lakedaimonians, not by birth, but because they were the first conquered among those living in the city Helos, were helots, as Hellanikos in book one and many others attest. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e7  Eisaggelia (impeachment): is a name of a public suit, and there are three types of impeachments. One is for public wrongs that are very great and do not admit delay, and for which no magistrate is established (as having jurisdiction) nor laws in effect for the magistrates according to which to introduce (the suit), but rather the initial presentation takes place before the council or the people, under who also great penalties are laid upon the defendant, if he is convicted, but the prosecutor, if he does not convict, is penalized nothing, except if he does not capture the fifth part of the votes; for then he pays 1000 drachmas. But long ago, these men too used to receive greater punishment. Another impeachment is mentioned applying to abuses. These are (brought) before the archon, and without risk of penalty against the prosecutor, even if he does not capture the fifth of the votes. And there is another impeachment against the arbitrators. For if someone should be wronged by an arbitrator, it was possible (for him) to impeach this man before the jurors, and if convicted he used to be disfranchised. Isaios, however, (in) On The Estate of Hagnias, called the same action 'eisaggelia' and 'graphe.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e8  Eis emphanon katastasin (for production of things in the open): It is a name of a suit for the purpose of disputed things being out in the open: Isaios in On the Estate of Philoktemon. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says that this suit is brought before the archon, and that on holding the preliminary examination he introduces it to the jury court. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e9  Eis hen elthen (he came to one): for 'he agreed.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e10  Eisepodizon (I/they entered by foot): for 'I/they entered the low parts of the place:' Isaios in Against the Orgeones. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e11  Eis eo (at dawn): for 'at the start of the day:' Isaios in On the Estate of Kiron. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e12  Eisfresein (to let in): for 'to lead in,' 'to admit:' Antiphon and Demosthenes in the eighth Philippic. And the word appears often in Old Comedy. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e13  Ekalistroun (they were calling): Demosthenes in Against Euergos and Mnesiboulos, if it is genuine. It is Ionic and could perhaps be Deinarchos'. For he too uses foreign words. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e14  Hekates nesos (Hekate's island): Lykourgos, Against Meneaichmos. Before Delos lies a little island, which is called Psammetiche by some, as Phanodemos in the first book. Semos, in book one of Deliaka, says that it was called Psammetiche owing to the fact that the goddess was honored with psammeta. Psammeta are a kind of cake. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e15  Hekatombaion: name of a month. Hypereides. Ammonios at any rate says that it has been called so after the fact that very many hekatombs are sacrificed in this month. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e16  Hekatomnos: proper name. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e17  Hekatompedon (hundred footer): Lykourgos in the speech entitled, 'Defense of his Career in Politics.' The Parthenon used to be called Hekatompedos by some, owing to its beauty and fine proportions, not owing to its size, as Menekles or Kallikrates (says) in On Athens. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e18  Ekdeia (deficit): Hypereides in Against Pasikles: 'If there is any deficit,' that is to say, if anyone fell short of the money previously held. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e19  Ekdexamenos (having taken over): Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon: 'having taken over and written.' Having received something from another, to attempt the second part oneself is 'to take over.' One must consider how what is said by the orator in the fifth Phillippic stands: 'and the notion that we are taking over (some) of the things done by them (fem.).' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e20  Ekdikasasthai: To render liable to appeal by bringing a suit: Isaios in Against Kallikrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e21  Ekdosis (giving): The maritime loan, as if an 'outside' (exo) loan: Against Aphobos (I). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e22  Ekkleteuein (to summon a witness): To bring to a trial so that one may testify under compulsion: Aischines in the defense On the Embassy. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e23  Eklogeis (collectors): Those who collect and exact things owed to the treasury. Antiphon in On the Samothracians' Tribute: 'For among us they were chosen as collectors who seemed to have the most money.' Lysias in Against Aresandros: 'But now we declare all of the tribute to the collectors.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e24  Eklozete (you were hooting): Demosthenes, Against Meidias. They used to call the sound that is made in mouths, which they used to use at the ejection of performances which they were not pleased to hear, a 'klosmon' (hooting). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e25  Ekmartyria (testimony given out of court): Differs from testimony, because while testimony is from those who are present, ekmartyria is from those who are absent. Demosthenes in Against Stephanos and Deinarchos in For Aischines against Deinias instruct most clearly on these things. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e26  Ek periousias (from a position of abundant resources): Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon: 'but he charges me from a position of abundant resources.' Better to understand thus, namely that 'I run risk concerning the utmost matters, while he charges me from great advantage,' not about money, as some think. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e27  Ekplintheusas (having removed bricks): for 'having broken up and removed the bricks.' Isaios in Against Diokles. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e28  Ekpolemosai (to make hostile): Demosthenes in the Philippics, for 'bring to war,' as also many times in Thucydides. In the Attic authors, however, it is written with eta, as for example in Xenophon, in book six of the Hellenika. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e29  Ek proagoges (by compulsion): For 'under compulsion' and 'not by nature' and 'not simply.' The metaphor (is) from those who are not seated, but are compelled in advance by summonses in chains. Demosthenes, Against Aristokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e30  To expel (by leaves): if any of the councillors seemed to do wrong, the Council used to take a vote regarding him as to whether he must no longer serve as a councillor. Instead of pebbles they used to use leaves, through which each individual indicated his opinion. Deinarchos in Against Polyeuktos after having been expelled. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e31  Elaious: A city of the Thracian Chersonese. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e32  Elateia: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. It was a very great city among those in Phokis. From the same orator again in the seventh of the Philippics, if it is genuine, is the following: '(the) three cities in Kassopia: Pandosia, Boucheta, and Elateia.' One must mention that among some it has been better written with the rho, Elatreia. Theopompos at any rate in book 43 says that four cities belong to the Kassiopaians, but not three, as Demosthenes (says): Elatreia and Pandosia and Bitia and Boucheta. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e33  Elaphrotatous (lightest): Also in praise the ancients say this word, for 'very mild,' the opposite of 'very heavy' and 'very burdensome.' Isokrates in Panathenaikos: 'presenting themselves as as easygoing and moderate as possible toward those who are with them.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e34  Eleokopon: Lysias in Against Demosthenes concerning guardianship: 'living five months with the eleokopoi.' The orator could be calling those who cut down the marshes 'eleokopoi,' the epsilon having been inserted, like 'marsh-bred (heleothrepton) celery' in Homer. But perhaps the word has come from 'table' (eleon), which is a wooden object. Aristophanes in Knights: 'If he should pull me down in addition the table.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e35  Eleutherios Zeus: Hypereides: 'for Zeus, gentlemen of the jury, has gotten the nickname of being called 'freer' on account of the fact that the exeleutheroi built the stoa that is near him.' But Didymos says that the orator is wrong, for he was called 'eleutherios' on account of the fact that the Athenians escaped from the Medes. And that 'Soter' has been inscribed but that he is called also 'Eleutherios' Menander also shows. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e36  Eleusinia: Hypereides in For Kallippos. To the victors at the Eleusinia a prize used to be given. The city was named Eleusis after Eleusinos, son of Hermes. But others say that there were other reasons (for the name) and that the Eleusinia is just a festival. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e37  Elikteres: a type of earrings: Lysias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e38  Elixos: one of the prominent men among the Megarians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e39  Hellanodikai: Hypereides in For Kallippos Against the Eleans. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Eleans, says that first the Eleans appointed one Hellanodikes, but, after time had passed, two, and finally nine. But Aristodemos the Hellanodikai who finally held the games were ten, one from each tribe. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e40  Hellenotamiai: Andokides in On the Peace, if it is genuine. That the Hellenotamiai were an office who used to handle money, Aristotle also shows in the Constitution of the Athenians. And Thucydides also mentioned them in book 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e41  Embeblemena (having been grafted): for 'grafted on:' Demosthenes in Against Nikostratos. And Aristotle too says that such are grafted pears. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e42  Embios (alive): Antiphon, On the Truth book one: 'and the decay of the wood should become alive,' for 'in a state of living,' that is, 'it should live and should not be withered and die.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e43  Embrachy: for 'simply' and 'in sum:' Antiphon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e44  Emmenoi dikai (monthly suits): the mercantile and eranos-related (suits): Demosthenes and Hypereides. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e45  Empodon (in the way): Antiphon in On the Revolution: 'and you punished those who were in your way' for 'those who happened υpon (you),' as also Andokides in Against Alkibiades. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e46  Empousa: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. They say that this is an apparition of Hekate, which appears to the ill-fated [Keaney: ὃ τοῖς δυστυχούσιν]. Comedy is full of the word. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e47  Henai archai (former magistrates): Those that have gone by: Demosthenes Against Aristogeiton . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e48  Endeixis: a type of public suit under which they used to accuse those who in accordance with the laws were barred from certain places or acts, if they did not keep themselves from them. There are many speeches of endeixis, and those Against Aristogeiton, by Demosthenes are most famous. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e49  Endekazontas [On-the-tenth-ers]: instead of 'eneortazontas' [people celebrating a festival], when they hold the festival on the tenth of the month, Demosthenes in the Against Theokrines. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e50  En Diomeiois Herakleion (Herakleion in Diomeia): Hypereides, Against Konon. The comic poets too mention the festival held for Herakles in Diomeia. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e51  Enepiskemma kai enepiskepsasthai (a claim lodged against seized property and to lodge a claim against seized property): Demosthenes in Against Timotheus. Whenever a person's property was confiscated, it was possible for him who claimed to have been a creditor of this man to come forward and say that a debt was owed to him against the property. And there is a speech titled 'by Demosthenes, Against Kritias concerning the claim lodged against seized property,' which Kallimachos records as genuine and Dionysios of Hallkarnassos as falsely attributed. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e52  Eneskeuasmenen (having been readied): Isaios in Against Aristogeiton and Archippos for 'having been prepared' and 'having been formed.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e53  Enetimato (was valued among): Demosthenes in Against Spoudias. 'Apetimato' (had valued / received as security) differs from 'enetimato.' For whenever one receives an evaluation, in an amount of money, in reference to something it is called 'apotimasthai' (to have something evaluated). But whenever one reckons some part of the money among certain types (of assets), it is said that 'he has valued it among ('enetimesato').' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e54  Hene kai nea (old and new): Hypereides in Against Hygiainon. What is called by us the 'thirtieth' (day) Athenians call 'old and new,' from the fact that it encompasses the last (day) of the previous month and the first of the subsequent one. Polemon says that at one point Athenians called it 'Demetrias' in honor of Demetrios the

§ e55  Enthrypta (crumbles): Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. Didymos the grammatikos in his commentary on the speech, when he says that 'crumbles' has a meaning that is transparent and intelligible from its very sound, posits a kind of overwrought explanation without parallel. The (crumbs) from pastries are 'crumbles,' or foods that are crumbled into liquids. But some associate them with initiates. And also Apollo, among Athenians, (is called) Enthryptos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e56  En Limnais Dionysion (Dionysion in Limnai): Isaios, On the Estate of Kiron. Limnai is a place in Athens in which the honorand is Dionysos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e57  Enneakrounon: [Lysias] Isokrates in On the Antidosis. A spring in Athens. It used to be called Kallirhoe. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e58  Ennea hodoi (Nine Roads): Aeschines in the defense On the Embassy. A place in Thrace around Amphipolis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e59  En parabustoi (in a corner): for 'secretly' and 'not openly:' Hypereides in Against Archestratides. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e60  Ensemainomenos (signalling): for 'showing' and 'exhibiting,' Isokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e61  En Phreatto: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates has gone over the lawcourt in Phreatto with precision, saying thus, 'Note, then yet another fifth lawcourt, which he has passed over, the one 'in Phreatto.' For there, men of Athens, the law bids one undergo suits if one, after having gone into exile for involuntary homicide, and with those who cast him out not yet having been reconciled, is accused of another, willing homicide.' And after a bit he says, 'He led those hearing the case to a place to which it was possible for that man to approach, having appointed a place in the territory called 'in Phreatto,' by the sea. Next the one speaks, having sailed toward (shore) on a boat — not touching land — and the others listen and judge on land. And if he is convicted, he pays the rightful penalty for the willing homicides, but if he is acquitted he is released without penalty from that charge, but still endures the exile for the other homicide.' The lawcourt appears to have been named after a certain hero Phreattos, as Theophrastos says in book ten of the Laws. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e62  Exagistos: For 'very cursed' and 'quite full of pollution.' Aischines in Against Ktesiphon has used the word applying to a certain harbor. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e63  Exaireseos dike (action for removal): Whenever one led away someone on grounds that he was a slave, and then someone removed him on grounds that he was free, it was possible for the one who laid claim to the person on grounds that he was a slave to bring an action for removal against the one who removed him to freedom. Isaios in the removal to freedom For Eumathes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e64  Exarasasthai (to consecrate): Aischines, Against Ktesiphon: 'because (Athens) dedicated golden shields at the new temple before consecrating it.' To complete the vows, that is the prayers that they were accustomed to make at the foundation of temples, is 'to consecrate.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e65  Exeggyesis (giving of bail): To free someone through presentation of sureties: Demosthenes in Against Timokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e66  Exenize (he was/spoke like a foreigner): Demosthenes in the appeal Against Euboulides: 'For they have slandered my father, (saying) that he spoke like a foreigner.' Perhaps for 'he was a foreigner,' and not, as Didymos says, for 'he did not speak Attic, but foreign.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e67  Exepremnizon (for they were digging out the stumps): for 'they felled the stumps,' that is the trunks down to the roots, Demosthenes in On the Estate of Hagnias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e68  Exetazesthai (to be examined): for 'to be observed:' Demosthenes, Against Stephanos. Also in Against Androtion he says 'you were examined' for 'you were seen,' 'you were observed.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e69  Exegetes (expounder): Isaios in On the Estate of Kiron. He who expounds the sacred matters. There are also rites performed over the departed, which they used to expound for those who needed it. Also Demosthenes, in Against Euergos and Mnesiboulos, is clear, naming the expounders in the plural many times. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e70  Exekestos: Proper name: Demosthenes Against Aristokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e71  Exorchesamenos: For 'having fled' and 'run away:' Demosthenes in Against Androtion said this while joking about the procession of the Dionysia. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e72  Exoules (for ejectment): Name of a lawsuit which those claiming that they are being barred from their own property bring against those who are barring them. The word then is said after 'exillein,' which is to thrust out and cast out. They also bring a suit for ejectment, in addition also to the fines, who do not receive back (their property) within the apropriate time limit, once the terms set by the judgment become overdue. Those convicted in a case for ejectment gave to the winner what they were depriving him of and paid the assessed (sum) to the treasury. Also bringing a suit for ejectment was the creditor, when he attempts to seize property from someone who is in debt to him and is prevented by someone. And if someone should be barred from cultivation, the law permits him to bring a suit for ejectment against the one who bars. And also concerning a slave and anything that one says he has a share in. Isaios illustrates this clearly, as does Lysias in Against Stratokles for ejectment. Deinarchos, however, in the diadikasia of the Krokonidai has used the word ejectment in a particular sense pertaining to the priestess who was unwilling to do her own duties. That the word is applied to anyone who is cast out of his own things, and not, as Kaikilios thinks, only to those who owe as a result of a judgment against them, Phrynichos also makes clear in the Poastriai. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e73  Exomosia: to refuse a certain action with an oath, owing to illness or some other excuse, as Demosthenes makes clear in On the Embassy. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e74  Epaggelia: It denotes other things as well, but it is said in a particular sense applying to those who accuse someone of addressing the assembly or taking part in government, though it is not permitted, and it is like a summons (paraggelia): Aischines, Against Timarchos. 'Epaggelesthai' is said among them also for 'to order' or 'to demand,' as in Antiphon in On the Lindians' Tribute and in Demosthenes in On the Embassy. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e75  Epaktos horkos (imposed oath): (An oath) that a person himself willingly imposes on himself, that is chooses. But others, by contrast, (say that it is) one that is imposed from elsewhere, but not chosen voluntarily. Lysias in Against Chairestratos and Isokrates the Apolloniate in the exhortations To Demonikos. There are three types of oath: an oath of abjuration, an oath of affirmation, and the so-called imposed oath. But this one is not simple: for it is necessary that the one being made to swear repeat with the same words the oath that is proposed by the one making him swear. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e76  Epaktrokeles: Aischines in Against Timarchos. It is a type of ship possessing a hybrid construction, from a light vessel (epaktris) and a swift boat (keles). On the whole it was a pirate ship, as also Deinarchos (shows) in the dokimasia Against Polyeuktos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e77  Epallaxeis (interweavings): For 'interchanges' or 'minglings:' Antiphon, On Truth book one. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e78  Epanaphora (reference): Reference and communication to the people. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e79  Epairomenos (lifting up): for 'stretching out and holding up,' Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. But in Against Aphobos he says, with another another meaning, 'either by desire for profits because they are induced by poverty.' [Aristophanes in the Clouds: 'Would that the matchmaker perish miserably, who urged me to marry your mother.'] . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e80  Epedikase kai epedikasanto (he adjudicated a claim to property and they went to law over a property claim): Demosthenes in Against Olympiodoros. 'Epidikasen' is as it were 'he adjudicated,' and 'epedikasanto' is as it were 'they persuaded the jurors to assign the estate to themselves.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e81  Epenegkein dory epi tei ekphorai kai prosagoreuein epi toi mnemati (to bring a spear at the carrying out of corpse and to speak at the tomb): Demosthenes, Against Euergos and Mnesiboulos, says these (words) applying to one who died violently. Istros in the compilation of Atthides, speaking about Prokris and Kephalos, writes this: 'But some say that Erechtheus has been depicted having planted a spear on the tomb, both seated beside it and denoting his suffering, on account of the fact that it was customary for relatives to go after murderers in this manner.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e82  Epeskepsato (he denounced): for 'he brought a charge for false witness.' It is said sometimes, rarely, also for accusing someone of homicide, as Antiphon (says) in On the Revolution. Isaios has used the active 'epeskepsen' (he imposed) for 'he commanded' in the removal to freedom For Eumathes. But Andokides in On the Mysteries and Lysias in for Ktesiarchos have said 'I lay it upon' for 'I speak with an appeal to the gods' and, as it were, 'I conjure.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e83  Epibates (marine): Demosthenes in On the Extended Trierarchy. So they used to call those of the soldiers serving on triremes who did not row, but were ready only for fighting. Aristophanes in his Babylonians: 'Well indeed did the marine plunge into the sea to retrieve a stern cable.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e84  Epibletas (bars): Lysias in Against Mikinos for homicide, if it is genuine. An epibles is, as Timachidas says, a beam, but as Kleitarchos the writer on languages says, a certain kind of beam. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e85  Epiboion: Lykourgos in On the Priestess. And Philochoros in book two says thus: 'If someone sacrifices to Athena an ox, then it is necessary also to sacrifice to Pandora a sheep, and the sacrifice is called 'epiboion' (in addition to the ox). Likewise also Staphylos in the first book of On Athens. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e86  Epibole (that which is laid on): The penalty. The word is common among them, as for example in Lysias, Against Nikomachos, if the speech is genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e87  Epignomonas (aribiters): for 'inspectors' in Lysias, On the Sekos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e88  Epigrapheas (registrars): Those appointed to register how much people ought to contribute (in eisphora) to the treasury: Lysias in On the Eisphora. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e89  Epiguion (stern cable): Lysias in Against Andokides for departure (apostasiou), if it is genuine. They used to call the stern cables 'epiguia.' The poets of old comedy also have used the word. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e90  Epidekaton: The tenth, Isaios in Against Elpagoras. They were accustomed also to call the fifth 'epipempton' (one fifth), as for example Eupolis in Autolykos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e91  Epi Delphinioi: A lawcourt at Athens is so called. Those who admit that they have killed but say that they have done this lawfully, are tried there, as Demosthenes shows in Against Aristokrates, and Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e92  Epidiatithesthai (to deposit as security): Lysias in the peroration of the guardianship case Against Theopeithes. To make certain agreements, depositing a stated sum of money with one of those who are between (i.e. a third party), who pledges to each party on condition that if the transaction should take place he give the agreed sum of money to the other in full, it 'to deposit as security.' The act itself is also called 'epidiatheke,' as the same orator shows in For Nesokles. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e93  Epi Delioi mache (battle at Delion): Lykourgos in Against Lysikles. Delion is a place in Boiotia. There Athenians were beaten in battle by Boiotians, as Thucydides says in book four. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e94  Epidietes hebesai (to be two years past puberty): Demosthenes in Against Stephanos. Didymos says (that this is) for 'if they are 16 years old.' For puberty lasts till 14. But the ephebes, among Athenians, become so at 18 years old, and they remain among the ephebes for 2 years, and then are registered in the lexiarchic record, according as Hypereides says, in Against Chares over guardianship: 'When I was registered and the law granted the recovery of the things left to my mother, (the law) which bids that sons be masters of the epikleros and all the property, when they are two years past puberty.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e95  Epidikos kai epikleros kai epiproikos kai epikleritis: She who is left an orphan over the entire estate, inasmuch as she has no brother, is an 'epikleros' (and an 'epikleritis' is the same). But she (who is left an orphan) over a part of the estate, so that she has a dowry, inasmuch as she does have brothers, is an 'epiproikos.' And the 'epikleros' who is contested regarding to whom she must be married is an 'epidikos.' These things Isaios shows in Against Satyros on behalf of an 'epikleros,' as does Deinarchos in the speech titled Affidavit in Protest Concerning the Daughter of Aristophon's Not Being an Epidikos. And in this speech he shows also that the closest family relatives married off daughters who lacked resources, by contributing 5 minas. Isaios in Against Lysibios has called the 'epikleros' an 'epikleritis.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e96  Epi Thrasylloi (at Thrasyllos): Demosthenes in the counter-suit Against Pantainetos says, 'the (mine) at Thrasyllos.' An Attic habit for 'at the monument/tomb of Thrasyllos.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e97  Epithetous heortas (additional festivals): Isokrates in the Areopagitikos. They used to call (festivals) that were not ancestral but had been otherwise decreed in addition, 'additional.' Other things too used to be said among them to be additional, (for example) as many non-ancestral matters as the council of the Areopagos exercised jurisdiction over, as Lysias makes clear in Against the Public Suit of Mixidemos. Lysias calls certain (letters) 'additional letters' in Against Thrasyboulos, and he would mean those that were given to people to convey, for it was customary to say 'he added a letter' for 'he handed over (a letter),' as Demosthenes (says) in For Chrysippos against the counter-suit of Phormio. And Kratinos in Trophonios... GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e98  Epikekerychenai (to have proclaimed): Demosthenes in On the Embassy. Whenever a city or magistrate wanted someone who among those who were not under their power to be killed it/he used to announce that it/he would give so and so much money if someone should kill (him), just as the Greeks proclaimed, against Xerxes, that, if someone should bring him to Athens, alive or dead, they would give him 100 talents. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e99  Epikerycheia: The sending of heralds for friendship and reconciliation. Demosthenes, in the fifth of the Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e100  Epi korres (on the temple/jaw): Demosthenes in Against Meidias. Different people interpreted it differently, but it is better to understand that 'on the jaw' is called 'epi korres,' what we call in daily life a 'slap.' Hypereides at any rate or Philinos in Against Dorotheos, first saying that the man who slapped Hipponikos 'epi korres' was charged for hybris, in the words that follow as it were explains the word by saying, 'Next, Hipponikos was only slapped by Autokles on the jaw, but I was dragged by these men by my hair (and) got knuckles (i.e. took a beating).' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e101  Epikrates: Isaios in On the Speeches Made in Macedonia. This is the Athenian demagogue who is nicknamed 'Beard-carrier,' whom Demosthenes also mentions in On the Embassy. There is another Epikrates whom Lykourgos mentions in On the Financial Administration, saying that a bronze (statue) was set up on account of his law concerning the ephebes, whom they say owned property worth 600 talents. There is another Epikrates, a brother in law of the orator Aischines, as is shown by him in his defense On the Embassy. This one, moreover, used to have the eponym Kyrebion, as Demosthenes says in Against Aischines. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e102  Epilachon (drawing the secondary lot): Aischines, Against Ktesiphon: 'neither drawing the lot nor drawing the secondary lot, but purchasing by scheme.' The circumstance seems to be such. Those aiming to serve in the council or to hold office used to be selected by lot, and then for each of those obtaining the lot another man drew a secondary lot, so that if the one first allotted was rejected on scrutiny or died, the one drawing the secondary lot after him became the councillor in his place. This is also indicated in Plato's Hyperbolos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e103  Epimeletes ton mysterion (supervisor of the mysteries): among Athenians the so-called 'king:' Demosthenes, Against Meidias. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says thus: 'The king supervises the mysteries first, with the supervisors, whom the people elects, two from all of the Athenians, and one from the Eumolpidai, and one from the Kerykes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e104  Epimeletes emporiou (supervisor of the emporion): Deinarchos in Against Pytheas. Aristotle: 'They allot ten supervisors of the emporion, and to them it was appointed to supervise the merchants, and to compel the merchants to convey to the city two thirds of the grain that is shipped to the Attic emporion' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e105  Epimenia (monthlies): Lycurgus in the speech On the Priestess. Either the things sacrificed each month, or the sacrifices for the entire month made at once at some point seem to be monthlies. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e106  Epiorkesanta: Lysias, Against Theomnestos, explained that 'epiorkesanta' is 'having sworn.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e107  Epi Palladioi: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. There is a court so called, as also Aristotle (says) in the Constitution of the Athenians, in which the ephetai judge cases of unwilling homicide, and deliberation. The court got the title of the 'Palladion' and the jurors of the 'ephetai' from this: After Agamemnon, along with the Argives, was brought to Athens from Ilion with the Palladion, Demophon steals the Palladion and slays many of those giving chase. Being upset, Agamemnon, demands satisfaction from the one who stole and convenes the court before 50 Athenians and 50 Argives, whom they called 'ephetai' on account of the fact that the matter of the judgment was entrusted (ephethenai) to them by both sides. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e108  Epipempton (one fifth): Lysias on Against Kritodemos and Plato for a simple fifth. Aristophanes, in Daitaleis: 'Let him definitely not get the fifth! Let him weep!' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e109  Epiplon: Isaios in Against Diokles. They call the equipment in one's home 'epipla,' (that is) the property that is as it were manifest (epipolaion) and able to be conveyed. Sophokles in the Athamas. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e110  Epi Prytaneioi: This too is a homicide court, and it judges cases if something inanimate kills someone by falling on him. This is if a rock or piece of wood or iron or some such thing (kills) and one is ignorant of the one who threw it, but knows the thing and has the thing that effected the homicide. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e111  Episemainesthai (to put one's seal to): On the one hand, for 'to praise' and, as we say in ordinary use, 'to proclaim:' Isokrates in Panathenaikos; but on the other hand, for 'to put a seal upon:' Isaios in the defense for Kaludon, on charge of ejectment, Against Hagnotheos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e112  Episitia (provision money): (Money) given for maintenance and for eating. Lysias in Against Demosthenes for guardianship. Sometimes they used to call this 'sition' as well. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e113  Episkopos (overseer): Antiphon in On the Tribute of the Lindians and Against Laispodias. People seem to have been sent by the Athenians to the subject cities, overseeing affairs in each. Theophrastos, at any rate, in book one of Politika pros kairous says thus: 'for it is much finer, according, at least, to the word's application, (to use it) as the Laconians do, when they claim to send harmosts to the cities, not overseers and not guards, as the Athenians.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e114  Epistates (chairman): Isaios in Against Elpagoras and Demophanes. Those appointed chairmen were two, one chosen by lot from the prytaneis, the other from the proedroi; what administrative duties each of whom administered, Aristotle shows in the Athenian Constitution. And in general use he who was in charge (ephestekos) of any matter at all also used to be called (epistates), as Hyperides in Against Demosthenes and Aeschines in Against Ktesiphon make apparent. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e115  Epistathmos: Isokrates in the Panegyrikos: Hekatomnos was epistathmos of

§ e116  Epiteleoun kai epiteleoma (to sacrifice in full and an additional/completing sacrifice): Both of these words appear often in Lykourgos' On the Priestess, and that which is sacrificed on top of everything for the sake of the previous sacrifices being complete (epiteleis) seems to be called an 'epiteleoma.' The orator himself at any rate says in the speech, 'Moreover, he said that these were sacrificed last of all and were epiteleomata of the other sacrifices.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e117  Epitimetas (appraisers): Those who first evaluate something used to be called 'timetai,' and those who value the same things in subsequent years 'epitimetai:' Lysias in Against Diogenes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e118  Epiteichisma (fort): the place that is walled against some people, setting out from which those who made the wall will be able to do harm to those against whom the walls were made. Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. And they call the act 'epiteichismon', just as appears in the same speech. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e119  Epitrepein (to entrust): Demosthenes in Against Aphobos 1 began thus: 'If Aphobos, gentlemen of the jury, were willing to act justly concerning the matter over which we are in dispute and to entrust it to friends,' for 'to chose them as arbitrators;' whence also the play of Menander, Epitrepontes. But Lysias, in Against the Guardians of Boon's Children said, 'he entrusted to men' for 'he appointed guardians.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e120  Epitritais: Isaios in Against Kalliphon: '600 drachmas at one third' for 'at 8 obols,' according to the fact that 8 obols are a third part of a tetradrachm. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e121  Epichares: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. A proper name, a Sikyonian traitor. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e122  Epicheirotonia (vote by show of hands): The appointment of the elected magistrates: Hypereides in For Simon against Pytheas and Lykourgos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e123  Epipsephizon: Instead of 'epikyron' [ratify]. Demosthenes in the Against Androtion. It is a frequent word among the Attic writers in this meaning — cf. Xenophon in book 1 of the Memorabilia. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e124  Epogdoon (one-eighth): Demosthenes in Against Pythokles concerning the extended trierarchy. The sum lent so that the eighth part of the principal was given to the lender (in interest), would be 'at one-eighth' (epogodoon), as in a triobol on the tetradrachm. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e125  Epobelia (fine of one sixth): Demosthenes in Against Stephanos. The epobelia is a fine, the sixth part of the valuation, which prosecutors used to give to defendants if they did not convict. It was called thus because it was an obol for each drachma, which is exactly a sixth, since the drachma is calculated at 6 obols. It is possible to learn from many (sources) that this is so. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e126  Eponia (sales tax): it is a tax given in addition to the purchase, and perhaps the fifth would be it: Isaios in Against Elpagoras and Demophanes, and in the antomosia Against Tlepolemos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e127  Eponymoi: Demosthenes in the Against Timokrates. There are two groups of Eponymoi: the first, ten in number, after which the tribes are named, the other, 42 in number, after which the age groups of citizens for each year from 18 to 60 are named. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e128  Epopteukoton (having become epoptai): Hypereides in For Phryne. Those who have been initiated at Eleusis in the second initiation are said to become epoptai (beholders), as is clear from the speech of Demosthenes and from the tenth book of Philochoros. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e129  Eranizontes (collecting an eranos loan/contribution): Demosthenes in the letter Concerning Lykourgos' Sons said 'eranisas' (having raised an eranos) for 'having sought an eranos.' And in the speech on the name he says, 'But what if, expecting to be convicted for false testimony for 'contributions' that he offers to those around him [...]?' He returns the good gesture by rendering the same assistance to them that they too one furnished when they testified falsely on his behalf. An eranistes, moreover, is properly he who has a share of the eranos and contributes the contribution that he was required to pay each month. The word is in Lysias, Against Aristokrates concerning a surety for an eranos, if it is genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e130  Erga neon (deeds belong to the young): Hypereides in Against Autokles says that this is also attributed to Hesiod. It is a proverb, which also Aristophanes the grammatikos recorded as running like this: 'Deeds belong to the young, counsels to the middle aged, and prayers to the old.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e131  Ergiske: Aischines, Against Ktesiphon. Ergiske too is in Thrace, and was named after Ergiskos, the son of Poseidon and Aba, a nymph. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e132  Ergokles: Athenian general [strategos] . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e133  Ergophilos: he is also an Athenian general [strategos] . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e134  Herkeios Zeus: Deinarchos in Against Moschion, 'whether he has phrateres and altars of Zeus Herkeios and Apollo Patroios.' Zeus Herkeios, to whom an altar is established inside the outer wall in the courtyard. For they used to call the outer wall a 'herkos.' That they had a share in the citizenship whoever had a Zeus Herkeios Hypereides also has shown in For a Naturalized Citizen, if it is genuine, and Demetrios in On Lawmaking at Athens. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e135  Herma: an underwater rock. Antiphon in the Defence Against the Indictment of Kallias. The name also occurs in Anakreon and in Aristophanes' Gerytade. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e136  Hermai (Herms): Aischines on Against Ktesiphon and Hypereides in On The Honors for Euboulos. Menekles or Kallikrates in On Athens writes this: 'After the Stoa Poikile and the Royal Stoa are the so-called Herms. It (i.e. the place) happens to have acquired this name owing to the fact that many (Herms) have been set up there both by private individuals and by magistrates. On one of them has been inscribed in archaic letters, 'For his benefaction the Achaians bound Agamemnon.' But that a certain stoa was also called 'of the Herms' Antiphon has shown in Against Nikokles. And that some used to be called 'Hipparcheian Herms' after Hipparchos son of Peisistratos has been said both in old comedy and by Plato, in the Hipparchos.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e137  Hermos: It is a deme of Attica of the tribe Akamantis, as Diodoros says in On the Demes. Dionysios the son of Tryphon in On Names says that the name of the deme Hermos appears to be neuter, like 'herkos' (hedge). Zopyros says in On Rivers that (a river) Hermos is in Attica and that the deme is homonymous with it. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e138  Hermes ho pros tei pylidi (Hermes by the gate): Demosthenes in Against Euergos and Mnesiboulos. Philochoros in book five of Atthis says that the nine archons dedicated (a statue of) Hermes to the tribes beside the Attic gate. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e139  Hermias: proper name, the thrice-sold eunuch. He was friendly with Aristotle and gave his adopted daughter to the philosopher. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e140  Eroidai: Eroidai is a deme of the tribe Hippothontis, as Diodoros says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e141  Erythraioi: Demosthenes in Phillipic 8. Erythrai is a city in Ionia, one of those founded by Neleus son of Kodros, as Hellanikos says in Atthis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e142  Erchiathen: Deinarchos, Against Stephanos. Erchia is a deme of the tribe Aigeis, as Diodoros says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e143  Espathato (was struck by a spathe): Demosthenes in Against Aischines. Didymos says that it is for 'was destroyed,' from the spathe (blade) and a spathe is a sword. But perhaps the metaphor is from weavers. For they use a spathe. Also Aristophanes in the Clouds: 'Woman, you are really striking the woof!' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e144  Hestiator (banquet host): the person who provides a banquet to people. Demosthenes in the Reply to Boiotos. They provided food to the tribes, both voluntarily and by lot, as the same orator makes clear in the Against Meidios. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e145  Eschara (hearth): Lykourgos in On the Priestess. Ammonios in On Altars says that the hearth that has no height, but is a hollow established in the ground, is called an 'eschara,' by analogy to which also doctors call hollow ulcers in bodies 'escharai.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e146  Eschatia (farthest part): Demosthenes in Against Phainippos. They used to call the areas at the boundaries of the territory 'eschatia', which either mountain or sea borders. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e147  Hetaireia: Andokides has applied the word in a special sense to unchastity, in the defense On the Mysteries. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e148  Eteoboutadai: Lykourgos in On the Priestess. A clan among Athenians, as it were, those truly from Boutes. For 'true' is 'eteon.' From these the priestess of Athenian Polias is appointed, as Drakon says in On Clans. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e149  Heterophthalmos (one-eyed): The one who set down laws in Lokroi: Demosthenes in Against Timokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e150  Euagoras: a proper name, to whom Isokrates' Enkomion (was written). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e151  Euaion: Demosthenes, Against Meidias. A proper name. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e152  Euandria: Deinarchos in Against Agasikles. At the Panathenaia there used to be held a contest in physical fitness. Both Andokides, in Against Alkibiades, and Philochoros shows (this). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e153  Euboulos: There is a speech by Hypereides On Euboulos' Gifts, and Demosthenes mentions him in For Ktesiphon. Theopompos says in the tenth book of the Philippics that he was a very prominent demagogue, diligent and industrious, and that having raised a great deal of money he distributed it to the Athenians, wherefore the city happened to become under his administration quite cowardly and careless. The comic poet is a different person, whom Hypereides mentions in Against Archestratides. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e154  Eudikos: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. This man is one of those established by Philip as masters of all of Thessaly. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e155  Euenos: Hypereides in Against Autokles. They record two elegiac poets, Euenos, with the same name as each other, just as Eratosthenes (says) in On Chronographies, saying that both are Parian. But he says that he is acquainted with the younger one alone. But the other of them Plato too has mentioned. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e156  Eueniotata (most well-reined): Antiphon in On Concord. One who is mild and moderate and not causing trouble is 'euenios' (well-reined). The metaphor is from horses. The word appears also in Plato in book 9 of the Laws. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e157  Euthias: Hypereides, For Phryne. Euthias was one of those attacked for sycophancy. The speech by him against Phryne, however, Hermippos says Anaximenes wrote. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e158  Euthynoi (examiners): Lysias in Against Nikidas, if it is genuine. Euthynoi is a name for a magistracy among Athenians. They were ten men in number, before whom those who had served as ambassadors or held office or administered any public resources used to render their accounts. Aristotle has discussed them in the Constitution of the Athenians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e159  Euthyoron (in a straight line): Ιn a straight line: Antiphon in Against Nikokles. The word (appears) also in Xenophon in book two of the Anabasis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e160  Eumenides: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Aischylos in the Eumenides, speaking about the trial of Orestes, says that Athena, having soothed the Erinyes so that they were not harsh toward Orestes, named them 'Eumenides.' They are Alekto, Megaira, and Tisiphone. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e161  Euneidai: Lysias in Against Telamon, if it is genuine. There is a clan among the Athenians so called, 'Euneidai.' They were kithara players, rendering service at rituals. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e162  Euxitheos: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon says that the Eleans were betrayed by this man. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e163  Euoi saboi: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. The euoi is a Bacchic refrain. But Arignote says that some said 'euoi' for 'eu soi' (well for you!), in praising the discovery of the mirror. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e164  Euophthalmos (pleasing to the eye): For 'decently:' Antiphon in On Peacocks. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e165  Eurybaton: Aischines, Against Ktesiphon. Ephoros in the eighth book says that an Ephesian man Eurybatos, having received money from Kroisos in order to assemble an army for the war against the Persians, but having then become a traitor, handed over to Kyros the money that had been given (to him) and that henceforth wicked men are called 'Eurybatoi.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e166  Eurymedon: Lykourgos in Against Leokrates. This is a river in Pamphylia, where the Athenian general, Kimon, defeated the Persians both on land and sea, as Thucydides (recounts) in Book 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e167  Eurysakeion: Hypeirides in Against Aristogeiton. There is a sanctuary of Eurysakes, son of Ajax, in Athens so named, in Melite. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e168  Eusymbolos (readily contributing): for 'contributing easily and well,' that is, good at contributing, Antiphon in the Politikos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e169  Euphraios: Demosthenes in Philippic 9. He was an Orite by descent, and he also took part in Plato's school. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e170  Euonymeis: Lysias in Against Philokrates. It is a deme of the tribe Erechtheis, as Diodoros says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e171  Ephesis (appeal): The transfer from one court to another. The same is also called 'ekkletos' (subject to appeal). There is a speech of Demosthenes titled 'appeal Against Euboulides,' and in the speech 'appeal' and the phrase 'to appeal' appear many times. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e172  Ephekto tokos (one-sixth interest): That which is at one sixth of the principal: Demosthenes in For Chrysippos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e173  Ephetai: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Those who judge trials for blood at the Palladion and at the Prytaneion and at the Delphinion and in Phreatto used to be called 'ephetai.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e174  Eph' Hieron (to Hieron): Demosthenes in On the Extended Trierarchy. It is a sanctuary of the twelve gods in the Bosporos, as Timosthenes (says) in On Harbors. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e175  Ephoria: The proclamation that is made over boundaries, as Demosthenes illustrates in Against Aristokrates, and Theophrastos in book three of the Laws. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e176  Ephormein (to lie by and watch): For 'to lie in wait.' This is what they used to call lying at anchor against people, watching for an opportunity to attack. Demosthenes in the Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e177  Echinos: It is a vessel into which documents for law suits used to be deposited. Demothenes in Against Timotheos. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians also mentions this vessel, as does Aristophanes in Danaids. There was also a city Echinos, which Demosthenes mentions in the ninth of the Philippics. There is also a terrestrial creature and a marine bivalve. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ e178  Heolokrasia: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon: 'But this man is at fault, since he splattered me with, as it were, dregs of his own depravity.' And Didymos: 'This man pours on me today the things that he mixed up yesterday and the day before, and says that I did them.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ z1  Zeira etoi seira (zeira or seira): As some (say), it was a garment that they used to put on after their tunics, just like cloaks: Lysias in Against Philip, if it is genuine. Also Xenophon on book seven of the Anabasis, talking about Thracians, says, 'and, on horses, they wear zeiras down to their feet but not mantles.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ z2  Zeuxis: Isokrates, On the Antidosis. Best of the painters at that time. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ z3  Zelotypoun (to be jealous of): Aischines in Against Ktesiphon, for 'to hate.' For to give one's blessing is 'zeloun' (to esteem/admire), while to have come into enmity is 'zelotupoun.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ z4  Zetetes (investigator): A certain magistracy at Athens appointed according to circumstances, if ever it should be necessary to investigate those doing any wrong at the expense of the public. Demosthenes in Against Timokrates and Andokides in On the Endeixis. This orator was at one time also an investigator, as Lysias says, and Isokrates and Plato the comic poet in Ambassadors. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h1  Hegemonia dikasteriou (presidency of a court): Aischines, Against Ktesiphon. Various suits were allotted to various magistrates. And the magistrates, each according to the law of the office, used to introduce the suits brought before them to the court, as presider and foreman. For example, to the Archon went suits of orphans and epikleroi, and to the Archon Basileus went cases of impiety, and to the Polemarch went cases of apostasiou (departure from a manumittor) and aprostasiou (failure to have a prostates), and to the Themosthetes went cases of both xenia (being an alien) and bribery by an alien, and malicious prosecution and bribery and false registration and hybris and seduction and conspiracy and other suits. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h2  Hegemon symmorias (leader of a symmory): Demosthenes in Against Ktesiphon. He who was foremost in wealth and owing to this was selected to lead the others used to be called 'leader of a symmory,' as Hypereides indicates in Against Polyeuktos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h3  Hegemon: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. He was one of those taking the Macedonian side and attacked for taking bribes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h4  Hegesippos: Demosthenes in the Phillipic. This is the one nicknamed 'Krobylos,' to whom the seventh Philippic of Demosthenes seems to be attributed. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h5  Hedyleion: Demosthenes in Against Aischines. Hedyleion is a mountain in Boeotia, as Theopompos also says in book 25. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h6  Or tearing down in the road: for 'catching one who is lying in ambush,' that is slaying one (who is lying) in an ambush. Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h7  Eetioneia: Antiphon in On the Revolution. The other point of Peiraieus used to be called thus, after the one who acquired the land, Eetion, as Philochoros says in the antigraphe Against Demon. Thucydides also mentions Eetioneia in book eight. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h8  Ekroteriasmenoi (having mutilated): Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon: 'each having mutilated his own country' for 'having outraged.' For those who outrage people were accustomed to chop off their extremities, for example Sophokles in Polyxena. Moreover, 'ekroteriasmenoi' appears here for the active 'ekroteriakotes.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h9  Heliaia kai heliasis: The greatest court of those at Athens is the Heliaia, in which public actions over matters used to be tried, 1000 or 1500 jurors convening (for the purpose). The 1000 used to convene from two courts and the 1500 from three. To try a case in the Heliaia is to 'heliazesthai' and 'heliasis.' Lysias in Against Glaukon names the Heliaia many times, and in Against Philonides, if it is genuine, he used 'heliazesthai.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h10  Helikia tes poleos (the city's manhood): for 'those in their prime,' 'the neoi:' Lykourgos, Against Aristogeiton and Demosthenes in the Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h11  Hemiekton kai hemimedimnon (half-hekteus and half-medimnos): Deinarchos in the impeachment Against Kallisthnes. Since the medimnos has 48 choinikes, it is the case that a half-medimnos contains 24 choinikes, and that a half-hekteus contains 4 choinikes, (being) the half of the sixth, which is 8 choinikes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h12  Hemioliasmos: Antiphon in the Politikos, 'doubling and multiplying by one and a half' for 'to give at a rate of one and a half' in calculations. A number that has another whole and the half of itself, such as three compared to two, is 'half again more' (hemiolios). Xenophon at any rate in the Anabasis says that he made the wage half again more, three half-Darics instead of one Daric. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h13  Epeiron (land/mainland/continent): It is Isokrates' custom to call the land that is under the king of the Persians thus, for example in to Philip and Archidamos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h14  Herakleia: Demosthenes in Against Aischines. Though there are many Herakleias (festivals of Herakles) throughout Attica, here Demosthenes would be mentioning either those in Marathon or in Kynosarges. For Athenians used to hold these in especially high regard. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h15  Heraion Teichos: Demosthenes in the Philippics. There is a place so named in Thrace, and it was founded by Samians, as Dionysios says in book 5 of Ktiseis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h16  Eria (mounds): Lykourgos in Against Autolykos. Tombs are 'eria,' as also the orator himself makes clear. But some say that, rather commonly, all tombs are so named, especially those that do not have built structures on top, but whenever the bodies are laid down in the ground; and that they are named from 'era' (earth). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h17  Esmen (we knew): For 'we knew' (eideimen). Antiphon in the defense Against the Endeixis of Kallias: 'Thus we knew neither how how much seamanship was necessary.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h18  Eitemenen (having been begged): for 'having been borrowed:' Demosthenes in Against Euergos, if it is genuine. For that they used to call 'borrowing' 'begging' Menander (shows): 'neither asking for fire nor begging for a dish.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ h19  Hephaistia: Hypereides in On Behalf of Akademos. That there were two cities of Lemnos, Myrina and Hephaistia, Dionysios the

§ h20  Eion: Demosthenes in the Against Aristokrates. Eion is a city in Thrace, a colony of the Mendeans, as Thucydides (says). Theopompos says in book four that the Athenians devastated the area after they threw the Amphipolitans out of Eion. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th1  Thargelia: Hypereides in Against Polyeuktos. The Thargelia is a festival and it is celebrated in the month of Thargelion, which is sacred to Apollo. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th2  Themenos ta hopla (having put arms): for 'having put on' (arms) and 'having armed oneself,' Demosthenes in Against Meidias. Also Homer, 'and he put his helmet on his stout head.' Also Aischines, Against Timarchos, says, 'Man, for the city on whose behalf you do not don arms.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th3  Themisteuein (to declare right / answer by oracle): For 'to deliver oracles:' Lysias in On the Abortion, if it is genuine. That the word has arisen from the fact that Themis once held the oracle, before Apollo, Aischylos says at the start of the Eumenides. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th4  Themison: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. Proper name. He was a tyrant. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th5  Theogeiton: Demosthenes in the same. But some called this man Theogenes, for example Deinarchos in Against Demosthenes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th6  Theognis: Lysias in Against Eratosthenes. He was one of the Thirty Tyrants among the Athenians, as various people say, especially Xenophon in Hellenika book two. Isokrates mentions the poet Theognis in his Advice to Nikokles: this man was a Plato in Laws book one said he was a citizen of the Megara in Sicily. Not a few have followed Plato. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th7  Theoinion: Lykourgos in the diadikasia of the Krokonidai against the Koironidai. The festivals of Dionysos (Dionysia) held in the demes used to be called the Theoinia, in which the gennetai used to sacrifice. For they used to call Dionysos 'theoinos' (wine god), as Aischylos shows, as does Istros in book 1 of the Synagoge. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th8  Theokrines: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon abusing Aischines says 'tragic Theokrines.' He wishes to call him a sycophant, since Theokrines was such, as is clear from Against Theokrines, whether that speech is by Demosthenes or Deinarchos. At any rate he reasonably labeled a man who had once been a tragic actor and later a sycophant 'tragic Theokrines.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th9  Therapnai: Isokrates in Helen. Therapnai is a place in Lakedaimon, which Alkman also mentions in book 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th10  Therman: Aischines in the defense On the Embassy. This is a Thracian town, as also Theopompos says in book 22. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th11  Thermopylai: Isokrates in the Panegyrikos. Some call this city 'Pylai', but Phileas says in his Periodos of the Earth that it was called 'Thermopylai,' since Athena made hot (therma) baths for Herakles there. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th12  Thersandros: Aischines, Against Timarchos. That he was a hardcore pederast Aristogeiton shows in Against Timarchos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th13  Thesthai: For 'to receive security:' Hypereides in Against Hygiainon; but for 'to accept and ratify a law:' Demosthenes. For it is said applying to the laws, that on the one hand the lawgiver 'gave' while on the other the people 'gave themselves' (i.e., enacted, laws): Demosthenes in On the Tax Immunities. In Against Stephanos, however, he says, 'having enacted individual laws for himself,' perhaps for 'having given.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th14  Thesmos (that which is laid down): long ago each one of the laws used to be called a 'thesmos,' and so Demosthenes, in Against Aristokrates, has called the entire form of the constitutuion. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th15  Thesmothetai: Demosthenes in Against Androtion. In Athens there is a magistracy of the thesmothetai, being six in number, and they are part of the so-called nine archons. They are so called because they used to have care of the laws. And the laws used to be called 'thesmoi,' as I said already. That these men used to revise the laws each year Aischines has said in Against Ktesiphon and Theophrastos in book three of Laws. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians recounts in detail what these men do. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th16  Thetes (one who places): Perhaps they call him who has deposited a hypothek a 'placer,' not as Didymos says, one who adopted. For they used to call, he says, adoptees 'placed.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th17  Thettalos: Lysias, Against Nikides. One of Kimon's sons was called Thettalos, as Heliodoros says in On the Akropolis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th18  Theudosian: Demosthenes in On the Tax Immunities. It is a territory lying near the Skythians, which Satyros died besieging. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th19  Theorika: Demosthenes, in a Phillipic. Theorika were certain common funds, collected from the city's revenues. Previously these used to be kept for the needs of war and were called 'military funds' (stratiotika), but later they were paid toward public works and distributions, which Agyrrhios the demagogue first started. Philochoros in book three of Atthis says, 'The theoric fund was first reckoned as a drachma for the spectacle, whence it also took the name' and so forth. Philinos, in Against the Statues of Sophokles and Euripides, speaking about Euboulos, says, 'it was called theoric because when the Dionysia were near Euboulos made distributions for the sacrifice so that all may celebrate the festival and so that none of the citizens may be left out of the spectacle owing to the poverty of his own resources.' Elsewhere, however, it is otherwise defined as that which is given for spectacles and sacrifices and festivals, as is clear from the first of Demosthenes' Philippics. That it was not possible for those who were out of town to receive theoric money Hypereides has made clear in Against Archestratides. There was a magistrate in charge of the theoric fund, as Aischines illustrates in Against Ktesiphon. Moreover, not only are the spectators called theoroi, but they also used to so name those sent to gods and in general those who keep the sacred things or see to the sacred things. For they used to call phrontis (care) 'ore' (care). For there is little care for quarrels and assemblies. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th20  Theoris: Demosthenes in Against Aristogeiton, if it is genuine. Theoris was a seer and she was killed, having been convicted of impiety, as also Philochoros writes in book six. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th21  Themakeus: Andokides in On the Mysteries. Themakos is a deme of the tribe Erectheis, as Diodoros the periegete says in On the Demes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th22  Theramenes: Lysias in Against Eratosthenes. (One) who was killed when Kritias accused him under the Thirty. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th23  Theseion: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. It is a precinct dedicated to Theseus. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th24  Thetes kai thetikon (thetes and thetic class): Antiphon in Against Philinos says 'and make all of the thetes hoplites' and Demosthenes in On Hagnios' Estate (says), 'of the epikleroi who belong to the thetic class.' The polity at Athens having been divided into four, the poorest used to be called 'thetes' and (were said) to belong to the thetic class. These people had a share of no office, as also Aristotle shows in the Constitution of the Athenians. And that they did not serve in the army also Aristophanes has said, in Daitaleis. Demosthenes in the aforesaid called the poor girl an epikleros, which the Attic (writers) call a 'thessa.' It was necessary for the nearest male family members either to take the thessai in marriage or else give them five minas, as also Poseidippos the comic poet says somewhere. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th25  Thiasos: Demosthenes in Against Aischines. A thiasos is a crowd gathered for the worship and honor of gods: Xenophon in Memorabilia book 2. Ion however in Omphale applied the word commonly to any gathering. The participants in thiasoi were called thiasotai: Isaeus in On the Estate of Astyphilos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th26  Thibron: Isokrates in the Panegyrikos. He was a Lacedaimonian sent to Asia as a harmost after the Peloponnesian war. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th27  Tholos: Demosthenes in his Against Aeschines. The place where the prytaneis used to dine was so called among the Athenians. Ammonios at any rate in book four of On Altars writes this: 'And the place where the prytaneis feast is called 'tholos,' but it is called 'skias' (parasol) by some, because it was so built in a round shape, resembling a conical hat (tholia).' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th28  Thorai: A deme of the tribe Antiochis, as Diodoros says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th29  Thorikos: Isaios in Against Posidippos. It is a deme of the tribe Akamantis, as the same Diodoros says in On the Demes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th30  Thripedeston (worm-eaten): Hypereides in Against Demades said that Greece was worm-eaten, for 'ruined', after wood that has been devoured by worms. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th31  Thronion: Aeschines in On the False Embassy. Thronion is a city of Lokris, as Theopompos in ... GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th32  Thymaitadai: A deme of the tribe Hippothontis, named after the hero Thymaites, as Diodoros says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th33  Thyrgonidai: Isaios in Against Nikokles. Nikandros the Thyrgonidai, were transferred from the tribe Aiantis.' Also Demetrios of Ptolemais. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ Th34  Thystion: Aischines, Against Ktesiphon. It is a city in Aitolia, as Didymos says, adducing evidence from the first book of Nikandros' Aitolika. We, however, found it in the Attic authors written with tau, Thytion. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i1  Idian (private): for 'personal,' Demosthenes in Against Konon. Also said were 'idion' and 'idiotikon', as the same orator (says) in Against Zenothemis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i2  Idrieus: Isokrates in To Philip. He was a dynast in Karia, son of Hekatomnos and brother of Mausolos and Artemisia. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i3  Hierax: Demosthenes in the first of the Philippics. That Hierax was one of those sent as ambassadors by the Amphipolitans to Athens, when they wanted to hand over their city and territory to the Athenians, Theopompos has said in book three of the Philippics. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i4  Hiera hodos (sacred road): Isaios in the defense Against Diophanes. The sacred road is what the initiates process on from the city to Eleusis. Thus an entire book has been written by Polemon on the sacred road. Kratinos mentions it in Drapetides. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i5  Hiera trieres (sacred trireme): Demosthenes in the fourth of the Philippics: 'and he departed from the land with the sacred trireme.' He could mean the Paralos, as is possible to gather from the sixth book of Philochoros and of Androtion alike. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i6  Hieromenia [sacred month]: Demosthenes, Against Timokrates. The festal days are called hieromeniai. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i7  Hieromnemones: Demosthenes, For Ktesiphon. Those sent to the Amphiktyons' congress from each city of those participating in the congress are so called, as Theopompos makes clear in the 30th book. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i8  Hierophantes [sacred-displayer]: Hypereides says somewhere, 'I have (as wife) neither a daidouchos (torchbearer)'s daughter nor a hierophant's.' Deinarchos in the diadikasia of the Krokonidai says that he who revealed the sacred things, upon returning from war, was named 'the first hierophant.' But concerning the clan (genos) of the Hierophantes Hellanikos has shown in book 2 of Atthis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i9  Hieronymos: Lysias in Against Hippotherses. Some, especially Ephoros in books 18 and 19, mention a Hieronymos who was a general of the Athenians. Hieronymos the Demosthenes mentions in Against Aischines. That he was one of those who most sympathized with Macedon Theopompos has said in book fifty-one. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i10  Ithyphalloi: Hypereides in Against Archestratos: 'those who dance the ithyphalloi in the orchestra.' Certain poems used to be so called, which were sung at the phallus, as Lykeus says in the Letters. But Demosthenes in Against Konon applied it to a nickname given to certain people in jest. The erect penis used to be called properly 'ithyphallos,' as Kratinos (says) in Archilochoi. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i11  Ikarieus: Isaios in Against Elpagoras. It is a deme of the tribe Aigeis, as Diodoros says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i12  Hiketeria: a branch of olive that has been wound into a wreath is called a suppliant branch (hiketeria). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i13  Ionios: Lysias in the Olympiakos. The ancients sometimes used to call the so-called Adriatic thus. 'Epidamnos is a city on the right as one sails into the Ionian gulf:' Thucydides book one. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i14  Ipnos (oven): Lykourgos in Against Lykophron 1. A part of the house is so called, what is called by us a 'kitchen.' There is at any rate a play by Pherekrates, the Ipnos or Pannychis, in which this is shown, namely that it is a part of the house. And the furnace is properly called an 'ipnos,' whence they call some people oven-makers. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i15  Hipparchos: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. This man was a tyrant of Hipparchos, about whom Lykourgos speaks in Against Leokrates, Hipparchos son of Peisistratos. And there is another, Hipparchos son of Charmos, as Lykourgos says in Against Leokrates. And concerning this one, Androtion in the second book says that he was a kinsman of Peisistratos the tyrant and that he was the first to be ostracized when the law on ostracism was then first laid down, owing to suspicion of those associated with Peisistratos, because he was a tyrant while being a demagogue and general. And there is another Hipparchos, an actor, whom Demosthenes mentions in Against Neaira, if it is genuine. And among Athenians the magistrate in charge of the cavalry is also called a hipparch; these were two, as Demosthenes says in the fourth of the Philippics, as does Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i16  Hippas (cavalry): Isaios in On the Estate of Apollodoros says 'he declared a small valuation (of taxable property) on grounds that he paid the cavalry tax.' Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says that Solon divided the whole populace of Athenians into four classes, Five-Hundred-Medimnos-Men (pentakosiomedimnoi) and Cavalrymen (hippeis) and Yoke-Team-Men (zeugitai) and Laborers (thetes). The cavalry(-taxes) thus belong to the Cavalrymen. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i17  Hippia Athena: Isaios in Against Kalydon. Mnaseas in book one of Europa says that Hippia Athena is the daughter of Poseidon and Koryphe, daughter of Ocean, and that, since she was the first to outfit a chariot, she was therefore called 'Hippia.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i18  Hippodameia: Demosthenes in Against Timotheus says that an agora in Peiraieus is called Hippodameia after Hippodamos of

§ i19  Isa bainon Pythoklei (walking in step with Pythokles): Demosthenes in Against Aischines, for 'always accompanying and keeping back not even a bit.' Also in Against Stephanos 1 he says, 'With Aristolochos the banker he used to walk, walking in step.' Menander: 'an expensive prostitute, walking in step alongside him.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i20  Isai psephoi: Aischines, Against Ktesiphon: 'another private individual, after having sailed to Rhodes, because he bore his fear like a coward, was just recently impeached, and the votes against him were even. If one (more) vote had slipped in he would have been banished beyond the borders and would have died.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i21  Isaios: This man is one of the 10 orators, a student of Isokrates, and a teacher of Demosthenes, Athenian by descent, as Hermippos says in book two of On the Students of Isokrates. Demetrios in On the Homonymous Poets says that he was Chalkidean. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i22  Ismenias: Lysias in Against Thrasyboulos, if it is genuine. He was one of those among the Thebans, a distinguished polemarch. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i23  Isodaites: Hypereides in For Phryne. A foreign deity to whom common women and not very good ones used to celebrate rites. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i24  Isoteles (possessing equal tax status and equal tax status): Isaios in Against Elpagoras many times. An honor given to those of the metics who seem worthy, according to which they enjoyed release from the metic tax, as Lysias (shows) in Against Sostratos for hybris, if it is genuine. That individuals possessing equal tax status used to have release also from the other things that metics did Theophrastos has said in book eleven of the Laws. He says that in some cases Athenians used to decree equal tax status for entire cities, for example, for the Olynthians and Thebans. It is possible to learn from the aforementioned speech of Isaios also what the possessor of equal tax status used to pay. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i25  Ischandros: Demosthenes, Against Aischines. Ischandros is a tragic actor. Aischines the orator seems to have fallen while acting with him in Kollytos, as Demochares (says) in the Dialogues. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i26  Iteaios: Lysias in Against Nikides. Itea is a deme of the tribe Akamantis, the demesman from which is an Iteaios, as Diodoros says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ i27  Ion: Isokrates in On the Antidosis. The orator could be mentioning here Ion the poet of the tragedy, who was Chian by descent, the son of Orthomenes, but 'of Xouthos' by nickname. He wrote many songs and tragedies and a sort of philosophical treatise entitled Triagmos, which Kallimachos says is disputed as belonging to Epigenes; in some (authors) it is also titled in the plural 'Triagmoi,' such as Demetrios of Apollonides of

§ k1  Kabyle: Demosthenes in the eighth of the Philippics. It is a place in Thrace, as Theopompos says in book 47, and Anaximenes in the eighth of Philippika. And he says that it is founded by the Taxos river in the middle of Thrace. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k2  Kadiskos (voting urn): Isaios in On the Estate of Hagnias. So they used to call a vessel into which the jurors would cast pebbles. Phrynichos in the Muses: 'Look, receive the pebble. Your kadiskos is here, this one releasing and this one destroying.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k3  Kadmeia: Isokrates in the Panegyrikos. Also the other orators mention the Kadmeia many times, and the Thebans' acropolis is so called, as is agreed among nearly all the historians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k4  Katharsion (purificatory offering): Aischines, Against Timarchos. It was a custom at Athens to cleanse the assembly and theaters and, in general, gatherings of the people, with quite little piglets, which they used to call katharsia. The so-called peristiarchoi (leaders of the pig sacrifice) used to perform this, who were named thus either after 'walking around' (perISTeichein or after 'hearth' (HESTia). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k5  Kathelon (tearing down): Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates says 'or tearing down in the road' for 'anelon' (destroying) or 'apokteinas' (slaying). Others too use the word thus, such as Stesichoros in Ilioupersis and Sophokles in Eumelos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k6  Kathekonta: Demosthenes in the tenth of the Philippics says, 'who did not deem it worthy to do the duties that are upon him,' for 'the things that come upon him.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k7  Kathetos (let down): The lamb that is let down into the sea. Lysias in Against Telamon. Meliton has discussed the kathetos in book one of On the Clans at Athens. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k8  Kai gar to medena ton machimon aneu tes ton archonton gnomes apodemein (also the fact that none of the warrior class were to go abroad without the consent of the magistrates): While Isokrates in Bousiris says these things about Lacedaimonians it must be mentioned that also those who have written (on) the Lacedaimonians' constitutions have said the same. And Aristotle says that it is not possible for the Lacedaimonians to go abroad, so that they may not grow accustomed to be fond of other laws. Moreover, while Isokrates says that the warrior class alone are barred from going abroad, those in Aristotle's circle say that all Lacedaimonians (are so barred). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k9  Kainos [in modern fashion]: Isokrates in Panegyrikos, of a sort suited to recent matters. Ephoros explained it in a way in the first book. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k10  Kakotechnion (for scheming wrongs): Name of a suit that those who successfully prosecuted one for false witness brought against the one who had furnished him. Demosthenes in Against Timotheos concerning repayment, if it is genuine, and in Against Euergos and Mnesiboulos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k11  Kakos eidotes (perceiving poorly): For 'not recognizing:' Isokrates in On Peace. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k12  Kakoseos (for maltreatment): It is the name of a suit granted to epikleroi against those who have married them, and to parents against their children, and to those who prosecute on behalf of orphans against guardians: Demosthenes, Against Timokrates, and Lysias in On the Estate of Hegesandros and in For ... , and Hypereides, On the Estate of Pyrrhandros. That is was possible also for anyone who wished to bring the charge for maltreatment of parents and to aid the epikleroi is shown both in the aforesaid speech of Hypereides and in Lysias' Against Philonides for violence, if it is genuine. Also it was without water (i.e. not timed by the water-clock). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k13  Kalaureia: Demosthenes in the letter On His Own Return. It is an island near Troizen, as Hekataios said in Periodos of the Earth. But Kalaureia previously used to be called Eirene, according as Antikleides says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k14  Kanephoroi (basket carriers): Lykourgos in Against Lykophron. Concerning the basket carriers, Philochoros in book two of Atthis says that, when Erichthonios was king, maidens held in esteem were first appointed to carry the baskets for the goddess, in which were placed the things for the sacrifice, at both the Panathenaia and the other processions. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k15  Karkinos: Lysias in the defense On the Dog, if it is genuine: 'for the bitches were ruined by frequenting my crab.' And whenever the grain takes root in the earth they say that it has spread like a crab. Pherekrates in the Automoloi: 'whenever you have time, send rain so that the crops may be crabbed together.' A kind of ailment that occurs in bodies is also called 'crab,' which they now call carcinoma. And there is also a proper name, which Isokrates mentions in the Trapezitikos. This would be the general of the Athenians who was sent to sail around the Peloponnese. But about the tragic poet, the son of Xenokles, Lysias in Against Mnesimachos says, 'And to these are added also Karkinos the poet, saying: 'the wine did not excite. For no occasion induces minds rightly fixed and planted ... to go wrong.'' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k16  Karpou dike (suit for fruit/returns): Lysias in Against Demosthenes over guardianship: 'for if you accuse this young man, and he has something of yours, then sue him according to the laws: if you dispute about land, then (bring a dike) karpou, and if about a house, then (bring a dike) enoikiou, just as he now (brings) against you (a suit over) guardianship.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k17  Karyanda: Deinarchos in Against Polyeuktos. It is s city in Karia. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k18  Katabole: Demosthenes in the ninth Philippic: 'just as a period or instalment of a fever.' In the periodic illnesses an 'instalment' is referred to on account of its coming at an appointed time, just as eranos members make instalment-payments of the money. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k19  Katadedesthai (to have bound): For 'to have drugged' and 'to have bound with drugs,' Deinarchos in the impeachment Against Pytheas. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k20  Kata demous dikastas (deme judges): Demosthenes in Against Timokrates. Concerning the deme judges, that previously there used to be 30 and that they used to judge cases by making rounds through the demes, and that they then became 40, Aristotle has said in the Constitution of the Athenians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k21  Katadikasamenos (having gotten a sentence against someone): For 'having won and gotten someone condemned,' Isaios in Against Diokles for hybris. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k22  Katagein ta ploia (to drive the ships ashore): Demosthenes in the eighth Philippic. 'To drive the ships ashore' is said for 'act with violence' and 'maltreat,' and not to permit those who are sailing to sail where they wish, but to drive them into areas that are home to the plunderers, as also Lykourgos shows in Against Leokrates. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k23  Katastasis (appointment): Lysias, '(that) you voted that the phylarchs render an account of those who had been in the cavalry, so that you might collect the appointment-money from them.' This seems to be money that those appointed as cavalrymen used to receive upon appointment, as the orator himself indicates in the following words. Eupolis in Philoi also suggests this: 'you were not so wise, old man, in taking this appointment-money suddenly, before even learning horsemanship.' And it is said still more clearly in Plato's Syrphax. The money was returned by those who had served in the cavalry, when others were appointed in their places. The Phylarchs used to demand it. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k24  Kata ten agoran apseudein (not lying in the marketplace): Hypereides in Against Athenogenes 1: 'accordingly the law orders one not to lie in the marketplace.' The law seems to be laid down concerning goods for sale; Theophrastos, at any rate, in On Laws says that the agoranomoi must take care of these two things, orderliness in the marketplace and that not only sellers but also buyers not lie.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k25  Katatome (incised face): Hypereides in Against Demosthenes: 'and sitting down below the rock face.' But Philochoros in book 6 says thus: 'Aischraios of Anagyra dedicated the tripod above the theater, having plated it in silver, after he had won in the previous year serving as choregos for the children, and he inscribed it on the incised face of the stone.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k26  Kataplex (stricken): one who has been struck continuously. Lysias in Against Aischines the Socratic, and in Against Andokides for impiety, of the speech is genuine. Theopompos in Tisamenos: 'But Eileithyia is pardoned / by the women for being struck with respect to her craft.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k27  Katachysmata (handfuls of treats showered down on someone): Demosthenes in Against Stephanos 1. That the masters of newly purchased (slaves) used to pour down sweets Aristophanes shows in Wealth. But also that ... of those from a spectacle/embassy. They also used to be poured down over bridegrooms, as Theopompos (says) in Hedychares. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k28  Katacheirotonia (condemnation vote): It was a custom at Athens to lay probolai against magistrates and against sycophants in the Assembly. If anyone should be condemned, this man would be led into the lawcourt. The word appears many times in Demosthenes in Against Meidias and in Hypereides in For Chairephilos concerning the salt fish. Theophrastos in book four of the Laws discusses the vote of condemnation. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k29  Katapseudomartyresamenos: for 'having provided those who testified falsely,' Demosthenes in Against Stephanos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k30  Kateleusan: for 'they struck down with stones:' Hypereides in Against Autokles. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k31  Katoikodomesen: for 'he enclosed in a building and killed,' Isaios in Against Diokles, many times. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k32  Kebrena: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates, Kebren is a city in the Troad, a colony of the Kymaians, as Ephoros says in book one. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k33  Kegchreon: Demosthenes in the counter-suit Against Pantainetos: 'and next he persuaded my slaves to sit down at the kegchreon,' for 'at the purifying place where they used to dry the granules from the mines,' as Theophrastos indicates in On Mines. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k34  Keioi: Lysias in On His Own Benefactions: 'the Keians are so great a city.' Keos is one of the Cycladic islands, lying alongside Attica. The orator called the island a city. Also Euripides (called) Euboia (a city): 'There is a city neighboring Athens, Euboia.' And Aristophanes says about Sicily: 'What a poor city is ruined.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k35  Keiriades: Isaios in the appeal against (the ruling of) the demesmen, Against Boeotos. That Keiriadai is a deme of the tribe Hippothontis Diodoros has said in On the Demes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k36  Kekropis: Hypereides in Against Aristogeiton. Kekropis was one of the ten tribes at Athens, as Demosthenes (shows) in the Epitaphios, if it is genuine. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k37  Keleontes (loom uprights): Antiphon in the defense against the public suit of Demosthenes (says) 'where he planted the loom uprights.' Properly the histopodes (vertical loom beams) are keleontes, as is clear also in Aristophanes the comic poet. But here the orator could mean, metaphorically, wooden posts. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k38  Kerameis: Hypereides in For Xenophilos 1. Kerameis is a deme of the tribe Akamantis, as Diodoros says. Philochoros says in book three that they (the demesmen) took the name from the ceramic craft, and from sacrificing to a hero, Keramos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k39  Kerameikos: Antiphon in Against Nikokles concerning boundaries. That there are two Kerameikoi, as the orator says also, the one inside the city, the other outside it, where they used to bury at public cost those who died in war and used to give the funeral orations, Kallikrates, or Menekles, shows in On Athens. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k40  Kerkidas: Demosthenes in the For Ktesiphon, while listing the traitors says 'Arkadas Kerkidas.' That this man was one of the Macedonian sympathisers, is also said by Theopompos in book 15 of the Philippika. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k41  Kerkouros (light vessel): A type of ship: Deinarchos in the Tyrrhenikos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k42  Kerkops: Aeschines in On the Embassy. In the Kerkopes attributed to Homer, it is shown that the Kerkopes were deceivers and liars. Xenagoras says that they turned into monkeys (pithekous) and that the Pithekoussai Islands were named after them. Aischrion the Atlas. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k43  Keineas: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. That Keineas was one of those who betrayed the Thessalians' affairs to Philip is agreed also among historians, especially Theopompus in book one, where he also discusses in detail the things about this man. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k44  Kersobleptes: The orators mention this man many times, for example Demosthenes, Against Aristokrates. He was the son of Kotys, and when he was quite young was made king of Isokrates also shows in On Peace. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k45  Kestrinoi: Hypereides in On the Salt Fish. A kestrinos is a fish. Whether it differs at all from mullet needs consideration. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k46  Kephalos: proper name, demagogue. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k47  Kephalethen: Isaios in Against Kalydon over guardianship. Kephale is a deme of the tribe Akamantis, the demesman from which is called 'Kephalethen' (from Kephale), as Diodoros says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k48  Kedonides: Aischines in Against Timarchos: 'passing over these wild men, Kedonides and Autokleides and Thersandros.' These violent men were some pederasts. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k49  Kekis [oak-gall]: a dye and an astringent, or a fruit of an oak useful for dying. Demosthenes in Against Aphobos 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k50  Kepos [garden]: Aischines in his Against Ktesiphon. There is a city on the Bosporos called Kepos. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k51  Kerykeia: The payment given to heralds for sales that take place: Isaios in Against Elpagoros and Demophanes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k52  Kerykes: Isokrates in the Panegyrikos. There is a clan in Athens so named, and it has called after Keryx the son of Hermes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k53  Kettoi: Lysias in Against Nikides for idleness. It is a deme of the tribe Leontis, as Diodoros the periegete says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k54  Kephisieus: Isaios in Against Elpagoras and Demophanes. It is a deme of the tribe Erectheis, as the same man says. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k55  Kephisodoros: Lykourgos in Against Menesaichmos. This man has been lampooned in comedy as dull. And another would be the Kephisodoros who, while serving as hipparch at Mantineia with Gryllos son of Xenophon, died, whom Deinarchos mentions in Against Kallaischros. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k56  Kephisodotos: Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. Androtion in book 5 of Atthis records that he was voted out of office while besieging Alopekonnesos, and after being tried was convicted and paid a fine of 5 talents. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k57  Kigklis (latticed gate): Demosthenes in Against Aristogeiton. The doors of the lawcourts used to be called 'latticed gates.' Aristophanes in Daitales: 'The heliast was walking toward the latticed gate.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k58  Kinados: For 'beast:' Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon. But it is also in comedy, as, for example, in Aristophanes. In particular, they say that Sicilians call the fox a 'kinadion.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k59  Kinesias: There are two speeches of Lysias against Kinesias, in which he mentions the man many times, saying that he was most impious and unlawful and that the comic poets even write against him every year. This man would be the dithyrambic poet whom the comic poets have mentioned often, Strattis included, writing an entire play against him, which was titled 'Kinesias,' in which he made fun of his impiety. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k60  Kirraion pedion (Kirraian plain): Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. Kirra is a city 30 stades from Delphi. The orator, therefore, seems to call that which lies beside this city 'Kirrhaian plain.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k61  Kisthene: Isokrates in the Panegyrikos. A mountain in Thrace. Kratinos: 'And from here you will come to the ends of the earth and see Mount Kisthine.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k62  Kittophoros (ivy-wearing): Some write 'kistophoros' (basket-carrying) with the sigma; for they used to say that the so-called kistai (baskets) were sacred to Dionysos and the two goddesses. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k63  Klimazei (bends): Deinarchos in the speech titled 'Supporting Speech for Aischines Against Deinias:' 'thus, whenever, in defense, one bends and deflects the laws,' for 'turns aside and diverts.' But perhaps one must write 'blimazei' (squeezes) so that it is, for example, 'afflicts' and 'violates.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k64  Klerouchoi: Demosthenes in the eighth of the Philippics. Those whom Athenians used to send to the cities which they took, distributing shares (kleroi) to each, used to be called cleruchs. Isokrates in the Panegyrikos: 'for which it is fitting that right minded men have great gratitude, much rather than reproach us for our cleruchies, which we are accustomed to send into those cities that are deserted for the sake of protection of the territories but not owing to greed.' But in On the Symmories Demosthenes would call the property/names of those sent out to any other territory whatsoever on a cleruchy 'cleruchic.' For how is it possible for one who is not residing in Athens to serve as trierarch? . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k65  Klesis (summons): The summons to court, that is, the order (to come) to trial. Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Moreover, that they also used to say 'proskleseis' (summons) the same (orator) shows in On the Estate of Hagnias. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k66  Kleteres kai kleteuein (witnesses to a summons and to be a witness to a summons): the men through whom those who go to law with people summon (them) to the suits are 'kleteres.' For it was necessary that people be present as witnesses to the summons. Isaios in Against Neokles concerning a plot of land. The word is altogether common both among the orators and in old comedy. To become a witness to a summons is 'kleteusai,' as Isaios (shows) in Against Kleomedon. And 'kleteuesthai' and 'ekkleteuesthai' are said with reference to witnesses whenever people do not give heed to the testimony in the courts, and there is a fine against them, 1000 drachmas, as Isaios (shows) in For Python (on a charge of) departure. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k67  Kobaleia: Deinarchos in the impeachment Against Pytheas. Childishness affected with deceit used to be called 'kobaleia,' and the one who employs this is a 'kobalos.' It seems to be synonymous with bomolochos (one who lurks by the altar): Philochoros in book 2 of Atthis: 'One mustn't believe, as some say, that Dionysos was some kind of bomolochos and kobalos.' And Aristotle in book 8 of the History of Animals says that the horned owl, being a kobalos and a mimic, captures (prey) by imitating their dance. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k68  Koinon grammateion kai lexiarchikon common and lexiarchic register): the common register is the one into which those being introduced to their phratry members and clansmen used to be enrolled, and the lexiarchic is the one into which those being enrolled in the demes used to be enrolled, as Isaios, in On the Estate of Apollodoros, and other orators show. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k69  Koinonikon (held in common): Demosthenes in On the Symmories. He could mean that perhaps brothers who possess undivided property, whose father was able to perform liturgies, though the heirs to his property were not sufficient to perform a trierarchy alone, were 'common-holders.' But perhaps (he could be speaking) about those who contract a voluntary partnership for commerce or some other thing, each of whom did not possess the full value of the common property. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k70  Koironidai: There is a speech by Lykourgos entitled, 'Diadikasia of the Krokonidai Against Koironidai,' which some think is by Philinos. The Koironidai are a family, about whom Istros speaks in the Attic Collection. They would have been named after Koiron, who they say was an illegitimate brother of Krokon, as a result of which the Krokonidai were more honoured. The author of the speech, whoever he is, says that they were called by three names, the Koironidai, Philieis, and Perithoidai. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k71  Kollyteus: Aischines in Against Timarchos. Kollytos is a deme of the tribe Aigeis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k72  Kolonetai: Hypereides in Against Apellaios about the treasury. They used to call hired laborers Kolonetai, because they stood near the Kolonos (Mound) which is near the Agora, where the Hephaisteion and the Eurysakeion are. This Kolonos was called Agoraios (of the Agora). There was also another Kolonos near the temple of Poseidon, as Hypereides (says) in Against Autokles; this might have been the one that belonged to the Cavalrymen. Pherekrates (says) in Petale: 'You, where have you come from? I was hurrying to Kolonos, / Not Agoraios, but the one belonging to the Cavalrymen.' Demosthenes says, 'among those from Kolonos'. Diodoros the Periegete and Philochoros in book three of Atthis discussed the Kolonoi. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k73  Komistika ploia (transport ships): Hypereides in On Protection against the Tyrrhenians. Ships on which the Tyrrhenians used to transport captured plunder seem to have been called transport ships, as the orator himself indicates in the speech. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k74  Kommata kai kyrebia: Deinarchos in the impeachment Against Kallisthenes. Kyrebia are husks and kommata seem to be certain parts either of the stalk or of the parts that are around the grain itself on the ear, or of the beards. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k75  Kordakismos (dancing the kordax): Demosthenes in the Philippics. The kordax is a kind of comic dance, as Aristoxenos says in On Tragic Dance. The word appears often in old comedy, for example in Nikophon. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k76  Koroplathos: Isokrates in On the Antidosis. They used to call thus those who model girls or boys out of clay or or wax or some such material. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k77  Korsiai: Demosthenes in Against Aischines. Korsiai is a city in Boiotia, as Theopompos (says) in the 30th book. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k78  Kotylaion oros (Mount Kotylaion): Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. The mountain appears to belong to Euboia. Archemachos at any rate in book three of Euboika says, 'Kotylos then seems to cover/include the mountain that is now called 'Kotylaion' after that (place).' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k79  Kotys: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. This man ruled Thrace for 24 years, and at first spent his time on luxuriousness and easy living, but then when his prosperity increased he was carried away into cruelty and rage; for example, his wife from whom he had children, he sliced down the middle with his own hands, starting from her pudenda. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k80  Krauallidai: Aischines in the Against Ktesiphon. Didymos says it should be written Kraugallidai, since the place in Phokaia near Kirrai is called Kraugallion, as Xenagoras records in book 4 of the Chronicles. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k81  Krastis (green fodder): Deinarchos in Against Lysikrates. Grass is krastis, as also Aristophanes (says). GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k82  Krithoten: Demosthenes in Against Aristokrates. Krithote is one of the cities in Chersonnesos, as Hellanikos says in book 1 of the Troika. And Ephoros says in the fourth book that it was colonized by Athenians who were there with Miltiades. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k83  Krioeus (demesman of Krioa): Demosthenes in Against Phainippos. Krioa is a deme of the tribe Antiochis, as Diodoros says in On the Demes. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k84  Krobylos (top knot): Aischines in Against Ktesiphon. The man who is nicknamed Krobylos is Hegesippos, and properly the top knot is a type of braid, as Thucydides says in book 1. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k85  Ktesiou Dios (of Zeus Ktesios): Hypereides in Against Apellaios. They used to set up (statues of) Zeus Ktesios in their storerooms. Menander (says) in Pseuderakles (False Herakles): 'Now whenever I see a parasite entering the women's apartments, and Zeus Ktesios not keeping the storeroom locked, but whores running in' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k86  Ktesiphon: Demosthenes in Against Aischines: 'For at first, until Philip obtained leave to speak on the peace, Ktesiphon and Aristodemos were carrying out the beginning of the cheating.' He was one of the ten ambassadors who went on the embassy with Demosthenes and Aischines. Each of the orators at any rate in his speech on the embassy mentions him several times. The one who wrote the decree on the crown for Demosthenes, against whom is the speech by Aischines, Against Ktesiphon, could be some other person. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k87  Kydathenaieus: Hypereides in On the Estate of Hippeus. Kydathenaion is a deme of the tribe Pandionis, the demesman from which is a Kydathenaieus. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k88  Kydantides (demesman of Hypereides in Against Polyeuktos. Kydantidai is a deme of the tribe Aigeis. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k89  Kytherios: Demosthenes in Against Phainippos. Kytheros is a deme of the tribe Pandionis, the demesman from which is called a Kytherios. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k90  Kythnioi (Kythnians): Demosthenes in On Syntaxis. Kythnos is one of the Cycladic islands, as Aristotle (says) in the Constitution of the Kythnians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k91  Kykloi (Circles): Deinarchos in Against Kallaischros. They used to call 'Circles' the places where people were sold. They were after the fact that the people being sold stood around in a circle. Menander (says) in Ephesios (The Man from Ephesus): 'I already seem to see myself by the gods naked in the Circles, running in a circle and being sold.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k92  Kymbion: Demosthenes in Against Meidias. The kymbion is a type of drinking cup. And Didymos says that it is oblong and narrow and resembling in shape the boat that is called a kymbion. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k93  Kynnidai: Lykourgos in the diadikasia of the Krokonidai against the Koironidai. The Kynnidai are a clan among Athenians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k94  Kynosarges: Demosthenes in Against Timokrates. The Kynosarges was one of the gymnasia among Athenians. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k95  Kyprothemis: a proper name. Demosthenes in On the Freedom of the Rhodians: 'that Samos was garrisoned by Kyprothemis, whom Tigranes, the king's lieutenant, appointed.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k96  Kypassis: Lysias in For Bacchios and Pythagoras, if it is genuine. The gloss-writers say that the kypassis is itself a type of chiton, some that it is a woman's, others that it is a man's. And Hipponax has mentioned it, as well as Hekataios in Periodos of Europe, saying, 'Kissians wear Persian kypasseis as clothing;' also Aristophanes in Tagenistai. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k97  Kyrbeis: Lykourgos in On the Priestess. Apollodoros says in On Gods that kyrbeis hold the inscribed laws, and that they are stones standing upright, which after their upright posture they used to call 'stelai' and after their rising to a height, owing to the fact that they were crested, they used to call 'kyrbeis,' just like a kyrbasia (Persian cap) that is placed on the head. Aristotle in the Constitution of the Athenians says, 'Having inscribed the laws on the kyrbeis, they erected them in the Royal Stoa.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k98  Kyreion: Isokrates in Panegyrikos. The army that went upcountry with Kyros, when he campaigned against his brother Artaxerxes was [the] Kyreian army, of which Xenophon was also a part. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k99  Kyrebion: Demosthenes in Against Aischines. That this is a nickname for Epikrates the brother in law of Aischines has been shown also in others. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k100  Kyria ekklesia (chief assembly): Hypereides in Against Demeas for xenia, if it is genuine. What the chief assemblies were Aristotle has shown in the Constitution of the Athenians, saying that the prytaneis convene the council and the people, the council daily, except if it is a holiday, and the people four times each prytany: 'And they give prior notice,' he says, 'also of a chief assembly in which it is necessary to vote out the magistrates who seem not to be performing their magistracies well, and (to discuss) concerning the defense of the territory.' And he says that those who wish bring impeachments on that day, and so forth. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k101  Kyrsilon: Demosthenes in For Ktesiphon: 'having chosen Themistokles, who had counseled these things, as general, and having stoned Kyrsilos who made the case for obeying.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k102  Kodeia (head): they call the head of the poppy thus: Hypereides, and Aristophanes in Georgoi: 'a good poppy capsule.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ k103  Kolias: Demosthenes in Against Neaira, if it is genuine. Kolias is a seaside headland in Attica, named by way of metaphor from the 'kolon' (limb). There is a temple of Aphrodite there. Aristophanes has mentioned it at the beginning of the Lysistrata. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ l1  Lagiska: Lysias in Against Laidas, if it is genuine. Also Strattis the comic poet mentions Lagiska the prostitute thus: 'I saw Isokrates' concubine Lagiska plucking figs, still in bed, and the flute-borer himself.' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ l2  Lampadion (little torch): What we now call a 'lampas' (torch) they used to call thus: Deinarchos in Against Pytheas and Plato in book one of the Republic. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ l3  Lampas (torch): Lysias in Against Euphemos. Athenians celebrate three torch feasts, at the Panathenaia and Hephaistia and Prometheia, as Polemon says in On the Paintings in the Propylaia. But Istros in book one of the Atthis, saying that in the feast of the Apatouria, those Athenians who have donned the finest garments, taking lit torches from the hearth, hymn Hephaistos while sacrificing, a reminder of the fact that having perceived the use of fire he taught it to the rest. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ l4  Lamptreis (demesmen from Lamptrai): Demosthenes in Against Kallippos. Lamptrai is a deme of the tribe Erechtheis, as Diodoros says. There are two Lamptrai, the coastal and the upper. Aristophanes in Amphiareus: 'I am a Lamptrian, from lower (Lamptriai).' . GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ l5  Larkos: Lysias in Against Kalippides. A larkos is a basket into which they used to put charcoal. Aristophanes, in the Acharnians, and others have used the word. GR

Event Date: -350 GR

§ l6  Laryggizein (to shout lustily): To broaden one's voice and vocalize not naturally, but to pursue using one's larynx rather extravagantly used to be called thus.